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%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.20",
%%%     date            = "15 May 2018",
%%%     time            = "08:25:24 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "bitcoin.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "57768 26921 113112 1172999",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography; BibTeX; Bitcoin; Bit Gold;
%%%                        Blindcoin; Blockchain; BlueWallet; Catena;
%%%                        CONIKS; Digicash; Ecash; Electroneum;
%%%                        Equihash; Ethereum; Filecoin; Hashcash;
%%%                        KodakCoin; Kodak KashMiner; Litecoin;
%%%                        MicroMint; MixCoin; Namecoin; Nautiluscoin;
%%%                        New Economy Movement (NEM); Paxos; PayWord;
%%%                        Proof of Activity; Proof of Luck; Proof of
%%%                        Stake; Proof of Work; Ripplecoin; RPXcoin;
%%%                        Smileycoin; Solidity; Zerocash; Zerocoin;
%%%                        ZombieCoin",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a bibliography of publications about
%%%                        digital currency systems, of which Bitcoin is
%%%                        the most notable example.  It also includes
%%%                        in a separate section, near the end of this
%%%                        file, COMPLETE coverage of a new open-source
%%%                        journal, Ledger, that is devoted to
%%%                        cryptocurrency and blockchain technology.
%%%
%%%                        From the Oxford English Dictionary online:
%%%
%%%                            Bitcoin n. (a proprietary name for) a
%%%                            digital payment system introduced in
%%%                            2009, having its own unit of account; the
%%%                            unit of account of this system.
%%%
%%%                        The New York Times reported (see entry
%%%                        Popper:2017:BSI) that in late 2017, Bitcoin
%%%                        trading was about five billion dollars a day.
%%%                        During 2017, stocks in First Bitcoin Capital
%%%                        Corporation fluctuated from USD 0.001/share
%%%                        to almost USD 2700/share.  Share prices in
%%%                        another firm, Bitcoin Investment Trust, have
%%%                        ranged from USD 98 to USD 1824 in the same
%%%                        interval.  Despite the market volatility of
%%%                        Bitcoin, there is a fair amount of serious
%%%                        academic research published in about 120
%%%                        different journals, and in scores of books,
%%%                        and hundreds of conference papers, devoted to
%%%                        the study of Bitcoin and other digital
%%%                        currency proposals.
%%%
%%%                        For a good survey of the origins of Bitcoin,
%%%                        see entry Narayanan:2017:BAP.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.20, the year coverage looked
%%%                        like this:
%%%
%%%                             1976 (   1)    1991 (   3)    2006 (   0)
%%%                             1978 (   0)    1993 (   2)    2008 (   6)
%%%                             1979 (   0)    1994 (   0)    2009 (   3)
%%%                             1980 (   1)    1995 (   0)    2010 (   0)
%%%                             1981 (   1)    1996 (   4)    2011 (   9)
%%%                             1982 (   1)    1997 (   3)    2012 (  16)
%%%                             1983 (   2)    1998 (   1)    2013 (  59)
%%%                             1984 (   0)    1999 (   1)    2014 ( 113)
%%%                             1985 (   1)    2000 (   2)    2015 ( 110)
%%%                             1986 (   0)    2001 (   2)    2016 ( 180)
%%%                             1987 (   0)    2002 (   3)    2017 ( 441)
%%%                             1988 (   1)    2003 (   3)    2018 ( 124)
%%%                             1989 (   1)    2004 (   3)
%%%                             1990 (   0)    2005 (   2)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        263
%%%                             Book:            73
%%%                             InBook:           1
%%%                             InCollection:   187
%%%                             InProceedings:  447
%%%                             Misc:            92
%%%                             PhdThesis:        1
%%%                             Proceedings:     17
%%%                             TechReport:      18
%%%                             Unpublished:      1
%%%
%%%                             Total entries: 1100
%%%
%%%                        Bitcoins and other digital currencies may be
%%%                        convertable to and from conventional national
%%%                        currencies via exchange brokers, including
%%%                        many listed at these Web locations:
%%%
%%%                            https://bitcoin.org/en/exchanges
%%%                            https://cex.io/
%%%                            https://filecoin.io/
%%%                            https://www.coinbase.com/
%%%                            https://www.itbit.com/exchange
%%%
%%%                        Some countries, including the US, strictly
%%%                        control, limit, and tax, digital currency
%%%                        exchange transactions.
%%%
%%%                        The highly-volatile Bitcoin exchange rates
%%%                        are tracked live at
%%%
%%%                            https://www.gdax.com/trade/BTC-USD
%%%                            https://www.coinbase.com/charts?locale=en-US
%%%
%%%                        There is a dynamic table of digital-currency
%%%                        market capitalization at
%%%
%%%                            https://coinmarketcap.com/
%%%
%%%                        There is a list of most-cited blockchain and
%%%                        Bitcoin publications at
%%%
%%%                            https://blockchainlibrary.org/most-cited-blockchain-bitcoin-publications/
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen as
%%%                        name:year:abbrev, where name is the family
%%%                        name of the first author or editor, year is a
%%%                        4-digit number, and abbrev is a 3-letter
%%%                        condensation of important title words.
%%%                        Citation tags were automatically generated by
%%%                        software developed for the BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted
%%%                        first by ascending year, and within each
%%%                        year, alphabetically by author or editor,
%%%                        and then, if necessary, by the 3-letter
%%%                        abbreviation at the end of the BibTeX
%%%                        citation tag, using the bibsort -byyear
%%%                        utility.  Year order has been chosen to
%%%                        make it easier to identify the most recent
%%%                        work.
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
%%%                        count) utility output of lines, words, and
%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:
@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:
@String{j-ACM-SIGCAS-COMPUT-SOC = "ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society"}

@String{j-CACM                  = "Communications of the ACM"}

@String{j-CHAOS-SOLITONS-FRACTALS = "Chaos, Solitons \& Fractals"}

@String{j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS        = "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News"}

@String{j-COMP-J                = "The Computer Journal"}

@String{j-COMP-SURV             = "ACM Computing Surveys"}

@String{j-COMPUT-EDGE           = "Computing Edge"}

@String{j-COMPUT-SCI-ENG        = "Computing in Science and Engineering"}

@String{j-COMPUT-SUPPORTED-COOP-WORK = "Computer Supported Cooperative Work [CSCW]"}

@String{j-COMPUTER              = "Computer"}

@String{j-CROSSROADS            = "ACM Crossroads"}

@String{j-CRYPTOBYTES           = "CryptoBytes"}

@String{j-CRYPTOGR-COMMUN       = "Cryptography and Communications"}

@String{j-DEC-SUPP-SYS          = "Decision Support Systems"}

@String{j-ECONOM-LETT           = "Economics Letters"}

@String{j-ECONOMIST             = "The Economist"}

@String{j-ELECT-NOTES-THEOR-COMP-SCI = "Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer
                                  Science"}

@String{j-EUR-MATH-SOC-NEWSL    = "European Mathematical Society. Newsletter"}

@String{j-EUR-PHYS-J-SPEC-TOP   = "European Physical Journal --- Special Topics"}

@String{j-FORBES                = "Forbes"}

@String{j-FUT-GEN-COMP-SYS      = "Future Generation Computer Systems"}

@String{j-IBM-JRD               = "IBM Journal of Research and Development"}

@String{j-IEEE-ACCESS           = "IEEE Access"}

@String{j-IEEE-MICRO            = "IEEE Micro"}

@String{j-IEEE-SEC-PRIV         = "IEEE Security \& Privacy"}

@String{j-IEEE-SOFTWARE         = "IEEE Software"}

@String{j-IEEE-SPECTRUM         = "IEEE Spectrum"}

@String{j-IEEE-TRANS-INF-THEORY = "IEEE Transactions on Information Theory"}

@String{j-INFO-PROC-LETT        = "Information Processing Letters"}

@String{j-INFORMATIK-SPEKTRUM   = "Informatik Spektrum"}

@String{j-INT-J-INFO-SEC        = "International Journal of Information
                                  Security"}

@String{j-INTERACTIONS          = "Interactions (New York, NY)"}

@String{j-IT-PRO                = "{IT} Professional"}

@String{j-J-ACCOUNT-EDUC        = "Journal of Accounting Education"}

@String{j-J-ASSET-MANAGE        = "Journal of Asset Management"}

@String{j-J-CRYPTOLOGY          = "Journal of Cryptology: the journal of the
                                  International Association for
                                  Cryptologic Research"}

@String{j-J-MED-SYST            = "Journal of Medical Systems"}

@String{j-J-NETW-COMPUT-APPL    = "Journal of Network and Computer
                                  Applications"}

@String{j-J-SUPERCOMPUTING      = "The Journal of Supercomputing"}

@String{j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI   = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science"}

@String{j-LOGIN                 = ";login: the USENIX Association newsletter"}

@String{j-MULTIMEDIA-TOOLS-APPLIC = "Multimedia Tools and Applications"}

@String{j-NETWORK-SECURITY      = "Network Security"}

@String{j-NEW-J-PHYS            = "New Journal of Physics"}

@String{j-NEW-SCIENTIST         = "New Scientist"}

@String{j-NY-TIMES              = "New York Times"}

@String{j-OPER-SYS-REV          = "Operating Systems Review"}

@String{j-PACMPL                = "Proceedings of the ACM on Programming
                                   Languages (PACMPL)"}

@String{j-PERF-EVAL             = "Performance Evaluation"}

@String{j-PHYSICA-A             = "Physica A"}

@String{j-POMACS                = "Proceedings of the ACM on Measurement and
                                   Analysis of Computing Systems (POMACS)"}

@String{j-PROC-VLDB-ENDOWMENT   = "Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment"}

@String{j-QUAL-QUANT            = "Quality \& Quantity"}

@String{j-QUANT-FINANCE         = "Quantitative Finance"}

@String{j-QUEUE                 = "ACM Queue: Tomorrow's Computing Today"}

@String{j-REGISTER              = "The Register"}

@String{j-REV-FINANCE           = "Review of Finance"}

@String{j-SCI-AMER              = "Scientific American"}

@String{j-SIGACT                = "ACM SIGACT News"}

@String{j-SIGMETRICS            = "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review"}

@String{j-SIGPLAN               = "ACM SIG{\-}PLAN Notices"}

@String{j-SOFT-COMP             = "Soft computing: newsletter of the {Canadian
                                  Society for Fuzzy Information and
                                  Neural Systems}"}

@String{j-TECS                  = "ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing
                                  Systems"}

@String{j-TELEMAT-INFORM        = "Telematics and Informatics"}

@String{j-THEOR-COMP-SCI        = "Theoretical Computer Science"}

@String{j-TISSEC                = "ACM Transactions on Information and System
                                  Security"}

@String{j-TOPLAS                = "ACM Transactions on Programming
                                  Languages and Systems"}

@String{j-WALL-ST-J             = "Wall Street Journal"}

@String{j-WIRED                 = "Wired"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Publisher abbreviations:
@String{pub-ACM                 = "ACM Press"}
@String{pub-ACM:adr             = "New York, NY 10036, USA"}

@String{pub-APRESS              = "Apress"}
@String{pub-APRESS:adr          = "Berkeley, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-ARTECH              = "Artech House Inc."}
@String{pub-ARTECH:adr          = "Norwood, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-CAMBRIDGE           = "Cambridge University Press"}
@String{pub-CAMBRIDGE:adr       = "Cambridge, UK"}

@String{pub-CRC                 = "CRC Press"}
@String{pub-CRC:adr             = "Boca Raton, FL 33431-9868, USA"}

@String{pub-DEC                 = "Digital Equipment Corporation"}
@String{pub-DEC:adr             = "Maynard, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-HARVARD             = "Harvard University Press"}
@String{pub-HARVARD:adr         = "Cambridge, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-IBM                 = "IBM Corporation"}
@String{pub-IBM:adr             = "San Jose, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-IEEE                = "IEEE Computer Society Press"}
@String{pub-IEEE:adr            = "1109 Spring Street, Suite 300,
                                  Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA"}

@String{pub-MCGRAW-HILL         = "Mc{\-}Graw-Hill"}
@String{pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr     = "New York, NY, USA"}

@String{pub-MIT                 = "MIT Press"}
@String{pub-MIT:adr             = "Cambridge, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-NIST                = "National Institute for Standards and
                                  Technology"}
@String{pub-NIST:adr            = "Gaithersburg, MD, USA"}

@String{pub-NO-STARCH           = "No Starch Press"}
@String{pub-NO-STARCH:adr       = "San Francisco, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-ORA                 = "O'Reilly \& Associates, Inc."}
@String{pub-ORA:adr             = "103a Morris Street,
                                  Sebastopol, CA 95472,
                                  USA,
                                  Tel: +1 707 829 0515,
                                  and
                                  90 Sherman Street,
                                  Cambridge, MA 02140,
                                  USA,
                                  Tel: +1 617 354 5800"}

@String{pub-ORA-MEDIA           = "O'Reilly Media, Inc."}
@String{pub-ORA-MEDIA:adr       = "1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol,
                                  CA 95472, USA"}

@String{pub-PACKT               = "Packt Publishing"}
@String{pub-PACKT:adr           = "Birmingham"}

@String{pub-PLENUM              = "Plenum Press"}
@String{pub-PLENUM:adr          = "New York, NY, USA; London, UK"}

@String{pub-PRINCETON           = "Princeton University Press"}
@String{pub-PRINCETON:adr       = "Princeton, NJ, USA"}

@String{pub-PROMETHEUS-BOOKS    = "Prometheus Books"}
@String{pub-PROMETHEUS-BOOKS:adr = "Amherst, NY, USA"}

@String{pub-QUE                 = "Que Corporation"}
@String{pub-QUE:adr             = "Indianapolis, IN, USA"}

@String{pub-ROUTLEDGE           = "Routledge \& Kegan Paul"}
@String{pub-ROUTLEDGE:adr       = "London, UK and New York, NY, USA"}

@String{pub-ST-MARTINS          = "St. Martin's Press"}
@String{pub-ST-MARTINS:adr      = "New York, NY, USA"}

@String{pub-SV                  = "Spring{\-}er-Ver{\-}lag"}
@String{pub-SV:adr              = "Berlin, Germany~/ Heidelberg,
                                  Germany~/ London, UK~/ etc."}

@String{pub-U-COLUMBIA          = "Columbia University Press"}
@String{pub-U-COLUMBIA:adr      = "New York, NY, USA"}

@String{pub-USENIX              = "USENIX"}
@String{pub-USENIX:adr          = "San Francisco, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-USGPO               = "United States Government Printing Office"}
@String{pub-USGPO:adr           = "Washington, DC, USA"}

@String{pub-WILEY               = "John Wiley"}
@String{pub-WILEY:adr           = "New York, NY, USA"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Series abbreviations:
@String{ser-LNCS                = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries, sorted by year, and then by citation label,
%%% with ``bibsort --byyear'':
@Article{Diffie:1976:NDC,
  author =       "Whitfield Diffie and Martin E. Hellman",
  title =        "New Directions in Cryptography",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-INF-THEORY,
  volume =       "IT-22",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "644--654",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "IETTAW",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/TIT.1976.1055638",
  ISSN =         "0018-9448 (print), 1557-9654 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9448",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 20 15:54:39 MST 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Information Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=18",
  referencedin = "Referenced in \cite[Ref. 8]{Kaliski:1995:SUR},
                 \cite[Ref. 8]{Goldreich:1997:FMCb}, \cite[Ref.
                 1]{Wiener:1998:PCP}, \cite[Ref. 3]{Handschuh:1998:SCC},
                 \cite[Ref. 2]{Haber:1995:HDD}.",
  remark =       "This important paper, the first public description of
                 public-key cryptography (see also
                 \cite{Merkle:1978:SCI,Ellis:1975:PKC}), begins with the
                 prescient statement ``We stand today on the brink of a
                 revolution in cryptography.'' and ends with ``Thomas
                 Jefferson, a cryptographic amateur, invented a system
                 which was still in use in World War II [2, pp.
                 192--195], while the most noted cryptographic system of
                 the twentieth century, the rotor machine, was invented
                 simultaneously by four separate people, all amateurs
                 [2, pp. 415, 420, 422--424]. We hope this will inspire
                 others to work in this fascinating area in which
                 participation has been discouraged in the recent past
                 by a nearly total government monopoly.'' Their
                 reference [2] is \cite{Kahn:1967:CSSa}.",
}

@InProceedings{Merkle:1980:PPK,
  author =       "Ralph C. Merkle",
  editor =       "????",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Security and
                 Privacy, Oakland, CA, USA, 14--16 April, 1980",
  title =        "Protocols for public key cryptosystems",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "122--134",
  year =         "1980",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.1980.10006",
  ISSN =         "1540-7993 (print), 1558-4046 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1540-7993",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:33:26 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6233691/;
                 http://www.merkle.com/papers/Protocols.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Chaum:1981:UEM,
  author =       "David Chaum",
  title =        "Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses, and
                 Digital Pseudonyms",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "84--88",
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 06:30:41 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm24.html#Chaum81;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1980.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  oldlabel =     "Chaum81",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Chaum81",
}

@Article{Lamport:1982:BGP,
  author =       "Leslie Lamport and Robert Shostak and Marshall Pease",
  title =        "The {Byzantine Generals} Problem",
  journal =      j-TOPLAS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "382--401",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "ATPSDT",
  ISSN =         "0164-0925 (print), 1558-4593 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0164-0925",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 17 12:24:31 1998",
  bibsource =    "Compiler/bevan.bib; Compiler/Compiler.Lins.bib;
                 Compiler/TOPLAS.bib; Database/dbase.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toplas.bib;
                 Theory/ProbAlgs.bib",
  note =         "They proved that Byzantine agreement (the subject of
                 Section \ref{sec-byzantine}) cannot be reached unless
                 fewer than one-third of the processes are faulty. This
                 result assumes that authentication, i.e., the crypting
                 of messages to make them unforgeable, is not used. With
                 unforgeable messages, they show that the problem is
                 solvable for any $ n \geq t > 0 $, where $n$ is the
                 total number of processes and $t$ is the number of
                 faulty processes.",
  abstract =     "Reliable computer systems must handle malfunctioning
                 components that give conflicting information to
                 different parts of the system. This situation can be
                 expressed abstractly in terms of a group of generals of
                 the Byzantine army camped with their troops around an
                 enemy city. Communicating only by messenger, the
                 generals must agree upon a common battle plan. However,
                 one or more of them may be traitors who will try and
                 confuse the others. The problem is to find an algorithm
                 to ensure that the loyal generals will reach agreement.
                 It is shown that, using only oral messages, this
                 problem is solvable if and only if more than two-thirds
                 of the generals are loyal; so a single traitor can
                 confound two loyal generals. With unforgeable written
                 messages, the problem is solvable for any number of
                 generals and possible traitors. Applications of the
                 solutions to reliable computer systems are then
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-pb,
  checked =      "19940302",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and
                 Systems",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J783",
  keywords =     "fault tolerance; interactive consistency; network
                 communications; network operating systems;
                 reliability",
  source =       "Dept. Library",
}

@InProceedings{Chaum:1983:BSU,
  author =       "David Chaum",
  title =        "Blind Signatures for Untraceable Payments",
  crossref =     "Chaum:1983:ACP",
  pages =        "199--203",
  year =         "1983",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0602-4_18",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 10:07:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Chaum:1985:SIT,
  author =       "David Chaum",
  title =        "Security without identification: transaction systems
                 to make big brother obsolete",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "1030--1044",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 20 15:54:39 MST 1998",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Misc/IMMD_IV.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~fapp2/steganography/bibliography;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/index-table-c.html#cacm1980",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0001-0782/4373.html;
                 http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~fapp2/steganography/bibliography/1022.html",
  abstract =     "The large-scale automated transaction systems of the
                 near future can be designed to protect the privacy and
                 maintain the security of both individuals and
                 organizations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Extensive article on use of random, transient personal
                 id's. A digital pseudonym with each organization.",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; information hiding; security;
                 steganography",
  referencedin = "Referenced in \cite[Ref. 4]{Kaliski:1995:SUR}.",
  review =       "ACM CR 8608-0693",
  subject =      "{\bf C.2.0}: Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, General, Security and
                 protection. {\bf E.3}: Data, DATA ENCRYPTION. {\bf
                 J.1}: Computer Applications, ADMINISTRATIVE DATA
                 PROCESSING, Financial. {\bf K.4.1}: Computing Milieux,
                 COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY, Public Policy Issues, Privacy.
                 {\bf K.4.2}: Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY,
                 Social Issues, Abuse and crime involving computers.",
}

@InProceedings{Merkle:1988:DSB,
  author =       "Ralph C. Merkle",
  editor =       "Carl Pomerance",
  booktitle =    "Advances in Cryptology --- CRYPTO '87",
  title =        "A Digital Signature Based on a Conventional Encryption
                 Function",
  volume =       "293",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "369--378",
  year =         "1988",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-48184-2_32",
  ISBN =         "3-540-48184-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-540-48184-3",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 11:16:45 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  abstract =     "A new digital signature based only on a conventional
                 encryption function (such as DES) is described which is
                 as secure as the underlying encryption function --- the
                 security does not depend on the difficulty of factoring
                 and the high computational costs of modular arithmetic
                 are avoided. The signature system can sign an unlimited
                 number of messages, and the signature size increases
                 logarithmically as a function of the number of messages
                 signed. Signature size in a `typical' system might
                 range from a few hundred bytes to a few kilobytes, and
                 generation of a signature might require a few hundred
                 to a few thousand computations of the underlying
                 conventional encryption function.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Lamport:1989:PTP,
  author =       "Leslie Lamport",
  title =        "The part-time parliament",
  type =         "Report",
  number =       "SRC-RR 49",
  institution =  pub-DEC,
  address =      pub-DEC:adr,
  year =         "1989",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:27:03 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://computerarchive.org/files/mirror/www.bitsavers.org/pdf/dec/tech_reports/SRC-RR-49.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Haber:1991:HTS,
  author =       "Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta",
  title =        "How to time-stamp a digital document",
  journal =      j-J-CRYPTOLOGY,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--111",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "JOCREQ",
  ISSN =         "0933-2790 (print), 1432-1378 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0933-2790",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 21 09:52:57 MST 1998",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jcryptology.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Bellcore",
  affiliationaddress = "Morristown, NJ, USA",
  classification = "723; 914",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Cryptology",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/journal/145",
  journalabr =   "J Cryptol",
  keywords =     "Computer Networks--Security Systems; Cryptography;
                 Data Processing--Security of Data; Time-Stamp",
}

@Article{Okamoto:1991:UEC,
  author =       "Tatsuaki Okamoto and Kazuo Ohta",
  title =        "Universal Electronic Cash",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "576",
  pages =        "324--??",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 5 11:48:11 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t0576.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/lncs1991.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/0576/05760324.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/0576/05760324.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/bookseries/558",
}

@Misc{Vo:1991:FHF,
  author =       "Phong Vo and Glenn Fowler and Landon Curt Noll",
  title =        "{FowlerNollVo} hash function",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  year =         "1991",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 07:32:23 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/hash.bib",
  URL =          "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fowler%E2%80%93Noll%E2%80%93Vo_hash_function#cite_note-2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Bayer:1993:IER,
  author =       "D. Bayer and Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta",
  booktitle =    "Sequences {II}: Methods in Communication, Security and
                 Computer Science",
  title =        "Improving the efficiency and reliability of digital
                 time-stamping",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  bookpages =    "",
  pages =        "329--334",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 11:44:19 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Dwork:1993:PPC,
  author =       "Cynthia Dwork and Moni Naor",
  title =        "Pricing via Processing or Combatting Junk Mail",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "740",
  pages =        "139--147",
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-48071-4_10",
  ISBN =         "3-540-57340-2 (print), 3-540-48071-4 (online)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-540-57340-1 (print), 978-3-540-48071-6
                 (online)",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 5 11:48:51 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t0740.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/lncs1993.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/0740/07400139.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/0740/07400139.pdf;
                 https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/3-540-48071-4_10",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/bookseries/558",
  keywords =     "CRYPTO; cryptology",
  remark =       "In Brickell, E. F. (eds) Advances in Cryptology ---
                 CRYPTO' 92. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol
                 740.",
}

@Article{Panurach:1996:MEC,
  author =       "Patiwat Panurach",
  title =        "Money in electronic commerce: digital cash, electronic
                 fund transfer, and {Ecash}",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "39",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "45--50",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 6 09:19:11 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1990.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/0001-0782/228512.html;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/cacm/228512.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "design; economics; performance; security",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.4}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Systems, Transaction processing. {\bf C.3}: Computer
                 Systems Organization, SPECIAL-PURPOSE AND
                 APPLICATION-BASED SYSTEMS. {\bf H.4.3}: Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS,
                 Communications Applications. {\bf J.1}: Computer
                 Applications, ADMINISTRATIVE DATA PROCESSING,
                 Financial.",
}

@Unpublished{Rivest:1996:PMTa,
  author =       "R. Rivest and A. Shamir",
  title =        "{PayWord} and {MicroMint} --- Two simple micropayment
                 schemes",
  pages =        "????",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1996",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 20 15:54:39 MST 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography1990.bib",
  note =         "Published in \cite{Rivest:1996:PMTb}.",
  URL =          "http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/~rivest",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  referencedin = "Referenced in \cite[Ref. 7]{Rivest:1996:PMT}.",
  remark =       "Also published in \booktitle{Proceedings of the 1996
                 International Workshop on Security Protocols}.",
}

@Article{Rivest:1996:PMTb,
  author =       "Ronald L. Rivest and Adi Shamir",
  title =        "{PayWord} and {MicroMint}: Two Simple Micropayment
                 Schemes",
  journal =      j-CRYPTOBYTES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7--11",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1996",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 29 18:06:35 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography1990.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Rivest:1996:PMTa}.",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.rsa.com/pub/cryptobytes/crypto2n1.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "CryptoBytes",
}

@TechReport{Rivest:1996:TLP,
  author =       "Ron Rivest and Adi Shamir and David Wagner",
  title =        "Time-lock puzzles and timed-release crypto",
  type =         "Report",
  institution =  "MIT Laboratory for Computer Science",
  address =      "Cambridge, MA 02139, USA",
  day =          "10",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:36:18 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.hashcash.org/papers/time-lock.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Back:1997:HCP,
  author =       "Adam Back",
  title =        "Hash cash postage implementation",
  howpublished = "Announcement on e-mail list {\tt
                 cypherpunks@toad.com}.",
  day =          "28",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1997",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:30:04 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "This is the first publication on Hashcash.",
}

@Article{DePrisco:1997:RPA,
  author =       "R. {De Prisco} and B. Lampson and N. Lynch",
  title =        "Revisiting the {Paxos} Algorithm",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1320",
  pages =        "111--??",
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 28 08:51:33 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/lncs1997b.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/bookseries/558",
}

@InProceedings{Haber:1997:SNB,
  author =       "S. Haber and W. S. Stornetta",
  editor =       "{ACM}",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 4th ACM Conference on Computer and
                 Communications Security, April 1997}",
  title =        "Secure names for bitstrings",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "28--35",
  year =         "1997",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:23:14 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=266430",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Schoenmakers:1998:SAE,
  author =       "Berry Schoenmakers",
  title =        "Security Aspects of the {Ecash\TM} Payment System",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1528",
  pages =        "338--352",
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 5 11:53:19 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t1528.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography1990.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/lncs1998b.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/1528/15280338.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/1528/15280338.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/bookseries/558",
  keywords =     "computer security; electrical; engineering; industrial
                 cryptography",
}

@InProceedings{Massias:1999:DST,
  author =       "H. Massias and X. S. Avila and J.-J. Quisquater",
  editor =       "????",
  booktitle =    "{20th Symposium on Information Theory in the Benelux,
                 May 1999}",
  title =        "Design of a secure timestamping service with minimal
                 trust requirements",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "1999",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 11:46:08 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{DePrisco:2000:RPA,
  author =       "Roberto {De Prisco} and Butler Lampson and Nancy
                 Lynch",
  title =        "Revisiting the {PAXOS} algorithm",
  journal =      j-THEOR-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "243",
  number =       "1--2",
  pages =        "35--91",
  day =          "28",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "TCSCDI",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3975(00)00042-6",
  ISSN =         "0304-3975 (print), 1879-2294 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0304-3975",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 31 11:38:34 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/03043975;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tcs2000.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.elsevier.nl/gej-ng/10/41/16/177/21/22/abstract.html;
                 http://www.elsevier.nl/gej-ng/10/41/16/177/21/22/article.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Theoretical Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03043975/",
}

@Article{Gafni:2000:DP,
  author =       "E. Gafni and L. Lamport",
  title =        "Disk {Paxos}",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1914",
  pages =        "330--??",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 19:08:51 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t1914.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/lncs2000.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/1914/19140330.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/1914/19140330.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/bookseries/558",
}

@Misc{Back:2001:HC,
  author =       "Adam Back",
  title =        "Hash cash",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:17:13 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/hash.bib",
  URL =          "https://web.archive.org/web/20010614013848/;
                 http://cypherspace.org/hashcash/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Lamport:2001:PMS,
  author =       "Leslie Lamport",
  title =        "{Paxos} made simple",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:28:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://lamport.azurewebsites.net/pubs/paxos-simple.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Back:2002:HAP,
  author =       "Adam Back",
  title =        "{Hashcash} --- Amortizable Publicly Auditable
                 Cost-Functions",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  pages =        "7",
  day =          "1",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2002",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 07:21:47 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.hashcash.org/papers/amortizable.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Back:2002:HDS,
  author =       "Adam Back",
  title =        "{Hashcash} --- a denial of service counter measure",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  year =         "2002",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:17:13 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/hash.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{vanSomeren:2002:PPI,
  author =       "Nicko van Someren",
  title =        "The Practical Problems of Implementing {MicroMint}",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2339",
  pages =        "41--??",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 19:09:40 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2339.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/lncs2002b.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2339/23390041.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2339/23390041.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/bookseries/558",
}

@Misc{Back:2003:HPW,
  author =       "Adam Back",
  title =        "The {Hashcash} Proof-of-Work Function",
  howpublished = "Internet Network Working Group draft",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2003",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:32:28 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.hashcash.org/papers/draft-hashcash.txt",
  abstract =     "Hashcash is a denial-of-service counter measure tool.
                 Its main current use is to help hashcash users avoid
                 losing email due to content based and blacklist based
                 anti-spam systems.\par

                 Email senders attach hashcash tokens with the
                 X-Hashcash: header. Vendors and authors of anti-spam
                 tools are encouraged to exempt mail sent with hashcash
                 from their blacklists and content based filtering
                 rules.\par

                 This memo describes how to use hashcash to increase
                 email reliability.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Ross:2003:DP,
  author =       "Rocky Ross",
  title =        "Deconstructing {Paxos}",
  journal =      j-SIGACT,
  volume =       "34",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "47--67",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "SIGNDM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/637437.637447",
  ISSN =         "0163-5700 (print), 1943-5827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5700",
  bibdate =      "Wed Mar 21 18:30:25 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigact.bib",
  abstract =     "The celebrated Paxos algorithm of Lamport implements a
                 fault-tolerant deterministic service by replicating it
                 over a distributed message-passing system. This paper
                 presents a deconstruction of the algorithm by factoring
                 out its fundamental algorithmic principles within two
                 abstractions: an eventual leader election and an
                 eventual register abstractions. In short, the leader
                 election abstraction encapsulates the liveness property
                 of Paxos whereas the register abstraction encapsulates
                 its safety property. Our deconstruction is faithful in
                 that it preserves the resilience and efficiency of the
                 original Paxos algorithm in terms of stable storage
                 logs, message complexity, and communication steps. In a
                 companion paper, we show how to use our abstractions to
                 reconstruct powerful variants of Paxos.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGACT News",
  journal-URL =  "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J697",
}

@InProceedings{Vishnumurthy:2003:KSE,
  author =       "Vivek Vishnumurthy and Sangeeth Chandrakumar and Emin
                 Gun Sirer",
  editor =       "????",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the Workshop on Economics of
                 Peer-to-Peer Systems, Berkeley, California, June
                 2003}",
  title =        "{KARMA}: A secure economic framework for peer-to-peer
                 resource sharing",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2003",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:54:33 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.cs.cornell.edu/people/egs/papers/karma.pdf",
  abstract =     "Peer-to-peer systems are typically designed around the
                 assumption that all peers will willingly contribute
                 resources to a global pool. They thus suffer from
                 freeloaders, that is, participants who consume many
                 more resources than they contribute. In this paper, we
                 propose a general economic framework for avoiding
                 freeloaders in peer-to-peer systems. Our system works
                 by keeping track of the resource consumption and
                 resource contribution of each participant. The overall
                 standing of each participant in the system is
                 represented by a single scalar value, called their
                 karma. A set of nodes, called a bank-set, keeps track
                 of each node's karma, increasing it as resources are
                 contributed, and decreasing it as they are consumed.
                 Our framework is resistant to malicious attempts by the
                 resource provider, consumer, and a fraction of the
                 members of the bank set. We illustrate the application
                 of this framework to a peer-to-peer filesharing
                 application.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Laurie:2004:PWP,
  author =       "Ben Laurie and Richard Clayton",
  editor =       "????",
  booktitle =    "WEIS, 2004",
  title =        "``{Proof}-of-work'' proves not to work",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2004",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:59:34 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.hashcash.org/papers/proof-work.pdf;
                 https://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rnc1/proofwork.pdf",
  abstract =     "A frequently proposed method of reducing unsolicited
                 bulk email (``spam'') is for senders to pay for each
                 email they send. Proof-of-work schemes avoid charging
                 real money by requiring senders to demonstrate that
                 they have expended processing time in solving a
                 cryptographic puzzle. We attempt to determine how
                 difficult that puzzle should be so as to be effective
                 in preventing spam. We analyse this both from an
                 economic perspective,``how can we stop it being
                 cost-effective to send spam'', and from a security
                 perspective, ``spammers can access insecure end-user
                 machines and will steal processing cycles to solve
                 puzzles''. Both analyses lead to similar values of
                 puzzle difficulty. Unfortunately, real-world data from
                 a large ISP shows that these difficulty levels would
                 mean that significant numbers of senders of legitimate
                 email would be unable to continue their current levels
                 of activity. We conclude that proof-of-work will not be
                 a solution to the problem of spam.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  pagecount =    "9",
}

@InProceedings{Rivest:2004:PM,
  author =       "Ronald L. Rivest",
  title =        "Peppercoin micropayments",
  crossref =     "Juels:2004:FCI",
  pages =        "2--8",
  year =         "2004",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-27809-2_2",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:11:23 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-3-540-27809-2_2.pdf;
                 https://people.csail.mit.edu/rivest/pubs/Riv04c.slides.slides.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Garcia:2005:LKD,
  author =       "Flavio S. Garcia and Jaap-Henk Hoepman",
  title =        "Off-line {Karma}: A Decentralized Currency for
                 Peer-to-peer and Grid Applications",
  crossref =     "Ioannidis:2005:ACN",
  pages =        "364--377",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/11496137_25",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:43:30 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "www.hashcash.org/papers/offline-karma.pdf",
}

@InProceedings{Coelho:2008:ACE,
  author =       "Fabien Coelho",
  editor =       "Serge Vaudenay",
  booktitle =    "{Progress in Cryptology --- AfriCrypt 2008: First
                 International Conference on Cryptology in Africa,
                 Casablanca, Morocco, June 11--14, 2008. Proceedings}",
  title =        "An (Almost) Constant-Effort Solution-Verification
                 Proof-of-Work Protocol based on {Merkle} Trees",
  volume =       "5023",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "80--93",
  year =         "2008",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-68164-9_6",
  ISBN =         "3-540-68164-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-540-68164-9",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:45:04 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://www.hashcash.org/papers/merkle-proof.pdf;
                 https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-68164-9_6",
}

@InProceedings{Guo:2008:VMS,
  author =       "Jingzhi Guo and Angelina Chow",
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 10th IEEE Conference on E-Commerce
                 Technology and the Fifth IEEE Conference on Enterprise
                 Computing, E-Commerce and E-Services, CEC 2008 and EEE
                 2008, 21--24 July, 2008, Washington, DC, USA}",
  title =        "Virtual money systems: a phenomenal analysis",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  bookpages =    "xviii + 460",
  pages =        "267--272",
  year =         "2008",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/CECandEEE.2008.91",
  ISBN =         "0-7695-3340-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7695-3340-7",
  LCCN =         "HF5548.32 .I343 2008",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 11:07:11 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Nakamoto:2008:BPP,
  author =       "S. Nakamoto",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  year =         "2008",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:08:21 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark-01 =    "The document is undated, but the PDF file accessed on
                 04 December 2017 was created on Tue Mar 24 11:33:15
                 2009 by OpenOffice.org 2.4.",
  remark-02 =    "The original authorship of the Bitcoin system is in
                 dispute: Nakamoto may be a pseudonym, rather than a
                 real known person. The \url{bitcoin.org} Internet IP
                 hostname is anonymously registered in Panama. On 2
                 December 2017, a traceroute on that hostname ends at a
                 site registered to DigitalOcean, LLC, in New York City,
                 NY, USA. That company is a known business that often
                 advertises virtual-machine services on the BSD-Now TV
                 Webcasts.",
}

@Misc{Nakamoto:2008:RBP,
  author =       "S. Nakamoto",
  title =        "Re: {Bitcoin P2P} e-cash paper",
  howpublished = "Web document",
  year =         "2008",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:13:03 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://satoshi.nakamotoinstitute.org/emails/cryptography/11/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "The original authorship of the Bitcoin system is in
                 dispute: Nakamoto may be a pseudonym, rather than a
                 real known person. The \url{nakamotoinstitute.org}
                 Internet IP hostname is anonymously registered in
                 Panama. On 30 November 2017, a traceroute on that
                 hostname ends at a site registered to DigitalOcean,
                 LLC, in New York City, NY, USA. That company is a known
                 business that often advertises virtual-machine services
                 on the BSD-Now TV Webcasts.",
}

@Misc{Szabo:2008:BGU,
  author =       "N. Szabo",
  title =        "Bit gold. {Unenumerated}",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  year =         "2008",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:44:02 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://unenumerated.blogspot.com/2005/12/bit-gold.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Vieira:2008:CRF,
  author =       "Gustavo M. D. Vieira and Luiz E. Buzato",
  title =        "On the coordinator's rule for {Fast Paxos}",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-LETT,
  volume =       "107",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "183--187",
  day =          "16",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "IFPLAT",
  ISSN =         "0020-0190 (print), 1872-6119 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0020-0190",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 31 15:53:08 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/infoproc2000.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Information Processing Letters",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00200190/",
}

@Misc{Bakker:2009:MHT,
  author =       "Arno Bakker",
  title =        "{Merkle} hash torrent extension",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2009",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 10:54:44 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/hash.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.bittorrent.org/beps/bep_0030.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{BCD:2009:BCI,
  author =       "{Bitcoin Core Developers}",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Core integration\slash staging tree",
  howpublished = "Web site",
  year =         "2009",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 11:03:36 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Percival:2009:SKD,
  author =       "Colin Percival",
  title =        "Stronger key derivation via sequential memory-hard
                 functions",
  howpublished = "Web document",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2009",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 11:20:07 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  note =         "This is the origin of the scrypt proof-of-work
                 function that is used in Litecoin (LTC).",
  URL =          "https://www.tarsnap.com/scrypt/scrypt.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Babaioff:2011:BRB,
  author =       "Moshe Babaioff and Shahar Dobzinski and Sigal Oren and
                 Aviv Zohar",
  title =        "On {Bitcoin} and Red Balloons",
  journal =      "SIGecom Exch.",
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "5--9",
  day =          "11",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2011",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2325702.2325704",
  ISSN =         "1551-9031",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2325704",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, information propagation, mechanism design",
  pagecount =    "5",
}

@Article{Grinberg:2011:BIA,
  author =       "Rueben Grinberg",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: An Innovative Alternative Digital
                 Currency",
  journal =      "Hastings Science \& Technology Law Journal",
  volume =       "4",
  pages =        "159--207",
  day =          "23",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1947-4156 (print), 2331-835X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1947-4156",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:48:09 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://hstlj.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/12/8-grinberg-159-208.pdf;
                 https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1817857",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "http://journals.uchastings.edu/journals/websites/science-technology/index.php",
  pagecount =    "50",
}

@Misc{Laurie:2011:DCP,
  author =       "Ben Laurie",
  title =        "Decentralised currencies are probably impossible (but
                 let's at least make them efficient)",
  howpublished = "Web blog.",
  day =          "2",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:58:58 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.links.org/?p=1179",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Laurie:2011:EDC,
  author =       "Ben Laurie",
  title =        "An Efficient Distributed Currency",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  pages =        "5",
  day =          "23",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:58:08 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.links.org/files/distributed-currency.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Martins:2011:IBP,
  author =       "Sergio Martins and Yang Yang",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2011 Conference of the Center for
                 Advanced Studies on Collaborative Research",
  title =        "Introduction to {Bitcoins}: A Pseudo-anonymous
                 Electronic Currency System",
  publisher =    pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  pages =        "349--350",
  year =         "2011",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CASCON '11",
  URL =          "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2093889.2093944",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2093944",
  location =     "Toronto, Ontario, Canada",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@Article{Rao:2011:UPB,
  author =       "Jun Rao and Eugene J. Shekita and Sandeep Tata",
  title =        "Using {Paxos} to build a scalable, consistent, and
                 highly available datastore",
  journal =      j-PROC-VLDB-ENDOWMENT,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "243--254",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "2150-8097",
  ISSN-L =       "2150-8097",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 13 14:55:17 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/vldbe.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J1174",
}

@InProceedings{Reid:2011:AAB,
  author =       "F. Reid and M. Harrigan",
  booktitle =    "2011 IEEE Third International Conference on Privacy,
                 Security, Risk and Trust and 2011 IEEE Third
                 International Conference on Social Computing",
  title =        "An Analysis of Anonymity in the {Bitcoin} System",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1318--1326",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/PASSAT/SocialCom.2011.79",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Anonymity; anonymity analysis; Context; Educational
                 institutions; electronic money; History; IP networks;
                 Joining processes; Network Analysis; network
                 topological structure; nontrivial topological
                 structure; Peer to peer computing; peer-to-peer
                 computing; peer-to-peer electronic currency system;
                 Public key; public key cryptography; public key
                 generation; telecommunication network topology; user
                 mapping; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} public transaction
                 history; {Bitcoin} system",
}

@Misc{Rosenfeld:2011:ABP,
  author =       "Meni Rosenfeld",
  title =        "Analysis of {Bitcoin} Pooled Mining Reward Systems",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  day =          "17",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:23:26 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitcoil.co.il/pool_analysis.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  lastaccessed = "20 March 2015",
}

@Misc{Voight:2011:PDR,
  author =       "F. Voight",
  title =        "p2pool: Decentralized, {DoS}-resistant, Hop-Proof
                 pool",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2011",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:55:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=18313.0",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Anonymous:2012:VCS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Virtual Currency Schemes",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  institution =  "European Central Bank",
  address =      "Kaiserstrasse 29, 60311 Frankfurt am Main, Germany",
  pages =        "55",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:17:07 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/other/virtualcurrencyschemes201210en.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  tableofcontents = "Executive summary / 5 \\
                 1 Introduction / 9 \\
                 1.1 Preliminary remarks and motivation / 9 \\
                 1.2 A short historical review of money / 9 \\
                 1.3 Money in the virtual world / 10 \\
                 2 Virtual currency schemes / 13 \\
                 2.1 Definition and categorisation / 13 \\
                 2.2 Virtual currency schemes and electronic money / 16
                 \\
                 2.3 Payment arrangements in virtual currency schemes /
                 17 \\
                 2.4 Reasons for implementing virtual currency schemes /
                 18 \\
                 3 Case studies / 21 \\
                 3.1 The Bitcoin scheme / 21 \\
                 3.1.1 Basic features / 21 \\
                 3.1.2 Technical description of a Bitcoin transaction /
                 23 \\
                 3.1.3 Monetary aspects / 24 \\
                 3.1.4 Security incidents and negative press / 25 \\
                 3.2 The Second Life scheme / 28 \\
                 3.2.1 Basic features / 28 \\
                 3.2.2 Second Life economy / 28 \\
                 3.2.3 Monetary aspects / 29 \\
                 3.2.4 Issues with Second Life / 30 \\
                 4 The relevance of virtual currency schemes for central
                 banks / 33 \\
                 4.1 Risks to price stability / 33 \\
                 4.2 Risks to financial stability / 37 \\
                 4.3 Risks to payment system stability / 40 \\
                 4.4 Lack of regulation / 42 \\
                 4.5 Reputational risk / 45 \\
                 5 Conclusion / 47 \\
                 Annex: References and further information on virtual
                 currency schemes / 49",
}

@Article{Aron:2012:BSF,
  author =       "Jacob Aron",
  title =        "{BitCoin} software finds new life",
  journal =      j-NEW-SCIENTIST,
  volume =       "213",
  number =       "2847",
  pages =        "20--20",
  day =          "14",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "NWSCAL",
  ISSN =         "0262-4079 (print), 1364-8500 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0262-4079",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:27:25 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "New Scientist",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02624079",
}

@Article{Aszalos:2012:PAP,
  author =       "L{\'a}szl{\'o} Aszal{\'o}s and Andrea Huszti",
  title =        "Payment Approval for {PayWord}",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "7690",
  pages =        "161--176",
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35416-8_12",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 19 15:18:58 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/lncs2012l.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-35416-8_12/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  book-DOI =     "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35416-8",
  book-URL =     "http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-3-642-35416-8",
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/bookseries/558",
}

@InProceedings{Babaioff:2012:BRB,
  author =       "Moshe Babaioff and Shahar Dobzinski and Sigal Oren and
                 Aviv Zohar",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 13th ACM Conference on Electronic
                 Commerce",
  title =        "On {Bitcoin} and Red Balloons",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "56--73",
  year =         "2012",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2229012.2229022",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-1415-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-1415-2",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "EC '12",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2229022",
  keywords =     "information propagation, mechanism design, sybil-proof
                 mechanisms",
  location =     "Valencia, Spain",
  pagecount =    "18",
}

@InProceedings{Barber:2012:BBH,
  author =       "Simon Barber and Xavier Boyen and Elaine Shi and Ersin
                 Uzun",
  booktitle =    "Financial Cryptography and Data Security",
  title =        "Bitter to Better: How to Make {Bitcoin} a Better
                 Currency",
  crossref =     "Keromytis:2012:FCD",
  pages =        "399--414",
  year =         "2012",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32946-3_29",
  ISBN =         "3-642-32946-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-642-32946-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-32946-3_29",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Cap:2012:BOS,
  author =       "Prof. Dr. Clemens H. Cap",
  title =        "{Bitcoin das Open-Source-Geld}. ({German}) [{Bitcoin}
                 the open-source gold]",
  journal =      "{HMD Praxis der Wirtschaftsinformatik}",
  volume =       "49",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "84--93",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03340666",
  ISSN =         "1436-3011 (print), 2198-2775 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1436-3011",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF03340666",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
}

@Misc{Castro:2012:BPN,
  author =       "Sebastian Castro",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} {P2P} network sniffer v0.0.2",
  howpublished = "Web site.",
  year =         "2012",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 11:00:03 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://github.com/sebicas/bitcoin-sniffer",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Clark:2012:CCD,
  author =       "Jeremy Clark and Aleksander Essex",
  booktitle =    "Financial Cryptography and Data Security",
  title =        "{CommitCoin}: Carbon Dating Commitments with
                 {Bitcoin}",
  crossref =     "Keromytis:2012:FCD",
  pages =        "390--398",
  year =         "2012",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-32946-3_28",
  ISBN =         "3-642-32946-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-642-32946-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-32946-3_28",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Hearn:2012:BIP,
  author =       "Mike Hearn and Matt Corallo",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} improvement proposal 0037",
  howpublished = "Web document",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 11:11:54 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/BIP_0037",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Karame:2012:DSF,
  author =       "Ghassan O. Karame and Elli Androulaki and Srdjan
                 {\v{C}}apkun",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Conference on Computer and
                 Communications Security",
  title =        "Double-spending Fast Payments in {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "906--917",
  year =         "2012",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382196.2382292",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-1651-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-1651-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '12",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2382292",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, countermeasures, double-spending, fast
                 payments",
  location =     "Raleigh, North Carolina, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@Misc{King:2012:PPP,
  author =       "Sunny King and Scott Nadal",
  title =        "{PPCoin}: Peer-to-Peer Crypto-Currency with
                 Proof-of-Stake",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  pages =        "6",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2012",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:53:13 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://decred.org/research/king2012.pdf",
  abstract =     "A peer-to-peer crypto-currency design derived from
                 Satoshi Nakamoto's Bitcoin. Proof-of-stake replaces
                 proof-of-work to provide most of the network security.
                 Under this hybrid design proof-of-work mainly provides
                 initial minting and is largely non-essential in the
                 long run. Security level of the network is not
                 dependent on energy consumption in the long term thus
                 providing an energy-efficient and more cost-competitive
                 peer-to-peer crypto-currency. Proof-of-stake is based
                 on coin age and generated by each node via a hashing
                 scheme bearing similarity to Bitcoin's but over limited
                 search space. Block chain history and transaction
                 settlement are further protected by a centrally
                 broadcasted checkpoint mechanism",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "The author names Sunny King and Scott Nadal are
                 claimed to be pseudonyms in \cite{Sprankel:2013:TBD}.",
}

@Article{Malkhi:2012:PCF,
  author =       "Dahlia Malkhi and Mahesh Balakrishnan and John D.
                 Davis and Vijayan Prabhakaran and Ted Wobber",
  title =        "From {Paxos} to {CORFU}: a flash-speed shared log",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "46",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "47--51",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2146382.2146391",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 17 19:19:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/opersysrev.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J597",
}

@Misc{Rosenfeld:2012:OCC,
  author =       "Meni Rosenfeld",
  title =        "Overview of Colored Coins",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  pages =        "13",
  year =         "2012",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 07:35:00 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/hash.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitcoil.co.il/BitcoinX.pdf;
                 https://web.archive.org/web/20170922052930/;
                 https://bitcoil.co.il/BitcoinX.pdf",
  abstract =     "Bitcoin is the world's first decentralized digital
                 currency, allowing the easy storage and transfer of
                 cryptographic tokens. It uses a peer-to-peer network to
                 carry information, hashing as a synchronization signal
                 to prevent double-spending, and a powerful scripting
                 system to determine ownership of the tokens. There is a
                 growing technology and business infrastructure
                 supporting it.\par

                 By the original design bitcoins are fungible, acting as
                 a neutral medium of exchange. However, by carefully
                 tracking the origin of a given bitcoin, it is possible
                 to color a set of coins to distinguish it from the
                 rest. These coins can then have special properties
                 supported by either an issuing agent or a Schelling
                 point, and have value independent of the face value of
                 the underlying bitcoins. Such colored bitcoins can be
                 used for alternative currencies, commodity
                 certificates, smart property, and other financial
                 instruments such as stocks and bonds.\par

                 Because colored bitcoins make use of the existing
                 Bitcoin infrastructure and can be stored and
                 transferred without the need for a third party, and
                 even be exchanged for one another in an atomic
                 transaction, they can open the way for the
                 decentralized exchange of things that are not possible
                 by traditional methods. In this paper we will discuss
                 the implementation details of colored bitcoins and some
                 of their use cases.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  lastaccessed = "20 March 2015",
  remark =       "First URL no longer reachable, but second one accessed
                 on 23 January 2018.",
}

@Article{Santos:2012:TPH,
  author =       "Nuno Santos and Andr{\'e} Schiper",
  title =        "Tuning {Paxos} for High-Throughput with Batching and
                 Pipelining",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "7129",
  pages =        "153--167",
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25959-3_11",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 19 15:24:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/lncs2012b.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-25959-3_11/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  book-DOI =     "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25959-3",
  book-URL =     "http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-3-642-25959-3",
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/bookseries/558",
}

@Article{Sorge:2012:BEE,
  author =       "Christoph Sorge and Artus Krohn-Grimberghe",
  title =        "{Bitcoin: Eine erste Einordnung}. ({German})
                 [{Bitcoin}: A first classification]",
  journal =      "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "479--484",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11623-012-0164-9",
  ISSN =         "1614-0702 (print), 1862-2607 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1614-0702",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11623-012-0164-9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/11623",
  language =     "German",
}

@Book{Altshuler:2013:SPS,
  editor =       "Yaniv Altshuler and others",
  title =        "Security and privacy in social networks",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "vi + 253",
  year =         "2013",
  ISBN =         "1-4614-4138-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4614-4138-0",
  LCCN =         "HM742 .S43 2013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  URL =          "http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy1306/2012943943-d.html;
                 http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy1306/2012943943-t.html",
  abstract =     "This book: Presents innovative solutions to social
                 network security challenges; Defines a new field of
                 research in computer and communications security;
                 Raises emerging security problems in online social
                 network environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Online social networks; Security measures; Data
                 encryption (Computer science); Data protection;
                 Computer crimes; Prevention",
  tableofcontents = "Introduction to security and privacy in social
                 networks / Yuval Elovici and Yaniv Altshuler \\
                 Interdisciplinary impact analysis of privacy in social
                 networks / Michael Netter, Sebastian Herbst, and
                 G{\"u}nther Pernul \\
                 Recognizing your digital friends / Patrik Bichsel, Jan
                 Camenisch, and Mario Verdicchio \\
                 Encryption for peer-to-peer social networks / Oleksandr
                 Bodriagov and Sonja Buchegger \\
                 Crowdsourcing and ethics: the employment of
                 crowdsourcing workers for tasks that violate privacy
                 and ethics / Christopher G. Harris and Padmini
                 Srinivasan \\
                 The effect of social status on decision-making and
                 prices in financial networks / Yoel Krasny \\
                 Stealing reality: when criminals become data scientists
                 (or vice versa) / Yaniv Altshuler \ldots{} [et al.] \\
                 Applications of k-anonymity and l-diversity in
                 publishing online social networks / Na Li and Sajal K.
                 Das \\
                 Link reconstruction attack: using link prediction
                 algorithms to compromise social networks privacy /
                 Michael Fire \ldots{} [et al.] \\
                 An analysis of anonymity in the Bitcoin system / Fergal
                 Reid and Martin Harrigan \\
                 Privacy-preserving data integration using decoupled
                 data / Hye-Chung Kum, Stanley Ahalt, and Darshana
                 Pathak",
}

@InProceedings{Androulaki:2013:EUP,
  author =       "Elli Androulaki and Ghassan O. Karame and Marc
                 Roeschlin and Tobias Scherer and Srdjan {\v{C}}apkun",
  booktitle =    "Financial Cryptography and Data Security",
  title =        "Evaluating User Privacy in {Bitcoin}",
  crossref =     "Sadeghi:2013:FCD",
  pages =        "34--51",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39884-1_4",
  ISBN =         "3-642-39884-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-642-39884-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-39884-1_4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Anonymous:2013:LC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "List of cryptocurrencies",
  howpublished = "Wikipedia article.",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 11:23:18 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cryptocurrencies",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Anonymous:2013:MBT,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Massive {Bitcoin} thefts and seizures leave many users
                 nervous and poorer",
  journal =      "Computer Fraud \& Security",
  volume =       "2013",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "1--3",
  day =          "30",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-3723(13)70106-4",
  ISSN =         "1361-3723 (print), 1873-7056 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1361-3723",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 11:14:22 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361372313701064",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer Fraud \& Security",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13613723",
}

@InProceedings{Bamert:2013:SPB,
  author =       "Tobias Bamert and Christian Decker and Lennart Elsen
                 and Roger Wattenhofer and Samuel Welten",
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on
                 Peer-to-Peer Computing (P2P) 2013, Trento, Italy",
  title =        "Have a snack, pay with {Bitcoins}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--5",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/P2P.2013.6688717",
  ISBN =         "1-4799-0521-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4799-0521-8",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:55:59 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Becker:2013:CWA,
  author =       "J{\"o}rg Becker and Dominic Breuker and Tobias Heide
                 and Justus Holler and Hans Peter Rauer and Rainer
                 B{\"o}hme",
  booktitle =    "The Economics of Information Security and Privacy",
  title =        "Can We Afford Integrity by Proof-of-Work? {Scenarios}
                 Inspired by the {Bitcoin} Currency",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "135--156",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39498-0_7",
  ISBN =         "3-642-39498-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-642-39498-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-39498-0_7",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Berson:2013:VMS,
  author =       "Susan A. Berson",
  title =        "Virtual Money: Some basic rules for using
                 `{Bitcoin}'",
  journal =      "{ABA} Journal",
  volume =       "99",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "32--32",
  year =         "2013",
  ISSN =         "0747-0088 (print), 2162-7983 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0747-0088",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 13:57:34 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.jstor.org/stable/24595821",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "American Bar Association Journal",
}

@InProceedings{Bohme:2013:IPA,
  author =       "Rainer B{\"o}hme",
  editor =       "????",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the IAB Workshop on Internet
                 Technology Adoption and Transition (ITAT), Cambridge,
                 UK}",
  title =        "{Internet} Protocol Adoption: Learning from
                 {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 06:43:11 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Bradbury:2013:ATB,
  author =       "Danny Bradbury",
  title =        "Anti-Theft {Bitcoin} Tracking Proposals Divide
                 {Bitcoin} Communications",
  journal =      "Coindesk",
  day =          "15",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:09:48 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.coindesk.com/bitcoin-tracking-proposal-divides-bitcoin-community/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Buterin:2013:DMH,
  author =       "Vitalik Buterin",
  title =        "{Dagger}: A Memory-Hard to Compute, Memory-Easy to
                 Verify {Scrypt} Alternative",
  type =         "Report",
  institution =  "????",
  address =      "????",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:48:12 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://vitalik.ca/ethereum/dagger.html;
                 http://www.hashcash.org/papers/dagger.html",
  abstract =     "Over the past five years of experience with Bitcoin
                 and alternative cryptocurrencies, one important
                 property for proof of work functions that has been
                 discovered is that of ``memory-hardness'' --- computing
                 a valid proof of work should require not only a large
                 number of computations, but also a large amount of
                 memory. Currently, two major categories of memory-hard
                 functions, scrypt and Primecoin mining, exist, but both
                 are imperfect; neither require nearly as much memory as
                 an ideal memory-hard function could require, and both
                 suffer from time-memory tradeoff attacks, where the
                 function can be computed with significantly less memory
                 than intended at the cost of sacrificing some
                 computational efficiency. This paper presents Dagger, a
                 memory-hard proof of work based on moderately connected
                 directed acyclic graphs (DAGs, hence the name), which,
                 while far from optimal, has much stronger
                 memory-hardness properties than anything else in use
                 today.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Buterin:2013:ENG,
  author =       "Vitalik Buterin",
  title =        "{Ethereum}: A Next-Generation Smart Contract and
                 Decentralized Application Platform.",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 07:27:07 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ethereum.org/ethereum.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Chirgwin:2013:ABB,
  author =       "Richard Chirgwin",
  title =        "{Android} Bug Batters {Bitcoin} Wallets",
  journal =      j-REGISTER,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 29 13:52:49 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2010.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.theregister.co.uk/2013/08/12/android_bug_batters_bitcoin_wallets/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "The Register",
  journal-URL =  "https://www.theregister.co.uk/",
}

@InProceedings{Christin:2013:TSR,
  author =       "Nicolas Christin",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd International Conference on
                 World Wide Web",
  title =        "Traveling the {Silk Road}: A Measurement Analysis of a
                 Large Anonymous Online Marketplace",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "213--224",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2488388.2488408",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-2035-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-2035-1",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "WWW '13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2488408",
  keywords =     "anonymity, electronic commerce, online crime",
  location =     "Rio de Janeiro, Brazil",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@Misc{Coutu:2013:DMB,
  author =       "Olivier Coutu",
  title =        "Decentralized Mixers in {Bitcoin}",
  howpublished = "Web video.",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:40:16 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6hc8qaR_Fok",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Danezis:2013:PCB,
  author =       "George Danezis and Cedric Fournet and Markulf
                 Kohlweiss and Bryan Parno",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the First ACM Workshop on Language
                 Support for Privacy-enhancing Technologies",
  title =        "{Pinocchio Coin}: Building {Zerocoin} from a Succinct
                 Pairing-based Proof System",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "27--30",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2517872.2517878",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-2489-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-2489-2",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "PETShop '13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2517878",
  keywords =     "anonymous electronic cash, Bitcoin, zero-knowledge
                 proofs, zerocoin",
  location =     "Berlin, Germany",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InProceedings{Decker:2013:IPB,
  author =       "C. Decker and R. Wattenhofer",
  booktitle =    "IEEE P2P 2013 Proceedings",
  title =        "Information propagation in the {Bitcoin} network",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--10",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/P2P.2013.6688704",
  ISSN =         "2161-3559 (print), 2161-3567 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "2161-3559",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin network; blockchain forks; Buildings;
                 Conferences; Delays; digital currency; financial data
                 processing; foreign exchange trading; History;
                 information propagation; multihop broadcast;
                 Peer-to-peer computing; protocol; Protocols; replicated
                 ledger; Synchronization; transaction verification",
}

@Misc{Ducklin:2013:ARN,
  author =       "Paul Ducklin",
  title =        "{Android} random number flaw implicated in {Bitcoin}
                 thefts",
  howpublished = "Web news story.",
  day =          "12",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 02 10:43:49 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/prng.bib",
  note =         "From the story: ``It looks as though, at least on
                 occasion, the Java-based PRNG on Android will repeat
                 its pseudorandom sequences, thanks to a flaw in
                 Android's so-called {\tt SecureRandom} Java class.''",
  URL =          "http://nakedsecurity.sophos.com/2013/08/12/android-random-number-flaw-implicated-in-bitcoin-thefts/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Greenberg:2013:FSS,
  author =       "Andy Greenberg",
  title =        "{FBI} Says It's Seized \$28.5 Million in {Bitcoins}
                 from {Ross Ulbricht}, Alleged Owner of {Silk Road}",
  journal =      j-FORBES,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "25",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "FORBA5",
  ISSN =         "0015-6914",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:01:20 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Forbes",
}

@Misc{Hearn:2013:MAN,
  author =       "Mike Hearn",
  title =        "Merge-Avoidance: a note on privacy-enhancing
                 techniques in the {Bitcoin} protocol",
  howpublished = "Web blog",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:49:04 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.coindesk.com/merge-avoidance-privacy-bitcoin/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Hobson:2013:WB,
  author =       "Dominic Hobson",
  title =        "What is {Bitcoin}?",
  journal =      j-CROSSROADS,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "40--44",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2510124",
  ISSN =         "1528-4972 (print), 1528-4980 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1528-4972",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2510124",
  fjournal =     "ACM Crossroads",
  pagecount =    "5",
}

@Article{Juels:2013:NAS,
  author =       "Ari Juels and Alina Oprea",
  title =        "New approaches to security and availability for cloud
                 data",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "56",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "64--73",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2408776.2408793",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 30 15:28:27 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm2010.bib",
  abstract =     "Extending the data trust perimeter from the enterprise
                 to the public cloud requires more than encryption.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Article{K:2013:BCC,
  author =       "D. K.",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}'s Collapse: {China} Blues: The {Bitcoin}
                 price plunges after {China} bans financial firms from
                 dealing with {Bitcoin} exchanges",
  journal =      j-ECONOMIST,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "18",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "EONOEH",
  ISSN =         "0013-0613 (print), 1476-8860 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0013-0613",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:13:27 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.economist.com/blogs/schumpeter/2013/12/bitcoins-collapse",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "The Economist",
}

@Misc{King:2013:PCP,
  author =       "Sunny King",
  title =        "{Primecoin}: Cryptocurrency with prime number
                 proof-of-work",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  pages =        "6",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:52:34 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://primecoin.io/bin/primecoin-paper.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "The author name Sunny King is claimed to be a
                 pseudonym in \cite{Sprankel:2013:TBD}.",
}

@InProceedings{Kroll:2013:EBM,
  author =       "Joshua A. Kroll and Ian C. Davey and Edward W.
                 Felten",
  booktitle =    "{The Twelfth Workshop on the Economics of Information
                 Security (WEIS 2013), Georgetown University,
                 Washington, DC, June 11--12, 2013}",
  title =        "The economics of {Bitcoin} mining, or {Bitcoin} in the
                 presence of adversaries",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:54:08 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://weis2013.econinfosec.org/papers/KrollDaveyFeltenWEIS2013.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  pagecount =    "21",
}

@Article{Krugman:2013:BE,
  author =       "Paul Krugman",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} is Evil",
  journal =      j-NY-TIMES,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "28",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "NYTIAO",
  ISSN =         "0362-4331 (print), 1542-667X, 1553-8095",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-4331",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:55:24 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/12/28/bitcoin-is-evil/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "New York Times",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.nytimes.com/",
  remark =       "From the article: ``To be successful, money must be
                 both a medium of exchange and a reasonably stable store
                 of value. And it remains completely unclear why BitCoin
                 should be a stable store of value.''",
}

@TechReport{Larimer:2013:MMH,
  author =       "Daniel Larimer",
  title =        "Momentum --- A Memory-Hard Proof-of-Work via finding
                 Birthday Collisions",
  type =         "Report",
  institution =  "Invictus Innovations, Inc.",
  address =      "Blacksburg, VA, USA",
  pages =        "6",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:46:33 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.hashcash.org/papers/momentum.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Lee:2013:MGB,
  author =       "Timothy B. Lee",
  title =        "Major glitch in {Bitcoin} network sparks sell-off:
                 price temporarily falls 23\%: It hit a low of \$37 as
                 developers scrambled to fix the problem.",
  howpublished = "Ars Technica blog.",
  day =          "11",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:00:30 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2013/03/major-glitch-in-bitcoin-network-sparks-sell-off-price-temporarily-falls-23/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Lerner:2013:SMH,
  author =       "Sergio Demian Lerner",
  title =        "Strict Memory Hard Hashing Functions",
  howpublished = "Web blog.",
  day =          "31",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:49:59 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://bitslog.wordpress.com/2013/12/31/strict-memory-hard-hash-functions/;
                 http://www.hashcash.org/papers/memohash.pdf",
  abstract =     "Strict memory hard functions are an extension of
                 memory hard functions such that a slight reduction in
                 the memory available for computation, compared to a
                 predefined optimal memory size, makes the function
                 evaluation exponentially slower or infeasible. The main
                 application of strict memory hard functions is to prove
                 a certain amount of memory is used during a certain
                 time interval or in a certain computation. This in turn
                 can be used to attest that areas of memory of devices
                 do not contain hidden data. Other applications are
                 password hashing and proof of work. Here I present a
                 preliminary paper of SeqMemoHash, a strict sequential
                 memory hard functions under the random oracle model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Luo:2013:PCB,
  author =       "Z. Luo and W. Shen and L. Hu",
  booktitle =    "2013 International Conference on Computer Sciences and
                 Applications",
  title =        "Parallel Computing Based {Bitcoin} Currency System
                 Analysis Approach",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "483--486",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/CSA.2013.118",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Computers; electronic money; financial
                 system; graph theory; Indexes; parallel analysis
                 approach; Parallel Computing; parallel computing based
                 {Bitcoin} currency system analysis approach; parallel
                 processing; Parallel processing; peer-to-peer
                 computing; Peer-to-peer computing; peer-to-peer
                 electronic cash system; Privacy; Protocols; Receivers;
                 transaction graph; Transaction Graph; transaction
                 processing",
}

@Article{Matonis:2013:BCR,
  author =       "Jon Matonis",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Casinos Release 2012 Earnings",
  journal =      j-FORBES,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "FORBA5",
  ISSN =         "0015-6914",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:09:56 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Forbes",
}

@Misc{McLeod:2013:BSV,
  author =       "Andrew Saks McLeod",
  title =        "{Bitcoins} Soar in Value in {Argentina} due to Capital
                 Control Laws",
  howpublished = "Forex Magnates Web site.",
  day =          "9",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:11:25 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.financemagnates.com/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{McMillan:2013:HSW,
  author =       "Robert McMillan",
  title =        "\$1.2M Hack Shows Why You Should Never Store
                 {Bitcoins} on the {Internet}",
  journal =      j-WIRED,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "7",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "WREDEM",
  ISSN =         "1059-1028 (print), 1078-3148 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1059-1028",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:12:42 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Wired",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.wired.com",
}

@InProceedings{Meiklejohn:2013:FBC,
  author =       "Sarah Meiklejohn and Marjori Pomarole and Grant Jordan
                 and Kirill Levchenko and Damon McCoy and Geoffrey M.
                 Voelker and Stefan Savage",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Internet
                 Measurement Conference",
  title =        "A Fistful of {Bitcoins}: Characterizing Payments Among
                 Men with No Names",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "127--140",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2504730.2504747",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-1953-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-1953-9",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "IMC '13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2504747",
  keywords =     "anonymity, Bitcoin, measurement",
  location =     "Barcelona, Spain",
  pagecount =    "14",
}

@InProceedings{Miers:2013:ZAD,
  author =       "I. Miers and C. Garman and M. Green and A. D. Rubin",
  booktitle =    "2013 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy",
  title =        "{Zerocoin}: Anonymous Distributed E-Cash from
                 {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "397--411",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2013.34",
  ISSN =         "1081-6011 (print), 2375-1207 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1081-6011",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "anonymous currency transactions; anonymous distributed
                 e-cash; Concrete; cryptographic extension;
                 cryptography; Cryptography; data privacy; electronic
                 money; financial interaction; Online banking;
                 Peer-to-peer computing; Privacy; Protocols; pseudonym;
                 standard cryptographic assumptions; user privacy;
                 Zerocoin cryptographic construction; {Bitcoin}
                 protocol",
}

@Book{Molleken:2013:BGB,
  author =       "Dirk M{\"o}lleken",
  title =        "{Bitcoin: Geld ohne Banken --- ist das m{\"o}glich?}.
                 ({German}) [{Bitcoin}: money without banks --- is that
                 possible?]",
  publisher =    "Bachelor + Master Publishing",
  address =      "Hamburg, Germany",
  pages =        "71",
  year =         "2013",
  ISBN =         "3-86341-425-X, 3-86341-925-1 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86341-425-2, 978-3-86341-925-7 (e-book)",
  LCCN =         "HF5548.32 .M65 2013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:46:59 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "Diplomarbeit",
  URL =          "http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=1593931;
                 http://site.ebrary.com/id/10851161",
  abstract =     "Was ist an Bitcoin so au{\ss}ergew{\"o}hnlich, dass
                 Jason Calacanis es 'das gef{\"a}hrlichste Projekt aller
                 Zeiten' nannte, der BVDW Verbraucher und H{\"a}ndler
                 vor der Nutzung von Bitcoin warnte und sogar der
                 Spiegel einen Artikel dar{\"u}ber ver{\"o}ffentlichte?
                 Der Grund daf{\"u}r ist, dass Bitcoin einige
                 Eigenschaften hat, die Staaten die Hoheit {\"u}ber
                 Teile der Geldpolitik entzieht. Dieses Buch erkl{\"a}rt
                 das System Bitcoin, ordnet es in das bestehende
                 Geldsystem ein und versucht einen Blick in die Zukunft.
                 Dazu wird die Geschichte des Geldes skizziert, um die
                 historisch gewachsene Art des heutigen Geldes und warum
                 es imm.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  remark =       "Originaltitel der Abschlussarbeit: \booktitle{Bitcoin,
                 eine neue Art von Geld}.",
  subject =      "Electronic commerce; Money; Electronic commerce;
                 Money.",
  tableofcontents = "Bitcoin \\
                 Inhaltsverzeichnis \\
                 Abbildungsverzeichnis \\
                 Formelverzeichnis \\
                 Tabellenverzeichnis \\
                 Listings \\
                 Abk{\"u}rzungsverzeichnis \\
                 1. Einleitung \\
                 2. Historie des Geldes \\
                 2.1. Die Suche nach dem passenden Tauschpartner \\
                 2.2. Von der Muschel zur M{\"u}nze \\
                 2.3. Das Zahlungsversprechen: Das Erste Papiergeld \\
                 2.4. Buchgeld \\
                 3. Theorie des Geldes \\
                 3.1. Formen von Geld \\
                 3.2. Funktionen von Geld \\
                 3.3. Motive der Geldhaltung \\
                 3.4. Geldmengendefinition \\
                 3.5. Geldsch{\"o}pfung \\
                 4. Bitcoin \\
                 4.1. Der Initiator \\
                 4.2. Eigenschaften von Bitcoin \\
                 5. Die Technik hinter Bitcoin \\
                 5.1. Das Peer-to-Peer-Netz \\
                 5.2. Der Block5.3. Die Block-Chain5.4. Die Transaktion
                 \\
                 5.5. Die Wallet \\
                 5.6. Das Mining \\
                 6. Bitcoin in der Praxis \\
                 6.1. Wie erh{\"a}lt man Bitcoin \\
                 6.2. Bezug von Waren und Dienstleistungen mit Bitcoin
                 \\
                 6.3. Bitcoin als Spendenkonto \\
                 7. Bitcoin Heute und Zuk{\"u}nftig \\
                 7.1. Andere alternative W{\"a}hrungen \\
                 7.2. Bitcoin und das heutige Geldsystem \\
                 7.3. Verbesserungsm{\"o}glichkeiten von Bitcoin \\
                 7.4. Hat Bitcoin eine Zukunft? \\
                 Anhang \\
                 Literatur",
}

@InProceedings{Moore:2013:BME,
  author =       "Tyler Moore and Nicolas Christin",
  booktitle =    "Financial Cryptography and Data Security",
  title =        "Beware the Middleman: Empirical Analysis of
                 {Bitcoin}-Exchange Risk",
  crossref =     "Sadeghi:2013:FCD",
  pages =        "25--33",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39884-1_3",
  ISBN =         "3-642-39884-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-642-39884-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-39884-1_3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Moser:2013:IML,
  author =       "Malte M{\"o}ser and Rainer B{\"o}hme and Dominic
                 Breuker",
  booktitle =    "{2013 APWG eCrime Researchers Summit, 17--18 September
                 2013, San Francisco, CA, USA}",
  title =        "An inquiry into money laundering tools in the
                 {Bitcoin} ecosystem",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--14",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/eCRS.2013.6805780",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 12:22:33 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "AML strategy; anonymous transaction system; anti-money
                 laundering; Bitcoin; Bitcoin ecosystem; Bitcoin Fog;
                 BitLaundry; Blockchain.info send shared functionality;
                 Communities; cryptographic protocols; Deanonymization;
                 decentralized cryptographic currency; distributed
                 processing; Ecosystems; Educational institutions;
                 financial data processing; Information systems;
                 Internet; Know-Your-Customer principle; Money
                 Laundering; money laundering tools; Monitoring; Public
                 key; reverse engineering; reverse-engineering methods;
                 transaction graph",
}

@InProceedings{Mser:2013:IML,
  author =       "M. M{\"o}ser and R. B{\"o}hme and D. Breuker",
  booktitle =    "2013 APWG eCrime Researchers Summit",
  title =        "An inquiry into money laundering tools in the
                 {Bitcoin} ecosystem",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--14",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/eCRS.2013.6805780",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "AML strategy; anonymous transaction system; anti-money
                 laundering; BitLaundry; Blockchain.info send shared
                 functionality; Communities; cryptographic protocols;
                 Deanonymization; decentralized cryptographic currency;
                 distributed processing; Ecosystems; Educational
                 institutions; financial data processing; Information
                 systems; Internet; Know-Your-Customer principle; Money
                 Laundering; money laundering tools; Monitoring; Public
                 key; reverse engineering; reverse-engineering methods;
                 transaction graph; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} ecosystem;
                 {Bitcoin} Fog",
}

@Article{Ober:2013:SAB,
  author =       "Micha Ober and Stefan Katzenbeisser and Kay Hamacher",
  title =        "Structure and Anonymity of the {Bitcoin} Transaction
                 Graph",
  journal =      "Future Internet",
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "237--250",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fi5020237",
  ISSN =         "1999-5903",
  ISSN-L =       "1999-5903",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:18:07 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.mdpi.com/1999-5903/5/2/237",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "http://www.mdpi.com/journal/futureinternet",
}

@Misc{PBCFAM:2013:PRA,
  author =       "{People's Bank of China and Five Associated
                 Ministries}",
  title =        "Prevention of Risks Associated with {Bitcoin}",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:19:51 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://vip.btcchina.com/page/bocnotice2013",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  lastaccessed = "20 March 2015",
}

@Article{Peck:2013:BAR,
  author =       "M. E. Peck",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} Arms Race is on!",
  journal =      j-IEEE-SPECTRUM,
  volume =       "50",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "11--13",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "IEESAM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2013.6521016",
  ISSN =         "0018-9235 (print), 1939-9340 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9235",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Spectrum",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6",
}

@Book{Platzer:2013:BKG,
  author =       "J{\"o}rg Platzer",
  title =        "{Bitcoin --- kurz and gut}. ({German}) [{Bitcoin} ---
                 short and good]",
  publisher =    pub-ORA,
  address =      pub-ORA:adr,
  pages =        "204",
  year =         "2013",
  ISBN =         "3-95561-650-9 (print), 3-95561-653-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-95561-650-2 (print), 978-3-95561-653-3",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .P53 2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:36:37 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ora.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Bitcoin; Electronic Commerce",
}

@Book{Province:2013:BRB,
  author =       "Jay Province",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} rising: beginner's guide to {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    "CreateSpace",
  address =      "????, USA",
  pages =        "iii + 33",
  year =         "2013",
  ISBN =         "1-4948-5944-0 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4948-5944-2 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "HF5548.32 .P76 2013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:49:05 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  abstract =     "You've heard that bitcoin is distributed freely over
                 the web, but has somehow recently soared to over \$1000
                 per bitcoin. What? How is that possible? Virtual money?
                 Cryptocurrency? Is it the currency of the future? You
                 sense something important is going on, and you're
                 having a hard time making any sense of it. Don't get
                 caught waving from the platform while the train meant
                 for you pulls away from the station. It's time to take
                 action. Bitcoin Rising is the book for you, and it's
                 the only bitcoin guide you'll ever need. Bitcoin Rising
                 will get you up to speed with chapters chock-full of
                 information. Bitcoin Rising is enjoyable reading, and
                 explores the Bitcoin movement from both its serious and
                 zany perspectives. At the same time it also answers
                 your important questions: Who is behind the Bitcoin
                 revolution? How does the Bitcoin system work? How do I
                 get started with Bitcoin? Which Bitcoin exchanges are
                 the safest? How do I set up a secure wallet safely? How
                 can I protect my privacy and security? How do I get
                 paid in bitcoin? What is the future of Bitcoin --- keep
                 up with the times! You don't need to worry about
                 technical terms like blockchain, wallet, private key or
                 mining because you'll learn them step by step as you
                 enjoy every page of reading. Bitcoin Rising is bitcoin
                 prepared for you in bite-sized morsels. After years of
                 market experience with stocks, bonds and Bitcoin,
                 Province lays out a serious but entertaining
                 step-by-step Bitcoin guide that will get you
                 up-to-speed in the new economy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic commerce; Electronic funds transfers;
                 Electronic commerce; Electronic funds transfers.",
}

@Article{Raskin:2013:MBM,
  author =       "Max Raskin",
  title =        "Meet the {Bitcoin} Millionaires",
  journal =      "Bloomberg Businessweek",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "10",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2013",
  ISSN =         "0007-7135 (print), 2162-657X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0007-7135",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:21:35 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Reid:2013:AAB,
  author =       "Fergal Reid and Martin Harrigan",
  booktitle =    "Security and Privacy in Social Networks",
  title =        "An Analysis of Anonymity in the {Bitcoin} System",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "197--223",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4614-4139-7_10",
  ISBN =         "1-4614-4139-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4614-4139-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-4139-7_10",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Ro:2013:BTH,
  author =       "Sam Ro",
  title =        "A {Bloomberg TV} Host Gifted {Bitcoin} on Air and It
                 Immediately Got Stolen",
  howpublished = "Business Insider article.",
  day =          "23",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:14:26 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.businessinsider.com/bloomberg-matt-miller-bitcoin-gift-stolen-2013-12",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "The Bitcoin gift certificate had an identifying QR
                 code that was broadcast for 10 seconds, and an attacker
                 was able to take it.",
}

@InProceedings{Ron:2013:QAF,
  author =       "Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir",
  booktitle =    "Financial Cryptography and Data Security",
  title =        "Quantitative Analysis of the Full {Bitcoin}
                 Transaction Graph",
  crossref =     "Sadeghi:2013:FCD",
  pages =        "6--24",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39884-1_2",
  ISBN =         "3-642-39884-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-642-39884-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-39884-1_2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Santos:2013:OPB,
  author =       "Nuno Santos and Andr{\'e} Schiper",
  title =        "Optimizing {Paxos} with batching and pipelining",
  journal =      j-THEOR-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "496",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "170--183",
  day =          "22",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "TCSCDI",
  ISSN =         "0304-3975 (print), 1879-2294 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0304-3975",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 26 16:17:27 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tcs2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397512009097",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Theoretical Computer Science",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03043975/",
}

@Misc{Schildbach:2013:BWR,
  author =       "Andreas Schildbach",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} wallet 2.4.1 released",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 11:21:55 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=146552.0",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Singh:2013:PCE,
  author =       "P. Singh and B. R. Chandavarkar and S. Arora and N.
                 Agrawal",
  booktitle =    "2013 2nd International Conference on Advanced
                 Computing, Networking and Security",
  title =        "Performance Comparison of Executing Fast Transactions
                 in {Bitcoin} Network Using Verifiable Code Execution",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "193--198",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ADCONS.2013.42",
  ISSN =         "2377-2506 (print), 2377-2514 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "2377-2514",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Approximation methods; Bit coin transactions; BTC
                 network; Computational modeling; decentralized
                 peer-to-peer payment system; Double spending;
                 electronic cash transactions; electronic money; Fast
                 transaction; fast transaction execution; mutual trust;
                 Peer-to-peer computing; peer-to-peer computing;
                 performance comparison; Pioneer model; proof-of-work;
                 Protocols; Security; Simulation; Stock markets; Trust;
                 trusted computing; two-party trust framework;
                 verifiable code execution; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin}
                 network",
}

@Misc{Sompolinsky:2013:ABT,
  author =       "Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar",
  title =        "Accelerating {Bitcoin}'s transaction processing: fast
                 money grows on trees, not chains",
  howpublished = "Semantic Scholar Web blog.",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:49:05 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Accelerating-Bitcoin-s-Transaction-Processing-Fast-Sompolinsky-Zohar/401680ef12c04c247c50737b9114c169c660aab9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "May also be available in Cryptology ePrint Archive,
                 Report 2013/881.",
}

@Article{Sorge:2013:BZZ,
  author =       "Christoph Sorge and Artus Krohn-Grimberghe",
  title =        "{Bitcoin --- das Zahlungsmittel der Zukunft?}.
                 ({German}) [{Bitcoin} --- the currency of the
                 future?]",
  journal =      "{Wirtschaftsdienst}",
  volume =       "93",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "720--722",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10273-013-1589-y",
  ISSN =         "0043-6275 (print), 1613-978X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0043-6275",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10273-013-1589-y",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
}

@Article{Southurst:2013:BPP,
  author =       "Jon Southurst",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Payment Processor {BIPS} Attacked, Over \$1m
                 Stolen",
  journal =      "CoinDesk",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "25",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:29:11 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Sprankel:2013:TBD,
  author =       "Simon Sprankel",
  title =        "Technical Basis of Digital Currencies",
  institution =  "Technische Universit{\"a}t Darmstadt",
  address =      "Darmstadt, Germany",
  pages =        "22",
  day =          "2",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 07:38:38 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.coderblog.de/download/716/;
                 https://www.coderblog.de/technical-basis-of-digital-currencies/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Taylor:2013:BAB,
  author =       "Michael Bedford Taylor",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on
                 Compilers, Architectures and Synthesis for Embedded
                 Systems (CASES)}",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} and the Age of Bespoke Silicon",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "16:1--16:10",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/CASES.2013.6662520",
  ISBN =         "1-4799-1400-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4799-1400-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CASES '13",
  URL =          "http://cseweb.ucsd.edu/~mbtaylor/papers/bitcoin_taylor_cases_2013.pdf;
                 http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2555729.2555745",
  abstract =     "Recently, the Bitcoin cryptocurrency has been an
                 international sensation. This paper tells the story of
                 Bitcoin hardware: how a group of early-adopters
                 self-organized and financed the creation of an entire
                 new industry, leading to the development of machines,
                 including ASICs, that had orders of magnitude better
                 performance than what Dell, Intel, NVidia, AMD or
                 Xilinx could provide.\par

                 We examine this story for clues as to how we can foster
                 greater innovation in the semiconductor industry and
                 enable this phenomenon to occur more broadly for more
                 application areas, spawning a new age of hardware
                 innovation tailored to emerging application domains an
                 Age of Bespoke Silicon.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2555745",
  articleno =    "16",
  keywords =     "AMD; Application specific integrated circuits; ASIC;
                 bespoke silicon; bitcoin cryptocurrency; bitcoin
                 hardware; cryptography; Dark Silicon; Data mining;
                 Dell; Exchange rates; Field programmable gate arrays;
                 Graphics processing units; Hardware; hardware
                 innovation; Intel; NVidia; semiconductor industry;
                 Specialization; Technological innovation; Xilinx;
                 {Bitcoin}",
  location =     "Montreal, Quebec, Canada",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@InProceedings{Wen:2013:MPA,
  author =       "Yuanfeng Wen and JongHyuk Lee and Ziyi Liu and Qingji
                 Zheng and Weidong Shi and Shouhuai Xu and Taeweon Suh",
  editor =       "Hubertus Franke",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the ACM International Conference on
                 Computing Frontiers, CF' 13, Ischia, Italy. 14--16 May
                 2013}",
  title =        "Multi-processor architectural support for protecting
                 virtual machine privacy in untrusted cloud
                 environment",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "25:1--25:10",
  year =         "2013",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2482767.2482799",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-2053-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-2053-5",
  LCCN =         "QA75.5",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 11:24:25 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2482799",
  abstract =     "Virtualization is fundamental to cloud computing
                 because it allows multiple operating systems to run
                 simultaneously on a physical machine. However, it also
                 brings a range of security/privacy problems. One
                 particularly challenging and important problem is: how
                 can we protect the Virtual Machines (VMs) from being
                 attacked by Virtual Machine Monitors (VMMs) and/or by
                 the cloud vendors when they are not trusted? In this
                 paper, we propose an architectural solution to the
                 above problem in multi-processor cloud environments.
                 Our key idea is to exploit hardware mechanisms to
                 enforce access control over the shared resources (e.g.,
                 memory spaces), while protecting VM memory integrity as
                 well as inter-processor communications and data
                 sharing. We evaluate the solution using full-system
                 emulation and cycle-based architecture models.
                 Experiments based on 20 benchmark applications show
                 that the performance overhead is 1.5\%--10\% when
                 access control is enforced, and 9\%--19\% when VM
                 memory is encrypted.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Willett:2013:MCS,
  author =       "J. R. Willett",
  title =        "{MasterCoin} Complete Specification",
  howpublished = "Unknown",
  year =         "2013",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:56:45 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  note =         "Version 1.1",
  URL =          "https://fgallaire.github.io/ICO/white_papers/Omni/MasterCoin%20Specification%201.1.pdf;
                 https://github.com/mastercoin-MSC/spec",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "First URL no longer reachable on 22 January 2018",
}

@Article{Zetter:2013:HFT,
  author =       "Kim Zetter",
  title =        "How the Feds Took Down the {Silk Road} Drug
                 Wonderland",
  journal =      j-WIRED,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "18",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "WREDEM",
  ISSN =         "1059-1028 (print), 1078-3148 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1059-1028",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:33:40 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Wired",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.wired.com",
}

@InProceedings{Alqassem:2014:TRA,
  author =       "I. Alqassem and D. Svetinovic",
  booktitle =    "2014 IEEE International Conference on Internet of
                 Things (iThings), and IEEE Green Computing and
                 Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and
                 Social Computing (CPSCom)",
  title =        "Towards Reference Architecture for Cryptocurrencies:
                 {Bitcoin} Architectural Analysis",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "436--443",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/iThings.2014.78",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "APIs; Computer architecture; cryptocurrency reference
                 architecture; cryptography; Cryptography; Databases;
                 electronic money; financial system; IP networks; Online
                 banking; payment system; Peer-to-peer computing;
                 peer-to-peer currency; Protocols; up-to-date protocol
                 specification; {Bitcoin} architectural analysis;
                 {Bitcoin} libraries; {Bitcoin} protocol",
}

@Article{Andreessen:2014:WBM,
  author =       "Marc Andreessen",
  title =        "Why {Bitcoin} Matters",
  journal =      j-NY-TIMES,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "21",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "NYTIAO",
  ISSN =         "0362-4331 (print), 1542-667X, 1553-8095",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-4331",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 06:35:04 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "New York Times",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.nytimes.com/",
  remark =       "The author is the co-founder of Netscape
                 Communications, and the lead author of the Netscape
                 browser.",
}

@InProceedings{Androulaki:2014:HTA,
  author =       "Elli Androulaki and Ghassan O. Karame",
  booktitle =    "Trust and Trustworthy Computing",
  title =        "Hiding Transaction Amounts and Balances in {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "161--178",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08593-7_11",
  ISBN =         "3-319-08593-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-08593-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-08593-7_11",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Andrychowicz:2014:FTP,
  author =       "Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel
                 Malinowski {\L}ukasz Mazurek",
  title =        "Fair Two-Party Computations via {Bitcoin} Deposits",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "105--121",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_8",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1 (paperback)",
  MRclass =      "94-06 94A60 00B25",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_8",
  ZMnumber =     "06469976; 1317.94001",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Andrychowicz:2014:MBC,
  author =       "Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel
                 Malinowski {\L}ukasz Mazurek",
  booktitle =    "Formal Modeling and Analysis of Timed Systems",
  title =        "Modeling {Bitcoin} Contracts by Timed Automata",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "7--22",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10512-3_2",
  ISBN =         "3-319-10512-4 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-10512-3 (paperback)",
  MRclass =      "68Qxx",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-10512-3_2",
  ZMnumber =     "06471301",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Andrychowicz:2014:SMC,
  author =       "M. Andrychowicz and S. Dziembowski and D. Malinowski
                 and L. Mazurek",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 35th IEEE Symposium on Security and
                 Privacy, 18--21 May 2014",
  title =        "Secure Multiparty Computations on {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "443--458",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2014.35",
  ISSN =         "1081-6011 (print), 2375-1207 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1081-6011",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; cryptographic protocols; Cryptography;
                 decentralized digital currency; electronic money;
                 emulation-based definition; Games; Internet; lottery;
                 MPC; multiparty computations; Online banking; online
                 gambling sites; Protocols; secure multiparty
                 computation protocols; secure multiparty lotteries;
                 Standards; timed commitments",
}

@Misc{Anonymous:2014:MYW,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Mind your wallet: Why the underworld loves {Bitcoin}",
  howpublished = "Reuters news story.",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:40:47 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.cnbc.com/2014/03/14/mind-your-wallet-why-the-underworld-loves-bitcoin.html.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Anonymous:2014:RBS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Regulation of {Bitcoin} in selected jurisdictions",
  publisher =    "Law Library of Congress",
  address =      "Washington, DC, USA",
  pages =        "24",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  LCCN =         "K4431 .R44 2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  URL =          "http://hdl.loc.gov/LOC.LAW/LLGLRD.024",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "Alderney (Channel Islands), Argentina, Australia,
                 Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Croatia, Cyprus,
                 Denmark, Estonia, European Union, Finland, France,
                 Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Iceland, India, Indonesia,
                 Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Malta,
                 Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Poland, Portugal,
                 Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, South Korea,
                 Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom.",
  subject =      "Bitcoin; Money; Law and legislation; Electronic funds
                 transfers; Electronic commerce",
}

@InCollection{Ateniese:2014:CB,
  author =       "Giuseppe Ateniese and Antonio Faonio and Bernardo
                 Magri and Breno de Medeiros",
  booktitle =    "Applied cryptography and network security",
  title =        "Certified {Bitcoins}",
  volume =       "8479",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "80--96",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07536-5_6",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3218985",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bamert:2014:BSB,
  author =       "Tobias Bamert and Christian Decker and Roger
                 Wattenhofer and Samuel Welten",
  booktitle =    "Security and Trust Management",
  title =        "{BlueWallet}: The Secure {Bitcoin} Wallet",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "65--80",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11851-2_5",
  ISBN =         "3-319-11851-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-11851-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-11851-2_5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Barkatullah:2014:GCF,
  author =       "J. Barkatullah and T. Hanke and R. Iyengar and R.
                 Lewelling and J. O'Connor",
  booktitle =    "2014 IEEE Hot Chips 26 Symposium (HCS)",
  title =        "Goldstrike 1: {Cointerra}'s first generation
                 crypto-currency processor for {Bitcoin} mining
                 machines",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--16",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/HOTCHIPS.2014.7478824",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "bitcoin mining machines; CoinTerra Goldstrike 1;
                 cryptography; Cryptography; electronic money; Finance;
                 first generation crypto-currency processor;
                 microprocessor chips; Online banking; performance
                 evaluation; Phase locked loops; processing
                 capabilities; Product design; Program processors;
                 system design",
}

@Book{Barski:2014:BB,
  author =       "Conrad Barski",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} for the befuddled",
  publisher =    pub-NO-STARCH,
  address =      pub-NO-STARCH:adr,
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "1-59327-573-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-59327-573-0",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "This book is about Bitcoin, the game-changing digital
                 currency, used by millions worldwide. It isn't just
                 another way to buy stuff, it's an anonymous,
                 revolutionary, cryptographically secure currency that
                 functions without the oversight of a central authority
                 or government. Learn what Bitcoin is, how it works, and
                 how to acquire, store, and spend bitcoins safely and
                 securely. Readers also will learn Bitcoin's underlying
                 cryptographic principles, and how bitcoins are created;
                 the history of Bitcoin and its potential impact on
                 trade and commerce; about the blockchain, the public
                 ledger of Bitcoin transactions; how to choose a bitcoin
                 wallet that's safe and easy to use; how to accept
                 bitcoins as payment in a physical store or on a
                 website; and advanced topics, including Bitcoin mining
                 and Bitcoin programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  shorttableofcontents = "What is bitcoin? \\
                 Bitcoin basics \\
                 Storing your bitcoins safely, securely, and
                 conveniently \\
                 Buying bitcoins \\
                 Lost at sea: a cryptographic adventure \\
                 Why bitcoin is a big deal \\
                 The cryptography behind bitcoin \\
                 Bitcoin mining \\
                 The strange world of altcoins \\
                 Understanding the different types of bitcoin wallets
                 \\
                 Bitcoin 2030 \\
                 Appendix A: Hello money! A simple JavaScript program
                 \\
                 Appendix B: Bitcoin programming with BitcoinJ",
  tableofcontents = "1. What Is Bitcoin? \\
                 Why Bitcoin Now? \\
                 The Benefits of Using Bitcoin \\
                 The Complexity and Confusion of Bitcoin \\
                 What's in This Book? \\
                 2. Bitcoin Basics \\
                 How Bitcoin Works in Simple Terms \\
                 Bitcoin Units \\
                 The Bitcoin Address \\
                 The Private Key \\
                 The Bitcoin Wallet \\
                 Creating Your First Bitcoin Wallet with Electrum \\
                 Acquiring Bitcoins in Your Wallet \\
                 Spending Bitcoins with Your Wallet \\
                 Bitcoin Addresses Generated by Your Bitcoin Wallet
                 Program \\
                 The Blockchain \\
                 The Blockchain Lottery \\
                 Blockchain Forking \\
                 Transaction Confirmations, Double Spending, and
                 Irreversibility \\
                 Mining Bitcoins \\
                 The Complexity of the Bitcoin System \\
                 3. Storing Your Bitcoins Safely, Securely, and
                 Conveniently \\
                 Storing Your Private Key(s) \\
                 Hot Storage vs. Cold Storage \\
                 Personal vs. Hosted Wallets \\
                 Safety, Security, and Convenience \\
                 Storing Small Amounts of Bitcoins \\
                 Online Hosted Wallet Services \\
                 Online Personal Wallet Services --Contents note
                 continued: Personal Hot Wallet \\
                 Storing Large Amounts of Bitcoins \\
                 Paper Wallets \\
                 Encrypted Paper Wallets \\
                 Offline Transaction Signing \\
                 Fragmented Private Keys and Multi-Signature Addresses
                 \\
                 Special Mention: The Bitcoin Hardware Wallet \\
                 Special Mention: The Bitcoin Brain Wallet \\
                 Choosing the Storage Method That's Right for You \\
                 4. Buying Bitcoins \\
                 Why Not Just Mine Bitcoins? \\
                 Ways to Buy Bitcoins \\
                 Buying Bitcoins the Easy Way \\
                 Authentication Factors \\
                 The Hassle of Converting Dollars (or Other Currencies)
                 into Bitcoins \\
                 Buying Bitcoins with Coinbase \\
                 Buying Bitcoins the Efficient Way \\
                 Buying Bitcoins from a Currency Exchange \\
                 Buying Bitcoins the Fun and Futuristic Way \\
                 Step 1 Finding Someone to Buy From \\
                 Step 2 Deciding on a Meeting Place \\
                 Step 3 Handing Over the Money and Getting Your Bitcoins
                 \\
                 Satoshi Square \\
                 Still Don't See a Buying Option That Works for You? \\
                 5. Lost At Sea: A Cryptographic Adventure \\
                 6. Why Bitcoin Is A Big Deal \\
                 A Brief History of Digital Currencies \\
                 The Dawn of Bitcoin \\
                 Bitcoin's First Four Years \\
                 Bitcoin's Early Impact \\
                 The Future Potential of Bitcoin \\
                 What Are the Existential Risks to Bitcoin? \\
                 What Role Might Bitcoin Play in the Future? \\
                 The Dangers of Decentralized Digital Money \\
                 7. The Cryptography Behind Bitcoin \\
                 A Brief Cryptography Overview \\
                 One-Way Functions \\
                 Cryptographic Hash Functions Verify Information \\
                 Public Key Cryptography \\
                 Digital Signatures \\
                 Using Digital Signatures \\
                 Why Bitcoin Needs Cryptography \\
                 Authorizing Transactions with Digital Signatures \\
                 Verifying the Validity of the Transaction History \\
                 Proof-of-Work in Bitcoin Mining \\
                 Extra Protection for Bitcoin Private Keys \\
                 Cryptographic Methods Used in Bitcoin \\
                 Cryptographic Hash Functions: SHA256 and RIPEMD160 \\
                 Crowley and the Unfortunate Jelly-Filled Donut Incident
                 \\
                 Moving Around on a Line --Contents note continued:
                 Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) \\
                 Signing a Bitcoin Transaction Using ECDSA \\
                 The Security of Bitcoin's Cryptography \\
                 Pseudocode for Elliptic Point Summation and Point
                 Multiplication \\
                 8. Bitcoin Mining \\
                 Why Is Bitcoin Mining Needed? \\
                 A Parable of Two Generals \\
                 Applying the Parable to Bitcoin \\
                 Preventing Attacks with Mining \\
                 Distributing New Currency with Mining \\
                 How Does Bitcoin Mining Work? \\
                 How Miners Solve a Block \\
                 Anatomy of a Block \\
                 Pooled Mining \\
                 Bitcoin Mining for Profit \\
                 Theoretical Hash Rate Limits \\
                 Decentralization in Bitcoin Mining \\
                 8.5. The Strange World Of Altcoins \\
                 9. Understanding The Different Types Of Bitcoin Wallets
                 \\
                 Wallet Software Design Fundamentals \\
                 Offline vs. Online Transaction Signing \\
                 Random Key Generation vs. Deterministic Key Generation
                 (vs. Single Key Generation) \\
                 Full vs. Simplified Payment Verification \\
                 Other Common (and Not So Common) Bitcoin Wallet
                 Features --Contents note continued: Future Wallets \\
                 Which Wallet Is Right for You? \\
                 Additional Wallet Considerations \\
                 10. Bitcoin 2030 \\
                 What Will a Bitcoin Be Worth in 2030? \\
                 Bitcoin Mining in 2030 \\
                 A Day in the Life of a Bitcoiner in 2030 \\
                 The Bitcoin End Game \\
                 A. Hello Money! A Simple JavaScript Program \\
                 The Meaning of ``Easy'' \\
                 Three Ways to Write Bitcoin Software \\
                 General Security Notes on Bitcoin Programming \\
                 Some Upbeat Notes on Bitcoin Security \\
                 Writing Your First Bitcoin Program in JavaScript \\
                 Why Use JavaScript? \\
                 Bitcoin Core vs. Bitcoind \\
                 Preparing Your Machine for JavaScript Bitcoin
                 Programming \\
                 Installing Node.js \\
                 Installing node-bitcoin \\
                 Starting Bitcoin Core \\
                 For Mac Hackers \\
                 For Linux Folks \\
                 Hello Money! \\
                 Part 1 Initializing the Connection with Bitcoin Core
                 \\
                 Part 2 The Main Loop \\
                 The Bitcoin Core JSON-RPC API \\
                 Running the Hello Money! App \\
                 Limitations of Writing Bitcoin Programs That Use
                 JSON-RPC --Contents note continued: B.BITCOIN
                 PROGRAMMING WITH BITCOINJ \\
                 The Best Programming Language for Connecting to the
                 Bitcoin Network \\
                 Installing Java, Maven, and the BitcoinJ Library \\
                 Step 1 Installing Java \\
                 Step 2 Installing Maven \\
                 Step 3 Installing Git \\
                 Step 4 Installing BitcoinJ \\
                 Creating a Starter Project for hello-money \\
                 Writing the Code for hello-money \\
                 Declarations at the Top of the Program \\
                 Initializing Our Java Objects \\
                 Connecting to the Bitcoin Network \\
                 Listening for New Money \\
                 Running and Testing the hello-money Java Program \\
                 Bye-Bye Money \\
                 Importing a Private Key \\
                 Sending the Money \\
                 Ensuring the Money Transmission \\
                 Running bye-bye-money \\
                 Gotchas When Using Wallets in BitcoinJ \\
                 Conclusion",
}

@InProceedings{Ben-Sasson:2014:ZDA,
  author =       "Eli Ben-Sasson and Alessandro Chiesa and Christina
                 Garman and Matthew Green and Ian Miers and Eran Tromer
                 and Madars Virza.",
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and
                 Privacy, 18--21 May 2014",
  title =        "{Zerocash}: Decentralized Anonymous Payments from
                 {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 06:39:56 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bentov:2014:HUB,
  author =       "Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan",
  booktitle =    "Advances in Cryptology CRYPTO 2014",
  title =        "How to Use {Bitcoin} to Design Fair Protocols",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "421--439",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44381-1_24",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44380-5 (paperback), 3-662-44381-3 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44380-4 (paperback), 978-3-662-44381-1
                 (e-book)",
  MRclass =      "94A60 68P25 68M12",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44381-1_24",
  ZMnumber =     "06327743; 1335.94032",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Bentov:2014:PAE,
  author =       "Iddo Bentov and Charles Lee and Alex Mizrahi and Meni
                 Rosenfeld",
  title =        "Proof of Activity: Extending {Bitcoin}'s Proof of Work
                 via Proof of Stake [Extended Abstract]y",
  journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
  volume =       "42",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "34--37",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2695533.2695545",
  ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5999",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 7 14:34:59 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose a new protocol for a cryptocurrency, that
                 builds upon the Bitcoin protocol by combining its Proof
                 of Work component with a Proof of Stake type of system.
                 Our Proof of Activity protocol offers good security
                 against possibly practical attacks on Bitcoin, and has
                 a relatively low penalty in terms of network
                 communication and storage space.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@InProceedings{Biryukov:2014:DCB,
  author =       "Alex Biryukov and Dmitry Khovratovich and Ivan
                 Pustogarov",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "Deanonymisation of Clients in {Bitcoin} {P2P}
                 Network",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "15--29",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2660267.2660379",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-2957-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-2957-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '14",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2660267.2660379",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2660379",
  keywords =     "anonymity, Bitcoin, p2p, tor",
  location =     "Scottsdale, Arizona, USA",
  pagecount =    "15",
}

@InProceedings{Bissias:2014:SRM,
  author =       "George Bissias and A. Pinar Ozisik and Brian N. Levine
                 and Marc Liberatore",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 13th Workshop on Privacy in the
                 Electronic Society",
  title =        "{Sybil}-Resistant Mixing for {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "149--158",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2665943.2665955",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3148-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3148-7",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "WPES '14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2665955",
  keywords =     "measurement, security",
  location =     "Scottsdale, Arizona, USA",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@InProceedings{Boehm:2014:BFL,
  author =       "Franziska Boehm and Paulina Pesch",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: A First Legal Analysis",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "43--54",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_4",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_4",
  ZMnumber =     "06469976",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bohr:2014:WUB,
  author =       "J. Bohr and M. Bashir",
  booktitle =    "2014 Twelfth Annual International Conference on
                 Privacy, Security and Trust",
  title =        "Who Uses {Bitcoin}? {An} exploration of the {Bitcoin}
                 community",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "94--101",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/PST.2014.6890928",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "age factor; Anonymity; Communities; cryptocurrencies;
                 Cryptocurrency; Cryptography; cryptography; Data
                 mining; Digital Money; financial data processing;
                 geographic location factor; initial use time factor;
                 mining status factor; Online banking; online discourse
                 engagement factor; peer-to-peer computing; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; peer-to-peer payment system; political
                 orientation factor; Privacy; Standards; virtual
                 currency; Virtual Currency; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin}
                 community; {Bitcoin} wealth accumulation",
}

@InProceedings{Bonneau:2014:EPC,
  author =       "Joseph Bonneau",
  editor =       "????",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Financial Cryptography and Data
                 Security, 18th International Conference (rump session),
                 Bridgetown, Barbados, 4 March 2014",
  title =        "Estimating the Power Consumption of {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 06:45:33 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bonneau:2014:MAB,
  author =       "Joseph Bonneau and Arvind Narayanan and Andrew Miller
                 and Jeremy Clark and Joshua A. Kroll and Edward W.
                 Felten",
  title =        "{Mixcoin}: Anonymity for {Bitcoin} with Accountable
                 Mixes",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "486--504",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_31",
  ISBN =         "3-662-45472-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-45472-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_31",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Bonneau:2014:WAM,
  author =       "Joseph Bonneau",
  title =        "Why {ASICs} may be good for {Bitcoin}",
  howpublished = "Web blog.",
  day =          "12",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:31:40 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://freedomto-tinker.com/blog/jbonneau/why-asics-may-be-good-for-bitcoin/",
  abstract =     "Bitcoin mining is now almost exclusively performed by
                 Bitcoin-specific ASICs (application-specific integrated
                 circuits). These chips are made by a few startup
                 manufacturers and cannot be used for anything else
                 besides mining Bitcoin or closely related
                 cryptocurrencies. Because they are somewhere between a
                 thousand and a million times more efficient at mining
                 Bitcoin than a general-purpose computer that you can
                 buy for the same price, they have quickly become the
                 only game in town.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Combs:2014:BD,
  author =       "Brett Combs and Tom Mitsoff",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} decoded",
  publisher =    "Propellerhead Marketing Group",
  address =      "????, USA",
  pages =        "iii + 86",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "0-615-95524-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-615-95524-7",
  LCCN =         "HG231 .C662 2014; HF5548.32 .C6537 2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:50:51 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  abstract =     "Bitcoin: Is it a Boom or a Bubble? Hardly a day passes
                 where Bitcoin isn't being discussed by the media. You
                 need a high level of understanding and expertise to be
                 able to swim safely in the Bitcoin pool. This book is
                 the equivalent of the swimming lessons you took as a
                 kid. Once finished, you'll be able to enter into the
                 water safely, and be aware of both the potential
                 dangers and thrills of the deep end. Bitcoin Decoded
                 teaches you. What is Bitcoin How Bitcoin Works How You
                 Get Bitcoin How to Make Money with Bitcoin How is
                 Bitcoin created What is Bitcoin mining How can you
                 daytrade Bitcoin and make a living doing it How can you
                 become a certified Bitcoin expert and help others List
                 of resources to find latest Bitcoin news and
                 information online Don't worry about getting lost in
                 technical terms. We are The Bitcoin Coaches and you
                 will learn everything step by step in the only Bitcoin
                 guide you will ever need. Bitcoin Decoded is packed
                 with over 90 pages of up-to-date information about this
                 new amazing way we pay for things and make money while
                 doing it. Don't wait, order today at our special
                 introductory price! Scroll up and click ``Buy Now'' to
                 access your book in under a minute!.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic commerce; Electronic funds transfers; Banks
                 and banking; Data processing; Currency question; Money;
                 Electronic data interchange; Internet; Security
                 measures; Data processing; Currency question;
                 Electronic commerce; Electronic data interchange;
                 Electronic funds transfers; Security measures; Money",
  tableofcontents = "Learn to swim safely in the deep end \\
                 What is Bitcoin? \\
                 History of Bitcoin \\
                 Cutting out the middleman \\
                 The Bitcoin rush \\
                 Three kinds of wallets \\
                 Bitcoin for business \\
                 Where to spend Bitcoins \\
                 How to earn or receive Bitcoins \\
                 How to make sure your Bitcoins are secure \\
                 The mainstreaming of Bitcoin \\
                 How to make Bitcoin and Altcoins work for you \\
                 Keys to Bitcoin's continued growth, and how you can get
                 involved",
}

@InProceedings{Courtois:2014:CBT,
  author =       "N. T. Courtois and P. Emirdag and D. A. Nagy",
  booktitle =    "2014 11th International Conference on Security and
                 Cryptography (SECRYPT)",
  title =        "Could {Bitcoin} transactions be $ 100 \times $
                 faster?",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--6",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; bitcoin transactions; Consumer electronics;
                 cooperative robust decentralized transparent electronic
                 systems; Crypto Currencies; crypto currency;
                 cryptography; Cryptography; Decentralized Markets;
                 digital notary service; distributed peer-to-peer
                 financial system; distributed property register;
                 Double-spending Attacks; electronic money; Electronic
                 Payment; Equities Trading; Feeds; financial data
                 processing; financial industry; financial institutions;
                 High Frequency Trading; Internet; Internet of money;
                 low latency transactions; Online banking; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; peer-to-peer computing; Proof of Stake;
                 real-time credit card transactions; Registers; Security
                 Engineering; security policies; share ownership; Stock
                 markets; Timestamps; trusted computing",
}

@Article{Courtois:2014:LCR,
  author =       "Nicolas T. Courtois",
  title =        "On The Longest Chain Rule and Programmed
                 Self-Destruction of Crypto Currencies",
  journal =      "arXiv.org",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "1--89",
  day =          "2",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:36:18 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.0534;
                 http://dblp.org/rec/bib/journals/corr/Courtois14",
  abstract =     "In this paper we revisit some major orthodoxies which
                 lie at the heart of the bitcoin crypto currency and its
                 numerous clones. In particular we look at The Longest
                 Chain Rule, the monetary supply policies and the exact
                 mechanisms which implement them. We claim that these
                 built-in properties are not as brilliant as they are
                 sometimes claimed. A closer examination reveals that
                 they are closer to being \ldots{} engineering mistakes
                 which other crypto currencies have copied rather
                 blindly. More precisely we show that the capacity of
                 current crypto currencies to resist double spending
                 attacks is poor and most current crypto currencies are
                 highly vulnerable. Satoshi did not implement a
                 timestamp for bitcoin transactions and the bitcoin
                 software does not attempt to monitor double spending
                 events. As a result major attacks involving hundreds of
                 millions of dollars can occur and would not even be
                 recorded. Hundreds of millions have been invested to
                 pay for ASIC hashing infrastructure yet insufficient
                 attention was paid to network neutrality and to insure
                 that the protection layer it promises is effective and
                 cannot be abused. In this paper we develop a theory of
                 Programmed Self-Destruction of crypto currencies. We
                 observe that most crypto currencies have mandated
                 abrupt and sudden transitions. These affect their hash
                 rate and therefore their protection against double
                 spending attacks which we do not limit the to the
                 notion of 51\% attacks which is highly misleading. In
                 addition we show that smaller bitcoin competitors are
                 substantially more vulnerable. In addition to small
                 hash rate, many bitcoin competitors mandate incredibly
                 important adjustments in miner reward. We exhibit
                 examples of `alt-coins' which validate our theory and
                 for which the process of programmed decline and rapid
                 self-destruction has clearly already started.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  eprint =       "1405.0534",
}

@InProceedings{Courtois:2014:OSB,
  author =       "Nicolas T. Courtois and Marek Grajek and Rahul Naik",
  booktitle =    "Cryptography and Security Systems",
  title =        "Optimizing {SHA256} in {Bitcoin} Mining",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "131--144",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44893-9_12",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44893-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44893-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44893-9_12",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Cusumano:2014:BE,
  author =       "Michael A. Cusumano",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} Ecosystem",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "57",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "22--24",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2661047",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2661047",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://dl.acm.org/pub.cfm?id=J782",
  pagecount =    "3",
}

@Article{Cusumano:2014:TSM,
  author =       "Michael A. Cusumano",
  title =        "Technology strategy and management: The {Bitcoin}
                 ecosystem",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "57",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "22--24",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2661047",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 25 09:56:32 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2014/10/178782/fulltext",
  abstract =     "Speculating on how the Bitcoin economy might evolve.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@InProceedings{deCarnavalet:2014:CIV,
  author =       "Xavier de Carn{\'e} de Carnavalet and Mohammad
                 Mannan",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 30th Annual Computer Security
                 Applications Conference",
  title =        "Challenges and Implications of Verifiable Builds for
                 Security-critical Open-source Software",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "16--25",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2664243.2664288",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3005-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3005-3",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib",
  series =       "ACSAC '14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2664288",
  keywords =     "TrueCrypt, Bitcoin, Debian, deterministic build,
                 reproducible build, Tor",
  location =     "New Orleans, Louisiana, USA",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@InProceedings{Decker:2014:BTM,
  author =       "Christian Decker and Roger Wattenhofer",
  booktitle =    "Computer Security --- ESORICS 2014",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Transaction Malleability and {MtGox}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "313--326",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11212-1_18",
  ISBN =         "3-319-11212-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-11212-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-11212-1_18",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Dev:2014:BMA,
  author =       "J. Anish Dev",
  booktitle =    "2014 IEEE 27th Canadian Conference on Electrical and
                 Computer Engineering (CCECE)",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} mining acceleration and performance
                 quantification",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--6",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "CCCEFV",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/CCECE.2014.6900989",
  ISSN =         "0840-7789",
  ISSN-L =       "0840-7789",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "bitcoin mining acceleration; blockchain; BTC;
                 cryptographic keys; cryptography; Cryptography; data
                 mining; Data mining; digital crypto currency; financial
                 data processing; Graphics processing units; Hardware;
                 high valued currency units; Online banking; open
                 source; peer to peer; peer-to-peer computing;
                 Performance evaluation; performance quantification;
                 public transaction log; Standards",
}

@InProceedings{Dmitrienko:2014:OPB,
  author =       "Alexandra Dmitrienko and David Noack and Ahmad-Reza
                 Sadeghi and Moti Yung",
  title =        "On Offline Payments with {Bitcoin} (Poster Abstract)",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "159--160",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_11",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_11",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{DonetDonet:2014:BPN,
  author =       "Joan Antoni {Donet Donet} and Cristina
                 P{\'e}rez-Sol{\`a} and Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'\i}",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} {P2P} Network",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "87--102",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_7",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_7",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{dree12:2014:LMB,
  author =       "dree12",
  title =        "List of Major {Bitcoin} Heists, Thefts, Hacks, Scams,
                 and Losses",
  howpublished = "Web blog",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:42:12 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=576337;
                 https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=83794.0",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Dryja:2014:HBP,
  author =       "Thaddeus Dryja",
  title =        "{Hashimoto}: {I/O} bound proof of work",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 07:29:16 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://mirrorx.com/files/hashimoto.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Edelman:2014:CPM,
  author =       "Benjamin Edelman",
  title =        "Consumers Pay More When They Pay with {Bitcoin}",
  howpublished = "Web blog.",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:15:28 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.pymnts.com/in-depth/2014/consumers-pay-more-when-they-pay-with-bitcoin/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{ElDefrawy:2014:FDC,
  author =       "Karim {El Defrawy} and Joshua Lampkins",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Founding Digital Currency on Secure Computation",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1--14",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2660267.2660293",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-2957-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-2957-6",
  MRclass =      "91B64 91B24 91B25 91G99 91B80",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '14",
  ZMnumber =     "06489277; 1321.91089",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2660293",
  keywords =     "digital currency, proactive security, secret sharing,
                 secure multiparty computation",
  location =     "Scottsdale, Arizona, USA",
  pagecount =    "14",
}

@TechReport{Evans:2014:EAB,
  author =       "David S. Evans",
  title =        "Economic Aspects of {Bitcoin} and Other Decentralized
                 Public-Ledger Currency Platforms",
  type =         "Working Paper",
  number =       "685",
  institution =  "Coase-Sandor Institute for Law and Economics",
  address =      "????",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 06:51:18 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Eyal:2014:HDL,
  author =       "Ittay Eyal and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer",
  title =        "How to Disincentivize Large {Bitcoin} Mining Pools",
  howpublished = "Web blog",
  day =          "18",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:47:54 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://hackingdistributed.com/2014/06/18/how-to-disincentivize-large-bitcoin-mining-pools/",
  abstract =     "Recently, the GHash mining pool breached Bitcoin
                 etiquette to become a 55\% miner for Bitcoin. This
                 collapsed the key value proposition of Bitcoin, namely,
                 its decentralization. In turn, there has been
                 considerable criticism and backlash. Many people in the
                 community, including us, have noted that etiquette or
                 the good will of miners are not sufficient to keep
                 monopolies at bay, and called for technical measures to
                 disincentivize large mining pools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Eyal:2014:MEB,
  author =       "Ittay Eyal and Emin G{\"u}n Sirer",
  title =        "Majority is Not Enough: {Bitcoin} Mining is
                 Vulnerable",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  volume =       "8437",
  pages =        "436--454",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_28",
  ISBN =         "3-662-45472-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-45472-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_28",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "TO DO: Check volume and crossref: they mismatch!",
}

@Article{Feld:2014:ADB,
  author =       "Sebastian Feld and Mirco Sch{\"o}nfeld and Martin
                 Werner",
  title =        "Analyzing the Deployment of {Bitcoin}'s {P2P} Network
                 under an {AS}-level Perspective",
  journal =      "Procedia Computer Science",
  volume =       "32",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "1121--1126",
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1877-0509",
  ISSN-L =       "1877-0509",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 11:14:22 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187705091400742X",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Procedia Computer Science",
}

@Book{Franco:2014:UBC,
  author =       "Pedro Franco",
  title =        "Understanding {Bitcoin}: Cryptography, Engineering and
                 Economics",
  volume =       "1",
  publisher =    pub-WILEY,
  address =      pub-WILEY:adr,
  pages =        "xx + 268",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "1-119-01916-8 (hardcover), 1-119-01915-X (e-book),
                 1-119-01914-1 (e-book), 1-119-01913-3 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-119-01916-9 (hardcover), 978-1-119-01915-2
                 (e-book), 978-1-119-01914-5 (e-book), 978-1-119-01913-8
                 (e-book)",
  LCCN =         "TK5105.59",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:55:39 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "Wiley Finance Series",
  URL =          "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/book/10.1002/9781119019138",
  abstract =     "Discover Bitcoin, the cryptocurrency that has the
                 finance world buzzing Bitcoin is arguably one of the
                 biggest developments in finance since the advent of
                 fiat currency. With Understanding Bitcoin, expert
                 author Pedro Franco provides finance professionals with
                 a complete technical guide and resource to the
                 cryptography, engineering and economic development of
                 Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. This comprehensive,
                 yet accessible work fully explores the supporting
                 economic realities and technological advances of
                 Bitcoin, and presents positive and negative arguments
                 from various economic schools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic commerce; Electronic funds transfers; Data
                 encryption (Computer science); Currency question;
                 Currency question; Data encryption (Computer science);
                 Electronic commerce; Electronic funds transfers",
  tableofcontents = "Foundations \\
                 Technology (Introduction) \\
                 Economics \\
                 Business applications \\
                 Public key cryptography \\
                 Transactions \\
                 The blockchain \\
                 Wallets \\
                 Mining \\
                 The origins of bitcoin \\
                 Alt(ernative) coins \\
                 Contracts (the Internet of money or cryptocurrencies
                 2.0) \\
                 The privacy battle \\
                 Odds and ends",
}

@Book{Frisby:2014:BFM,
  author =       "Dominic Frisby",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: the future of money",
  publisher =    "Unbound",
  address =      "London, UK",
  pages =        "xxv + 269",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "1-78352-077-9 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-78352-077-0 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "HG1710F742014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:43:09 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  abstract =     "In 2008, while the world was busy panicking about the
                 global financial crisis, a computer programmer called
                 Satoshi Nakamoto posted a message on an out-of-the-way
                 mailing list. `I've been working on a new electronic
                 cash system,' he said. `It might make sense to get some
                 just in case it catches on.' Nobody seemed to care.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Money; Electronic funds transfers; Electronic funds
                 transfers; Money; Bitcoin; Elektronischer
                 Zahlungsverkehr; W{\"a}hrung; W{\"a}hrungssystem",
  tableofcontents = "What is Bitcoin? \\
                 How is it made? \\
                 The anarchic computing subculture in which Bitcoin has
                 its roots \\
                 The rise of Bitcoin and the disappearance of its maker
                 \\
                 Nerds, squats and millionaires \\
                 How a computer nerd became the FBI's Most Wanted Drug
                 Dealer \\
                 Who is Satoshi Nakamoto? \\
                 Why Bitcoin is the enemy of the state \\
                 How Bitcoin will change the world \\
                 A billion-dollar hedge fund manager and a super-smart
                 mathematician forecast the future \\
                 Should you buy in? \\
                 The people's money",
}

@Article{Gervais:2014:BDC,
  author =       "Arthur Gervais and Ghassan O. Karame and Vedran
                 {\v{C}}apkun and Srdjan {\v{C}}apkun",
  title =        "Is {Bitcoin} a Decentralized Currency?",
  journal =      j-IEEE-SEC-PRIV,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "54--60",
  month =        may # "\slash " # jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2014.49",
  ISSN =         "1540-7993 (print), 1558-4046 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1540-7993",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 9 08:53:26 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeesecpriv.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Security \& Privacy",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/magazines/security",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Cryptography; decentralized currency;
                 decentralized decision process; foreign exchange
                 trading; Internet; low-cost virtual currency system;
                 Online banking; Peer-to-peer computing; privacy;
                 Proposals; security; {Bitcoin}",
}

@InProceedings{Gervais:2014:PPB,
  author =       "Arthur Gervais and Srdjan {\v{C}}apkun and Ghassan O.
                 Karame and Damian Gruber",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 30th Annual Computer Security
                 Applications Conference",
  title =        "On the Privacy Provisions of {Bloom} Filters in
                 Lightweight {Bitcoin} Clients",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "326--335",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2664243.2664267",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3005-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3005-3",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ACSAC '14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2664267",
  location =     "New Orleans, Louisiana, USA",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@InProceedings{Giaglis:2014:TAI,
  author =       "George M. Giaglis and Kalliopi N. Kypriotaki",
  booktitle =    "Business Information Systems Workshops",
  title =        "Towards an Agenda for Information Systems Research on
                 Digital Currencies and {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "3--13",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11460-6_1",
  ISBN =         "3-319-11460-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-11460-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-11460-6_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Glaser:2014:BAC,
  author =       "Florian Glaser and Kai Zimmermann and Martin Haferkorn
                 and Moritz Christian Weber and Michael Siering",
  editor =       "????",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22nd European Conference on
                 Information Systems, Tel Aviv, June 2014",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} --- Asset or Currency? {Revealing} Users'
                 Hidden Intentions",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 06:59:09 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Goldfeder:2014:SBW,
  author =       "Steven Goldfeder and Rosario Gennaro and Harry
                 Kalodner and Joseph Bonneau and Edward W. Felten and
                 Joshua A. Kroll and Arvind Narayanan",
  title =        "Securing {Bitcoin} wallets via a new {DSA\slash ECDSA}
                 threshold signature scheme",
  type =         "Technical report",
  institution =  "Princeton University",
  address =      "Princeton, NJ, USA",
  pages =        "23",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:47:22 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.cs.princeton.edu/~stevenag/threshold_sigs.pdf",
  abstract =     "The Bitcoin ecosystem has suffered frequent thefts and
                 losses affecting both businesses and individuals. Due
                 to the irreversibility, automation, and pseudonymity of
                 transactions, Bitcoin currently lacks support for the
                 sophisticated internal control systems deployed by
                 modern businesses to deter fraud.\par

                 To address this problem, we present the first threshold
                 signature scheme compatible with Bitcoin's ECDSA
                 signatures and show how distributed Bitcoin wallets can
                 be built using this primitive. For businesses, we show
                 how our distributed wallets can be used to
                 systematically eliminate single points of failure at
                 every stage of the flow of bitcoins through the system.
                 For individuals, we design, implement, and evaluate a
                 two-factor secure Bitcoin wallet",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Hernandez:2014:BUL,
  author =       "Ivan Hernandez and Masooda Bashir and Gahyun Jeon and
                 Jeremiah Bohr",
  booktitle =    "HCI International 2014 --- Posters Extended
                 Abstracts",
  title =        "Are {Bitcoin} Users Less Sociable? {An} Analysis of
                 Users Language and Social Connections on {Twitter}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "26--31",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-07854-0_5",
  ISBN =         "3-319-07854-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-07854-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-07854-0_5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Hileman:2014:BBP,
  author =       "Garrick Hileman",
  title =        "From {Bitcoin} to the {Brixton} Pound: History and
                 Prospects for Alternative Currencies (Poster
                 Abstract)",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "163--165",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_13",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Houy:2014:BMG,
  author =       "Nicolas Houy",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} Mining Game",
  institution =  "Groupe d'Analyse et de Th{\'e}orie Economique (GATE),
                 Universit{\'e} de Lyon",
  address =      "Lyon, France",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:03:50 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ssrn.com/abstract=2407834",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Houy:2014:EBT,
  author =       "Nicolas Houy",
  title =        "The Economics of {Bitcoin} Transaction Frees",
  type =         "Working Paper",
  number =       "1407",
  institution =  "Groupe d'Analyse et de Th{\'e}orie Economique (GATE),
                 Universit{\'e} de Lyon",
  address =      "Lyon, France",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:03:50 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ssrn.com/abstract=2400519",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Huang:2014:BMS,
  author =       "Danny Yuxing Huang and Hitesh Dharmdasani and Sarah
                 Meiklejohn and Vacha Dave and Chris Grier and Damon
                 McCoy and Stefan Savage and Nicholas Weaver and Alex C.
                 Snoeren and Kirill Levchenko",
  editor =       "????",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2014 Network and Distributed
                 System Security (NDSS'14) Symposium, 23--26 February
                 2014, San Diego, CA, USA}",
  title =        "{Botcoin}: monetizing stolen cycles",
  publisher =    "Internet Society",
  address =      "Reston, VA, USA",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "1-891562-35-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-891562-35-8",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:50:42 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sysnet.ucsd.edu/~dhuang/static/ndss14-cr.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  pagecount =    "16",
}

@Article{Hurlburt:2014:BBC,
  author =       "G. F. Hurlburt and I. Bojanova",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: Benefit or Curse?",
  journal =      j-IT-PRO,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10--15",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "IPMAFM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2014.28",
  ISSN =         "1520-9202 (print), 1941-045x (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1520-9202",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "{IT} Professional",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6294",
  keywords =     "bitcoin crypto-currency model; bitcoin technology;
                 cloud; cryptocurrency; Cryptography; Data mining;
                 financial data processing; foreign exchange trading;
                 information technology; Internet of Anything; Internet
                 of Things; Internet/Web technologies; Market research;
                 mobile; mobile commerce; Mobile communication; mobile
                 devices; Online banking; virtual currency;
                 Virtualization",
}

@Misc{IRS:2014:IVC,
  author =       "{Internal Revenue Service}",
  title =        "{IRS} Virtual Currency Guidance: Virtual Currency Is
                 Treated as Property for {U.S. Federal} Tax Purposes;
                 General Rules for Property Transactions Apply",
  howpublished = "News release about new U.S. Federal regulation.",
  day =          "25",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:21:07 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/irs-virtual-currency-guidance",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Jayasinghe:2014:OFE,
  author =       "D. Jayasinghe and K. Markantonakis and K. Mayes",
  booktitle =    "2014 IEEE 11th International Conference on e-Business
                 Engineering",
  title =        "Optimistic Fair-Exchange with Anonymity for {Bitcoin}
                 Users",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "44--51",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEBE.2014.20",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Anonymity; consumer anonymity; digital cash systems;
                 Digital signatures; dispute resolution; e-commerce
                 transactions; electronic money; Encryption; merchant
                 anonymity; Online banking; optimistic fair-exchange;
                 Optimistic Fair-Exchange; payment method; protocol;
                 Protocols; Public key; public ledgers; Silicon carbide;
                 transaction irreversibility; trusted third party; TTP;
                 Zerocoin/Zerocash; {Bitcoin}",
}

@InProceedings{Johnson:2014:GTA,
  author =       "Benjamin Johnson and Aron Laszka and Jens Grossklags
                 and Marie Vasek and Tyler Moore",
  title =        "Game-Theoretic Analysis of {DDoS} Attacks Against
                 {Bitcoin} Mining Pools",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "72--86",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_6",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Kerscher:2014:BFR,
  author =       "Daniel Kerscher",
  title =        "{Bitcoin: Funktionsweise, Risiken und Chancen der
                 digitalen W{\"a}hrung}. ({German}) [{Bitcoin}:
                 Functioning, risks and opportunities of digital
                 currency]",
  publisher =    "Kemacon",
  address =      "Dingolfing, Germany",
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "156",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "3-9816017-1-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-9816017-1-8",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:44:31 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  language =     "German",
}

@InProceedings{Kitahara:2014:MDR,
  author =       "Motoki Kitahara and Junpei Kawamoto and Kouichi
                 Sakurai",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on
                 Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication",
  title =        "A Method of Digital Rights Management Based on
                 {Bitcoin} Protocol",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "84:1--84:6",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2557977.2558034",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-2644-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-2644-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ICUIMC '14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2558034",
  articleno =    "84",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, P2P network, digital rights management",
  location =     "Siem Reap, Cambodia",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@Article{Kondor:2014:IIB,
  author =       "D{\'a}niel Kondor and Istv{\'a}n Csabai and J{\'a}nos
                 Sz{\"u}le and M{\'a}rton P{\'o}sfai and G{\'a}bor
                 Vattay",
  title =        "Inferring the interplay between network structure and
                 market effects in {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      j-NEW-J-PHYS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "125003",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "NJOPFM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/16/12/125003",
  ISSN =         "1367-2630",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 11:59:45 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "New Journal of Physics",
  journal-URL =  "http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630",
}

@InProceedings{Koshy:2014:AAB,
  author =       "Philip Koshy and Diana Koshy and Patrick McDaniel",
  title =        "An Analysis of Anonymity in {Bitcoin} Using {P2P}
                 Network Traffic",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "469--485",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_30",
  ISBN =         "3-662-45472-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-45472-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_30",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Kumaresan:2014:HUB,
  author =       "Ranjit Kumaresan and Iddo Bentov",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "How to Use {Bitcoin} to Incentivize Correct
                 Computations",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "30--41",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2660267.2660380",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-2957-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-2957-6",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2660380",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, bounties, fair exchange, secure computation,
                 verifiable computation",
  location =     "Scottsdale, Arizona, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@TechReport{Kwon:2014:TCM,
  author =       "Jae Kwon",
  title =        "{TenderMint}: Consensus without Mining",
  institution =  "Cornell University",
  address =      "Ithaca, NY, USA",
  pages =        "11",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:56:18 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://tendermint.com/static/docs/tendermint.pdf",
  abstract =     "Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin enable users to
                 submit payment transactions without going through a
                 centralized trusted organization. Bitcoin relies on
                 proof-of-work mining to secure consensus which is
                 problematic; mining requires a massive expenditure of
                 energy, confirmation of transactions is slow, and
                 security is difficult to quantify. We propose a
                 solution to the blockchain consensus problem that does
                 not require mining by adapting an existing solution to
                 the Byzantine Generals Problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Lerner:2014:EFB,
  author =       "Sergio Damian Lerner",
  title =        "Even faster block-chains with the {DECOR} protocol",
  howpublished = "Web blog.",
  day =          "2",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:01:14 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitslog.wordpress.com/2014/05/02/decor/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Lerner:2014:PAM,
  author =       "Sergio Damian Lerner",
  title =        "The {Private Automatic Miner Backbone Protocol
                 (PAMBA)}",
  howpublished = "Web blog.",
  day =          "19",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:02:01 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitslog.wordpress.com/2014/04/19/the-private-automatic-miner-backbone-protocol-pamba/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@PhdThesis{Li:2014:TDC,
  author =       "Jianfu Li",
  title =        "The {Tessera D\&R} computational environment: Designed
                 experiments for {R-Hadoop} performance and {Bitcoin}
                 analysis",
  school =       "Purdue University",
  address =      "West Lafayette, IN, USA",
  pages =        "139",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "1-321-67000-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-321-67000-4",
  MRnumber =     "3347085",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  note =         "Thesis (Ph.D.)--Purdue University",
  URL =          "https://search.proquest.com/docview/1673895283",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Lim:2014:ACS,
  author =       "Il-Kwon Lim and Young-Hyuk Kim and Jae-Gwang Lee and
                 Jae-Pil Lee and Hyun Nam-Gung and Jae-Kwang Lee",
  booktitle =    "Computational Science and Its Applications ICCSA
                 2014",
  title =        "The Analysis and Countermeasures on Security Breach of
                 {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "720--732",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-09147-1_52",
  ISBN =         "3-319-09147-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-09147-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-09147-1_52",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Litke:2014:CSM,
  author =       "Pat Litke and Joe Stewart and Ben Small",
  title =        "Cryptocurrency-stealing malware landscape",
  type =         "Technical report",
  howpublished = "Web blog.",
  day =          "26",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:02:39 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.secureworks.com/research/cryptocurrency-stealing-malware-landscape",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Lyndell:2014:VCR,
  editor =       "Kevin Lyndell",
  title =        "Virtual currencies: regulatory and tax compliance
                 issues",
  publisher =    "Nova Publishers",
  address =      "New York, NY, USA",
  pages =        "ix + 128",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "1-63463-129-3 (hardcover)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-63463-129-7 (hardcover)",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .V56 2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "Government procedures and operations",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Tax administration and
                 procedure; Electronic funds transfers; Tax
                 administration and procedure",
  tableofcontents = "Virtual currencies: emerging regulatory, law
                 enforcement, and consumer protection challenges \\
                 Virtual economies and currencies: additional IRS
                 guidance could reduce tax compliance risks \\
                 Application of FinCEN's regulations to persons
                 administering, exchanging, or using virtual currencies
                 \\
                 Application of FinCEN's regulations to virtual currency
                 mining operations \\
                 Application of FinCEN's regulations to virtual currency
                 software development and certain investment activity
                 \\
                 Application of money services business regulations to
                 the rental of computer systems for mining virtual
                 currency \\
                 Bitcoin: Questions, answers, and analysis of legal
                 issues",
}

@Misc{Matonis:2014:BMA,
  author =       "Joe Matonis",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} Mining Arms Race: {GHash.io} and the
                 51\% Issue",
  howpublished = "Web blog.",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:03:45 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.coindesk.com/bitcoin-mining-detente-ghash-io-51-issue/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Michailaki:2014:MRT,
  author =       "Anastasia Michailaki",
  booktitle =    "E-Democracy, Security, Privacy and Trust in a Digital
                 World",
  title =        "Mixed Reality Through the {Internet of Things} and
                 {Bitcoin}: How Laws Affect Them",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "165--169",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11710-2_15",
  ISBN =         "3-319-11710-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-11710-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-11710-2_15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Miller:2014:ABC,
  author =       "Andrew Miller and Joseph J. {LaViola, Jr.}",
  title =        "Anonymous {Byzantine} Consensus from Moderately-Hard
                 Puzzles: A Model for {Bitcoin}",
  institution =  "University of Central Florida",
  address =      "Orlando, FL, USA",
  pages =        "7",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:05:59 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://socrates1024.s3.amazonaws.com/consensus.pdf",
  abstract =     "We present a formal model of synchronous processes
                 without distinct identifiers (i.e., {\em anonymous
                 processes\/}) that communicate using one-way public
                 broadcasts. Our main contribution is a proof that the
                 Bitcoin protocol achieves consensus in this model,
                 except for a {\em negligible probability}, when
                 Byzantine faults make up less than half the network.
                 The protocol is {\em scalable}, since the running time
                 and message complexity are all independent of the size
                 of the network, instead depending only on the relative
                 computing power of the faulty processes. We also
                 introduce a requirement that the protocol must tolerate
                 an arbitrary number of passive clients that receive
                 broadcasts but can not send. This leads to a tight $ 2
                 f + 1 $ resilience bound.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Miller:2014:NSP,
  author =       "Andrew Miller and Ahmed Kosba and Jonathan Katz and
                 Elaine Shi",
  title =        "Nonoutsourceable Scratch-off Puzzles to Discourage
                 {Bitcoin} Mining Coalitions",
  type =         "Preprint",
  institution =  "University of Maryland",
  address =      "College Park, MD, USA",
  pages =        "19",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:06:54 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://soc1024.ece.illinois.edu/nonoutsourceable_full.pdf",
  abstract =     "An implicit goal of Bitcoin's reward structure is to
                 diffuse network influence over a diverse, decentralized
                 population of individual participants. Indeed,
                 Bitcoin's security claims rely on no single entity
                 wielding a sufficiently large portion of the network's
                 overall computational power. Unfortunately, rather than
                 participating independently, most Bitcoin miners join
                 coalitions called mining pools in which a central pool
                 administrator largely directs the pool's activity,
                 leading to a consolidation of power. Recently, the
                 largest mining pool has accounted for more than half of
                 network's total mining capacity. Relatedly, ``hosted
                 mining'' service providers offer their clients the
                 benefit of economies-of-scale, tempting them away from
                 independent participation. We argue that the prevalence
                 of mining coalitions is due to a limitation of the
                 Bitcoin proof-of-work puzzle --- specifically, that it
                 affords an effective mechanism for enforcing
                 cooperation in a coalition. We present several
                 definitions and constructions for ``nonoutsourceable''
                 puzzles that thwart such enforcement mechanisms,
                 thereby deterring coalitions. We also provide an
                 implementation and benchmark results for our schemes to
                 show they are practical.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Miller:2014:PRB,
  author =       "A. Miller and A. Juels and E. Shi and B. Parno and J.
                 Katz",
  booktitle =    "2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy",
  title =        "{Permacoin}: Repurposing {Bitcoin} Work for Data
                 Preservation",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "475--490",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2014.37",
  ISSN =         "1081-6011 (print), 2375-1207 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1081-6011",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "archival data; Bit coin mining; computational puzzles;
                 computational resources; data mining; Data mining; data
                 preservation; digital storage; distributed storage;
                 e-cash system; electronic money; Investment; Online
                 banking; Outsourcing; Peer-to-peer computing; Perm
                 coin; Permacoin; proofs-of-retrievability; Public key;
                 rational economic agents; scratch-off puzzle;
                 {Bitcoin}",
}

@InProceedings{Moser:2014:TRS,
  author =       "Malte M{\"o}ser and Rainer B{\"o}hme and Dominic
                 Breuker",
  title =        "Towards Risk Scoring of {Bitcoin} Transactions",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "16--32",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_2",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Mullan:2014:BC,
  author =       "P. Carl Mullan",
  booktitle =    "The Digital Currency Challenge: Shaping Online Payment
                 Systems through US Financial Regulations",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Challenges",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "138--142",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137382559_21",
  ISBN =         "1-137-38255-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-38255-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137382559_21",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Mullan:2014:BD,
  author =       "P. Carl Mullan",
  booktitle =    "The Digital Currency Challenge: Shaping Online Payment
                 Systems through US Financial Regulations",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Differences",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "102--110",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137382559_16",
  ISBN =         "1-137-38255-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-38255-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137382559_16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Mullan:2014:BDV,
  author =       "P. Carl Mullan",
  booktitle =    "The Digital Currency Challenge: Shaping Online Payment
                 Systems through US Financial Regulations",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Decentralized Virtual Currency",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "84--92",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137382559_13",
  ISBN =         "1-137-38255-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-38255-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137382559_13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Mullan:2014:BM,
  author =       "P. Carl Mullan",
  booktitle =    "The Digital Currency Challenge: Shaping Online Payment
                 Systems through US Financial Regulations",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Mining",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "97--101",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137382559_15",
  ISBN =         "1-137-38255-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-38255-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137382559_15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Mullan:2014:BMS,
  author =       "P. Carl Mullan",
  booktitle =    "The Digital Currency Challenge: Shaping Online Payment
                 Systems through US Financial Regulations",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Merchant Services",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "143--145",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137382559_22",
  ISBN =         "1-137-38255-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-38255-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137382559_22",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Mullan:2014:BO,
  author =       "P. Carl Mullan",
  booktitle =    "The Digital Currency Challenge: Shaping Online Payment
                 Systems through US Financial Regulations",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Opportunity",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "146--148",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137382559_23",
  ISBN =         "1-137-38255-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-38255-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137382559_23",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Mullan:2014:EB,
  author =       "P. Carl Mullan",
  booktitle =    "The Digital Currency Challenge: Shaping Online Payment
                 Systems through {US} Financial Regulations",
  title =        "Early {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "93--96",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137382559_14",
  ISBN =         "1-137-38255-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-38255-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137382559_14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Mullan:2014:GB,
  author =       "P. Carl Mullan",
  booktitle =    "The Digital Currency Challenge: Shaping Online Payment
                 Systems through US Financial Regulations",
  title =        "Global {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "131--137",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137382559_20",
  ISBN =         "1-137-38255-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-38255-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137382559_20",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{ODwyer:2014:BME,
  author =       "K. J. O'Dwyer and D. Malone",
  booktitle =    "25th IET Irish Signals Systems Conference 2014 and
                 2014 China-Ireland International Conference on
                 Information and Communications Technologies (ISSC
                 2014/CIICT 2014)",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} mining and its energy footprint",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "280--285",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1049/cp.2014.0699",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; bitcoin concept; bitcoin mining; data mining;
                 digital cryptocurrency; electricity consumption;
                 electronic money; energy conservation; energy cost;
                 energy footprint; Ireland; monetary transactions",
}

@Misc{Poelstra:2014:DCP,
  author =       "Andrew Poelstra",
  title =        "Distributed Consensus from Proof of Stake is
                 Impossible",
  howpublished = "Web blog",
  day =          "28",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:10:26 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.smithandcrown.com/open-research/distributed-consensus-from-proof-of-stake-is-impossible/",
  abstract =     "Proof-of-stake is frequently proposed as a mechanism
                 for distributed consensus in non-Bitcoin
                 cryptocurrencies (altcoins). However, this idea appears
                 to be fundamentally flawed. We explore the history and
                 motivation leading to Bitcoin's distributed consensus
                 mechanism, which evades a impossibility result, and
                 demonstrate that proof of stake does not work as a
                 replacement",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Province:2014:BRB,
  author =       "Jay Province",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} rising: beginner's guide to {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    "CreateSpace",
  address =      "????, USA",
  pages =        "33",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "1-4948-5944-0 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4948-5944-2 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "HF5548.32 .P76 2013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:49:05 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  abstract =     "You've heard that bitcoin is distributed freely over
                 the web, but has somehow recently soared to over \$1000
                 per bitcoin. What? How is that possible? Virtual money?
                 Cryptocurrency? Is it the currency of the future? You
                 sense something important is going on, and you're
                 having a hard time making any sense of it. Don't get
                 caught waving from the platform while the train meant
                 for you pulls away from the station. It's time to take
                 action. Bitcoin Rising is the book for you, and it's
                 the only bitcoin guide you'll ever need. Bitcoin Rising
                 will get you up to speed with chapters chock-full of
                 information. Bitcoin Rising is enjoyable reading, and
                 explores the Bitcoin movement from both its serious and
                 zany perspectives. At the same time it also answers
                 your important questions: Who is behind the Bitcoin
                 revolution? How does the Bitcoin system work? How do I
                 get started with Bitcoin? Which Bitcoin exchanges are
                 the safest? How do I set up a secure wallet safely? How
                 can I protect my privacy and security? How do I get
                 paid in bitcoin? What is the future of Bitcoin --- keep
                 up with the times! You don't need to worry about
                 technical terms like blockchain, wallet, private key or
                 mining because you'll learn them step by step as you
                 enjoy every page of reading. Bitcoin Rising is bitcoin
                 prepared for you in bite-sized morsels. After years of
                 market experience with stocks, bonds and Bitcoin,
                 Province lays out a serious but entertaining
                 step-by-step Bitcoin guide that will get you
                 up-to-speed in the new economy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Ron:2014:HDD,
  author =       "Dorit Ron and Adi Shamir",
  title =        "How Did Dread Pirate {Roberts} Acquire and Protect his
                 {Bitcoin} Wealth?",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "3--15",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_1",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Ruffing:2014:CPD,
  author =       "Tim Ruffing and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez and Aniket Kate",
  booktitle =    "Computer Security --- ESORICS 2014",
  title =        "{CoinShuffle}: Practical Decentralized Coin Mixing for
                 {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "345--364",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11212-1_20",
  ISBN =         "3-319-11212-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-11212-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-11212-1_20",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Sansonetti:2014:BOR,
  author =       "Riccardo Sansonetti",
  title =        "Le {Bitcoin}: opportunit{\'e}s et risques d'une
                 monnaie virtuelle. ({French}) [{Bitcoin}: opportunities
                 and risk of a virtual currency]",
  journal =      "La vie {\'e}conomique (Berne)",
  volume =       "87",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "44--46",
  year =         "2014",
  ISSN =         "1011-386X",
  ISSN-L =       "1011-386X",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 08:51:54 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "French",
}

@Article{Sansonetti:2014:BVW,
  author =       "Riccardo Sansonetti",
  title =        "{Bitcoin: virtuelle W{\"a}hrung mit Chancen und
                 Risiken}. ({German}) [{Bitcoin}: virtual currency with
                 opportunities and risks]",
  journal =      "{Volkswirtschaft: wirtschaftliche, sozialstatistische
                 und arbeitsrechtliche Mitteilungen}",
  volume =       "87",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "44--46",
  year =         "2014",
  ISSN =         "1011-386X",
  ISSN-L =       "1011-386X",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 08:39:40 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
}

@InProceedings{Sapuric:2014:BVI,
  author =       "Svetlana Sapuric and Angelika Kokkinaki",
  booktitle =    "Business Information Systems Workshops",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Is Volatile! {Isn}'t that Right?",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "255--265",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-11460-6_22",
  ISBN =         "3-319-11460-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-11460-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-11460-6_22",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Sasson:2014:ZDA,
  author =       "E. B. Sasson and A. Chiesa and C. Garman and M. Green
                 and I. Miers and E. Tromer and M. Virza",
  booktitle =    "2014 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy",
  title =        "{Zerocash}: Decentralized Anonymous Payments from
                 {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "459--474",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2014.36",
  ISSN =         "1081-6011 (print), 2375-1207 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1081-6011",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; DAP schemes; data privacy; decentralized
                 anonymous payment schemes; decentralized anonymous
                 payments; decentralized electronic cash; electronic
                 money; full-fledged ledger-based digital currency;
                 Logic gates; Online banking; payment transactions;
                 Privacy; privacy guarantees; Protocols; public
                 decentralized ledger; Public key; Zero cash; zero
                 knowledge; zero-knowledge succinct noninteractive
                 arguments of knowledge; Zerocash; zk-SNARKs",
}

@InProceedings{Saxena:2014:IAB,
  author =       "Amitabh Saxena and Janardan Misra and Aritra Dhar",
  title =        "Increasing Anonymity in {Bitcoin}",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "122--139",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_9",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Schatt:2014:VBG,
  author =       "Dan Schatt",
  title =        "Virtual Banking: a Guide to Innovation and
                 Partnering",
  publisher =    pub-WILEY,
  address =      pub-WILEY:adr,
  pages =        "xxi + 216",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "1-118-74247-8 (hardcover), 1-118-74254-0 (ePDF),
                 1-118-74236-2 (ePub)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-118-74247-1 (hardcover), 978-1-118-74254-9
                 (ePDF), 978-1-118-74236-5 (ePub)",
  LCCN =         "HG1601 .S3353 2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  note =         "Foreword by Renaud Laplanche.",
  series =       "Wiley finance series",
  abstract =     "Technology is permanently transforming the banking
                 industry, and digital payments are the key. Electronic
                 Payments, Mobile Commerce, and Virtual Banking: A Guide
                 to Innovation, Partnering, and Regulation takes a
                 hands-on approach to competing in the modern banking
                 environment. Former PayPal Head of Financial Innovation
                 Dan Schatt explores the reasons behind the massive
                 consumer migration away from traditional banks, and
                 provides clear, actionable guidance on beating new
                 banking models at their own game. Digital payment is
                 the hottest topic in banking today, and is set to
                 define the future of the industry.Consumers are rapidly
                 abandoning traditional banks in favor of institutions
                 that are lower-cost and more consumer-centric. Between
                 the pace of financial regulatory reform and the cloud
                 computing revolution, the old banking model is on the
                 fast track to extinction. Electronic Payments, Mobile
                 Commerce, and Virtual Banking provides the information
                 banks need to compete in this new environment, and
                 details the integral implementation actions that will
                 allow them to thrive. The book discusses real-world
                 innovations from banks, non-banks, and up and comers,
                 and the heavy competition from the new outsource bank
                 model. Topics include: The changing POS landscape and
                 the need for digital wallet partnerships Shifting gears
                 to greenfield market opportunities versus
                 non-profitable markets Digital channel best practices
                 for superior customer experience When to outsource, and
                 what capabilities to truly own Case studies including
                 PayPal, Google, Square, Facebook, Twitter, and more
                 illustrate acceleration of innovation through banking
                 partnerships, as well as the mechanics behind banking's
                 biggest, scariest threats. The trick to surviving the
                 paradigm shift is to embody innovation while providing
                 a superior customer proposition. Electronic Payments,
                 Mobile Commerce, and Virtual Banking: A Guide to
                 Innovation, Partnering, and Regulation provides the
                 inside track on managing the shift and dominating the
                 new marketplace.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Banks and banking; Electronic funds transfers;
                 BUSINESS and ECONOMICS / Banks and Banking.",
  tableofcontents = "Foreword / xiii \\
                 Preface / xv \\
                 Acknowledgments / xix \\
                 Introduction \\
                 Innovating through Scarcity / 1 \\
                 The Influence of Cloud on Innovation / 3 \\
                 The Influence of Smartphones / 4 \\
                 Big Data = Big Driver of Innovation / 4 \\
                 Taking a Cue from Retailing / 5 \\
                 The Enemy of My Enemy Is My Friend / 6 \\
                 Reconciling Innovation and Regulation / 6 \\
                 In Search of New Payment Revenue Streams / 8 \\
                 New Skill Sets for a New Era / 9 \\
                 A Road Map for This Book / 9 \\
                 Notes / 11 \\
                 1 Consumer Empowerment Knocking at the Door / 13 \\
                 How Mobile Is Reshaping Consumer Expectations in
                 Financial and Retail \\
                 How Mobile Is Changing Consumer Behavior / 15 \\
                 Mobile Is Blurring the Lines between Digital and
                 Physical / 17 \\
                 Mobile Learnings from PayPal and Square / 19 \\
                 Mobile Commerce through Tokenization / 27 \\
                 The Mobile Camera --- It's Not Just for Pictures
                 Anymore! / 29 \\
                 The Mobile Microphone --- Offers and Payments through
                 Soundwaves! / 30 \\
                 NFC's Rebound and the Promise of Host Card Emulation /
                 31 \\
                 Apple's Passbook / 33 \\
                 The Apps Phenomenon / 35 \\
                 The Uber-ization of Mobile / 36 \\
                 ``Top of Wallet'' to ``Top of Mobile'' / 38 \\
                 The Case of Braintree and Simple / 39 \\
                 The QR Code / 40 \\
                 What Banks Can Learn from Starbucks / 41 \\
                 Leveling the Playing Field with LevelUp / 43 \\
                 From Mobile Banking to Tablet Banking / 45 \\
                 Mobile Models for the Emerging Markets / 47 \\
                 What's Next? More of the Same / 51 \\
                 Notes / 52 \\
                 2 Social and Financial Services / 55 \\
                 Maintaining Relationships and Relevance through Social
                 strategies \\
                 Digital, Data, and the Future of Banking / 58 \\
                 Social Media Experiences in Banking / 60 \\
                 Gamification / 62 \\
                 Personal Financial Relationship Mapping / 63 \\
                 Capitalizing on Social Banking / 65 \\
                 Moven: Delivering Banking through Social Context / 66
                 \\
                 Social Banking in Europe and Asia / 70 \\
                 Social Login, Sharing, and Top of Wallet / 71 \\
                 Peer-to-Peer Lending: Blending Social and Banking / 73
                 \\
                 Beyond the Hype: Partnering for the Future with
                 Peer-to-Peer Lenders / 74 \\
                 Lending Club: A Win-Win for Banks and Their Customers /
                 75 \\
                 Takeaways for Banks / 79 \\
                 An Investor's Perspective on Social Banking and the
                 Emergence of Bitcoin / 80 \\
                 Message To Banks: Be a Smaller Part of a Bigger Pie /
                 85 \\
                 Notes / 86 \\
                 3 Connected Financial Commerce / 89 \\
                 Location-Based Services, Mobile Commerce, and Digital
                 Wallets \\
                 The ``Local'' Digital Wallet / 91 \\
                 The New Retail Experience / 91 \\
                 Retail 2.0 and Its Effect on Payments / 93 \\
                 Entrepreneurs, Developers, and Financial Services / 95
                 \\
                 Context Banking: The Next Step / 96 \\
                 Low-Energy Bluetooth, Hardware, and the Future of
                 Commerce / 97 \\
                 iBeacon and EasyPay: The Future of In-Store Payments? /
                 98 \\
                 PayPal's iBeacon: Proximity and Context / 100 \\
                 Google Glass for Finances / 101 \\
                 In Search of the Digital Wallet / 102 \\
                 Personal Financial Management / 103 \\
                 Coupons / 104 \\
                 Shopping Tools / 104 \\
                 Loyalty and Prepaid / 104 \\
                 Tickets and Passes / 105 \\
                 The Who's Who of Digital Wallets / 106 \\
                 Google / 107 \\
                 LifeLock (formerly Lemon Wallet) / 108 \\
                 PayPal / 109 \\
                 Carriers / 110 \\
                 Retailers / 111 \\
                 Square Wallet / 113 \\
                 What's Next? / 113 \\
                 Notes / 114 \\
                 4 Innovating with Big Data and Open Platforms / 115 \\
                 Competing in a World of Unlimited Data and Storage \\
                 The Rise of Platform Services / 121 \\
                 Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for Online
                 and Mobile Commerce / 122 \\
                 Coping Strategies for Banks / 123 \\
                 PayPal's Bold Bet: Unleashing Innovation through an
                 Open Platform / 125 \\
                 App Stores for Banks: Will It Work? / 133 \\
                 What's Next? / 139 \\
                 Notes / 141 \\
                 5 Math-Based Currencies / 143 \\
                 How Bitcoin May Prove Transformational to the Financial
                 Services Industry \\
                 Entering the Age of Context / 143 \\
                 Intro to Math-Based Currencies / 146 \\
                 Why ``Math-Based Currencies''? / 147 \\
                 MBCs Are a Reality / 147 \\
                 History of Digital Currencies / 148 \\
                 Math-Based Currency Characteristics / 148 \\
                 Bitcoin: The First MBC / 149 \\
                 Bitcoin's Brief History / 150 \\
                 Is It Bitcoin, bitcoin, or Just BTC / 150 \\
                 Bitcoin Is a Powerful Concept / 150 \\
                 How Bitcoin Works / 152 \\
                 Digging Bitcoin / 154 \\
                 Digital Push Payments / 156 \\
                 Counterfeiting No More / 156 \\
                 MBCs Enable Programmable Money / 156 \\
                 Completing the Bitcoin Ecosystem / 157 \\
                 Bitcoin Exchanges / 158 \\
                 Bitcoin Wallets --- Where to Store Your BTC / 159 \\
                 Mobile Wallets / 159 \\
                 Cloud-Based Wallets / 159 \\
                 Bitcoin Hardware Wallet / 160 \\
                 Bitcoin Vaults / 160 \\
                 Trading Platforms / 160 \\
                 Bitcoin Use Cases in Payments / 161 \\
                 MBCs as Payment Rails / 161 \\
                 B2B Payments --- The Known Counterparty / 162 \\
                 Bitcoin and Consumer Payments / 162 \\
                 Buy Me a Beer / 163 \\
                 E-Commerce and MBCs / 163 \\
                 Getting Harder: Music and Video / 164 \\
                 Challenges at the POS / 164 \\
                 Improving Bitcoin Processes / 164 \\
                 Improving the Bitcoin Protocol / 164 \\
                 Programming Bitcoin for a Special Case: Online
                 Micropayments / 166 \\
                 Wallets / 167 \\
                 Ripple: The Second MBC / 167 \\
                 MBC Use Cases in Banking / 168 \\
                 International Remittance Rails / 168 \\
                 Interbank Settlement / 169 \\
                 Building Trust with MBCs / 170 \\
                 Automating Transaction Policies / 171 \\
                 Moving Ahead with MBCs / 172 \\
                 Conclusion / 174 \\
                 6 / 177 \\
                 The Smart Pipe \\
                 Models that Will Survive the Next Generation The
                 Prepaid Model / 178 \\
                 Prepaid Nation: Redefi ning What a Bank Can Be / 179
                 \\
                 The ``Underbanked'' and Opportunities for Innovation /
                 184 \\
                 Stockpile: An Example of Brokerage Innovation Through
                 Partnering / 185 \\
                 MoneyGram: An Example of Innovation through Partnering
                 / 186 \\
                 Innovative Ways to Expand Access --- PayNearMe / 189
                 \\
                 How Innovative Banks Are Partnering for Innovation /
                 190 \\
                 The CEO-CIO Relationship Driving the Innovation of ING
                 DIRECT Canada / 190 \\
                 A Whole New Era / 193 \\
                 How Banks Can Compete in the Future / 194 \\
                 Three Imperatives to Partner for Innovation / 196 \\
                 A Venture Capitalist's Look at the Future of Banking /
                 198 \\
                 Technology as an Enabler and Partner / 205 \\
                 What the Next 50 Years Might Hold / 206 \\
                 Digital / 207 \\
                 Relationship Management / 207 \\
                 Platform and Identity Friendly / 208 \\
                 The Future Bank Bundle: Platform-Relationship-Utility /
                 208 \\
                 Notes / 209 \\
                 About the Author / 211 \\
                 Index / 213",
}

@Book{Schlichter:2014:PMC,
  author =       "Detlev S. Schlichter",
  title =        "Paper money collapse: the folly of elastic money",
  publisher =    pub-WILEY,
  address =      pub-WILEY:adr,
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "xviii + 318",
  year =         "2014",
  ISBN =         "1-118-87732-2 (hardcover), 1-118-87733-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-118-87732-6 (hardcover), 978-1-118-87733-3",
  LCCN =         "HG353 .S35 2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "``Explore the inevitable collapse of the fiat monetary
                 system: \booktitle{Paper Money Collapse: The Folly of
                 Elastic Money and the Coming Monetary Breakdown},
                 Second Edition challenges the mainstream consensus on
                 money and monetary policy. While it is today generally
                 believed that the transition from 'hard' and inflexible
                 commodity money (such as a gold standard) to entirely
                 flexible and potentially unlimited fiat money under
                 national central banks allows for superior economic
                 stability, Paper Money Collapse shows that the opposite
                 is true. Systems of highly elastic and constantly
                 expanding money are not only unnecessary, even for
                 growing economies, they are always extremely
                 destabilizing. Over time, they must lead to substantial
                 imbalances, including excessive levels of debt and
                 distorted asset prices, that will require ever faster
                 money production to sustain. Ultimately, however, there
                 is no alternative to a complete liquidation of these
                 distortions. Based on insights of many renowned
                 economists and in particular of the Austrian School of
                 Economics, the book explains through rigorous logic and
                 in precise language why our system of flexible fiat
                 money is incompatible with a market economy and
                 therefore unsustainable. Paper money systems have
                 always led to economic disintegration--without
                 exception--throughout history. It will not be different
                 for our system and we may be closer to the endgame than
                 many think.The updated second edition incorporates: A
                 new introduction and an extended outlook section that
                 discusses various ''endgames`` Responses to criticisms,
                 alternative views, and a critical assessment of
                 solutions' Comments on recent policy trends, including
                 attempts to exit the 'easy money' policy mode An
                 evaluation of new crypto-currency Bitcoin Paper Money
                 Collapse: The Folly of Elastic Money, Second Edition
                 clarifies the problem of paper money clearly and
                 eloquently, and proposes multiple routes to a
                 solution''-- ``This book illustrates the underlying
                 problems with elastic money''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  author-dates = "1964--",
  subject =      "Paper money; Money supply; Currency question; Credit;
                 BUSINESS and ECONOMICS / Economic Conditions; BUSINESS
                 and ECONOMICS / Economics / General.",
  tableofcontents = "Foreword Acknowledgments Prologue: Contra the
                 Mainstream Consensus --- What this book is about The
                 Ruling Mainstream Consensus on Money The
                 Growth-versus-inflation Trade Off What This Book Will
                 Show Understanding Our Fiat Money System What is
                 Different from the First Edition? Support from Eminent
                 Economists Notes Part One: The Basics of Money Chapter
                 1 The Fundamentals of Money and Money Demand The Origin
                 and Purpose of Money An Anthropologist's Challenge What
                 Gives Money Value? (Almost) Any Quantity of Money Will
                 Do The Demand for Money Are ``Sticky'' Prices a
                 Problem? Other Functions of Money The Unique Position
                 of the Paper Money Producer The Monetary Asset versus
                 Other Goods Notes Chapter 2 The Fundamentals of
                 Fractional-Reserve Banking The Origin and Basics of
                 Fractional-Reserve Banking Who Owns ``Deposited''
                 Money? Exposing Misconceptions about Fractional-Reserve
                 Banking ``Free Banking'' is Limited Banking Summary of
                 Part One Notes Part Two: The Effects of Money
                 Injections Chapter 3 Money Injections without Credit
                 Markets Even, Instant, and Transparent Money Injection
                 Even and Nontransparent Money Injection Uneven and
                 Nontransparent Money Injection Notes Chapter 4 Money
                 Injections via Credit Markets Consumption, Saving, and
                 Investing Interest Interest Rates are Not Determined by
                 Factor Productivity Money Injection via the Loan Market
                 The Process in More Detail Policy Implications of the
                 Austrian Theory Addendum: Gordon Tullock's Critique of
                 the Austrian Business Cycle Theory and some words on
                 ``forced saving'' An Example: U.S. Housing Boom and
                 Bust Summary of Part Two Notes Part Three: Fallacies
                 about the Price Level and Price Level Stabilization
                 Chapter 5 Common Misconceptions Regarding the Price
                 Level The Fallacy that a Stable Price Level Means
                 ``Neutral'' Money The Fallacy that Hard Money is
                 Unstable Money, Part 1 --- History The Fallacy that
                 Hard Money is Unstable Money, Part 2 --- Theory Notes
                 Chapter 6 The Policy of Stabilization Problems with
                 Price Index Stabilization Addendum: The ``Free
                 Bankers'' and the Theory of Immaculate
                 Fractional-Reserve Banking Summary of Part Three Notes
                 Part Four: A History of Paper Money and How We Got to
                 Where We Are Now Chapter 7 A Legacy of Failure Paper
                 Money Experiments 1914 --- 2014 --- A Century of
                 Monetary Decay Notes Part Five: Beyond the Cycle ---
                 Paper Money's Endgame and The Future of Money Chapter 8
                 The Beneficiaries of the Paper Money System Paper Money
                 and the Banks Paper Money and the State Paper Money and
                 the Professional Economist Notes Chapter 9 The
                 Intellectual Superstructure of the Present System The
                 Alternative View: Individualism and Laissez-Faire The
                 Mainstream View: Collectivism and Interventionism The
                 Political Appeal of Mainstream Macroeconomics The Myth
                 That Everybody Benefits from ``Stimulus'' Monetarism as
                 Monetary Interventionism The Savings Glut Theory and
                 the Myth of Underconsumption and Underinvestment
                 Inflationism and International Policy Coordination
                 Notes Chapter 10 Endgames - Inflationary Meltdown or
                 Return to Hard Money? Paper Money Collapse
                 Alternatives: Return to Hard Money A Return to a Gold
                 Standard The Separation of Money and State Bitcoin ---
                 Money of No Authority Notes Epilogue: Money, Freedom,
                 and Capitalism About the Author Index",
}

@Misc{Schwartz:2014:RPC,
  author =       "D. Schwartz and N. Youngs and A. Britto",
  title =        "The Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm",
  howpublished = "Whitepaper",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:46:28 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://ripple.com/consensus-whitepaper/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "URL no longer reachable on 22 January 2018.",
}

@InProceedings{Shah:2014:BRB,
  author =       "D. Shah and K. Zhang",
  booktitle =    "2014 52nd Annual Allerton Conference on Communication,
                 Control, and Computing (Allerton)",
  title =        "{Bayesian} regression and {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "409--414",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ALLERTON.2014.7028484",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bayes methods; Bayesian inference; Bayesian
                 regression; binary classification; Cryptography;
                 Estimation; investment; Investment; latent source
                 model; Online banking; peer-to-peer computing; pricing;
                 Random variables; regression analysis; Vectors; virtual
                 cryptographic currency; {Bitcoin} price variation
                 prediction",
}

@InProceedings{Shoshitaishvili:2014:DYF,
  author =       "Yan Shoshitaishvili and Luca Invernizzi and Adam Doupe
                 and Giovanni Vigna",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 29th Annual ACM Symposium on
                 Applied Computing",
  title =        "Do You Feel Lucky?: A Large-scale Analysis of
                 Risk-rewards Trade-offs in Cyber Security",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1649--1656",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2554850.2554880",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-2469-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-2469-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SAC '14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2554880",
  location =     "Gyeongju, Republic of Korea",
  pagecount =    "8",
}

@Article{Sidel:2014:OCS,
  author =       "Robin Sidel",
  title =        "Overstock {CEO} Sees {Bitcoin} Sales Rising More than
                 Expected",
  journal =      j-WALL-ST-J,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "4",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "WSJOAF",
  ISSN =         "0099-9660",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:26:27 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Wall Street Journal",
}

@Article{Song:2014:RFB,
  author =       "Sophie Song",
  title =        "The Rise and Fall of {Bitcoin} in {China}: {Central
                 Bank} Shuts Down All {Chinese} {Bitcoin} Exchanges",
  journal =      "International Business Times",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "27",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:27:57 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.ibtimes.com/rise-fall-bitcoin-china-central-bank-shuts-down-all-chinese-bitcoin-exchanges-1563826",
  abstract =     "The official demise of bitcoin in China has arrived.
                 The People's Bank of China is ordering banks to close
                 by April 15 [2014] all accounts opened by operators of
                 websites that trade the currency, essentially forcing
                 all bitcoin exchanges in China to shut down.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Spagnuolo:2014:BEI,
  author =       "Michele Spagnuolo and Federico Maggi and Stefano
                 Zanero",
  title =        "{BitIodine}: Extracting Intelligence from the
                 {Bitcoin} Network",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "457--468",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_29",
  ISBN =         "3-662-45472-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-45472-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-45472-5_29",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Tromp:2014:CCMa,
  author =       "John Tromp",
  booktitle =    "Workshop on Bitcoin Research",
  title =        "Cuckoo Cycle: a memory-hard proof-of-work system",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "1",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:52:42 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.hashcash.org/papers/cuckoo.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  pagecount =    "8",
}

@Misc{Tromp:2014:CCMb,
  author =       "John Tromp",
  title =        "{Cuckoo Cycles}: a memory-hard proof-of-work system",
  howpublished = "Web site.",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 10:49:03 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://github.com/tromp/cuckoo",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{VanAlstyne:2014:WBV,
  author =       "Marshall {Van Alstyne}",
  title =        "Why {Bitcoin} has value",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "57",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "30--32",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2594288",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 21 10:20:12 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm2010.bib",
  abstract =     "Evaluating the evolving controversial digital
                 currency.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@InProceedings{vandenHooff:2014:VVC,
  author =       "Jelle van den Hooff and M. Frans Kaashoek and Nickolai
                 Zeldovich",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "{VerSum}: Verifiable Computations over Large Public
                 Logs",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1304--1316",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2660267.2660327",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-2957-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-2957-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '14",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2660267.2660327",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2660327",
  keywords =     "cloud computing; verifiable computation",
  location =     "Scottsdale, Arizona, USA",
  pagecount =    "13",
}

@InProceedings{Vandervort:2014:COA,
  author =       "David Vandervort",
  title =        "Challenges and Opportunities Associated with a
                 {Bitcoin}-Based Transaction Rating System",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "33--42",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_3",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Vasek:2014:EAD,
  author =       "Marie Vasek and Micah Thornton and Tyler Moore",
  title =        "Empirical Analysis of Denial-of-Service Attacks in the
                 {Bitcoin} Ecosystem",
  crossref =     "Christin:2014:FCD",
  pages =        "57--71",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_5",
  ISBN =         "3-662-44774-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-44774-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-44774-1_5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Misc{Wood:2014:ESD,
  author =       "Gavin Wood",
  title =        "{Ethereum}: A secure decentralized transaction ledger:
                 {EIP-150} Revision",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  pages =        "32",
  year =         "2014",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:57:48 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://gavwood.com/paper.pdf",
  abstract =     "The blockchain paradigm when coupled with
                 cryptographically-secured transactions has demonstrated
                 its utility through a number of projects, not least
                 Bitcoin. Each such project can be seen as a simple
                 application on a decentralised, but singleton, compute
                 resource. We can call this paradigm a transactional
                 singleton machine with shared-state.\par

                 Ethereum implements this paradigm in a generalised
                 manner. Furthermore it provides a plurality of such
                 resources, each with a distinct state and operating
                 code but able to interact through a message-passing
                 framework with others. We discuss its design,
                 implementation issues, the opportunities it provides
                 and the future hurdles we envisage.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Worner:2014:WYS,
  author =       "Dominic W{\"o}rner and Thomas von Bomhard",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Joint
                 Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing:
                 Adjunct Publication",
  title =        "When Your Sensor Earns Money: Exchanging Data for Cash
                 with {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "295--298",
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2638728.2638786",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3047-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3047-3",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "UbiComp '14 Adjunct",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2638786",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, data market, sensors",
  location =     "Seattle, Washington",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InProceedings{Alam:2015:NVI,
  author =       "M. T. Alam and H. Li and A. Patidar",
  booktitle =    "The 21st IEEE International Workshop on Local and
                 Metropolitan Area Networks",
  title =        "Notice of Violation of {IEEE} Publication Principles:
                 {Bitcoin} for smart trading in smart grid",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/LANMAN.2015.7114742",
  ISSN =         "1944-0367 (print), 1944-0375 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1944-0375",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; bitcoin; Cryptography; data privacy; digital
                 currency; Online banking; peer-to-peer computing;
                 peer-to-peer electronic currency system; power
                 engineering computing; Privacy; privacy; privacy aware;
                 Renewable energy sources; Servers; smart grid; Smart
                 grids; Smart meters; smart power grids; smart trading;
                 trading",
}

@InProceedings{Ali:2015:BPUa,
  author =       "Syed Taha Ali and Dylan Clarke and Patrick McCorry",
  booktitle =    "Security Protocols XXIII",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: Perils of an Unregulated Global {P2P}
                 Currency",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "283--293",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26096-9_29",
  ISBN =         "3-319-26096-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-26096-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-26096-9_29",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Ali:2015:BPUb,
  author =       "Syed Taha Ali",
  booktitle =    "Security Protocols XXIII",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: Perils of an Unregulated Global {P2P}
                 Currency (Transcript of Discussion)",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "294--306",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26096-9_30",
  ISBN =         "3-319-26096-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-26096-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-26096-9_30",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Ali:2015:ZPN,
  author =       "Syed Taha Ali and Patrick McCorry and Peter Hyun-Jeen
                 Lee and Feng Hao",
  title =        "{ZombieCoin}: Powering Next-Generation Botnets with
                 {Bitcoin}",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "34--48",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_3",
  ISBN =         "3-662-48050-6 (paperback), 3-662-48051-4 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-48050-2 (paperback), 978-3-662-48051-9
                 (e-book)",
  MRclass =      "94-06 94A60 00B25",
  MRnumber =     "3440765",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_3",
  ZMnumber =     "1321.94006",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Andrychowicz:2015:MBT,
  author =       "Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel
                 Malinowski and {\L}ukasz Mazurek",
  title =        "On the Malleability of {Bitcoin} Transactions",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  volume =       "8976",
  pages =        "1--18",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_1",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3440763",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Angel:2015:EPP,
  author =       "James J. Angel and Douglas McCabe",
  title =        "The Ethics of Payments: Paper, Plastic, or
                 {Bitcoin}?",
  journal =      "Journal of Business Ethics",
  volume =       "132",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "603--611",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2354-x",
  ISSN =         "0167-4544 (print), 1573-0697 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-4544",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10551-014-2354-x",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Anthopoulos:2015:ICT,
  editor =       "Leonidas G. Anthopoulos and Christopher G. Reddick",
  title =        "Information and communication technologies in public
                 administration: innovations from developed countries",
  volume =       "196",
  publisher =    pub-CRC,
  address =      pub-CRC:adr,
  pages =        "xvii + 333",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-4822-3929-9 (hardcover)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4822-3929-4 (hardcover)",
  LCCN =         "JF1525.A8 I4674 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "Public administration and public policy: a
                 comprehensive publication program",
  abstract =     "Examines global perspectives on public administration
                 and IT innovations. This book illustrates the
                 theoretical context of current policies, issues, and
                 implementation. It highlights e-government success
                 stories from developed regions such as the U.S.,
                 Europe, Asia, and Australia then presents future trends
                 and innovation. It explores innovative solutions with
                 added value and impact to your organization.-Provided
                 by publisher.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Communication in public administration; Technological
                 innovations; Developed countries; Internet in public
                 administration; Public administration; Information
                 technology",
  tableofcontents = "Section I: Global Perspectives on Public
                 Administration And Information Technology Innovations
                 \\
                 1. Open Government Data: A European Perspective /
                 Carmen Caba Perez \\
                 2. Best Practices In E-Governance: A Comparative Study
                 Based On the Rutgers University Worldwide Digital
                 Governance Survey / Yueping Zheng \\
                 3. Does External Environment Affect E-Government? A
                 Cross-Country Analysis / Aroon Manoharan \\
                 4. Web-Based Participatory Democracy: Findings From
                 Italy / Gianluca Sgueo \\
                 5. Comparative Scientometric Analysis In Social Media:
                 What Can We Learn? And What Is Next? / Laura Alcaide
                 Munoz \\
                 6. E-Government As An Innovative Product: Theories And
                 Case Study / Nikolaos Mavridis \\
                 7. Aligning Strategy and Information and Communication
                 Technology in Public Organizations: A Critical
                 Management Challenge / Joe McDonagh \\
                 Section II: Topical Issues In Public Administration And
                 Information Technology Innovation \\
                 8. An Analysis of Failure in a Government-to-Government
                 E-Government Context via the Updated Delone and McLean
                 Model / Joep Crompvoets \\
                 9. The Discretionary Space of Geo-Information and
                 Communication Technology Professionals in Public Sector
                 Cooperation Programs / Walter Timo De Vries \\
                 10. The Evolution of Virtual Currencies: Analyzing the
                 Case of Bitcoin / Gabriel Manrique \\
                 11. Gov 2.0, Mobility and Inclusion: A Critical
                 Examination of Social Assistance Reform in Ontario,
                 Canada / Jeffrey Roy \\
                 12. SPCData: The Italian Public Administration Data
                 Cloud / Francesco Tortorelli \\
                 13. Coupling Public Sector Information and
                 Public-Funded Research Data in Europe: A Vision of an
                 Open Data Ecosystem / Andrea Perego \\
                 14. How Public Administration Restructuring Can
                 Contribute to Greek Educational Reform / James O'Kane",
}

@Book{Antonopoulos:2015:MB,
  author =       "Andreas M. Antonopoulos",
  title =        "Mastering {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-ORA,
  address =      pub-ORA:adr,
  pages =        "xxi + 272",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-4493-7404-2, 1-4919-0260-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4493-7404-4, 978-1-4919-0260-8",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .A58 2014",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ora.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "A broad introduction to bitcoin --- ideal for non-tech
                 users, investors, and business executives; technical
                 foundations of bitcoin and cryptographic currencies for
                 developers, engineers, and software and systems
                 architects; details of the bitcoin decentralized
                 network, peer-to-peer architecture, transaction
                 lifecycle, and security principles; offshoots of the
                 bitcoin and blockchain inventions, including
                 alternative chains, currencies, and applications; user
                 stories, elegant analogies, examples, and code snippets
                 illustrating key technical concepts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Computer programs;
                 Electronic commerce; Money; Electronic commerce",
  tableofcontents = "How bitcoin works \\
                 The bitcoin client \\
                 Keys, addresses, wallets \\
                 Transactions \\
                 The bitcoin network \\
                 The blockchain \\
                 Mining and concensus \\
                 Alternative chains, currencies, and applications \\
                 Bitcoin security",
}

@Article{Barguil:2015:SIS,
  author =       "Jo{\~a}o M. M. Barguil and Paulo S. L. M. Barreto",
  title =        "Security issues in {Sarkar}'s e-cash protocol",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-LETT,
  volume =       "115",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "801--803",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "IFPLAT",
  ISSN =         "0020-0190 (print), 1872-6119 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0020-0190",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 25 09:11:21 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/infoproc2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020019015001039",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Information Processing Letters",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00200190/",
}

@Article{Barkatullah:2015:GCF,
  author =       "Javed Barkatullah and Timo Hanke",
  title =        "{Goldstrike 1}: {CoinTerra}'s First-Generation
                 Cryptocurrency Mining Processor for {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      j-IEEE-MICRO,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "68--76",
  month =        mar # "\slash " # apr,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "IEMIDZ",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MM.2015.13",
  ISSN =         "0272-1732 (print), 1937-4143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0272-1732",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeemicro.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/2015/02/mmi2015020068-abs.html",
  abstract-URL = "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/2015/02/mmi2015020068-abs.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Micro",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/index.html",
  keywords =     "application specific integrated circuits; Application
                 specific integrated circuits; Blockchain; CoinTerra;
                 CoinTerra first-generation cryptocurrency mining
                 processor; CoinTerra first-generation {Bitcoin} mining
                 processor; Computer security; Cryptography;
                 cryptography; custom ASIC processors; Data mining; data
                 mining; electronic money; Energy efficiency; energy
                 efficiency; GoldStrike; Goldstrike 1; Online banking;
                 SHA-256; Terraminer IV; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} ASIC;
                 {Bitcoin} mining; {Bitcoin} mining appliances;
                 {Bitcoin} mining machine",
}

@InProceedings{Battista:2015:BVF,
  author =       "G. D. Battista and V. D. Donato and M. Patrignani and
                 M. Pizzonia and V. Roselli and R. Tamassia",
  booktitle =    "2015 IEEE Symposium on Visualization for Cyber
                 Security (VizSec)",
  title =        "{BitConeView}: visualization of flows in the {Bitcoin}
                 transaction graph",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--8",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/VIZSEC.2015.7312773",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; BitConeView; blockchain; cryptocurrency;
                 Cryptography; data visualisation; digital currency;
                 directed graph; directed graphs; electronic money; flow
                 visualization; fraud detection; graph representation;
                 graph visualization; high-level metaphors; money flow;
                 Online banking; Peer-to-peer computing; public ledger;
                 Servers; Standards; User interfaces; visual analysis;
                 Visualization; {Bitcoin} transaction graph",
}

@InProceedings{Baur:2015:CDE,
  author =       "Aaron W. Baur and Julian B{\"u}hler and Markus Bick
                 and Charlotte S. Bonorden",
  booktitle =    "Open and Big Data Management and Innovation",
  title =        "Cryptocurrencies as a Disruption? {Empirical} Findings
                 on User Adoption and Future Potential of {Bitcoin and
                 Co}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "63--80",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25013-7_6",
  ISBN =         "3-319-25013-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-25013-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-25013-7_6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Beikverdi:2015:TCB,
  author =       "A. Beikverdi and J. Song",
  booktitle =    "2015 IEEE\slash ACIS 16th International Conference on
                 Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence,
                 Networking and Parallel\slash Distributed Computing
                 (SNPD)",
  title =        "Trend of centralization in {Bitcoin}'s distributed
                 network",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--6",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SNPD.2015.7176229",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Centralization; centralization factor;
                 cryptography; data mining; Decentralized network;
                 financial data processing; fully decentralized network;
                 Market research; Mathematical model; Mining; Online
                 banking; peer to peer crypto currency; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; peer-to-peer computing; Protocols; Security;
                 Servers; {Bitcoin} distributed network; {Bitcoin}
                 mining pools; {Bitcoin} pool",
}

@Book{Berlatsky:2015:B,
  editor =       "Noah Berlatsky",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    "Greenhaven Press, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning",
  address =      "Farmington Hills, MI, USA",
  pages =        "89",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "0-7377-7314-6 (hardcover), 0-7377-7315-4 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7377-7314-9 (hardcover), 978-0-7377-7315-6
                 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "HG221 .B5737 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "At issue series",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Money; Coinage, International; Tokens; Exchange;
                 Electronic commerce; Virtual reality; Economic
                 aspects",
}

@InProceedings{Biryukov:2015:BTI,
  author =       "A. Biryukov and I. Pustogarov",
  booktitle =    "2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} over {Tor} isn't a Good Idea",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "122--134",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2015.15",
  ISSN =         "1081-6011 (print), 2375-1207 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1081-6011",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Anonymity; Bandwidth; Bit coin network;
                 cryptocurrency; Databases; decentralized P2P digital
                 currency; default Tor functionality; information flow;
                 IP address; IP networks; low-resource attacker; Online
                 banking; P2P; peer-to-peer computing; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; peer-to-peer network; popular mobile SPV
                 client; pseudonymity; random-looking Bit coin address;
                 Relays; Security; security of data; Servers; Tor; user
                 transactions; {Bitcoin}",
}

@Article{Bohme:2015:BET,
  author =       "Rainer B{\"o}hme and Nicolas Christin and Benjamin
                 Edelman and Tyler Moore",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: Economics, Technology, and Governance",
  journal =      "The Journal of Economic Perspectives",
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "213--238",
  year =         "2015",
  ISSN =         "0895-3309 (print), 1944-7965 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0895-3309",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 13:54:57 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.jstor.org/stable/24292130",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Economic Perspectives",
}

@InProceedings{Bonneau:2015:SRP,
  author =       "Joseph Bonneau and Andrew Miller and Jeremy Clark and
                 Arvind Narayanan and Joshua A. Kroll and Edward W.
                 Felten",
  booktitle =    "2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy",
  title =        "{SoK}: Research Perspectives and Challenges for
                 {Bitcoin} and Cryptocurrencies",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "104--121",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2015.14",
  ISSN =         "1081-6011 (print), 2375-1207 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1081-6011",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.jbonneau.com/doc/BMCNKF15-IEEESP-bitcoin.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Communities; computational puzzle; consensus
                 mechanism; cryptocurrency; cryptographic currency;
                 cryptography; Cryptography; currency allocation
                 mechanism; data privacy; disinter mediation protocol;
                 electronic money; financial data processing; key
                 management tool; Online banking; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; privacy-enhancing proposal; Proposals;
                 protocols; Protocols",
}

@Book{Bracey:2015:RPD,
  author =       "Earnest N. Bracey",
  title =        "The role of politics in the development of virtual
                 {Bitcoin} currency",
  publisher =    "The Edwin Mellen Press",
  address =      "Lewiston, New York",
  pages =        "xviii + 223",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-4955-0353-4 (hardcover)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4955-0353-5 (hardcover)",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .B7293 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Bitcoin; Banks and
                 banking; Government policy; Monetary policy",
}

@Article{Bradbury:2015:BSB,
  author =       "D. Bradbury",
  title =        "In blocks [Security {Bitcoin}]",
  journal =      "Engineering Technology",
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "68--71",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1049/et.2015.0208",
  ISSN =         "1750-9637 (print), 1750-9645 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1750-9637",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; blockchain; computer crime; cryptography;
                 double spending; electronic money; interoperability;
                 open systems; risk management; risk reduction; users
                 funds security",
}

@Article{Briere:2015:VCT,
  author =       "Marie Bri{\`e}re and Kim Oosterlinck and Ariane
                 Szafarz",
  title =        "Virtual currency, tangible return: Portfolio
                 diversification with {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      j-J-ASSET-MANAGE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "365--373",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/jam.2015.5",
  ISSN =         "1470-8272 (print), 1479-179X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1470-8272",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/jam.2015.5;
                 http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/paper.cfm?abstract_id=2324780",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Asset Management",
}

@Book{Caetano:2015:LBE,
  author =       "Richard Caetano",
  title =        "Learning {Bitcoin}: embrace the new world of flance by
                 leveraging the power of crypto-currencies using
                 {Bitcoin} and Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-PACKT,
  address =      pub-PACKT:adr,
  pages =        "xi + 211",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-78528-730-3 (paperback), 1-78528-615-3 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-78528-730-5 (paperback), 978-1-78528-615-5
                 (e-book)",
  LCCN =         "HF5548.32 .C34 2015eb",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:53:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "Community experience distilled",
  abstract =     "Embrace the new world of fiance by leveraging the
                 power of crypto-currencies using Bitcoin and the
                 Blockchain About This Book * Set up your own wallet,
                 buy and sell Bitcoin, and execute custom transactions
                 on the Blockchain * Leverage the power of Bitcoin to
                 reduce transaction costs and eliminate fraud * A
                 practical step-by-step guide to break down the Bitcoin
                 technology to ensure safe transactions Who This Book Is
                 For If you are familiar with online banking and want to
                 expand your finances into a resilient and transparent
                 currency, this book is ideal for you. A basic
                 understanding of online wallets and financial systems
                 will be highly beneficial to unravel the mysteries of
                 Bitcoin. What You Will Learn * Set up your wallet and
                 buy a Bitcoin in a flash while understanding the basics
                 of addresses and transactions * Acquire the knack of
                 buying, selling, and trading Bitcoins with online
                 marketplaces * Secure and protect your Bitcoins from
                 online theft using Brainwallets and cold storage *
                 Understand how Bitcoin's underlying technology, the
                 Blockchain, works with simple illustrations and
                 explanations * Configure your own Bitcoin node and
                 execute common operations on the network * Discover
                 various aspects of mining Bitcoin and how to set up
                 your own mining rig * Dive deeper into Bitcoin and
                 write scripts and multi-signature transactions on the
                 network * Explore the various alt-coins and get to know
                 how to compare them and their value In Detail The
                 financial crisis of 2008 raised attention to the need
                 for transparency and accountability in the financial
                 world. As banks and governments were scrambling to stay
                 solvent while seeking a sustainable plan, a powerfully
                 new and resilient technology emerged. Bitcoin, built on
                 a fundamentally new technology called ``The
                 Blockchain,'' offered the promise of a new financial
                 system where transactions are sent directly between two
                 parties without the need for central control. Bitcoin
                 exists as an open and transparent financial system
                 without banks, governments, or corporate support.
                 Simply put, Bitcoin is ``programmable money'' that has
                 the potential to change the world on the same scale as
                 the Internet itself. This book arms you with immense
                 knowledge of Bitcoin and helps you implement the
                 technology in your money matters, enabling secure
                 transactions. We first walk through the fundamentals of
                 Bitcoin, illustrate how the technology works, and
                 exemplify how to interact with this powerful and new
                 financial technology. You will learn how to set up your
                 online Bitcoin wallet, indulge in buying and selling of
                 bitcoins, and manage their storage. We then get to
                 grips with the most powerful algorithm of all times:
                 the Blockchain, and learn how crypto-currencies can
                 reduce the risk of fraud for e-commerce merchants and
                 consumers. With a solid base of Blockchain, you will
                 write and execute your own custom transactions. Most
                 importantly, you will be able to protect and secure
                 your Bitcoin with the help of effective solutions
                 provided in the book. Packed with plenty of
                 screenshots, Learning Bitcoin is a simple and painless
                 guide to working with Bitcoin. Style and approach This
                 is an easy-to-follow guide to working with Bitcoin and
                 the Blockchain technology. This book is ideal for
                 anyone who wants to learn the basics of Bitcoin and
                 explore how to set up their own transactions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Betalingsformidling; Bitcoin; Electronic commerce;
                 Electronic funds transfers; Exchange; M$^2$ntfod;
                 Money",
}

@Book{Capaccioli:2015:CBU,
  author =       "Stefano Capaccioli",
  title =        "Criptovalute e {Bitcoin}: un'analisi giuridica.
                 ({Italian}) [{Cryptocurrencies} and {Bitcoins}: a legal
                 analysis]",
  volume =       "4",
  publisher =    "Giuffr{\`e} Editore",
  address =      "Milano, Italy",
  pages =        "xvi + 285",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "88-14-20698-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-88-14-20698-6",
  LCCN =         "KKH961 .C37 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "Informatica giuridica",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "Italian",
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Law and legislation;
                 Italy; Electronic commerce; Currency question; Bitcoin;
                 Cryptography",
}

@InProceedings{Carmona:2015:BCF,
  author =       "Anais Carmona",
  booktitle =    "Evolution of Cyber Technologies and Operations to
                 2035",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin}: The Currency of the Future, Fuel of
                 Terror",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "127--135",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23585-1_9",
  ISBN =         "3-319-23585-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-23585-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-23585-1_9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Cheah:2015:SBB,
  author =       "Eng-Tuck Cheah and John Fry",
  title =        "Speculative bubbles in {Bitcoin} markets? {An}
                 empirical investigation into the fundamental value of
                 {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      j-ECONOM-LETT,
  volume =       "130",
  pages =        "32--36",
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "ECLEDS",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2015.02.029",
  ISSN =         "0165-1765 (print), 1873-7374 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0165-1765",
  MRclass =      "91G80",
  MRnumber =     "3336157",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Economics Letters",
  journal-URL =  "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01651765",
}

@Article{Churchill:2015:WSW,
  author =       "Elizabeth F. Churchill",
  title =        "Why Should We Care About {Bitcoin}?",
  journal =      j-INTERACTIONS,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "20--21",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "IERAE3",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810199",
  ISSN =         "1072-5520 (print), 1558-3449 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1072-5520",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2810199",
  fjournal =     "Interactions (New York, NY)",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{Courtois:2015:DBM,
  author =       "N. T. Courtois and P. Emirdag and Z. Wang",
  booktitle =    "2015 International Conference on Information Systems
                 Security and Privacy (ICISSP)",
  title =        "On detection of {Bitcoin} mining redirection attacks",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "98--105",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Crypto Currencies; Cryptography;
                 Double-spending attacks; e-Payment; Hash Functions;
                 History; Man-In-the-Middle Attacks; Online banking;
                 Peer-to-peer computing; Protocols; Stratum Protocol;
                 Switches",
}

@Article{Crary:2015:PPA,
  author =       "Karl Crary and Michael J. Sullivan",
  title =        "Peer-to-peer affine commitment using {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "50",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "479--488",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2813885.2737997",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 16 12:01:41 MST 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigplan2010.bib",
  abstract =     "The power of linear and affine logic lies in their
                 ability to model state change. However, in a trustless,
                 peer-to-peer setting, it is difficult to force
                 principals to commit to state changes. We show how to
                 solve the peer-to-peer affine commitment problem using
                 a generalization of Bitcoin in which transactions deal
                 in types rather than numbers. This has applications to
                 proof-carrying authorization and mechanically
                 executable contracts. Importantly, our system can
                 be---and is---implemented on top of the existing
                 Bitcoin network, so there is no need to recruit
                 computing power to a new protocol.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  remark =       "PLDI '15 conference proceedings.",
}

@InProceedings{Dagher:2015:PPP,
  author =       "Gaby G. Dagher and Benedikt B{\"u}nz and Joseph
                 Bonneau and Jeremy Clark and Dan Boneh",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Provisions: Privacy-preserving Proofs of Solvency for
                 {Bitcoin} Exchanges",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "720--731",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810103.2813674",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3832-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3832-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2813674",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, exchange services, solvency, zero knowledge",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InCollection{Decker:2015:FSP,
  author =       "Christian Decker and Roger Wattenhofer",
  booktitle =    "Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed
                 Systems",
  title =        "A Fast and Scalable Payment Network with {Bitcoin}
                 Duplex Micropayment Channels",
  volume =       "9212",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "3--18",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21741-3_1",
  ISBN =         "3-319-21741-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-21741-3",
  MRclass =      "68P30 (68M11)",
  MRnumber =     "3420253",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-21741-3_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Decker:2015:MBE,
  author =       "Christian Decker and James Guthrie and Jochen Seidel
                 and Roger Wattenhofer",
  booktitle =    "Computer Security --- ESORICS 2015",
  title =        "Making {Bitcoin} Exchanges Transparent",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "561--576",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24177-7_28",
  ISBN =         "3-319-24177-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-24177-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-24177-7_28",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{DuPont:2015:TAB,
  author =       "Jules DuPont and Anna Cinzia Squicciarini",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Data and
                 Application Security and Privacy",
  title =        "Toward De-Anonymizing {Bitcoin} by Mapping Users
                 Location",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "139--141",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2699026.2699128",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3191-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3191-3",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CODASPY '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2699128",
  keywords =     "bitcoin",
  location =     "San Antonio, Texas, USA",
  pagecount =    "3",
}

@InProceedings{Dziembowski:2015:IC,
  author =       "Stefan Dziembowski",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Introduction to Cryptocurrencies",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1700--1701",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810103.2812704",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3832-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3832-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2812704",
  keywords =     "cryptocurrencies, distributed cryptography",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{Easwaran:2015:BDI,
  author =       "Soumya Easwaran and Manu Dixit and Sitabhra Sinha",
  booktitle =    "Econophysics and Data Driven Modelling of Market
                 Dynamics",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Dynamics: The {{\em Inverse Square Law\/}}
                 of Price Fluctuations and Other Stylized Facts",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "121--128",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08473-2_4",
  ISBN =         "3-319-08473-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-08473-2",
  MRclass =      "91B24 (91B84)",
  MRnumber =     "3362952",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "New Econ. Windows",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-08473-2_4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Edwards:2015:FBP,
  author =       "C. Edwards",
  title =        "Finance --- {Bitcoin} price crash finds new victims",
  journal =      "Engineering Technology",
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19--19",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1049/et.2015.0220",
  ISSN =         "1750-9637 (print), 1750-9645 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1750-9637",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Eskandari:2015:FLU,
  author =       "Shayan Eskandari and David Barrera and Elizabeth
                 Stobert and Jeremy Clark",
  editor =       "????",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the Workshop on Usable Security (USEC
                 15), 8 February 2015, San Diego, CA, USA}",
  title =        "A first look at the usability of {Bitcoin} key
                 management",
  publisher =    "Internet Society",
  address =      "Reston, VA, USA",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.14722/usec.2015.23015",
  ISBN =         "1-891562-40-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-891562-40-2",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:43:46 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://users.encs.concordia.ca/~clark/papers/2015_usec.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Eyal:2015:MD,
  author =       "Ittay Eyal",
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "{2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy:
                 Proceedings. 18--20 May, 2015, San Jose, California,
                 USA}",
  title =        "The Miner's Dilemma",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "89--103",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2015.13",
  ISBN =         "1-4673-6949-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4673-6949-7",
  ISSN =         "1081-6011",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 07:44:46 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Florian:2015:SRP,
  author =       "Martin Florian and Johannes Walter and Ingmar
                 Baumgart",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 14th ACM Workshop on Privacy in the
                 Electronic Society",
  title =        "{Sybil}-Resistant Pseudonymization and Pseudonym
                 Change Without Trusted Third Parties",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "65--74",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2808138.2808145",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3820-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3820-2",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "WPES '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2808145",
  keywords =     "blacklisting, block chain, pseudonym, sybil attack",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@InProceedings{Garay:2015:BBP,
  author =       "Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} backbone protocol: analysis and
                 applications",
  crossref =     "Oswald:2015:ACE",
  pages =        "281--310",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-46803-6_10",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3344957",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-46803-6_10;
                 https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/765.pdf",
  ZMnumber =     "06487821; 1371.94636",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Garcia:2015:SSA,
  author =       "David Garcia and Frank Schweitzer",
  title =        "Social signals and algorithmic trading of {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      "Royal Society Open Science",
  volume =       "2",
  pages =        "150288",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150288",
  ISSN =         "2054-5703",
  MRclass =      "68P99 (91B24 91D99)",
  MRnumber =     "3420956",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "R. Soc. Open Sci.",
  fjournal =     "Royal Society Open Science",
  pagecount =    "13",
}

@InProceedings{Gervais:2015:TDB,
  author =       "Arthur Gervais and Hubert Ritzdorf and Ghassan O.
                 Karame and Srdjan {\v{C}}apkun",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Tampering with the Delivery of Blocks and Transactions
                 in {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "692--705",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810103.2813655",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3832-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3832-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2813655",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, countermeasures., preventing object
                 delivery",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "14",
}

@InProceedings{Giaglis:2015:MIB,
  author =       "G. Giaglis",
  booktitle =    "2015 International Conference on Evaluation of Novel
                 Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE)",
  title =        "Money-over-{IP} from {Bitcoin} to smart contracts and
                 {M2M} money",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "IS-5--IS-5",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Godsiff:2015:BBB,
  author =       "Philip Godsiff",
  booktitle =    "Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and
                 Applications",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: Bubble or Blockchain?",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "191--203",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-19728-9_16",
  ISBN =         "3-319-19728-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-19728-9",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-19728-9_16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Gutoski:2015:HDB,
  author =       "Gus Gutoski and Douglas Stebila",
  title =        "Hierarchical Deterministic {Bitcoin} Wallets that
                 Tolerate Key Leakage",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "497--504",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-47854-7_31",
  ISBN =         "3-662-47854-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-47854-7",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3395040",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-47854-7_31",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Haferkorn:2015:SIW,
  author =       "Martin Haferkorn and Josu{\'e} Manuel {Quintana
                 Diaz}",
  booktitle =    "Enterprise Applications and Services in the Finance
                 Industry",
  title =        "Seasonality and Interconnectivity Within
                 Cryptocurrencies --- An Analysis on the Basis of
                 {Bitcoin}, {Litecoin} and {Namecoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "106--120",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28151-3_8",
  ISBN =         "3-319-28151-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-28151-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-28151-3_8",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Hencic:2015:NAM,
  author =       "Andrew Hencic and Christian Gouri{\'e}roux",
  booktitle =    "Econometrics of Risk",
  title =        "Noncausal Autoregressive Model in Application to
                 {Bitcoin\slash USD} Exchange Rates",
  volume =       "583",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "17--40",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-13449-9_2",
  ISBN =         "3-319-13449-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-13449-9",
  MRclass =      "91G80",
  MRnumber =     "3330383",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "Stud. Comput. Intell.",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-13449-9_2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{HenriquezHerrera:2015:CNP,
  author =       "Ian {Henr{\'i}quez Herrera} and Cristi{\'a}n Aedo",
  title =        "La compraventa: nuevas perspectivas doctrinarias.
                 ({Spanish}) [{The} sale: new doctrinal perspectives]",
  publisher =    "Thomson Reuters",
  address =      "Santiago, Chile",
  pages =        "ii + 229",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "956-346-734-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-956-346-734-5",
  LCCN =         "KHF868 .C66 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "Thomson Reuters La Ley. Monograf\'ias",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "Spanish",
  subject =      "Sales; Chile; Vendors and purchasers",
  tableofcontents = "Cu{\'a}l es el contenido de la obligaci{\'o}n de
                 entrega del vendedor en el Derecho Chileno? /
                 Cristi{\'a}n Aedo Barrena \\
                 La obligaci{\'o}n esencial del vendedor es transferir
                 el dominio / Jos{\'e} Joaqu{\'i}n Ugarte Godoy \\
                 Los requisitos del vicio redhibitorio en la compraventa
                 seg{\'u}n el C{\'o}digo Civil Chileno / Jorge Oviedo
                 Alb{\'a}n \\
                 Una mirada a la calidad de las cosas en la praxis
                 judicial. Su evoluci{\'o}n desde los vicios
                 redhibitorios hasta la inejecuci{\'o}n imprefecta de la
                 obligaci{\'o}n de entrega / Francisca Mar{\'i}a
                 Barrientos Camus \\
                 La resoluci{\'o}n por incumplimiento como medios de
                 tutela anticipatorios del acreedor. Lectura desde los
                 instrumentos de derecho contractual uniforme hacia la
                 compraventa del C{\'o}digo Civil y de Comercio Chileno
                 / Juan Ignacio Contardo Gonz{\'a}lez \\
                 La compraventa mediante contrato de confecci{\'o}n de
                 obra material / Lilian C. San Mart{\'i}n Neira \\
                 Bitcoin --- De la Compraventa de Criptodivisas /
                 {\'A}lvaro Espinosa V{\'a}squez",
}

@InProceedings{Herrera-Joancomarti:2015:RCB,
  author =       "Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'\i}",
  booktitle =    "Data Privacy Management, Autonomous Spontaneous
                 Security, and Security Assurance",
  title =        "Research and Challenges on {Bitcoin} Anonymity",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "3--16",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17016-9_1",
  ISBN =         "3-319-17016-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-17016-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-17016-9_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Hileman:2015:BMP,
  author =       "Garrick Hileman",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} Market Potential Index",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "92--93",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_7",
  ISBN =         "3-662-48051-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-48051-9",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3440769",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_7",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Hollander:2015:BNO,
  author =       "Barbara Gottfried Hollander",
  title =        "{Bitcoins}: navigating open source currency",
  publisher =    "Rosen Publishing",
  address =      "New York, NY, USA",
  pages =        "48",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-4777-7930-2 (library bound), 1-4777-7931-0
                 (paperback), 1-4777-7932-9 (6pack)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4777-7930-9 (library bound), 978-1-4777-7931-6
                 (paperback), 978-1-4777-7932-3 (6pack)",
  LCCN =         "HG221.5 .H65 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "Digital and information literacy",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Money; Juvenile literature; Tokens; Exchange;
                 Electronic commerce; Virtual reality; Economic
                 aspects",
  tableofcontents = "Currency of the future \\
                 Bitcoins in action \\
                 Got bitcoin? \\
                 Bitcoin backers \\
                 Will the bubble burst?",
}

@Article{Karame:2015:MBS,
  author =       "Ghassan O. Karame and Elli Androulaki and Marc
                 Roeschlin and Arthur Gervais and Srdjan {\v{C}}apkun",
  title =        "Misbehavior in {Bitcoin}: a Study of Double-Spending
                 and Accountability",
  journal =      j-TISSEC,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:32",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "ATISBQ",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2732196",
  ISSN =         "1094-9224 (print), 1557-7406 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1094-9224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 10 08:04:25 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tissec.bib",
  abstract =     "Bitcoin is a decentralized payment system that relies
                 on Proof-of-Work (PoW) to resist double-spending
                 through a distributed timestamping service. To ensure
                 the operation and security of Bitcoin, it is essential
                 that all transactions and their order of execution are
                 available to all Bitcoin users. Unavoidably, in such a
                 setting, the security of transactions comes at odds
                 with transaction privacy. Motivated by the fact that
                 transaction confirmation in Bitcoin requires tens of
                 minutes, we analyze the conditions for performing
                 successful double-spending attacks against fast
                 payments in Bitcoin, where the time between the
                 exchange of currency and goods is short (in the order
                 of a minute). We show that unless new detection
                 techniques are integrated in the Bitcoin
                 implementation, double-spending attacks on fast
                 payments succeed with considerable probability and can
                 be mounted at low cost. We propose a new and
                 lightweight countermeasure that enables the detection
                 of double-spending attacks in fast transactions. In
                 light of such misbehavior, accountability becomes
                 crucial. We show that in the specific case of Bitcoin,
                 accountability complements privacy. To illustrate this
                 tension, we provide accountability and privacy
                 definition for Bitcoin, and we investigate analytically
                 and empirically the privacy and accountability
                 provisions in Bitcoin.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information and System Security",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J789",
}

@Book{Kelly:2015:BBB,
  author =       "Brian Kelly",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} big bang: how alternative currencies are
                 about to change the world",
  publisher =    pub-WILEY,
  address =      pub-WILEY:adr,
  pages =        "xv + 224",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-118-96366-0 (hardcover), 1-118-96364-4 (ePDF),
                 1-118-96365-2 (ePub)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-118-96366-1 (hardcover), 978-1-118-96364-7
                 (ePDF), 978-1-118-96365-4 (ePub)",
  LCCN =         "HF5548.32 .K447 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  author-dates = "1971--",
  subject =      "Electronic commerce; Electronic funds transfers;
                 Money; Exchange; BUSINESS and ECONOMICS / Investments
                 and Securities.",
  tableofcontents = "Preface / xi \\
                 Acknowledgments / xiii \\
                 About the Author / xv \\
                 Chapter 1 \\
                 Bitcoin Is a Bubble / 1 \\
                 The Quest to Buy Bitcoin / 3 \\
                 Bitcoin Enlightenment / 6 \\
                 Currencies Are a Matter of Trust / 8 \\
                 What Is Bitcoin? / 10 \\
                 Is It a Currency? / 13 \\
                 It's Revolutionary / / 17 \\
                 \\
                 Chapter 2 \\
                 Understanding the Digital Gold Rush / 19 \\
                 The Language of Bitcoin / 22 \\
                 How Do I Buy Bitcoin? / 26 \\
                 Who ``Gets'' It? / 30 \\
                 The Gold Rush Is Just Starting / 31 \\
                 Chapter 3 \\
                 Bitcoin Is More than Digital Gold / 33 \\
                 Searching for Satoshi / 34 \\
                 The Search / 37 \\
                 Why Is Satoshi a Genius? / 44 \\
                 Bigger than Satoshi / 46 \\
                 Chapter 4 \\
                 Byzantine Generals' Problem / 49 \\
                 How Does Bitcoin Solve the BGP? / 52 \\
                 / 51 \\
                 Percent Attack / 55 \\
                 An Elegant Solution / 57 \\
                 Chapter 5 \\
                 A Decentralized Financial System / 59 \\
                 Grand De-Central Station / 63 \\
                 What's at Stake? / 69 \\
                 Central Banks / 72 \\
                 Bitcoin Is the Catalyst / 73 \\
                 Chapter 6 \\
                 What Do You Call a Bitcoin Miner? A Banker / 75 \\
                 How Does a Bitcoin Transaction Work? / 77 \\
                 What Is Cryptography? / 78 \\
                 Still Want to Be a Miner? / 82 \\
                 Do We Need Another Bitcoin? / 88 \\
                 Chapter 7 \\
                 Nautiluscoin -- 0 to \$1 Million in 60 Days / 91 \\
                 Creating the Coin / 94 \\
                 Did It Work? / 104 \\
                 Chapter 8 \\
                 Building the Nautiluscoin Economy / 107 \\
                 Dynamic Proof-of-Stake / 110 \\
                 Other Policy Tools / 113 \\
                 Alternative to Gold / 115 \\
                 Money, Made Better / 116 \\
                 Financial Market Integration / 117 \\
                 Special Drawing Rights / 119 \\
                 Why NAUT? / 119 \\
                 Chapter 9 \\
                 Investing and Trading in Alternative Currencies / 121
                 \\
                 A New Investment Class / 123 \\
                 Valuation / 129 \\
                 Exchanges / 133 \\
                 Investment Vehicles / 134 \\
                 Asset Class Growth / 136 \\
                 Chapter 10 \\
                 Regulation / 139 \\
                 Regulatory Agencies / 140 \\
                 Challenges to Regulation / 147 \\
                 Pushing on a String / 147 \\
                 Chapter 11 \\
                 Smart Money: Set It and Forget It / 149 \\
                 Rules of the Road / 151 \\
                 Smart Contracts and Property / 152 \\
                 Ethereum / 155 \\
                 Cryptoequities: A New Type of Investment / 160 \\
                 Decentralized Autonomous Organizations / 161 \\
                 Professor Money / 162 \\
                 Chapter 12 \\
                 Everything You Know about Business Is Wrong / 163 \\
                 Cryptonomics / 166 \\
                 Growth Share Matrix / 169 \\
                 Learning Curve Effects / 171 \\
                 Porter's Three Generic Strategies / 172 \\
                 Human Resource Management / 173 \\
                 Fueling the Sharing Economy / 174 \\
                 The Future Just Might Work / 176 \\
                 Appendix 1 \\
                 Department of the Treasury Financial Crimes Enforcement
                 Network Guidance FIN-20 / 13 \\
                 -G00 / 1 \\
                 Issued: March 18, / 2013 \\
                 Subject: Application of FinCEN's Regulations to Persons
                 Administering, Exchanging, or Using Virtual Currencies
                 / 179 \\
                 Currency vs. Virtual Currency / 180 \\
                 Background / 180 \\
                 Definitions of User, Exchanger, and Administrator / 181
                 \\
                 Users of Virtual Currency / 181 \\
                 Administrators and Exchangers of Virtual Currency / 182
                 \\
                 Providers and Sellers of Prepaid Access / 185 \\
                 Dealers in Foreign Exchange / 186 \\
                 Appendix 2 \\
                 New York State Department of Financial Services
                 Proposed New York Codes, Rules and Regulations Title /
                 23 \\
                 Department of Financial Services Chapter I \\
                 Regulations of the Superintendent of Financial Services
                 Part / 200 \\
                 Virtual Currencies / 187 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 1 Introduction / 188 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 2 Definitions / 188 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 3 License / 190 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 4 Application / 191 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 5 Application Fees / 193 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 6 Action by Superintendent / 193 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 7 Compliance / 195 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 8 Capital Requirements / 196 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 9 Custody and Protection of Customer Assets / 197 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 10 Material Change to Business / 197 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 11 Change of Control; Mergers and Acquisitions / 198
                 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 12 Books and Records / 200 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 13 Examinations / 201 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 14 Reports and Financial Disclosures / 202 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 15 Anti-Money Laundering Program / 203 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 16 Cyber Security Program / 207 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 17 Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery / 210 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 18 Advertising and Marketing / 211 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 19 Consumer Protection / 212 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 20 Complaints / 215 \\
                 Section / 200 \\
                 21 Transitional Period / 215 \\
                 Index / 217",
}

@Article{Khan:2015:BPM,
  author =       "Akif Khan",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} -- payment method or fraud prevention
                 tool?",
  journal =      "Computer Fraud \& Security",
  volume =       "2015",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "16--19",
  day =          "8",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1361-3723 (print), 1873-7056 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1361-3723",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:04:29 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361372315300385",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer Fraud \& Security",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13613723",
}

@InProceedings{Kiayias:2015:TDS,
  author =       "Aggelos Kiayias and Qiang Tang",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Traitor Deterring Schemes: Using {Bitcoin} As
                 Collateral for Digital Content",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "231--242",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810103.2813698",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3832-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3832-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2813698",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, digital rights management, key management,
                 public-key cryptography, self-enforcement",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Kong:2015:PSI,
  author =       "Weize Kong and Rui Li and Jie Luo and Aston Zhang and
                 Yi Chang and James Allan",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 38th International ACM SIGIR
                 Conference on Research and Development in Information
                 Retrieval",
  title =        "Predicting Search Intent Based on Pre-Search Context",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "503--512",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2766462.2767757",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3621-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3621-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SIGIR '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2767757",
  keywords =     "pre-search context, query auto-completion, query
                 prediction, search context, search intent",
  location =     "Santiago, Chile",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@Article{Kraft:2015:DCB,
  author =       "Daniel Kraft",
  title =        "Difficulty control for blockchain-based consensus
                 systems",
  journal =      "Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications",
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "397--413",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12083-015-0347-x",
  ISSN =         "1936-6442 (print), 1936-6450 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1936-6442",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/12083",
}

@InProceedings{Kumaresan:2015:HUB,
  author =       "Ranjit Kumaresan and Tal Moran and Iddo Bentov",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "How to Use {Bitcoin} to Play Decentralized Poker",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "195--206",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810103.2813712",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3832-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3832-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2813712",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, markets, poker, secure computation, smart
                 contracts",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Laszka:2015:WBM,
  author =       "Aron Laszka and Benjamin Johnson and Jens Grossklags",
  title =        "When {Bitcoin} Mining Pools Run Dry: A Game-Theoretic
                 Analysis of the Long-Term Impact of Attacks Between
                 Mining Pools",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "63--77",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_5",
  ISBN =         "3-662-48051-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-48051-9",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3440767",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Lee:2015:HDC,
  editor =       "David (David Kuo Chen) Lee",
  title =        "Handbook of digital currency: {Bitcoin}, innovation,
                 financial instruments, and big data",
  publisher =    "Elsevier/ AP",
  address =      "Amsterdam, The Netherlands",
  pages =        "xxiv + 588",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "0-12-802117-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-12-802117-0",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .H32 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Bitcoin; Electronic
                 commerce",
}

@InProceedings{Lerner:2015:AUQ,
  author =       "Adam Lerner and Alisha Saxena and Kirk Ouimet and Ben
                 Turley and Anthony Vance and Tadayoshi Kohno and
                 Franziska Roesner",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 13th Annual International
                 Conference on Mobile Systems, Applications, and
                 Services",
  title =        "Analyzing the Use of Quick Response Codes in the
                 Wild",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "359--374",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2742647.2742650",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3494-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3494-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "MobiSys '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2742650",
  keywords =     "barcodes, empirical studies, mobile computing, mobile
                 malware, qr codes, ubiquitous computing",
  location =     "Florence, Italy",
  pagecount =    "16",
}

@InProceedings{Lewenberg:2015:BMP,
  author =       "Yoad Lewenberg and Yoram Bachrach and Yonatan
                 Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar and Jeffrey S. Rosenschein",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on
                 Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Mining Pools: A Cooperative Game Theoretic
                 Analysis",
  publisher =    "International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and
                 Multiagent Systems",
  address =      "Richland, SC",
  pages =        "919--927",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3413-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3413-6",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "AAMAS '15",
  URL =          "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2772879.2773270",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2773270",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, cooperative game, game theory, mining pool",
  location =     "Istanbul, Turkey",
  pagecount =    "9",
}

@Book{Lewis:2015:UPS,
  author =       "Mervyn K. Lewis",
  title =        "Understanding {Ponzi} schemes: can better financial
                 regulation prevent investors from being defrauded?",
  publisher =    "Edward Elgar publishing",
  address =      "Cheltenham, UK",
  pages =        "ix + 190",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-78254-909-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-78254-909-3",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "New horizons in money and finance",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  tableofcontents = "1. An outline of the book \\
                 2. How do Ponzi schemes work? Comparing them to other
                 financial activities \\
                 3. Charles Ponzi's scheme re-examined \\
                 4. Bernard Madoff and the `mother of all Ponzi schemes'
                 \\
                 5. Allen Stanford: the cricketing impresario \\
                 6. Five other case studies: from shaking down the FBI
                 to bitcoin fraud \\
                 7. Preying on the Amish \\
                 8. What can behavioural finance tell us? \\
                 9. What would psychologists say? \\
                 10. What can be done about Ponzi schemes? \\
                 11. Summary and conclusions",
}

@InProceedings{Lindley:2015:CHD,
  author =       "Joseph Lindley",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2015 ACM SIGCHI Conference on
                 Creativity and Cognition",
  title =        "Crypto Heater: A Design Fiction",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "355--356",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2757226.2757367",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3598-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3598-0",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "C \& C '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2757367",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, design fiction, diegetic prototypes",
  location =     "Glasgow, United Kingdom",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{Lustig:2015:AAC,
  author =       "C. Lustig and B. Nardi",
  booktitle =    "2015 48th Hawaii International Conference on System
                 Sciences",
  title =        "Algorithmic Authority: The Case of {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "743--752",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2015.95",
  ISSN =         "1530-1605",
  ISSN-L =       "1530-1605",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "algorithmic authority; authority; crypto-currency;
                 Cryptocurrency; Cryptography; cryptography; cultural
                 aspects; financial data processing; Government;
                 Heuristic algorithms; Interviews; Online banking;
                 payment platform; Software; Software algorithms; trust;
                 trusted computing; user culture; {Bitcoin}",
}

@InProceedings{Luu:2015:DIC,
  author =       "Loi Luu and Jason Teutsch and Raghav Kulkarni and
                 Prateek Saxena",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "Demystifying Incentives in the Consensus Computer",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "706--719",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810103.2813659",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3832-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3832-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '15",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2810103.2813659",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2813659",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, consensus computer, cryptocurrency, Ethereum,
                 incentive compatibility, verifiable computation",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "14",
}

@InProceedings{Luu:2015:PSG,
  author =       "L. Luu and R. Saha and I. Parameshwaran and P. Saxena
                 and A. Hobor",
  booktitle =    "2015 IEEE 28th Computer Security Foundations
                 Symposium",
  title =        "On Power Splitting Games in Distributed Computation:
                 The Case of {Bitcoin} Pooled Mining",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "397--411",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/CSF.2015.34",
  ISSN =         "1063-6900 (print), 2377-5459 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1063-6900",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Analytical models; attack strategy; bitcoin pooled
                 mining; block withholding attack; competitive
                 distributed computation; Computational modeling;
                 computational power splitting game; Cryptocurrency;
                 cryptographic protocols; Cryptography; data mining;
                 desktop machine; Distributed computation; electronic
                 money; financial reward; game theory; game-theoretic
                 analysis; Games; Internet; mixed strategy; Online
                 banking; pool protocol; Protocols; public pool;
                 {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} crypto currency; {Bitcoin}
                 network; {Bitcoin} pool",
}

@InProceedings{Mann:2015:TFA,
  author =       "Christopher Mann and Daniel Loebenberger",
  booktitle =    "Security and Trust Management",
  title =        "Two-Factor Authentication for the {Bitcoin} Protocol",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "155--171",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24858-5_10",
  ISBN =         "3-319-24858-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-24858-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-24858-5_10",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Matl:2015:EMM,
  author =       "Lubos Matl and Tomas Cerny and Michael J. Donahoo",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 30th Annual ACM Symposium on
                 Applied Computing",
  title =        "Effective Manycast Messaging for {Kademlia} Network",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "646--652",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2695664.2695903",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3196-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3196-8",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SAC '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2695903",
  keywords =     "DHT, P2P, communication, distributed systems,
                 key-based search, performance",
  location =     "Salamanca, Spain",
  pagecount =    "7",
}

@InProceedings{Matta:2015:PIW,
  author =       "M. Matta and I. Lunesu and M. Marchesi",
  booktitle =    "2015 7th International Joint Conference on Knowledge
                 Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge
                 Management (IC3K)",
  title =        "The predictor impact of {Web} search media on
                 {Bitcoin} trading volumes",
  volume =       "01",
  number =       "",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "620--626",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Correlation; Cross Correlation Analysis;
                 Google; Google Trends; Market research; Media; Online
                 banking; Search engines; Time series analysis; Web
                 Search Media",
}

@InProceedings{Maxwell:2015:EIO,
  author =       "Deborah Maxwell and Chris Speed and Dug Campbell",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2015 British HCI Conference}",
  title =        "`{Effing}' the Ineffable: Opening Up Understandings of
                 the Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "208--209",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2783446.2783593",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3643-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3643-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "British HCI '15",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2783446.2783593",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2783593",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, blockchain, creativity, design, making",
  location =     "Lincoln, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{McCorry:2015:AKE,
  author =       "Patrick McCorry and Siamak F. Shahandashti and Dylan
                 Clarke and Feng Hao",
  booktitle =    "Security Standardisation Research",
  title =        "Authenticated Key Exchange over {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "3--20",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-27152-1_1",
  ISBN =         "3-319-27152-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-27152-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-27152-1_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Meiklejohn:2015:PEO,
  author =       "Sarah Meiklejohn and Claudio Orlandi",
  title =        "Privacy-Enhancing Overlays in {Bitcoin}",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "127--141",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_10",
  ISBN =         "3-662-48051-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-48051-9",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3440772",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_10",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Melara:2015:CBK,
  author =       "Marcela S. Melara and Aaron Blankstein and Joseph
                 Bonneau and Edward W. Felten and Michael J. Freedman",
  editor =       "{USENIX}",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 24th Usenix Security Symposium,
                 August 12--14, 2015, Washington, DC, 2015}",
  title =        "{CONIKS}: Bringing key transparency to end users",
  publisher =    pub-USENIX,
  address =      pub-USENIX:adr,
  pages =        "383--398",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-931971-23-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-931971-23-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:32:06 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.usenix.org/system/files/conference/usenixsecurity15/sec15-paper-melara.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Miller:2015:NSP,
  author =       "Andrew Miller and Ahmed Kosba and Jonathan Katz and
                 Elaine Shi",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Nonoutsourceable Scratch-Off Puzzles to Discourage
                 {Bitcoin} Mining Coalitions",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "680--691",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810103.2813621",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3832-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3832-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2813621",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, puzzles, zero knowledge",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@Book{Miller:2015:UGB,
  author =       "Michael Miller",
  title =        "The ultimate guide to {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-QUE,
  address =      pub-QUE:adr,
  pages =        "xii + 227",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "0-7897-5324-3 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7897-5324-3 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "HG221 .M6455 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  author-dates = "1958--",
  subject =      "Money; Electronic funds transfers; Electronic
                 commerce; Electronic commerce; Electronic funds
                 transfers; Money",
}

@Article{Miscione:2015:BBC,
  author =       "Gianluca Miscione and Donncha Kavanagh",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} and the Blockchain: A Coup d'{{\'E}}tat in
                 Digital Heterotopia?",
  journal =      "{SSRN} Electronic Journal",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2624922",
  ISSN =         "1556-5068",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 20 16:45:42 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "Presented at \booktitle{Critical Management Studies
                 Conference, Leicester (2015)}.",
}

@Book{Montalcini:2015:DTT,
  author =       "Fabio Montalcini and Camillo Sacchetto",
  title =        "Diritto tributario telematico",
  publisher =    "G. Giappichelli Editore",
  address =      "Torino",
  pages =        "xxx + 276",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "88-348-5539-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-88-348-5539-3",
  LCCN =         "KKH3558 .M668 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Tax administration and procedure; Italy; Data
                 processing; Electronic commerce; Taxation; Law and
                 legislation; Electronic funds transfers; Telematics",
  tableofcontents = "Documento informatico, firme elettroniche e valore
                 probatorio \\
                 Le firme elettroniche nei principali Paesi europei. La
                 sottoscrizione elettronica in ambito tributario
                 telematico \\
                 Fattura elettronica \\
                 Documenti doganali digitali \\
                 I principi di computer forensics e la prova digitale
                 \\
                 Il domicilio informatico e l'accesso abusivo a sistema
                 informatico \\
                 Privacy e accertamenti bancari \\
                 Stabile organizzazione ed e-commerce. Il peer to peer
                 \\
                 Diritto Tributario Telematico e il ``Bitcoin'' \\
                 Diritto Tributario Telematico e il Crowdfunding \\
                 Posta Elettronica Certificata. Elementi essenziali e
                 definizione \\
                 Posta Elettronica Certificata e notifica della cartella
                 di pagamento \\
                 Il Processo Tributario Telematico \\
                 Appendice. Diagrammi applicativi Processo Tributario
                 Telematico \\
                 Glossario tecnico-informatico e privacy",
}

@InProceedings{Moser:2015:TTT,
  author =       "Malte M{\"o}ser and Rainer B{\"o}hme",
  title =        "Trends, Tips, Tolls: A Longitudinal Study of {Bitcoin}
                 Transaction Fees",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "19--33",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_2",
  ISBN =         "3-662-48051-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-48051-9",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3440764",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_2;
                 http://ssrn.com/abstract=2530843",
  ZMnumber =     "06480534",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{MR3678694,
  author =       "Kaylash Chaudhary and Ansgar Fehnker and Jaco van de
                 Pol and Marielle Stoelinga",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings {Workshop} on {Models} for {Formal}
                 {Analysis} of {Real} {Systems}",
  title =        "Modeling and verification of the {Bitcoin} protocol",
  volume =       "196",
  publisher =    "EPTCS, [place of publication not identified]",
  pages =        "46--60",
  year =         "2015",
  MRclass =      "68Q60",
  MRnumber =     "3678694",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "Electron. Proc. Theor. Comput. Sci. (EPTCS)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Neudecker:2015:SMA,
  author =       "T. Neudecker and P. Andelfinger and H. Hartenstein",
  booktitle =    "{2015 IFIP\slash IEEE International Symposium on
                 Integrated Network Management (IM)}",
  title =        "A simulation model for analysis of attacks on the
                 {Bitcoin} peer-to-peer network",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1327--1332",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/INM.2015.7140490",
  ISSN =         "1573-0077",
  ISSN-L =       "1573-0077",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Analytical models; attacking nodes; attacks analysis;
                 bitcoin peer-to-peer network; bitcoin reference
                 implementation; Computational modeling; computer
                 network security; core segments; distributed electronic
                 currency system; electronic money; IP networks; message
                 propagation; Message systems; Network topology; Online
                 banking; peer-to-peer computing; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; simulation model; unmodified code",
}

@InProceedings{Norta:2015:CRL,
  author =       "Alex Norta and Anis Ben Othman and Kuldar Taveter",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2015 2Nd International Conference
                 on Electronic Governance and Open Society: Challenges
                 in Eurasia}",
  title =        "Conflict-Resolution Lifecycles for Governed
                 Decentralized Autonomous Organization Collaboration",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "244--257",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2846012.2846052",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4070-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4070-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "EGOSE '15",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2846012.2846052",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2846052",
  keywords =     "business process; conflict resolution; Decentralized
                 autonomous organization; e-governance; Industry 4.0;
                 open cloud ecosystem; service orientation; smart
                 contract",
  location =     "St. Petersburg, Russian Federation",
  pagecount =    "14",
}

@InProceedings{Pass:2015:MDC,
  author =       "Rafael Pass and abhi shelat",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Micropayments for Decentralized Currencies",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "207--218",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810103.2813713",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3832-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3832-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2813713",
  keywords =     "crypto-currency, micropayments",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@Article{Peck:2015:BNG,
  author =       "M. E. Peck",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} needs to get its act together [News]",
  journal =      j-IEEE-SPECTRUM,
  volume =       "52",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "9--11",
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "IEESAM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2015.7335883",
  ISSN =         "0018-9235 (print), 1939-9340 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9235",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Spectrum",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6",
  keywords =     "banks; bitcoin; financial data processing;
                 governments; payment processors; peer-to-peer
                 computing",
}

@Book{Popper:2015:DGB,
  author =       "Nathaniel Popper",
  title =        "Digital gold: {Bitcoin} and the inside story of the
                 misfits and millionaires trying to reinvent money",
  publisher =    "Harper",
  address =      "New York, NY",
  pages =        "xv + 398",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "0-06-236249-6 (hardcover)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-06-236249-0 (hardcover)",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .P68 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "``A New York Times technology and business reporter
                 charts the dramatic rise of Bitcoin and the fascinating
                 personalities who are striving to create a new global
                 money for the Internet age.Digital Gold is New York
                 Times reporter Nathaniel Popper's brilliant and
                 engrossing history of Bitcoin, the landmark digital
                 money and financial technology that has spawned a
                 global social movement.The notion of a new currency,
                 maintained by the computers of users around the world,
                 has been the butt of many jokes, but that has not
                 stopped it from growing into a technology worth
                 billions of dollars, supported by the hordes of
                 followers who have come to view it as the most
                 important new idea since the creation of the Internet.
                 Believers from Beijing to Buenos Aires see the
                 potential for a financial system free from banks and
                 governments. More than just a tech industry fad,
                 Bitcoin has threatened to decentralize some of
                 society's most basic institutions.An unusual tale of
                 group invention, Digital Gold charts the rise of the
                 Bitcoin technology through the eyes of the movement's
                 colorful central characters, including a British
                 anarchist, an Argentinian millionaire, a Chinese
                 entrepreneur, Tyler and Cameron Winklevoss, and
                 Bitcoin's elusive creator, Satoshi Nakamoto. Already,
                 Bitcoin has led to untold riches for some, and prison
                 terms for others.Digital Gold includes 16 pages of
                 black-and-white photos''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Money; Credit; Electronic
                 commerce; BUSINESS and ECONOMICS / E-Commerce / General
                 (see also COMPUTERS / Electronic Commerce); BUSINESS
                 and ECONOMICS / Corporate and Business History; HISTORY
                 / Modern / 21st Century.",
}

@InProceedings{Rajput:2015:SYE,
  author =       "Ubaidullah Rajput and Fizza Abbas and Rasheed Hussain
                 and Hasoo Eun and Heekuck Oh",
  booktitle =    "Information Security Applications",
  title =        "A Simple Yet Efficient Approach to Combat Transaction
                 Malleability in {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "27--37",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15087-1_3",
  ISBN =         "3-319-15087-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-15087-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-15087-1_3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Ruffing:2015:LLC,
  author =       "Tim Ruffing and Aniket Kate and Dominique
                 Schr{\"o}der",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Liar, Liar, Coins on Fire!: Penalizing Equivocation By
                 Loss of {Bitcoins}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "219--230",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2810103.2813686",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3832-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3832-5",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2813686",
  keywords =     "accountability, append-only logs, Bitcoin,
                 crypto-currencies, double-spending, equivocation,
                 payment channels",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Sas:2015:ETB,
  author =       "Corina Sas and Irni Eliana Khairuddin",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Australian
                 Special Interest Group for Computer Human Interaction",
  title =        "Exploring Trust in {Bitcoin} Technology: A Framework
                 for {HCI} Research",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "338--342",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2838739.2838821",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3673-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3673-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "OzCHI '15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2838821",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin technology, trust",
  location =     "Parkville, VIC, Australia",
  pagecount =    "5",
}

@InProceedings{Sleiman:2015:BMD,
  author =       "M. D. Sleiman and A. P. Lauf and R. Yampolskiy",
  booktitle =    "2015 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW)",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Message: Data Insertion on a Proof-of-Work
                 Cryptocurrency System",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "332--336",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/CW.2015.56",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "arithmetic coding; C++; Computers; Cryptography;
                 cryptography; data insertion; Decoding; electronic
                 money; Encoding; financial management; Internet;
                 message; Online banking; open source; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; proof-of-work cryptocurrency system;
                 {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} block chain; {Bitcoin} currency;
                 {Bitcoin} message; {Bitcoin}-Qt v0.7.2 application",
}

@InProceedings{Sompolinsky:2015:SHR,
  author =       "Yonatan Sompolinsky and Aviv Zohar",
  title =        "Secure High-Rate Transaction Processing in {Bitcoin}",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "507--527",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-47854-7_32",
  ISBN =         "3-662-47854-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-47854-7",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3395041",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-47854-7_32",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Swan:2015:BBNa,
  author =       "Melanie Swan",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: A Blueprint for a New World Currency",
  publisher =    pub-ORA,
  address =      pub-ORA:adr,
  pages =        "120",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-4919-2049-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4919-2049-7",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 28 11:36:04 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ora.bib",
  URL =          "http://deposit.d-nb.de/cgi-bin/dokserv?id=5125084&prov=M&dok_var=1&dok_ext=htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Swan:2015:BBNb,
  author =       "Melanie Swan",
  title =        "{Blockchain}: blueprint for a new economy",
  publisher =    pub-ORA-MEDIA,
  address =      pub-ORA-MEDIA:adr,
  pages =        "xviii + 130",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-4919-2049-1, 1-4919-2045-9 (e-book), 1-4919-2047-5
                 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4919-2049-7, 978-1-4919-2045-9 (e-book),
                 978-1-4919-2047-3 (e-book)",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .S93 2015",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 28 11:36:04 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ora.bib",
  URL =          "http://proquest.safaribooksonline.com/?fpi=9781491920480",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Security measures; Data
                 encryption (Computer science); Electronic commerce",
}

@Article{Timme:2015:FNE,
  author =       "Marc Timme and Ljupco Kocarev and Dirk Witthaut",
  title =        "Focus on networks, energy and the economy",
  journal =      j-NEW-J-PHYS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "110201",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "NJOPFM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/17/11/110201",
  ISSN =         "1367-2630",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 11:59:45 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "New Journal of Physics",
  journal-URL =  "http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin",
}

@Misc{Tromp:2015:BHP,
  author =       "John Tromp",
  title =        "Beyond the {Hashcash} Proof-of-Work (there's more to
                 mining than hashing)",
  howpublished = "Web blog",
  day =          "7",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 07:26:14 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://cryptorials.io/beyond-hashcash-proof-work-theres-mining-hashing/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Tromp:2015:CCMb,
  author =       "John Tromp",
  title =        "Cuckoo Cycle: a memory bound graph-theoretic
                 proof-of-work",
  type =         "Report",
  institution =  "????",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "13",
  day =          "24",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 07:27:21 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://github.com/tromp/cuckoo/blob/master/doc/cuckoo.pdf?raw=true",
  abstract =     "We introduce the first graph-theoretic proof-of-work
                 system, based on finding small cycles or other
                 structures in large random graphs. Such problems are
                 trivially verifiable and arbitrarily scalable,
                 presumably requiring memory linear in graph size to
                 solve efficiently. Our cycle finding algorithm uses one
                 bit per edge, and up to one bit per node. Runtime is
                 linear in graph size and dominated by random access
                 latency, ideal properties for a memory bound
                 proof-of-work. We exhibit two alternative algorithms
                 that allow for a memory-time trade-off (TMTO)-decreased
                 memory usage, by a factor $k$, coupled with increased
                 runtime, by a factor $ \Omega (k)$. The constant
                 implied in $ \Omega ()$ gives a notion of
                 memory-hardness, which is shown to be dependent on
                 cycle length, guiding the latter's choice. Our
                 algorithms are shown to parallelize reasonably well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Valenta:2015:BBA,
  author =       "Luke Valenta and Brendan Rowan",
  title =        "{Blindcoin}: Blinded, Accountable Mixes for
                 {Bitcoin}",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "112--126",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_9",
  ISBN =         "3-662-48051-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-48051-9",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3440771",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Vandervort:2015:IDB,
  author =       "David Vandervort and Dale Gaucas and Robert St
                 Jacques",
  title =        "Issues in Designing a {Bitcoin}-like Community
                 Currency",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "78--91",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_6",
  ISBN =         "3-662-48051-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-48051-9",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3440768",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-48051-9_6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{VanRenesse:2015:PMM,
  author =       "Robbert {Van Renesse} and Deniz Altinbuken",
  title =        "{Paxos} Made Moderately Complex",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "47",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "42:1--42:36",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2673577",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 16 18:47:49 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib",
  abstract =     "This article explains the full reconfigurable
                 multidecree Paxos (or multi-Paxos) protocol. Paxos is
                 by no means a simple protocol, even though it is based
                 on relatively simple invariants. We provide pseudocode
                 and explain it guided by invariants. We initially avoid
                 optimizations that complicate comprehension. Next we
                 discuss liveness, list various optimizations that make
                 the protocol practical, and present variants of the
                 protocol.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "42",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@InProceedings{Vasek:2015:TNF,
  author =       "Marie Vasek and Tyler Moore",
  title =        "There's No Free Lunch, Even Using {Bitcoin}: Tracking
                 the Popularity and Profits of Virtual Currency Scams",
  crossref =     "Brenner:2015:FCD",
  pages =        "44--61",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-47854-7_4",
  ISBN =         "3-662-47854-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-47854-7",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3395013",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-47854-7_4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Vigna:2015:ACH,
  author =       "Paul Vigna and Michael J. Casey",
  title =        "The age of cryptocurrency: how {Bitcoin} and digital
                 money are challenging the global economic order",
  publisher =    pub-ST-MARTINS,
  address =      pub-ST-MARTINS:adr,
  pages =        "357",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-250-06563-1 (hardcover), 1-4668-7306-X (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-250-06563-6 (hardcover), 978-1-4668-7306-3
                 (e-book)",
  LCCN =         "HF5548.32 .V54 2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "Bitcoin became a buzzword overnight. A cyber-enigma
                 with an enthusiastic following, it pops up in headlines
                 and fuels endless media debate. You can apparently use
                 it to buy anything from coffee to cars, yet few people
                 seem to truly understand what it is. This raises the
                 question: Why should anyone care about bitcoin? In
                 \booktitle{The Age of Cryptocurrency}, Wall Street
                 journalists Paul Vigna and Michael J. Casey deliver the
                 definitive answer to this question. Cybermoney is
                 poised to launch a revolution, one that could reinvent
                 traditional financial and social structures while
                 bringing the world's billions of ''unbanked``
                 individuals into a new global economy. Cryptocurrency
                 holds the promise of a financial system without a
                 middleman, one owned by the people who use it and one
                 safeguarded from the devastation of a 2008-type crash.
                 But Bitcoin, the most famous of the cybermonies,
                 carries a reputation for instability, wild fluctuation,
                 and illicit business; some fear it has the power to
                 eliminate jobs and to upend the concept of a
                 nation-state. It implies, above all, monumental and
                 wide-reaching change--for better and for worse. But it
                 is here to stay, and you ignore it at your peril.Vigna
                 and Casey demystify cryptocurrency--its origins, its
                 function, and what you need to know to navigate a
                 cyber-economy. The digital currency world will look
                 very different from the paper currency world;
                 \booktitle{The Age of Cryptocurrency} will teach you
                 how to be ready.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic commerce; Electronic funds transfers;
                 Currency question; BUSINESS and ECONOMICS / E-Commerce
                 / Internet Marketing.",
}

@Article{Vigna:2015:BCT,
  author =       "Paul Vigna",
  title =        "{BitBeat}: {CoinDesk} Trims Down But {Bitcoin} Rises
                 at {SXSW}",
  journal =      j-WALL-ST-J,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "17",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "WSJOAF",
  ISSN =         "0099-9660",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 15:16:17 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Wall Street Journal",
}

@Book{Vigna:2015:CHB,
  author =       "Paul Vigna and Michael J. Casey",
  title =        "Cryptocurrency: how {Bitcoin} and digital money are
                 challenging the global economic order",
  publisher =    "The Bodley Head",
  address =      "London, UK",
  pages =        "357",
  year =         "2015",
  ISBN =         "1-84792-344-5 (hardcover)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-84792-344-8 (hardcover), 978-1-4735-2115-5 (ePub
                 ebook)",
  LCCN =         "HF5548.32 .V54 2015b",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic commerce; Electronic funds transfers;
                 Currency question",
}

@InProceedings{Wang:2015:EME,
  author =       "Luqin Wang and Yong Liu",
  booktitle =    "Passive and Active Measurement",
  title =        "Exploring Miner Evolution in {Bitcoin} Network",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "290--302",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-15509-8_22",
  ISBN =         "3-319-15509-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-15509-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-15509-8_22",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Watkins:2015:UNT,
  author =       "Lanier Watkins and William H. Robinson and Raheem
                 Beyah",
  title =        "Using Network Traffic to Infer Hardware State: a
                 Kernel-Level Investigation",
  journal =      j-TECS,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "55:1--55:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700094",
  ISSN =         "1539-9087 (print), 1558-3465 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1539-9087",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 9 08:08:56 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tecs.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we illustrate that the boundary of a
                 general-purpose node can be extended into the network
                 by extracting information from network traffic
                 generated by that general-purpose node to infer the
                 state of its hardware components. This information is
                 represented in a delay signature latent within the
                 network traffic. In contrast, the traditional approach
                 to determine the internal state of a node's resources
                 meant that a software application with internal
                 processes had to be resident on the node. The
                 aforementioned delay signature is the keystone that
                 provides a correlation between network traffic and the
                 internal state of the source node. We characterize this
                 delay signature by (1) identifying the different types
                 of assembly language instructions that source this
                 delay and (2) describing how architectural techniques,
                 such as instruction pipelining and caching, give rise
                 to this delay signature. In theory, highly utilized
                 nodes (due to multiple threads) will contain excessive
                 context switching and contention for shared resources.
                 One important shared resource is main memory, and
                 excessive use of this resource by applications and
                 internal processes eventually leads to a decrease in
                 cache efficiency that eventually stalls the instruction
                 pipeline. Our results support this theory;
                 specifically, we have observed that excessive context
                 switching in active applications increases the
                 effective memory access time and wastes precious CPU
                 cycles, thus adding additional delay to the execution
                 of load, store, and other instructions. Because the
                 operating system (OS) kernel accesses memory to send
                 network packets, the delay signature is induced into
                 network traffic in situations where user-level
                 utilization is high. We demonstrate this theory in two
                 case studies: (1) resource discovery in cluster grids
                 and (2) network-based detection of bitcoin mining on
                 compromised nodes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2700094",
  articleno =    "55",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J840",
  keywords =     "LEON4 processor, clusters assembly language
                 instructions, grid computing, passive resource
                 discovery",
  pagecount =    "22",
}

@InCollection{Wilson:2015:PGG,
  author =       "Duane Wilson and Giuseppe Ateniese",
  booktitle =    "Network and System Security",
  title =        "From Pretty Good to Great: Enhancing {PGP} Using
                 {Bitcoin} and the Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "368--375",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25645-0_25",
  ISBN =         "3-319-25645-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-25645-0",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-25645-0_25",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Yang:2015:BMR,
  author =       "S. Y. Yang and J. Kim",
  booktitle =    "2015 IEEE Symposium Series on Computational
                 Intelligence",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Market Return and Volatility Forecasting
                 Using Transaction Network Flow Properties",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1778--1785",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SSCI.2015.248",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "bit coin market volatility; bit coin transaction flow
                 networks; bitcoin market return; Complexity theory;
                 comprehensive bit coin transaction dataset;
                 computational complexity; cryptography; economic
                 forecasting; Economics; electronic commerce; foreign
                 exchange trading; network theory; network theory
                 (graphs); Online banking; Peer-to-peer computing; price
                 movement; pricing; secure electronic payment system;
                 Time measurement; transaction network flow property;
                 volatility forecasting; Weight measurement",
}

@Misc{Yeow:2015:GBN,
  author =       "Andy Yeow",
  title =        "Global {Bitcoin} Nodes Distribution",
  howpublished = "Web document",
  year =         "2015",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 07:32:06 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://getaddr.bitnodes.io/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  lastaccessed = "20 March 2015",
}

@InProceedings{Zhang:2015:IEB,
  author =       "Y. Zhang and J. Wen",
  booktitle =    "2015 18th International Conference on Intelligence in
                 Next Generation Networks",
  title =        "An {IoT} electric business model based on the protocol
                 of {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "184--191",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIN.2015.7073830",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; bitcoin protocol; Blockchain; Companies;
                 contracts; Cryptography; Data models; e-business
                 activities; E-business model; electronic commerce;
                 electronic money; Internet; Internet of Things;
                 Internet of things; IoT electric business model; P2P
                 trade; paid data; peer-to-peer computing; Proposals;
                 Protocols; smart contract; smart property",
}

@InProceedings{Zhao:2015:GBI,
  author =       "Chen Zhao and Yong Guan",
  booktitle =    "Advances in Digital Forensics {XI}",
  title =        "A Graph-Based Investigation of {Bitcoin}
                 Transactions",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "79--95",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-24123-4_5",
  ISBN =         "3-319-24123-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-24123-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-24123-4_5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Ziegeldorf:2015:CSM,
  author =       "Jan Henrik Ziegeldorf and Fred Grossmann and Martin
                 Henze and Nicolas Inden and Klaus Wehrle",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 5th ACM Conference on Data and
                 Application Security and Privacy}",
  title =        "{CoinParty}: Secure Multi-Party Mixing of {Bitcoins}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "75--86",
  year =         "2015",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2699026.2699100",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3191-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3191-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CODASPY '15",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2699026.2699100",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2699100",
  keywords =     "anonymity, Bitcoin, secure multi-party computation",
  location =     "San Antonio, Texas, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@Article{Zohar:2015:BUH,
  author =       "Aviv Zohar",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: under the hood",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "58",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "104--113",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2701411",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 27 19:08:25 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2015/9/191170/fulltext",
  abstract =     "The myths, the hype, and the true worth of bitcoins.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@InProceedings{Allan:2016:ASC,
  author =       "Thomas Allan and Billy Bob Brumley and Katrina Falkner
                 and Joop van de Pol and Yuval Yarom",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 32Nd Annual Conference on Computer
                 Security Applications",
  title =        "Amplifying Side Channels Through Performance
                 Degradation",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "422--435",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2991079.2991084",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4771-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4771-6",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ACSAC '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2991084",
  location =     "Los Angeles, California, USA",
  pagecount =    "14",
}

@Book{Amato:2016:PPB,
  author =       "Massimo Amato and Luca Fantacci",
  title =        "Per un pugno di {Bitcoin}: rischi e opportunit{\`a}
                 delle monete virtuali. ({Italian}) [{For} a handful of
                 {Bitcoins}: risks and opportunities of virtual
                 currency]",
  publisher =    "Egea, Universit{\`a} Bocconi editore",
  address =      "Milano, Italy",
  pages =        "viii + 190",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "88-8350-229-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-88-8350-229-3",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .P47 2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  price =        "16.50 EUR",
  series =       "Itinerari",
  URL =          "http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/casalini15/3022729.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "Italian",
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Bitcoin",
}

@InProceedings{Amin:2016:SFL,
  author =       "Maitri Amin",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
                 Information and Communication Technology for
                 Competitive Strategies",
  title =        "A Survey of Financial Losses Due to Malware",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "145:1--145:4",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2905055.2905362",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3962-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3962-9",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ICTCS '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2905362",
  articleno =    "145",
  keywords =     "API, Malware, Survey, financial losses",
  location =     "Udaipur, India",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InProceedings{Anceaume:2016:SAB,
  author =       "E. Anceaume and T. Lajoie-Mazenc and R. Ludinard and
                 B. Sericola",
  booktitle =    "2016 IEEE 15th International Symposium on Network
                 Computing and Applications (NCA)",
  title =        "Safety analysis of {Bitcoin} improvement proposals",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "318--325",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/NCA.2016.7778636",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Analytical Performance Evaluation; bitcoin actors;
                 bitcoin improvement proposals; blockchain forks;
                 blockchain-based protocols; cryptographic protocols;
                 cryptography; Cryptography; decentralized
                 cryptocurrency systems; double spending attacks;
                 Ecosystems; electronic money; miners; Online banking;
                 Peer-to-peer computing; Peer-to-Peer Systems;
                 probabilistic analysis; probability; Protocols; public
                 distributed ledger; Safety; safety analysis; transient
                 inconsistencies; {Bitcoin}",
}

@Article{Andrychowicz:2016:SMC,
  author =       "Marcin Andrychowicz and Stefan Dziembowski and Daniel
                 Malinowski and {\L}ukasz Mazurek",
  title =        "Secure multiparty computations on {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "59",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "76--84",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2896386",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 15 14:58:10 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2016/4/200175/fulltext",
  abstract =     "Is it possible to design an online protocol for
                 playing a lottery, in a completely decentralized way,
                 that is, without relying on a trusted third party? Or
                 can one construct a fully decentralized protocol for
                 selling secret information, so that neither the seller
                 nor the buyer can cheat in it? Until recently, it
                 seemed that every online protocol that has financial
                 consequences for the participants needs to rely on some
                 sort of a trusted server that ensures that the money is
                 transferred between them. In this work, we propose to
                 use Bitcoin (a digital currency, introduced in 2008) to
                 design such fully decentralized protocols that are
                 secure even if no trusted third party is available. As
                 an instantiation of this idea, we construct protocols
                 for secure multiparty lotteries using the Bitcoin
                 currency, without relying on a trusted authority. Our
                 protocols guarantee fairness for the honest parties no
                 matter how the loser behaves. For example, if one party
                 interrupts the protocol, then her money is transferred
                 to the honest participants. Our protocols are practical
                 (to demonstrate it, we performed their transactions in
                 the actual Bitcoin system) and in principle could be
                 used in real life as a replacement for the online
                 gambling sites.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2016:BRBa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Book Review: {{\booktitle{Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency
                 Technologies}}, Arvind Narayanan, Joseph Bonneau,
                 Edward Felten, Andrew Miller and Steven Goldfeder}",
  journal =      j-NETWORK-SECURITY,
  volume =       "2016",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "4--4",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "NTSCF5",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1016/S1353-4858(16)30074-5",
  ISSN =         "1353-4858 (print), 1872-9371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1353-4858",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 17:01:35 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/network-security.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1353485816300745",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Network Security",
  journal-URL =  "https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/network-security",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2016:BRG,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{Blockchain und Recht}. ({German}) [{Blockchain} and
                 law]",
  journal =      j-INFORMATIK-SPEKTRUM,
  volume =       "39",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "402--410",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "INSKDW",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s00287-016-0991-4",
  ISSN =         "0170-6012 (print), 1432-122X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0170-6012",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00287-016-0991-4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Informatik Spektrum",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/journal/287",
  language =     "German",
}

@Book{Antonia:2016:BD,
  author =       "Cameron Antonia",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} for dummies",
  publisher =    pub-WILEY,
  address =      pub-WILEY:adr,
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "1-119-07613-7 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-119-07613-1 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Aste:2016:FCB,
  author =       "Tomaso Aste",
  title =        "The Fair Cost of {Bitcoin} Proof of Work",
  journal =      "{SSRN} Electronic Journal",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "27",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2801048",
  ISSN =         "1556-5068",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 20 16:42:39 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  pagecount =    "3",
}

@InProceedings{Azriel:2016:USS,
  author =       "Leonid Azriel and Ran Ginosar and Shay Gueron and Avi
                 Mendelson",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Hardware and Architectural Support
                 for Security and Privacy 2016",
  title =        "Using Scan Side Channel for Detecting {IP} Theft",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1:1--1:8",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2948618.2948619",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4769-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4769-3",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "HASP 2016",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2948619",
  articleno =    "1",
  location =     "Seoul, Republic of Korea",
  pagecount =    "8",
}

@InProceedings{Bag:2016:YAN,
  author =       "Samiran Bag and Kouichi Sakurai",
  booktitle =    "Information Security",
  title =        "Yet Another Note on Block Withholding Attack on
                 {Bitcoin} Mining Pools",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "167--180",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45871-7_11",
  ISBN =         "3-319-45871-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-45871-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-45871-7_11",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Baqer:2016:SBS,
  author =       "Khaled Baqer and Danny Yuxing Huang and Damon McCoy
                 and Nicholas Weaver",
  title =        "Stressing Out: {Bitcoin} Stress Testing",
  crossref =     "Clark:2016:FCD",
  pages =        "3--18",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_1",
  ISBN =         "3-662-53357-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-53357-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bashir:2016:WMP,
  author =       "Masooda Bashir and Beth Strickland and Jeremiah Bohr",
  booktitle =    "Social Informatics",
  title =        "What Motivates People to Use {Bitcoin}?",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "347--367",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-47874-6_25",
  ISBN =         "3-319-47874-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-47874-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-47874-6_25",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Beekman:2016:DSA,
  author =       "Jethro G. Beekman",
  title =        "A {Denial of Service} attack against fair computations
                 using {Bitcoin} deposits",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-LETT,
  volume =       "116",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "144--146",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "IFPLAT",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ipl.2015.09.009",
  ISSN =         "0020-0190 (print), 1872-6119 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0020-0190",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3426462",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/infoproc2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020019015001647",
  ZMnumber =     "06515013; 1346.94091",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Information Processing Letters",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00200190",
}

@InProceedings{Bhargavan:2016:FVS,
  author =       "Karthikeyan Bhargavan and Antoine Delignat-Lavaud and
                 C{\'e}dric Fournet and Anitha Gollamudi and Georges
                 Gonthier and Nadim Kobeissi and Natalia Kulatova and
                 Aseem Rastogi and Thomas Sibut-Pinote and Nikhil Swamy
                 and Santiago Zanella-B{\'e}guelin",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Workshop on Programming
                 Languages and Analysis for Security}",
  title =        "Formal Verification of Smart Contracts: Short Paper",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "91--96",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2993600.2993611",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4574-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4574-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "PLAS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2993600.2993611",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2993611",
  keywords =     "Ethereum; EVM; formal verification; smart contracts;
                 solidity",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Bikowski:2016:AML,
  author =       "Kamil Bikowski",
  booktitle =    "Machine Intelligence and Big Data in Industry",
  title =        "Application of Machine Learning Algorithms for
                 {Bitcoin} Automated Trading",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "161--168",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-30315-4_14",
  ISBN =         "3-319-30315-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-30315-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-30315-4_14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Bishop:2016:ABT,
  editor =       "Ryan Bishop and Kristoffer Gansing and Jussi Parikka
                 and Elvia Wilk",
  title =        "Across and beyond: a transmediale reader on
                 post-digital practices, concepts, and institutions",
  publisher =    "Sternberg Press",
  address =      "Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "348",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "3-95679-289-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-95679-289-2 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "N7433.92 .A37 2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "This collection of art and theory analyzes today?s
                 post-digital conditions for critical media
                 practices?across and beyond the analog and the digital,
                 the human and the nonhuman. The contributions also look
                 across and beyond the field of media art, staking out
                 new paths for understanding and working in the
                 transversal territories between theory, technology, and
                 art. The concept of the post-digital is a way to
                 critically take account of, contextualize, and shift
                 the coordinates of new technologies as part of
                 contemporary culture. The post-digital condition is not
                 merely a theoretical issue but also a situation that
                 affects conceptual and practice-based work.0The program
                 of the transmediale festival in Berlin, celebrating its
                 thirtieth year in 2017, has reflected these changes,
                 and this book gathers new contributions from leading
                 international theorists and artists of media and art
                 who have taken part in the festival program over its
                 past five editions. Divided into the thematic sections
                 Imaginaries, Interventions, and Ecologies, this book is
                 not a document of the festival itself, it is rather a
                 stand-alone exploration of the ongoing themes of
                 transmediale in a book format.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "This collection of art and theory related to the
                 annual transmediale festival in Berlin analyzes today's
                 post-digital conditions for critical media practices
                 --- moving across and beyond the analog and the
                 digital, the human and the nonhuman. The contributions
                 also look across and beyond the field of media art,
                 staking out new paths for understanding and working on
                 the transversal territories between theory, technology
                 anad art. --- Preliminaries. Design: The Laboratory of
                 Manuel B{\"u}rger, Stefanie Ackermann, Manuel
                 B{\"u}rger.",
  subject =      "Multimedia (Art); Art and technology; Computer art;
                 Information technology; Digital media; Mass media and
                 culture; Art festivals; Germany; Berlin",
  tableofcontents = "1995: the year the future began, or multimedia as
                 the vanishing point of the net / Kristoffer Gansing \\
                 Whatever happened to media art? / Dieter Daniels \\
                 Evil Media Distribution Center / Matsuko Yokokoji and
                 Graham Hardood \\
                 The lab imaginary: speculative practices in situ /
                 Jussi Parikka \\
                 OCTO C7P-1 / Baruch Gottlieb and Dmytri Kleiner \\
                 The touching charm of print / Alessandro Ludovico \\
                 Elegy for the collapse of PAL (2010-2012) / Rosa
                 Menkman \\
                 When Claire Bishop woke up in the drone wars: art and
                 technology, the nth time / Florian Cramer \\
                 Nor art and tech / Olia Lialina \\
                 A year-round festival program / Tatiana Bazzichelli \\
                 Beyond powerlessness / Geoffroy de Lagasnerie \\
                 Think you know me / Erica Scourti \\
                 What is left to subvert?: artistic methodologies for a
                 post-digital world / Daphne Dragona \\
                 Quarantined / Julian Oliver and Danja Vasiliev \\
                 Red stack attack!: algorithms, capital and the
                 automation of the common / Tiziana Terranova \\
                 Geraldine Ju\'arez Hello Bitcoin: it's probably time to
                 start lighting things on fire / Jamie Allen \\
                 Things that shouldn't always work / Keller Easterling
                 \\
                 Critical infrastructure / Jamie Allen and David
                 Gauthier \\
                 Sovereign media, critical infrastructures, and
                 political subjectivity / Ned Rossiter and Clemens
                 Apprich \\
                 Lettres du voyant / Louise Henderson \\
                 The protean munus and nomos of the political subject in
                 polyscalar autonomous remote sending systems / Ryan
                 Bishop \\
                 Can the bot speak?: the paranoid voice in
                 conversational UI / Benjamin H. Bratton \\
                 The 3D additivist manifesto / Morehshin Allahyari and
                 Daniel Rourke \\
                 Technological macrobiome: media art and technology as
                 matter / Olga Goriunova",
}

@InProceedings{Bogner:2016:DSA,
  author =       "Andreas Bogner and Mathieu Chanson and Arne Meeuw",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on
                 the Internet of Things}",
  title =        "A Decentralised Sharing App Running a Smart Contract
                 on the {Ethereum} Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "177--178",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2991561.2998465",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4814-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4814-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "IoT'16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2991561.2998465",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2998465",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Decentralised App (DAPP); Ethereum;
                 privacy protection; Sharing; Sharing Economy; Smart
                 Contract",
  location =     "Stuttgart, Germany",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{Bolici:2016:MGD,
  author =       "Francesco Bolici and Sara Della Rosa",
  booktitle =    "Empowering Organizations",
  title =        "{Mt.Gox} Is Dead, Long Live {Bitcoin}!",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "285--296",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-23784-8_22",
  ISBN =         "3-319-23784-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-23784-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-23784-8_22",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bonaiuti:2016:EIM,
  author =       "Gianni Bonaiuti",
  booktitle =    "{Bitcoin} and Mobile Payments",
  title =        "Economic Issues on {M}-Payments and {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "27--51",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-57512-8_2",
  ISBN =         "1-137-57512-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-57512-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-137-57512-8_2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bonneau:2016:EUE,
  author =       "Joseph Bonneau",
  booktitle =    "{Financial Cryptography and Data Security}",
  title =        "{EthIKS}: Using {Ethereum} to Audit a {CONIKS} Key
                 Transparency Log",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "95--105",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_7",
  ISBN =         "3-662-53357-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-53357-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:51:20 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_7",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Boyd:2016:FCP,
  author =       "Colin Boyd and Christopher Carr",
  booktitle =    "Information Security and Privacy",
  title =        "Fair Client Puzzles from the {Bitcoin} Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "161--177",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40253-6_10",
  ISBN =         "3-319-40252-8 (paperback), 3-319-40253-6 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-40252-9 (paperback), 978-3-319-40253-6
                 (e-book)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-40253-6_10",
  ZMnumber =     "06620897",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Brito:2016:BPP,
  author =       "Jerry Brito and Andrea M. Castillo",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: a primer for policymakers",
  publisher =    "Mercatus Center, George Mason University",
  address =      "Arlington, VA, USA",
  pages =        "109",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "1-942951-16-7 (paperback), 1-942951-17-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-942951-16-2 (paperback), 978-1-942951-17-9",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .B75 2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:41:47 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Bitcoin; Electronic funds transfers; Money; Law and
                 legislation; Finance",
  tableofcontents = "Introduction \\
                 What is bitcoin? \\
                 Benefits \\
                 Challenges \\
                 Regulation \\
                 Policy recommendations \\
                 Conclusion",
}

@Article{Cai:2016:FDO,
  author =       "Yuanfeng Cai and Dan Zhu",
  title =        "Fraud detections for online businesses: a perspective
                 from blockchain technology",
  journal =      "Financial Innovation",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-016-0039-4",
  ISSN =         "2199-4730",
  ISSN-L =       "2199-4730",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40854-016-0039-4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Financial Innovation",
  journal-URL =  "https://jfin-swufe.springeropen.com/",
}

@InProceedings{Cankaya:2016:IBE,
  author =       "Ebru Celikel Cankaya and Luke Daniel Carr",
  booktitle =    "Information Technology: New Generations",
  title =        "Implementing a {Bitcoin} Exchange with Enhanced
                 Security",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "257--266",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32467-8_24",
  ISBN =         "3-319-32467-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-32467-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-32467-8_24",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Carlsten:2016:IBB,
  author =       "Miles Carlsten and Harry Kalodner and S. Matthew
                 Weinberg and Arvind Narayanan",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "On the Instability of {Bitcoin} Without the Block
                 Reward",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "154--167",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978408",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://randomwalker.info/publications/mining_CCS.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978408",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, cryptocurrencies, equilibrium, game theory,
                 learning, selfish mining, simulator",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "14",
  remark =       "The PDF file in the URL contains an 11-page appendix
                 that may be absent from the conference proceedings (or
                 perhaps made available as an online resource).",
}

@TechReport{Catalini:2016:SSE,
  author =       "C. Catalini and J. S. Gans",
  title =        "Some Simple Economics of the Blockchain",
  type =         "Working Paper",
  number =       "2874598",
  institution =  "Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto",
  address =      "Toronto, ON, Canada",
  year =         "2016",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 20 16:53:12 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2874598",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Chase:2016:TOA,
  author =       "Melissa Chase and Sarah Meiklejohn",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "Transparency Overlays and Applications",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "168--179",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978404",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2978404",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978404",
  keywords =     "accountability, Bitcoin, transparency",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Chatzopoulos:2016:LAH,
  author =       "Dimitris Chatzopoulos and Sujit Gujar and Boi Faltings
                 and Pan Hui",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 17th ACM International Symposium on
                 Mobile Ad Hoc Networking and Computing",
  title =        "{LocalCoin}: An Ad-hoc Payment Scheme for Areas with
                 High Connectivity: Poster",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "365--366",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2942358.2947401",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4184-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4184-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "MobiHoc '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2947401",
  location =     "Paderborn, Germany",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{Chavez:2016:AHA,
  author =       "J. J. G. Ch{\'a}vez and C. {Kleber da Silva
                 Rodrigues}",
  booktitle =    "2016 XXI Symposium on Signal Processing, Images and
                 Artificial Vision (STSIVA)",
  title =        "Automatic hopping among pools and distributed
                 applications in the {Bitcoin} network",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--7",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/STSIVA.2016.7743340",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Algorithm design and analysis; automatic hopping;
                 bitcoin generation; Block; Blockchain; cryptography;
                 Data mining; distributed applications; financial data
                 processing; Hopping among pools; Measurement; mining
                 networks; Mining pool; mining pools; Online banking;
                 Peer-to-peer computing; peer-to-peer computing;
                 Protocols; Standards; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} network",
}

@Article{Ciaian:2016:DAV,
  author =       "Pavel Ciaian and Miroslava Rajcaniova and d'Artis
                 Kancs",
  title =        "The digital agenda of virtual currencies: Can
                 {BitCoin} become a global currency?",
  journal =      "Information Systems and e-Business Management",
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "883--919",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10257-016-0304-0",
  ISSN =         "1617-9846 (print), 1617-9854 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1617-9846",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10257-016-0304-0",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Coeckelbergh:2016:CNT,
  author =       "Mark Coeckelbergh and Wessel Reijers",
  title =        "Cryptocurrencies As Narrative Technologies",
  journal =      j-ACM-SIGCAS-COMPUT-SOC,
  volume =       "45",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "172--178",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "CMSCD3",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2874239.2874264",
  ISSN =         "0095-2737 (print), 2167-3055 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2874239.2874264",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2874264",
  ajournal =     "SIGCAS Comput. Soc.",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGCAS Computers and Society",
  journal-URL =  "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J198",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, cryptocurrencies, mediation, money,
                 narrative, ricoeur, searle, technology",
  pagecount =    "7",
}

@InProceedings{Courtois:2016:FBS,
  author =       "Nicolas T. Courtois",
  booktitle =    "Banking Beyond Banks and Money",
  title =        "Features or Bugs: The Seven Sins of Current
                 {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "97--120",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42448-4_6",
  ISBN =         "3-319-42448-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-42448-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-42448-4_6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Courtois:2016:SOB,
  author =       "Nicolas Courtois and Guangyan Song and Ryan
                 Castellucci",
  title =        "Speed optimizations in {Bitcoin} key recovery
                 attacks",
  journal =      "Tatra Mountains Mathematical Publications",
  volume =       "67",
  pages =        "55--68",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1515/tmmp-2016-0030",
  ISSN =         "1210-3195 (print), 1338-9750 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1210-3195",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3632502",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Tatra Mt. Math. Publ.",
  fjournal =     "Tatra Mountains Mathematical Publications",
}

@InProceedings{Croman:2016:SDB,
  author =       "Kyle Croman and Christian Decker and Ittay Eyal and
                 Adem Efe Gencer and Ari Juels and Ahmed Kosba and
                 Andrew Miller and Prateek Saxena and Elaine Shi and
                 Emin G{\"u}n Sirer and Dawn Song and Roger
                 Wattenhofer",
  title =        "On Scaling Decentralized Blockchains",
  crossref =     "Clark:2016:FCD",
  pages =        "106--125",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_8",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_8",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Decker:2016:BMS,
  author =       "Christian Decker and Jochen Seidel and Roger
                 Wattenhofer",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on
                 Distributed Computing and Networking}",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Meets Strong Consistency",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "13:1--13:10",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2833312.2833321",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4032-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4032-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ICDCN '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2833312.2833321",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2833321",
  articleno =    "13",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, blockchain, Byzantine agreement",
  location =     "Singapore, Singapore",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@InProceedings{Delfin-Vidal:2016:FNB,
  author =       "Rafael Delfin-Vidal and Guillermo
                 Romero-Mel{\'e}ndez",
  booktitle =    "Trends in Mathematical Economics",
  title =        "The Fractal Nature of {Bitcoin}: Evidence from Wavelet
                 Power Spectra",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "73--98",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32543-9_5",
  ISBN =         "3-319-32543-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-32543-9",
  MRclass =      "91G80 (91G70)",
  MRnumber =     "3587239",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-32543-9_5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Donier:2016:WAC,
  author =       "J. Donier and J-P Bouchaud",
  title =        "From {Walras}' auctioneer to continuous time double
                 auctions: a general dynamic theory of supply and
                 demand",
  journal =      "Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and
                 Experiment",
  volume =       "2016",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "123406",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-5468/aa4e8e",
  ISSN =         "1742-5468",
  ISSN-L =       "1742-5468",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 11:59:45 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin",
}

@Article{Dubey:2016:WHP,
  author =       "Ayush Dubey and Greg D. Hill and Robert Escriva and
                 Emin G{\"u}n Sirer",
  title =        "{Weaver}: A High-performance, Transactional Graph
                 Database Based on Refinable Timestamps",
  journal =      j-PROC-VLDB-ENDOWMENT,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "852--863",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.14778/2983200.2983202",
  ISSN =         "2150-8097",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2983202",
  ajournal =     "Proc. VLDB Endow.",
  fjournal =     "Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J869",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Ekblaw:2016:BMD,
  author =       "A. Ekblaw and C. Barabas and J. Harvey-Buschel and A.
                 Lippman",
  booktitle =    "2016 IEEE 1st International Workshops on Foundations
                 and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS*W)",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} and the Myth of Decentralization:
                 Socio-technical Proposals for Restoring Network
                 Integrity",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "18--23",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/FAS-W.2016.18",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "adaptive algorithms; cryptographic protocols;
                 Cryptography; Cypherpunks mailing list; digital
                 currency space; distributed information systems;
                 electricity management modifications; electronic money;
                 Hardware; multi-agent systems; myth of
                 decentralization; network integrity restoration; Online
                 banking; peer-to-peer computing; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; peer-to-peer electronic cash system;
                 peer-to-peer node consolidation; progressive
                 cryptography; Proposals; Protocols; public domain
                 software; self-organizing distributed system;
                 socio-inspired design; socio-technical limits;
                 Software; {Bitcoin} core protocol; {Bitcoin}
                 open-source software project",
}

@InCollection{ElBansarkhani:2016:ELB,
  author =       "Rachid {El Bansarkhani} and Jan Sturm",
  booktitle =    "Cryptology and network security",
  title =        "An efficient lattice-based multisignature scheme with
                 applications to {Bitcoins}",
  volume =       "10052",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "140--155",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-48965-0_9",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3596283",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Eskandari:2016:BYC,
  author =       "S. Eskandari and J. Clark and A. Hamou-Lhadj",
  booktitle =    "2016 International IEEE Conferences on Ubiquitous
                 Intelligence Computing, Advanced and Trusted Computing,
                 Scalable Computing and Communications, Cloud and Big
                 Data Computing, Internet of People, and Smart World
                 Congress (UIC\slash ATC\slash ScalCom\slash
                 CBDCom\slash IoP\slash SmartWorld)",
  title =        "Buy Your Coffee with {Bitcoin}: Real-World Deployment
                 of a {Bitcoin} Point of Sale Terminal",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "382--389",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/UIC-ATC-ScalCom-CBDCom-IoP-SmartWorld.2016.0073",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Aunja PoS; Business; cryptographic currency;
                 cryptography; deployability criteria; e-cash;
                 electronic money; formal specification; formal
                 verification; Hardware; Online banking; open source
                 system; point of sale system; point of sale systems;
                 point of sale terminal; Privacy; requirements
                 engineering; Security; security; small business;
                 small-value transactions; systems analysis; Usability;
                 usability; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} payments",
}

@InProceedings{Fadhil:2016:BME,
  author =       "M. Fadhil and G. Owenson and M. Adda",
  booktitle =    "2016 IEEE Intl Conference on Computational Science and
                 Engineering (CSE) and IEEE Intl Conference on Embedded
                 and Ubiquitous Computing (EUC) and 15th Intl Symposium
                 on Distributed Computing and Applications for Business
                 Engineering (DCABES)",
  title =        "A {Bitcoin} Model for Evaluation of Clustering to
                 Improve Propagation Delay in {Bitcoin} Network",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "468--475",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/CSE-EUC-DCABES.2016.226",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "BCBSN protocol; clustering evaluation; Clustering
                 Evaluation; clustering protocol; Computational
                 modeling; digital currency; event based simulation;
                 financial data processing; information propagation;
                 pattern clustering; Peer-to-peer computing;
                 peer-to-peer computing; Propagation delay; Propagation
                 Delay; Protocols; simulation model; Simulation
                 Validation; Solid modeling; transaction propagation
                 delay; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} clustering based super node
                 protocol; {Bitcoin} peer-to-peer network",
}

@InProceedings{Faisca:2016:DSI,
  author =       "Jos{\'e} G. Fa{\'{}\i}sca and Jos{\'e} Q. Rogado",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on
                 Semantic Systems}",
  title =        "Decentralized Semantic Identity",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "177--180",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2993318.2993348",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4752-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4752-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SEMANTiCS 2016",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2993318.2993348",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2993348",
  keywords =     "authentication; blockchain; decentralization; DNS;
                 identity; json web tokens; P2P file system; semantic
                 web; WebID",
  location =     "Leipzig, Germany",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InProceedings{Frey:2016:BSB,
  author =       "Davide Frey and Marc X. Makkes and Pierre-Louis Roman
                 and Fran{\c{c}}ois Ta{\"{}\i}ani and Spyros Voulgaris",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on
                 Adaptive and Reflective Middleware}",
  title =        "Bringing Secure {Bitcoin} Transactions to Your
                 Smartphone",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "3:1--3:6",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3008167.3008170",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4662-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4662-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ARM 2016",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3008167.3008170",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3008170",
  articleno =    "3",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Blockchain; Distributed hash table;
                 Sharding",
  location =     "Trento, Italy",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Fuenfrocken:2016:HAS,
  author =       "M. Fuenfrocken and W. H. Schulz",
  booktitle =    "2016 Workshop on Automotive Systems/Software
                 Architectures (WASA)",
  title =        "How Automotive Software Architectures could Benefit
                 from {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "14--17",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/WASA.2016.11",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "automotive engineering; Automotive engineering;
                 Business; Computer architecture; cooperative ITS;
                 distributed automotive software architectures; economic
                 considerations; economics; Economics; Online banking;
                 Peer-to-peer computing; software architecture; Software
                 architecture; software architecture; {Bitcoin};
                 {Bitcoin} crypto-currency",
}

@InProceedings{Gao:2016:TMM,
  author =       "Xianyi Gao and Gradeigh D. Clark and Janne Lindqvist",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human
                 Factors in Computing Systems",
  title =        "Of Two Minds, Multiple Addresses, and One Ledger:
                 Characterizing Opinions, Knowledge, and Perceptions of
                 {Bitcoin} Across Users and Non-Users",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1656--1668",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2858036.2858049",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3362-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3362-7",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CHI '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2858049",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, crypto-currency, digital currency, interview
                 study",
  location =     "San Jose, California, USA",
  pagecount =    "13",
}

@Book{Geissinger:2016:VBG,
  author =       "Eric Geissinger",
  title =        "Virtual billions: the genius, the drug lord, and the
                 {Ivy League} twins behind the rise of {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-PROMETHEUS-BOOKS,
  address =      pub-PROMETHEUS-BOOKS:adr,
  pages =        "319",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "1-63388-144-X (hardcover), 1-63388-145-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-63388-144-0 (hardcover), 978-1-63388-145-7",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .G45 2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "``Bitcoin, the digital currency, was introduced in
                 2009 with little fanfare; five years later, shocking
                 the world, it was worth \$14 billion. This book
                 explores the cyber currency by focusing on the
                 remarkable stories and intriguing personalities ofthose
                 responsible for its sudden success: Satoshi Nakamoto,
                 the reclusive and anonymous genius who created Bitcoin;
                 Ross Ulbricht, aka the Dread Pirate Roberts,
                 administrator of the largest and most successful Dark
                 Web drug superstore, using Bitcoin to fuel online sale
                 of drugs, hacking services, counterfeit money, and
                 assassinations; and Cameron and Tyler Winklevoss,
                 Harvard graduates, successful litigants vs. Facebook,
                 world-class Olympic rowers, and Bitcoin entrepreneurs
                 who own 1 percent of all bitcoins in existence. Equal
                 parts The Social Network, Sherlock Holmes, and Breaking
                 Bad, this absorbing narrative tells the stories of the
                 reclusive geniuswho waged a one-man war against the
                 global banking system (and he's winning); the quiet and
                 affable computer geek who, until his arrest, profited
                 handsomely from Silk Road, his online drug superstore;
                 and the multitalented Harvard twins, who made a fortune
                 from an intellectual-property suit against Mark
                 Zuckerberg, and now are the chief promoters of Bitcoin
                 as ''the next big thing.`` Bitcoin has introduced us to
                 coke-fueled coding gurus, anger-crazed hitmen-hiring
                 millionaires, and canny ''Bitcoin miners`` avidly
                 adding processing power to their chilly Icelandic
                 server farms to generate millions of dollars every
                 month. Absurd and almost unbelievable stories abound,
                 and sweep the reader along through the living and
                 breathing, passionate and paranoid insiders who made it
                 all happen''-- ``A colorful narrative that brings to
                 life the extraordinary personalities behind Bitcoin,
                 showing the enormous potential of this online currency
                 for good and bad''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  author-dates = "1968--",
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Bitcoin; Electronic
                 commerce; History; BIOGRAPHY and AUTOBIOGRAPHY /
                 Business; BUSINESS and ECONOMICS / E-Commerce / General
                 (see also COMPUTERS / Electronic Commerce); BUSINESS
                 and ECONOMICS / Money and Monetary Policy.",
}

@InCollection{Gennaro:2016:TOD,
  author =       "Rosario Gennaro and Steven Goldfeder and Arvind
                 Narayanan",
  booktitle =    "Applied Cryptography and Network Security",
  title =        "Threshold-Optimal {DSA\slash ECDSA} Signatures and an
                 Application to {Bitcoin} Wallet Security",
  volume =       "9696",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "156--174",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39555-5_9",
  ISBN =         "3-319-39554-8 (paperback), 3-319-39555-6 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-39554-8 (paperback), 978-3-319-39555-5
                 (e-book)",
  MRclass =      "94A62 94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3533940",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-39555-5_9",
  ZMnumber =     "06632515; 1346.94143",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Gerstl:2016:LBB,
  author =       "David S. Gerstl",
  booktitle =    "{Software Business}",
  title =        "Leveraging {Bitcoin} Blockchain Technology to
                 Modernize Security Perfection Under the {Uniform
                 Commercial Code}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "109--123",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40515-5_8",
  ISBN =         "3-319-40515-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-40515-5",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-40515-5_8",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Gervais:2016:SPP,
  author =       "Arthur Gervais and Ghassan O. Karame and Karl W{\"u}st
                 and Vasileios Glykantzis and Hubert Ritzdorf and Srdjan
                 {\v{C}}apkun",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "On the Security and Performance of Proof of Work
                 Blockchains",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "3--16",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978341",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2978341",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978341",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, blockchain, performance, security",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "14",
}

@InProceedings{Geva:2016:MPB,
  author =       "Benjamin Geva",
  booktitle =    "{Bitcoin} and Mobile Payments",
  title =        "Mobile Payments and {Bitcoin}: Concluding Reflections
                 on the Digital Upheaval in Payments",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "271--287",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-57512-8_12",
  ISBN =         "1-137-57512-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-57512-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/978-1-137-57512-8_12",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Giechaskiel:2016:BSP,
  author =       "Ilias Giechaskiel and Cas Cremers and Kasper B.
                 Rasmussen",
  booktitle =    "Computer Security ESORICS 2016",
  title =        "On {Bitcoin} Security in the Presence of Broken
                 Cryptographic Primitives",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "201--222",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45741-3_11",
  ISBN =         "3-319-45741-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-45741-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-45741-3_11",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Gimigliano:2016:BMP,
  editor =       "Gabriella Gimigliano",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} and mobile payments: constructing a
                 {European Union} framework",
  publisher =    "Palgrave Macmillan",
  address =      "London, UK",
  pages =        "xxix + 314",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-57512-8c",
  ISBN =         "1-137-57511-5, 1-137-57512-3 (electronic)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-57511-1, 978-1-137-57512-8 (electronic)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "Palgrave studies in financial services technology",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/book/10.1057/978-1-137-57512-8",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  tableofcontents = "Part I Institutional Strategies and Economic
                 Background / 1 \\
                 1 The Regulatory Machine: An Institutional Approach to
                 Innovative Payments in Europe / Gino Giambelluca and
                 Paola Masi / 3 \\
                 2 Economic Issues on M-Payments and Bitcoin / Gianni
                 Bonaiuti/ 27 \\
                 Part II The Framework: A European and Comparative
                 Outline / 53 \\
                 3 Bit by Bit: Assessing the Legal Nature of Virtual
                 Currencies / Noah Vardi / 55 \\
                 4 Mobilizing Payments Within the European Union
                 Framework: A Legal Analysis / Gabriella Gimigliano / 73
                 \\
                 5 A Fuzzy Set in the Legal Domain: Bitcoins According
                 to US Legal Formants / Andrea Borroni / 89 \\
                 6 M-Payments: How Much Regulation Is Appropriate?
                 Learning firom the Global Experience / Elisabetta
                 Cervone / 121 \\
                 Part III The Challenges / 143 \\
                 7 Security Issues of New Innovative Payments and Their
                 Regulatory Challenges / Safari Kasiyanto / 145 \\
                 8 EU Data Protection and Future Payment Services /
                 Gloria Gonzalez Fuster / 181 \\
                 9 The Classification of Virtual Currencies and Mobile
                 Payments in Terms of the Old and New European
                 Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks / Carolin Kaiser / 203
                 \\
                 10 Virtual Currencies, M-Payments and VAT: Ready for
                 the Future? / Redmar A. Wolf / 231 \\
                 11 Mobile Payments and Merger Regulation: A Gase Law
                 Analysis / Daniele D'Alvia / 251 \\
                 Part IV Conclusions / 269 \\
                 12 Mobile Payments and Bitcoin: Concluding Reflections
                 on the Digital Upheaval in Payments / Benjamin Geva /
                 271 \\
                 Ihe Regulatory Challenges Ahead / 289 \\
                 Bibliography / 293 \\
                 Index / 309",
}

@InProceedings{Gjermundrod:2016:GBC,
  author =       "Harald Gjermundr{\o}d and Konstantinos Chalkias and
                 Ioanna Dionysiou",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 20th Pan-Hellenic Conference on
                 Informatics}",
  title =        "Going Beyond the {Coinbase} Transaction Fee:
                 Alternative Reward Schemes for Miners in Blockchain
                 Systems",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "35:1--35:4",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3003733.3003773",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4789-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4789-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "PCI '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3003733.3003773",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3003773",
  articleno =    "35",
  keywords =     "Blockchain Technology; Cryptocurrency; Miner Reward",
  location =     "Patras, Greece",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@Book{Gomzin:2016:BNE,
  author =       "Slava Gomzin",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} for nonmathematicians: exploring the
                 foundations of Crypto Payments",
  publisher =    "Universal Publishers",
  address =      "Boca Raton, Florida",
  pages =        "xv + 137",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "1-62734-071-8 paperback",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-62734-071-7 paperback",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Guo:2016:BAO,
  author =       "Ye Guo and Chen Liang",
  title =        "Blockchain application and outlook in the banking
                 industry",
  journal =      "Financial Innovation",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-016-0034-9",
  ISSN =         "2199-4730",
  ISSN-L =       "2199-4730",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40854-016-0034-9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Financial Innovation",
  journal-URL =  "https://jfin-swufe.springeropen.com/",
}

@Book{Halaburda:2016:BB,
  author =       "Hanna Halaburda and Miklos Sarvary",
  title =        "Beyond {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    "Palgrave Macmillan",
  address =      "New York City, NY",
  pages =        "viii + 186",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137506429",
  ISBN =         "1-349-55435-9 (paperback), 1-137-50642-3 (e-book),
                 1-137-50641-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-349-55435-5 (paperback), 978-1-137-50642-9
                 (e-book), 978-1-137-50641-2",
  LCCN =         "HB172.5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/book/10.1057/9781137506429",
  abstract =     "Digital currencies are a fairly new phenomenon brought
                 about by the spectacular rise of the internet. While
                 Bitcoin is the most famous, there are numerous other
                 digital currencies --- from Amazon Coin to Zetacoin.
                 Beyond Bitcoin explores the economic forces underlying
                 the design of their features and their potential.
                 Halaburda and Sarvary argue that digital currencies are
                 best understood by considering the economic incentives
                 driving their creators and users. The authors present a
                 framework that will allow systemic analysis of this
                 dynamic environment and support further discussion of
                 the design of digital currencies' features and the
                 competition in the market.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  tableofcontents = "Introduction \\
                 Means of exchange: ever present competition \\
                 Platform-based currencies \\
                 Cryptocurrencies \\
                 Conclusions",
}

@Book{Halaburda:2016:BBE,
  author =       "Hanna Halaburda and M. (Miklos) Sarvary",
  title =        "Beyond {Bitcoin}: the economics of digital
                 currencies",
  publisher =    "Palgrave Macmillan",
  address =      "New York City, NY, USA",
  pages =        "viii + 186",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "1-137-50641-5 (hardcover)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-137-50641-2 (hardcover)",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .H275 2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:54:50 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Bitcoin; Foreign
                 exchange",
  tableofcontents = "Introduction \\
                 Means of exchange: ever present competition \\
                 Platform-based currencies \\
                 Cryptocurrencies \\
                 Conclusions",
}

@InProceedings{Hardjono:2016:CBC,
  author =       "Thomas Hardjono and Ned Smith",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2Nd ACM International Workshop on
                 IoT Privacy, Trust, and Security}",
  title =        "Cloud-Based Commissioning of Constrained Devices Using
                 Permissioned Blockchains",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "29--36",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2899007.2899012",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4283-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4283-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "IoTPTS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2899007.2899012",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2899012",
  keywords =     "blockchains; identity management; internet of things;
                 privacy; security",
  location =     "Xi'an, China",
  pagecount =    "8",
}

@InProceedings{Hari:2016:IBD,
  author =       "Adiseshu Hari and T. V. Lakshman",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 15th ACM Workshop on Hot Topics in
                 Networks}",
  title =        "The {Internet} Blockchain: A Distributed,
                 Tamper-Resistant Transaction Framework for the
                 {Internet}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "204--210",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3005745.3005771",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4661-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4661-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "HotNets '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3005745.3005771",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3005771",
  keywords =     "BGPSec; Blockchain; DNSSEC; Security",
  location =     "Atlanta, GA, USA",
  pagecount =    "7",
}

@InProceedings{Heilman:2016:BSC,
  author =       "Ethan Heilman and Foteini Baldimtsi and Sharon
                 Goldberg",
  title =        "Blindly Signed Contracts: Anonymous On-Blockchain and
                 Off-Blockchain {Bitcoin} Transactions",
  crossref =     "Clark:2016:FCD",
  pages =        "43--60",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_4",
  ISBN =         "3-662-53357-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-53357-4",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Heitzenrater:2016:CES,
  author =       "Chad Heitzenrater and Andrew Simpson",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2016 New Security Paradigms
                 Workshop",
  title =        "A Case for the Economics of Secure Software
                 Development",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "92--105",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3011883.3011884",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4813-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4813-3",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "NSPW '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3011884",
  keywords =     "information security investment, secure software
                 engineering, software security economics",
  location =     "Granby, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "14",
}

@InProceedings{Herlihy:2016:BLA,
  author =       "Maurice Herlihy and Mark Moir",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 31st Annual ACM\slash IEEE
                 Symposium on Logic in Computer Science}",
  title =        "Blockchains and the Logic of Accountability: Keynote
                 Address",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "27--30",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2933575.2934579",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4391-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4391-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "LICS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2933575.2934579",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2934579",
  location =     "New York, NY, USA",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InCollection{Herrera-Joancomarti:2016:PBT,
  author =       "Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'\i} and Cristina
                 P{\'e}rez-Sol{\`a}",
  booktitle =    "Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence",
  title =        "Privacy in {Bitcoin} Transactions: New Challenges from
                 Blockchain Scalability Solutions",
  volume =       "9880",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "26--44",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45656-0_3",
  ISBN =         "3-319-45656-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-45656-0",
  MRclass =      "68P30 (91B99)",
  MRnumber =     "3577800",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-45656-0_3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Hurlburt:2016:MBO,
  author =       "G. Hurlburt",
  title =        "Might the Blockchain Outlive {Bitcoin}?",
  journal =      j-IT-PRO,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12--16",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "IPMAFM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MITP.2016.21",
  ISSN =         "1520-9202 (print), 1941-045x (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1520-9202",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "{IT} Professional",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6294",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; blockchain; blockchain Outlive {Bitcoin};
                 crypto-currency; Cryptography; cryptography; Internet
                 technologies; Market research; mathematical hashing
                 process; Online banking; open source; public domain
                 software; Roads; Sensors; World Wide Web",
}

@InCollection{Idelberger:2016:ELB,
  author =       "Florian Idelberger and Guido Governatori and R{\'e}gis
                 Riveret and Giovanni Sartor",
  booktitle =    "Rule Technologies. {Research}, Tools, and
                 Applications",
  title =        "Evaluation of Logic-Based Smart Contracts for
                 Blockchain Systems",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "167--183",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42019-6_11",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-42019-6_11",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Ingram:2016:AMB,
  author =       "C. Ingram and M. Morisse",
  booktitle =    "2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System
                 Sciences (HICSS)",
  title =        "Almost an {MNC}: {Bitcoin} Entrepreneurs' Use of
                 Collective Resources and Decoupling to Build
                 Legitimacy",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "4083--4092",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2016.507",
  ISSN =         "1530-1605",
  ISSN-L =       "1530-1605",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2010.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; broader {Bitcoin} community; Context;
                 cryptocurrencies; Cryptography; digital community;
                 electronic money; Europe; larger decentralised
                 community act; legislation; legitimacy; local
                 entrepreneur seeking mainstream legitimacy; MNC; Online
                 banking; open source community; organisational aspects;
                 Protocols; Stakeholders; {Bitcoin} entrepreneur",
}

@InProceedings{Jacynycz:2016:BDB,
  author =       "Viktor Jacynycz and Adrian Calvo and Samer Hassan and
                 Antonio A. S{\'a}nchez-Ruiz",
  booktitle =    "{Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence,
                 13th International Conference}",
  title =        "{Betfunding}: A Distributed Bounty-Based Crowdfunding
                 Platform over {Ethereum}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "403--411",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40162-1_44",
  ISBN =         "3-319-40162-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-40162-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:51:20 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-40162-1_44",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Jarecki:2016:HEC,
  author =       "S. Jarecki and A. Kiayias and H. Krawczyk and J. Xu",
  booktitle =    "2016 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy
                 (EuroSP)",
  title =        "Highly-Efficient and Composable Password-Protected
                 Secret Sharing (Or: How to Protect Your {Bitcoin}
                 Wallet Online)",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "276--291",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/EuroSP.2016.30",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Authentication; authentication; central primitive;
                 communication channels; communication complexity;
                 composable password-protected secret sharing;
                 Cryptography; Electronic mail; Logic gates; memorizable
                 password; oblivious PRF; oblivious pseudorandom
                 function; online storing; password; PKI; PPSS schemes;
                 Protocols; secret-sharing; secure channels; security of
                 data; Servers; single password; UC formalism; UC model;
                 UC-based definition; universally composable model;
                 valuable secrets; verifiable OPRF; {Bitcoin} wallet
                 online",
}

@InProceedings{Judmayer:2016:CCCa,
  author =       "Aljosha Judmayer and Edgar Weippl",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "Condensed Cryptographic Currencies Crash Course
                 ({C5})",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1857--1858",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2976754",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2976754",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; block chain; blockchain; cryptographic
                 currencies",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{Judmayer:2016:CCCb,
  author =       "Aljosha Judmayer and Edgar Weippl",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 25th International Conference
                 Companion on World Wide Web",
  title =        "Cryptographic Currencies Crash Course ({C4}):
                 Tutorial",
  publisher =    "International World Wide Web Conferences Steering
                 Committee",
  address =      "Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland",
  pages =        "1021--1024",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2872518.2891066",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4144-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4144-8",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "WWW '16 Companion",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2891066",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, block chain, cryptographic currencies",
  location =     "Montr\&\#233;al, Qu\&\#233;bec, Canada",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InProceedings{Juels:2016:RGI,
  author =       "Ari Juels and Ahmed Kosba and Elaine Shi",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "The Ring of {Gyges}: Investigating the Future of
                 Criminal Smart Contracts",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "283--295",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978362",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978362",
  keywords =     "criminal smart contracts, Ethereum",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "13",
}

@Book{Karame:2016:BBS,
  author =       "Ghassan Karame and Elli Androulaki",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} and blockchain security",
  publisher =    pub-ARTECH,
  address =      pub-ARTECH:adr,
  pages =        "xiii + 218",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "1-63081-013-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-63081-013-9",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .K37 2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "Artech House information security and privacy series",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Security measures;
                 Bitcoin; Electronic commerce; Bitcoin; Electronic
                 commerce; Security measures",
}

@InProceedings{Karame:2016:SSB,
  author =       "Ghassan Karame",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "On the Security and Scalability of {Bitcoin}'s
                 Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1861--1862",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2976756",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2976756",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2976756",
  keywords =     "bitcoin security; blockchain security",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{Kate:2016:ICN,
  author =       "Aniket Kate",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "Introduction to Credit Networks: Security, Privacy,
                 and Applications",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1859--1860",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2976755",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2976755",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2976755",
  keywords =     "blockchain; credit networks; I owe you; ripple;
                 stellar; sybil tolerance; trust networks",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{Keenan:2016:WFK,
  author =       "Thomas P. Keenan",
  booktitle =    "{ACM SIGGRAPH 2016 Talks}",
  title =        "Have We Found the Key to the Smart Community?",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "89:1--89:1",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2897839.2956558",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4282-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4282-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SIGGRAPH '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2897839.2956558",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2956558",
  articleno =    "89",
  location =     "Anaheim, California",
  pagecount =    "1",
}

@InProceedings{Khairuddin:2016:EMB,
  author =       "Irni Eliana Khairuddin and Corina Sas and Sarah Clinch
                 and Nigel Davies",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference Extended
                 Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems",
  title =        "Exploring Motivations for {Bitcoin} Technology Usage",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "2872--2878",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2851581.2892500",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4082-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4082-3",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CHI EA '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2892500",
  keywords =     "bitcoin technology, user motivation",
  location =     "San Jose, California, USA",
  pagecount =    "7",
}

@InProceedings{Kiayias:2016:BMG,
  author =       "Aggelos Kiayias and Elias Koutsoupias and Maria
                 Kyropoulou and Yiannis Tselekounis",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference on Economics
                 and Computation}",
  title =        "Blockchain Mining Games",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "365--382",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2940716.2940773",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-3936-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-3936-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "EC '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2940716.2940773",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2940773",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, blockchain games, consensus protocol, nash
                 equilibrium",
  location =     "Maastricht, The Netherlands",
  pagecount =    "18",
}

@Article{Kleineberg:2016:SBC,
  author =       "Kaj-Kolja Kleineberg and Dirk Helbing",
  title =        "A Social {Bitcoin} could sustain a democratic digital
                 world",
  journal =      j-EUR-PHYS-J-SPEC-TOP,
  volume =       "225",
  number =       "17--18",
  pages =        "3231--3241",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "EPJSAC",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1140/epjst/e2016-60156-7",
  ISSN =         "1951-6355 (print), 1951-6401 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1951-6355",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1140/epjst/e2016-60156-7",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "European Physical Journal --- Special Topics",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/journal/11734",
}

@InProceedings{Kow:2016:HKW,
  author =       "Yong Ming Kow and Xianghua Ding",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on
                 Supporting Group Work",
  title =        "``{Hey}, {I} Know What This is!'': Cultural Affinities
                 and Early Stage Appropriation of the Emerging {Bitcoin}
                 Technology",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "213--221",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2957276.2957279",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4276-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4276-6",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "GROUP '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2957279",
  keywords =     "appropriation, Bitcoin, sociocultural",
  location =     "Sanibel Island, Florida, USA",
  pagecount =    "9",
}

@Article{Kraft:2016:DCB,
  author =       "Daniel Kraft",
  title =        "Difficulty control for blockchain-based consensus
                 systems",
  journal =      "Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications",
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  month =        "",
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12083-015-0347-x",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 08:10:08 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12083-015-0347-x",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/12083",
}

@InProceedings{Kumaresan:2016:ASC,
  author =       "Ranjit Kumaresan and Iddo Bentov",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Amortizing Secure Computation with Penalties",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "418--429",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978424",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978424",
  keywords =     "amortization, Bitcoin, fairness, secure computation",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Kumaresan:2016:ISC,
  author =       "Ranjit Kumaresan and Vinod Vaikuntanathan and Prashant
                 Nalini Vasudevan",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "Improvements to Secure Computation with Penalties",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "406--417",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978421",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2978421",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978421",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, fairness, secure computation",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Kunnapas:2016:BSC,
  author =       "Kaido K{\"u}nnapas",
  booktitle =    "The Future of Law and {eTechnologies}",
  title =        "From {Bitcoin} to Smart Contracts: Legal Revolution or
                 Evolution from the Perspective of de lege ferenda?",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "111--131",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-26896-5_6",
  ISBN =         "3-319-26896-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-26896-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-26896-5_6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "de lege ferenda (Latin) == the passage of the law",
}

@Article{Lee:2016:BBS,
  author =       "Boohyung Lee and Jong-Hyouk Lee",
  title =        "Blockchain-based secure firmware update for embedded
                 devices in an {Internet of Things} environment",
  journal =      j-J-SUPERCOMPUTING,
  volume =       "73",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "1152--1167",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "JOSUED",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11227-016-1870-0",
  ISSN =         "0920-8542 (print), 1573-0484 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0920-8542",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Supercomputing",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/journal/11227",
}

@InProceedings{Lee:2016:ESM,
  author =       "V. Lee and H. Wei",
  booktitle =    "2016 IEEE 11th Conference on Industrial Electronics
                 and Applications (ICIEA)",
  title =        "Exploratory simulation models for fraudulent detection
                 in {Bitcoin} system",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1972--1977",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICIEA.2016.7603912",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Delays; Distributed Network; Double-spending;
                 double-spending issues; double-spending risks;
                 e-payment; exploratory simulation models; financial
                 data processing; Fraud detection; fraudulent detection;
                 Government; network connection status; Online banking;
                 online payment security; online transactions;
                 Peer-to-peer computing; Ports (Computers); Security;
                 security issues; security of data; Simulation;
                 transaction processing; {Bitcoin} system",
}

@InProceedings{Leiding:2016:SMB,
  author =       "Benjamin Leiding and Parisa Memarmoshrefi and Dieter
                 Hogrefe",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Joint
                 Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing:
                 Adjunct}",
  title =        "Self-managed and Blockchain-based Vehicular Ad-hoc
                 Networks",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "137--140",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2968219.2971409",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4462-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4462-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "UbiComp '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2968219.2971409",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2971409",
  keywords =     "blockchain; Ethereum; self-managed VANET",
  location =     "Heidelberg, Germany",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InCollection{Leinonen:2016:DBC,
  author =       "Harry Leinonen",
  booktitle =    "Transforming Payment Systems in {Europe}",
  title =        "Decentralised Blockchained and Centralised Real-Time
                 Payment Ledgers: Development Trends and Basic
                 Requirements",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "236--261",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137541215_8",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1057/9781137541215_8",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Liao:2016:BCD,
  author =       "K. Liao and Z. Zhao and A. Doupe and G. J. Ahn",
  booktitle =    "2016 APWG Symposium on Electronic Crime Research
                 (eCrime)",
  title =        "Behind closed doors: measurement and analysis of
                 {CryptoLocker} ransoms in {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--13",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ECRIME.2016.7487938",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "auxiliary information; BTC-e; Computer crime; computer
                 crime; cryptography; CryptoLocker; CryptoLocker
                 economy; CryptoLocker operation; Cryptolocker ransoms;
                 cybercrime; cybercrimes; decentralized cryptographic
                 currency; Electronic mail; erratic cybercrime
                 landscape; financial data processing; financial
                 infrastructure; Online banking; online fora; Privacy;
                 Protocols; Public key; ransom payments; ransomware;
                 reddit; security; sheep marketplace scam; threat
                 intelligence; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} ecosystem; {Bitcoin}
                 Fog; {Bitcoin} services; {Bitcoin}Talk",
}

@InCollection{Liu:2016:MRS,
  author =       "Paul Tak Shing Liu",
  booktitle =    "Information and Communications Security",
  title =        "Medical Record System Using Blockchain, Big Data and
                 Tokenization",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "254--261",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50011-9_20",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-50011-9_20",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Luu:2016:MSC,
  author =       "Loi Luu and Duc-Hiep Chu and Hrishi Olickel and
                 Prateek Saxena and Aquinas Hobor",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "Making Smart Contracts Smarter",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "254--269",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978309",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2978309",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978309",
  keywords =     "blockchain, cryptocurrencies, Ethereum, smart
                 contract, symbolic execution",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "16",
}

@InProceedings{Luu:2016:SSP,
  author =       "Loi Luu and Viswesh Narayanan and Chaodong Zheng and
                 Kunal Baweja and Seth Gilbert and Prateek Saxena",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "17--30",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978389",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2978389",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978389",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, consensus protocol, sharding",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "14",
}

@InProceedings{Mac:2016:BBS,
  author =       "Trent J. Mac and Donald and Darcy W. E. Allen and
                 Jason Potts",
  booktitle =    "{Banking Beyond Banks and Money}",
  title =        "Blockchains and the Boundaries of Self-Organized
                 Economies: Predictions for the Future of Banking",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42448-4_14",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 08:10:08 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-42448-4_14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{MacDonald:2016:BBS,
  author =       "Trent J. MacDonald and Darcy W. E. Allen and Jason
                 Potts",
  booktitle =    "Banking Beyond Banks and Money",
  title =        "Blockchains and the Boundaries of Self-Organized
                 Economies: Predictions for the Future of Banking",
  publisher =    "Springer International Publishing",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "279--296",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42448-4_14",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Maesa:2016:UBB,
  author =       "D. D. F. Maesa and A. Marino and L. Ricci",
  booktitle =    "2016 IEEE International Conference on Data Science and
                 Advanced Analytics (DSAA)",
  title =        "Uncovering the {Bitcoin} Blockchain: An Analysis of
                 the Full Users Graph",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "537--546",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/DSAA.2016.52",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Algorithm design and analysis; BITCOIN blockchain;
                 BITCOIN economy; BITCOIN network; BITCOIN transaction
                 graph; blockchain; Computer science; cryptocurrency;
                 Cryptography; cryptography; decentralized
                 cryptocurrency system; Economics; EFTS; Electronic
                 mail; exponential explosion; full user graph analysis;
                 fund movement investigation; graph theory; heuristic
                 clustering; network connectivity; node detection;
                 Online banking; pattern clustering; Protocols; time
                 evolution; {Bitcoin}",
}

@Article{Magaki:2016:ACSa,
  author =       "Ikuo Magaki and Moein Khazraee and Luis Vega Gutierrez
                 and Michael Bedford Taylor",
  title =        "{ASIC} Clouds: Specializing the Datacenter",
  journal =      j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS,
  volume =       "44",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "178--190",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "CANED2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3007787.3001156",
  ISSN =         "0163-5964 (print), 1943-5851 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5964",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3001156",
  ajournal =     "SIGARCH Comput. Archit. News",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
  pagecount =    "13",
}

@InProceedings{Magaki:2016:ACSb,
  author =       "Ikuo Magaki and Moein Khazraee and Luis Vega Gutierrez
                 and Michael Bedford Taylor",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 43rd International Symposium on
                 Computer Architecture",
  title =        "{ASIC} Clouds: Specializing the Datacenter",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "178--190",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ISCA.2016.25",
  ISBN =         "1-4673-8947-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4673-8947-1",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ISCA '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3001156",
  location =     "Seoul, Republic of Korea",
  pagecount =    "13",
}

@Book{Mago:2016:BHB,
  author =       "Felix Mago and Tobias Gillen",
  title =        "{Das Bitcoin-Handbuch: Bitcoin von A bis Z}.
                 ({German}) [{The} {Bitcoin} Handbook: {Bitcoin} from
                 {A} to {Z}]",
  publisher =    "jmb-Verlag",
  address =      "Hannover, Germany",
  pages =        "134",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "3-944342-77-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-944342-77-1",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:59:19 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "BASIC thinking",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Elektronischer Zahlungsverkehr; Bargeldloser
                 Zahlungsverkehr; Ratgeber; Electronic Commerce;
                 Bitcoin",
  tableofcontents = "Vorwort / 5 \\
                 Wo sollen wir blo{\ss} anfangen? / 7 \\
                 Wie entstehen Bitcoins und was ist Mining? / 12 \\
                 Die richtige Hardware / 19 \\
                 Mining Pools / 25 \\
                 Die richtige Software / 35 \\
                 Wallet: Brieftasche f{\"u}r die digitale W{\"a}hrung /
                 39 \\
                 Die richtige Wallet-Sicherung / 43 \\
                 Faktoren f{\"u}r ein sicheres Bitcoin-Wallet / 47 \\
                 Die Desktop-Wallets / 53 \\
                 Die Online-Wallets / 60 \\
                 Mobile-Wallets und Bitcoin-Apps / 67 \\
                 Hardware- und Paper-Wallets / 72 \\
                 Fazit: Der lange Weg zum Wallet / 75 \\
                 Wie und wo kauft man Bitcoins? / 77 \\
                 Fazit: Vergleichsweise einfach / 88 \\
                 Wo kann man seine Bitcoins ausgeben? / 89 \\
                 Bitcoins f{\"u}r H{\"a}ndler --- Was bringt es, wie
                 funktioniert es? / 96 \\
                 Die Alternativen zum Bitcoin / 110 \\
                 Fazit: Besser leben mit Bitcoin? / 121 \\
                 Nachwort/{\"U}ber uns / 129 \\
                 Der Autor Felix Mago / 130 \\
                 Der Herausgeber Tobias Gillen / 131 \\
                 Vernetze dich mit uns / 132",
}

@InProceedings{Matta:2016:BMP,
  author =       "Martina Matta and Ilaria Lunesu and Michele Marchesi",
  booktitle =    "Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering and
                 Knowledge Management",
  title =        "Is {Bitcoin}'s Market Predictable? {Analysis} of {Web}
                 Search and Social Media",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "155--172",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-52758-1_10",
  ISBN =         "3-319-52758-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-52758-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-52758-1_10",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Matzutt:2016:PDW,
  author =       "Roman Matzutt and Oliver Hohlfeld and Martin Henze and
                 Robin Rawiel and Jan Henrik Ziegeldorf and Klaus
                 Wehrle",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "{Poster}: {I} Don't Want That Content! {On} the Risks
                 of Exploiting {Bitcoin}'s Blockchain As a Content
                 Store",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1769--1771",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2989059",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2989059",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2989059",
  keywords =     "arbitrary content, Bitcoin, blockchain technology,
                 censorship resistency, measurement, peer-to-peer
                 protocols",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "3",
}

@InProceedings{McCorry:2016:TBP,
  author =       "Patrick McCorry and Malte M{\"o}ser and Siamak F.
                 Shahandashti and Feng Hao",
  booktitle =    "Information Security and Privacy",
  title =        "Towards {Bitcoin} Payment Networks",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "57--76",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40253-6_4",
  ISBN =         "3-319-40252-8 (paperback), 3-319-40253-6 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-40252-9 (paperback), 978-3-319-40253-6
                 (e-book)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-40253-6_4",
  ZMnumber =     "06620891",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Meiklejohn:2016:FBC,
  author =       "Sarah Meiklejohn and Marjori Pomarole and Grant Jordan
                 and Kirill Levchenko and Damon McCoy and Geoffrey M.
                 Voelker and Stefan Savage",
  title =        "A fistful of {Bitcoins}: characterizing payments among
                 men with no names",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "59",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "86--93",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2896384",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 15 14:58:10 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2016/4/200174/fulltext",
  abstract =     "Bitcoin is a purely online virtual currency, unbacked
                 by either physical commodities or sovereign obligation;
                 instead, it relies on a combination of cryptographic
                 protection and a peer-to-peer protocol for witnessing
                 settlements. Consequently, Bitcoin has the unintuitive
                 property that while the ownership of money is
                 implicitly anonymous, its flow is globally visible. In
                 this paper we explore this unique characteristic
                 further, using heuristic clustering to group Bitcoin
                 wallets based on evidence of shared authority, and then
                 using re-identification attacks (i.e., empirical
                 purchasing of goods and services) to classify the
                 operators of those clusters. From this analysis, we
                 consider the challenges for those seeking to use
                 Bitcoin for criminal or fraudulent purposes at scale.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Article{Michael:2016:RNI,
  author =       "K. Michael",
  title =        "{RFID\slash NFC} Implants for {Bitcoin} Transactions",
  journal =      "IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine",
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "103--106",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MCE.2016.2556900",
  ISSN =         "2162-2248 (print), 2162-2256 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "2162-2248",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "biological identity; biomedical communication;
                 Biometrics; Cryptography; embedded implant; Implants;
                 Interviews; Near field communication; near-field
                 communication; near-field communication platform; NFC
                 implants; Privacy; radiofrequency identification;
                 Radiofrequency identification; RFID implants; {Bitcoin}
                 transactions",
}

@InProceedings{Miller:2016:HBB,
  author =       "Andrew Miller and Yu Xia and Kyle Croman and Elaine
                 Shi and Dawn Song",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "The Honey Badger of {BFT} Protocols",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "31--42",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978399",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2978399",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978399",
  keywords =     "asynchronous; atomic broadcast; BFT; blockchain",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Milutinovic:2016:PLE,
  author =       "Mitar Milutinovic and Warren He and Howard Wu and
                 Maxinder Kanwal",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on System Software
                 for Trusted Execution}",
  title =        "Proof of Luck: An Efficient Blockchain Consensus
                 Protocol",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "2:1--2:6",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3007788.3007790",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4670-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4670-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SysTEX '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3007788.3007790",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3007790",
  articleno =    "2",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Consensus Protocol; Intel SGX; Trusted
                 Execution Environments",
  location =     "Trento, Italy",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Monamo:2016:MAB,
  author =       "P. M. Monamo and V. Marivate and B. Twala",
  booktitle =    "2016 15th IEEE International Conference on Machine
                 Learning and Applications (ICMLA)",
  title =        "A Multifaceted Approach to {Bitcoin} Fraud Detection:
                 Global and Local Outliers",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "188--194",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMLA.2016.0039",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "anomalous financial behaviour interpretation; anomaly;
                 boosted binary regression models; Clustering
                 algorithms; cryptography; Data mining; data mining;
                 Electronic mail; Feature extraction; feature
                 extraction; financial data processing; kd-trees;
                 Machine learning algorithms; maximum likelihood-based
                 models; Online banking; outlier; random forest;
                 regression; regression analysis; Security; {Bitcoin}
                 fraud detection; {Bitcoin} network",
}

@InProceedings{Monamo:2016:ULR,
  author =       "P. Monamo and V. Marivate and B. Twala",
  booktitle =    "2016 Information Security for South Africa (ISSA)",
  title =        "Unsupervised learning for robust {Bitcoin} fraud
                 detection",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "129--134",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ISSA.2016.7802939",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "anomaly; anomaly detection; Clustering algorithms;
                 Complexity theory; computer crime; cryptographic
                 currency; cryptography; cybercrime; cybercrime
                 activities; data mining; Electric breakdown; financial
                 data processing; fraud; fraudulent activity detection;
                 Logic gates; multivariate setup; object clustering;
                 Online banking; outlier; pattern clustering; rampant
                 absorption; robust {Bitcoin} fraud detection; trimmed
                 k-means; warrants utilization; {Bitcoin} transactions",
}

@InProceedings{Moser:2016:BC,
  author =       "Malte M{\"o}ser and Ittay Eyal and Emin G{\"u}n
                 Sirer",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Covenants",
  crossref =     "Clark:2016:FCD",
  pages =        "126--141",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_9",
  ISBN =         "3-662-53357-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-53357-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-53357-4_9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Narayanan:2016:BCT,
  author =       "Arvind Narayanan and Joseph Bonneau and Edward Felten
                 and Andrew Miller and Steven Goldfeder",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} and cryptocurrency technologies: a
                 comprehensive introduction",
  publisher =    pub-PRINCETON,
  address =      pub-PRINCETON:adr,
  pages =        "xxvii + 304",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "0-691-17169-6 (hardcover), 1-4008-8415-2 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-691-17169-2 (hardcover), 978-1-4008-8415-5
                 (e-book)",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .N35 2016",
  MRclass =      "94-01 94A60 91-01 91B64",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:35:13 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  URL =          "https://lopp.net/pdf/princeton_bitcoin_book.pdf",
  abstract =     "\booktitle{Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies}
                 provides a comprehensive introduction to the
                 revolutionary yet often misunderstood new technologies
                 of digital currency. Whether you are a student,
                 software developer, tech entrepreneur, or researcher in
                 computer science, this authoritative and self-contained
                 book tells you everything you need to know about the
                 new global money for the Internet age. How do Bitcoin
                 and its block chain actually work? How secure are your
                 bitcoins? How anonymous are their users? Can
                 cryptocurrencies be regulated? These are some of the
                 many questions this book answers. It begins by tracing
                 the history and development of Bitcoin and
                 cryptocurrencies, and then gives the conceptual and
                 practical foundations you need to engineer secure
                 software that interacts with the Bitcoin network as
                 well as to integrate ideas from Bitcoin into your own
                 projects. Topics include decentralization, mining, the
                 politics of Bitcoin, altcoins and the cryptocurrency
                 ecosystem, the future of Bitcoin, and more. An
                 essential introduction to the new technologies of
                 digital currency, Covers the history and mechanics of
                 Bitcoin and the block chain, security,
                 decentralization, anonymity, politics and regulation,
                 altcoins, and much more, Features an accompanying
                 website that includes instructional videos for each
                 chapter, homework problems, programming assignments,
                 and lecture slides, Also suitable for use with the
                 authors' Coursera online course, Electronic solutions
                 manual (available only to professors).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Bitcoin; Electronic funds transfers; Cryptography;
                 Money",
  tableofcontents = "Introduction to cryptography and cryptocurrencies
                 \\
                 How Bitcoin achieves decentralization \\
                 Mechanics of Bitcoin \\
                 How to store and use Bitcoins \\
                 Bitcoin mining \\
                 Bitcoin and anonymity \\
                 Community, politics, and regulation \\
                 Alternative mining puzzles \\
                 Bitcoin as a platform \\
                 Altcoins and the cryptocurrency ecosystem \\
                 Decentralized institutions: the future of Bitcoin? \\
                 Conclusion",
}

@Article{Narayanan:2016:RPC,
  author =       "Arvind Narayanan and Andrew Miller and Song Han",
  editor =       "Peter Bailis",
  title =        "Research for Practice: Cryptocurrencies, Blockchains,
                 and Smart Contracts; Hardware for Deep Learning",
  journal =      j-QUEUE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "60:43--60:55",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "AQCUAE",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3028687.3043967",
  ISSN =         "1542-7730 (print), 1542-7749 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1542-7730",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3028687.3043967",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3043967",
  articleno =    "60",
  fjournal =     "ACM Queue: Tomorrow's Computing Today",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J882",
  pagecount =    "13",
}

@InProceedings{Neilson:2016:BFT,
  author =       "David Neilson and Sukhvinder Hara and Ian Mitchell",
  booktitle =    "Global Security, Safety and Sustainability --- The
                 Security Challenges of the Connected World",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Forensics: A Tutorial",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "12--26",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51064-4_2",
  ISBN =         "3-319-51064-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-51064-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-51064-4_2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Neudecker:2016:TAI,
  author =       "T. Neudecker and P. Andelfinger and H. Hartenstein",
  booktitle =    "2016 Intl IEEE Conferences on Ubiquitous Intelligence
                 Computing, Advanced and Trusted Computing, Scalable
                 Computing and Communications, Cloud and Big Data
                 Computing, Internet of People, and Smart World Congress
                 (UIC\slash ATC\slash ScalCom\slash CBDCom\slash
                 IoP\slash SmartWorld)",
  title =        "Timing Analysis for Inferring the Topology of the
                 {Bitcoin} Peer-to-Peer Network",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "358--367",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/UIC-ATC-ScalCom-CBDCom-IoP-SmartWorld.2016.0070",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; computer network security; decentralized
                 architecture; Delays; electronic currency system;
                 electronic money; flooding P2P networks; inference
                 attacks; Monitoring; Network Analysis; network attacks;
                 network links; Network topology; Online banking;
                 Peer-to-Peer; Peer-to-peer computing; peer-to-peer
                 computing; peer-to-peer network topology; Propagation
                 delay; telecommunication network topology; timing
                 analysis; Timing Analysis; Topology; trickling
                 countermeasure",
}

@Book{Nishibe:2016:EMG,
  author =       "Makoto Nishibe",
  title =        "The enigma of money: gold, central banknotes, and
                 {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "xiv + 93 + 3",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1819-0",
  ISBN =         "981-10-1818-9 (print), 981-10-1819-7 (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-981-10-1818-3 (print), 978-981-10-1819-0
                 (e-book)",
  LCCN =         "HB71-74; HG1272",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-981-10-1819-0",
  abstract =     "This book provides a new way of understanding modern
                 money and markets by stressing their
                 self-fulfilling\slash self-destructive properties as
                 institutions from evolutionary perspectives. In
                 contrast to an unrealistic view of the neoclassical
                 general equilibrium theory that models the price
                 mechanism of a ``concentrated market'' without using
                 money, presented here is an alternative theory of
                 markets on how a realistic ``dispersive market'' using
                 a stock of money and inventory as buffers can work as a
                 multilayered price-quantitative adjustment system. The
                 central features of modern sovereign moneys seen in
                 inconvertible IOUs of central banknotes can be depicted
                 as ``The Emperor's New Clothes'' that correspond to the
                 U.S. dollar and the Euro void of their own value. The
                 image captures such characteristics of national
                 currencies as ``self-fulfilling ideas'' by the inertia
                 of conventions in the past and expectations of an
                 uncertain future. Both ideas normally make money more
                 acceptable and circulative so that its value can become
                 more stable unless expectations for the future turn
                 very pessimistic. The same logic also applies to such
                 other currencies as Bitcoin and community currencies.
                 Their recent diffusion has shown that Hayek's idea of
                 denationalization of money and competition between
                 multiple currencies in terms of its qualities, not its
                 quantities sought as in ongoing quantitative easing,
                 become more relevant under current situations. The
                 qualities of money refer not only to stable monetary
                 values and low transaction costs, but also to high
                 ability in creating, sharing, and communicating social
                 and cultural value. The potential of the logic of
                 self-fulfillment of ideas can thus open up a new
                 economic society when we realize that such various
                 non-national currencies all depend on the same logic of
                 money.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  tableofcontents = "1 The Enigma of Money: If We Understand Money, We
                 Will Understand Economy / 1 \\
                 1.1 What Is the ``Economy''? / 1 \\
                 1.2 Plural Visions of ``Market'': Market as Metaphor /
                 2 \\
                 1.3 ``Economy'' Is a Living Thing / 2 \\
                 1.4 If We Understand Money, We Will Understand Economy
                 / 3 \\
                 1.5 The Enigma of Money: A ``Thing'' or an ``Event''? /
                 4 \\
                 2 Is Money a ``Thing'' or an ``Event''? Reconsidering
                 Money and Market / 7 \\
                 2.1 Money and Okane / 7 \\
                 The Okane Story / 7 \\
                 Anything Can Be the Material of Money / 8 \\
                 Religious and Psychological Functions of Money / 9 \\
                 2.2 What Is ``Market''?: Modern Economics Neglects
                 Money / 10 \\
                 No Money, No Market/Commodity / 10 \\
                 Fictitious Markets in Modern Economics: What Is a
                 ``Concentrated'' Market? / 11 \\
                 A Real Market: What Is a ``Distributed'' Market? / 13
                 \\
                 Bilateral Transactions Are Basic in a Real
                 ``Distributed'' Market / 13 \\
                 Hicks' Classification of Markets: Flexprice and
                 Fixprice Markets / 15 \\
                 2.3 How Distributed Markets Work: Stock Markets and the
                 Electronic Bazaar in the Real State of Affairs / 16 \\
                 How ``Price'' Is Determined / 16 \\
                 Market Price Fixing in Stock Markets: Itayose and
                 Zaraba / 17 \\
                 The Stock Market as a Model of General Equilibrium
                 Theory / 19 \\
                 Electronic Markets Two Decades Ago / 20 \\
                 Face-to-Face Trades and the Market for Lemons / 22 \\
                 Money Turns a Thing into a ``Commodity'' and a Place
                 for Trading ``Commodities'' into a ``Market'' / 24 \\
                 2.4 The Principles of Generating Money / 24 \\
                 Is Money the Same as Language? / 24 \\
                 Love and Barter Have Something in Common / 25 \\
                 When Money Comes into Existence / 26 \\
                 A Generative Model of Money / 26 \\
                 Imitation of Others' Wants Brings Money into Being / 28
                 \\
                 Diversity in Money / 30 \\
                 Negative Possibilities with Money / 30 \\
                 2.5 Robinson Crusoe and Stone Money on Yap Island / 31
                 \\
                 The Story of Robinson Crusoe Tells How Hard It Is to
                 Escape from Money / 31 \\
                 ``Economy'' Without a ``Society'' / 33 \\
                 Stone Money on Yap Island / 34 \\
                 Anything Can Be Money / 34 \\
                 3 Money as ``The Self-Fulfillment of an Idea'': The
                 Difference Between a Bank of Japan Note and Bitcoin /
                 37 \\
                 3.1 Why Talk About Money Leads Us into a Circular Logic
                 / 37 \\
                 Four Functions of Money / 37 \\
                 The Differences Between Money and Commodities / 38 \\
                 Money as the Emperor / 39 \\
                 Talk About Money Quickly Ends Up in a Circular Logic /
                 39 \\
                 3.2 Thinking About Money Through ``The Emperor's New
                 Clothes'' / 39 \\
                 A Ten Thousand Yen Bill as a Self-Fulfilling Idea / 39
                 \\
                 Money and the Story of ``Emperor's New Clothes'' / 40
                 \\
                 The Emperor Is Great, Even If He Is Wearing Nothing /
                 41 \\
                 Access Gift and a Ten Thousand Yen Bill / 41 \\
                 The Self-Fulfillment of Custom / 43 \\
                 The Self-Fulfillment of Expectations / 44 \\
                 Reality Is Strong When Built by Custom and Expectations
                 / 45 \\
                 3.3 Yenten as Pseudo-money / 46 \\
                 The Yenten Incident / 46 \\
                 Yenten as a Ponzi Scheme / 47 \\
                 Pseudo-Money by Means of a ``Prepaid Payment
                 Instrument'' / 48 \\
                 Penny Auction / 49 \\
                 3.4 What Does Bitcoin Tell Us? / 50 \\
                 Bitcoin: A Crypto-currency / 50 \\
                 Problems with Bitcoin / 52 \\
                 Bitcoin Spreads Out / 53 \\
                 Bitcoin and Free Software / 54 \\
                 Bitcoin Points to the Future: Denationalization of
                 Money and Competing Currencies / 54 \\
                 3.5 What Does the Informatization of Currency Mean? /
                 56 \\
                 Two Currents of Money: Toward Informatization and
                 Creditization / 56 \\
                 Credit Money and Credit Creation / 56 \\
                 The Essence of Money Is Suggested by These Two Currents
                 / 57 \\
                 When Money Changes, Markets Will Change / 58 \\
                 4 The Disease Haunting Money: The Relation Between
                 Money and Bubbles / 59 \\
                 4.1 Humanity's Desire to Synchronize Creates Bubbles /
                 59 \\
                 The Word ``Bubble'' / 59 \\
                 The Heisei Bubble / 60 \\
                 What Is a Bubble? / 60 \\
                 Humanity's Selfish Desire to Synchronize with Others
                 Creates It / 61 \\
                 Bubbles and the Theory of Evolution / 62 \\
                 4.2 A History of Bubbles / 63 \\
                 The Tulip Bubble / 63 \\
                 Why Tulips? / 64 \\
                 Tulip Mania Accelerates / 64 \\
                 The Peak of a Feast Is the Beginning of Its End / 65
                 \\
                 A Man Named John Law / 66 \\
                 Law's Alchemy / 67 \\
                 Law's Magical System / 67 \\
                 Stock Mania in ``La Compagnie de la Louisiane ou
                 d'Occident'' / 68 \\
                 The End of Law's System / 69 \\
                 The South Sea Bubble Company: Originator of a Bubble /
                 70 \\
                 A Shady Company = A Bubble Company / 71 \\
                 Geniuses Fooled by Bubbles / 72 \\
                 4.3 Bubbles as a Self-Fulfilling Idea / 73 \\
                 Money and Bubbles Have Something in Common / 73 \\
                 The Sunspots Theory / 73 \\
                 Illusion and Reality / 74 \\
                 4.4 Soros' Bubble Theory / 75 \\
                 Soros' ``Reflexivity'' / 75 \\
                 Eight Stages of Bubbles / 76 \\
                 The Contagiousness of Bubbles / 77 \\
                 5 Why Is Capitalist Economy Unstable? On Hyperinflation
                 and Speculation / 79 \\
                 5.1 The Disease Haunting Capitalism Is Hyperinflation /
                 79 \\
                 When Money Breaks Down / 79 \\
                 Even If Money Vanishes, Another Money Will Emerge / 79
                 \\
                 5.2 The Difference Between Investment and Speculation /
                 80 \\
                 Bubbles and Speculation / 80 \\
                 A Beauty Contest / 82 \\
                 5.3 The Future of Money, the Future of Markets / 82 \\
                 Marx's and Keynes' Views on Money / 82 \\
                 Is Money Possible Without Booms or Bubbles? / 84 \\
                 Three Advantages and Three Shortcomings of Market
                 Economy / 84 \\
                 The Focus Is Only on the Market's Shortcomings / 85 \\
                 Money and ``Trust'' / 86 \\
                 6 The Crisis of Capitalism and the ``Quality'' of Money
                 / 87 \\
                 6.1 The Meaning of Occupy Wall Street / 87 \\
                 6.2 Symptoms of the Crisis of Capitalism / 88 \\
                 6.3 The Crisis in the United States and Japan / 89 \\
                 6.4 The Quality of Money and Its ``Freedom to Evolve''
                 / 90 \\
                 6.5 What Kind of Money Will Be Chosen and Survive? / 92
                 \\
                 Bibliography / 93",
}

@InProceedings{Nishibe:2016:MSF,
  author =       "Makoto Nishibe",
  booktitle =    "The Enigma of Money",
  title =        "Money as The Self-Fulfillment of an Idea: The
                 Difference Between a {Bank of Japan} Note and
                 {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "37--58",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1819-0_3",
  ISBN =         "981-10-1819-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-981-10-1819-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-10-1819-0_3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Olnes:2016:BBE,
  author =       "Svein {\O}lnes",
  booktitle =    "Electronic Government",
  title =        "Beyond {Bitcoin} Enabling Smart Government Using
                 Blockchain Technology",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "253--264",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44421-5_20",
  ISBN =         "3-319-44421-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-44421-5",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-44421-5_20",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Orrell:2016:EM,
  author =       "David Orrell and Roman Chlupat{\'y}",
  title =        "The evolution of money",
  publisher =    pub-U-COLUMBIA,
  address =      pub-U-COLUMBIA:adr,
  pages =        "309",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "0-231-17372-5 (hardcover)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-231-17372-8 (hardcover)",
  LCCN =         "HG231 .O77 2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Money; History",
  tableofcontents = "Origins \\
                 The money magnet \\
                 Virtual money \\
                 New world \\
                 A wonderful machine \\
                 The money power \\
                 Solid gold economics \\
                 New money \\
                 Changing the dominant monetary regime, Bit by Bitcoin
                 \\
                 Utopia",
}

@InCollection{Ouaddah:2016:TNP,
  author =       "Aafaf Ouaddah and Anas Abou Elkalam and Abdellah Ait
                 Ouahman",
  booktitle =    "Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing",
  title =        "Towards a Novel Privacy-Preserving Access Control
                 Model Based on Blockchain Technology in {IoT}",
  publisher =    "Springer International Publishing",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "523--533",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46568-5_53",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Peck:2016:BCB,
  author =       "M. Peck",
  title =        "A blockchain currency that beat's {Bitcoin} on privacy
                 [News]",
  journal =      j-IEEE-SPECTRUM,
  volume =       "53",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "11--13",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "IEESAM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2016.7761864",
  ISSN =         "0018-9235 (print), 1939-9340 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9235",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Spectrum",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6",
}

@InProceedings{Perelgut:2016:HIY,
  author =       "Stephen Perelgut and Colette Lacroix",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 26th Annual International
                 Conference on Computer Science and Software
                 Engineering}",
  title =        "Hands-on: Implement Your First Blockchain Solution",
  publisher =    pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  pages =        "350--350",
  year =         "2016",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CASCON '16",
  URL =          "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3049877.3049937",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3049937",
  location =     "Toronto, Ontario, Canada",
  pagecount =    "1",
}

@Article{Perez-Marco:2016:BDT,
  author =       "Ricardo {P{\'e}rez-Marco}",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} and decentralised trust protocols",
  journal =      j-EUR-MATH-SOC-NEWSL,
  volume =       "100",
  pages =        "31--38",
  year =         "2016",
  ISSN =         "1027-488X",
  MRclass =      "91B64 94A60",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 5 09:05:30 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  ZMnumber =     "06669060; 1354.91102",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "European Mathematical Society Newsletter",
}

@InProceedings{Perez-Sola:2016:PBT,
  author =       "Jordi Herrera-Joancomart{\'\i}Cristina
                 P{\'e}rez-Sol{\`a}",
  booktitle =    "{Modeling Decisions for Artificial Intelligence}",
  title =        "Privacy in {Bitcoin} Transactions: New Challenges from
                 Blockchain Scalability Solutions",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45656-0_3",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 08:10:08 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-45656-0_3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Peters:2016:UMB,
  author =       "Gareth W. Peters and Efstathios Panayi",
  booktitle =    "Banking Beyond Banks and Money",
  title =        "Understanding Modern Banking Ledgers Through
                 Blockchain Technologies: Future of Transaction
                 Processing and Smart Contracts on the {Internet of
                 Money}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "239--278",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42448-4_13",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-42448-4_13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Pilkington:2016:BTP,
  author =       "Marc Pilkington",
  title =        "Blockchain technology: principles and applications",
  crossref =     "Olleros:2016:RHD",
  pages =        "225--253",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.4337/9781784717766.00019",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 20 16:51:16 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Pinzon:2016:DSA,
  author =       "Carlos Pinz{\'o}n and Camilo Rocha",
  booktitle =    "{CLEI} 2016---{The} {Latin} {American} {Computing}
                 {Conference}",
  title =        "Double-spend attack models with time advantange for
                 {Bitcoin}",
  volume =       "329",
  publisher =    "Elsevier Sci. B. V., Amsterdam",
  pages =        "79--103",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.entcs.2016.12.006",
  MRclass =      "68P25",
  MRnumber =     "3598278",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "Electron. Notes Theor. Comput. Sci.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Pomp:2016:BOW,
  author =       "Marloes Pomp and Maarten-Jan de Wit and Jorrit
                 Wigchert and Irene Schoemakers",
  title =        "Blockchains: op weg naar geautomatiseerd vertrouwen.
                 ({Dutch}) [{Blockchains}: on the road to automated
                 trust]",
  journal =      "{HEADline}",
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14--16",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s40739-016-0042-x",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40739-016-0042-x",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Popper:2016:DGB,
  author =       "Nathaniel Popper",
  title =        "Digital gold: {Bitcoin} and the inside story of the
                 misfits and millionaires trying to reinvent money",
  publisher =    "Harper",
  address =      "New York, NY, USA",
  pages =        "xv + 412",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "0-06-236250-X (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-06-236250-6 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .P68 2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "``A New York Times technology and business reporter
                 charts the dramatic rise of Bitcoin and the fascinating
                 personalities who are striving to create a new global
                 money for the Internet age.Digital Gold is New York
                 Times reporter Nathaniel Popper's brilliant and
                 engrossing history of Bitcoin, the landmark digital
                 money and financial technology that has spawned a
                 global social movement.The notion of a new currency,
                 maintained by the computers of users around the world,
                 has been the butt of many jokes, but that has not
                 stopped it from growing into a technology worth
                 billions of dollars, supported by the hordes of
                 followers who have come to view it as the most
                 important new idea since the creation of the Internet.
                 Believers from Beijing to Buenos Aires see the
                 potential for a financial system free from banks and
                 governments. More than just a tech industry fad,
                 Bitcoin has threatened to decentralize some of
                 society's most basic institutions.An unusual tale of
                 group invention, Digital Gold charts the rise of the
                 Bitcoin technology through the eyes of the movement's
                 colorful central characters, including a British
                 anarchist, an Argentinian millionaire, a Chinese
                 entrepreneur, Tyler and Cameron Winklevoss, and
                 Bitcoin's elusive creator, Satoshi Nakamoto. Already,
                 Bitcoin has led to untold riches for some, and prison
                 terms for others.Digital Gold includes 16 pages of
                 black-and-white photos''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Money; Credit; Electronic
                 commerce",
}

@Article{Reijers:2016:BNT,
  author =       "Wessel Reijers and Mark Coeckelbergh",
  title =        "The Blockchain as a Narrative Technology:
                 Investigating the Social Ontology and Normative
                 Configurations of Cryptocurrencies",
  journal =      "Philosophy \& Technology",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "1--28",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s13347-016-0239-x",
  ISSN =         "2210-5433 (print), 2210-5441 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "2210-5433",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13347-016-0239-x",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/13347",
}

@InProceedings{Samaniego:2016:UBP,
  author =       "Mayra Samaniego and Ralph Deters",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the International Conference on Big
                 Data and Advanced Wireless Technologies}",
  title =        "Using Blockchain to Push Software-Defined {IoT}
                 Components Onto Edge Hosts",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "58:1--58:9",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3010089.3016027",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4779-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4779-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "BDAW '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3010089.3016027",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3016027",
  articleno =    "58",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Edge Computing; IoT; Software-Defined IoT;
                 Virtual Resources",
  location =     "Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria",
  pagecount =    "9",
}

@InProceedings{Sanda:2016:PNA,
  author =       "T. Sanda and H. Inaba",
  booktitle =    "2016 IEEE 5th Global Conference on Consumer
                 Electronics",
  title =        "Proposal of new authentication method in {Wi-Fi}
                 access using {Bitcoin 2.0}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--5",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/GCCE.2016.7800479",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Authentication; authentication method; authorisation;
                 Blockchain; computer network security; cryptography;
                 Cryptography; encryption keys; IEEE 802.11 Standard;
                 illegal person; Online banking; Proposals; Protocols;
                 Servers; user access; Wi-Fi access; Wi-Fi hotspots;
                 wireless LAN; {Bitcoin} 2.0",
}

@InProceedings{Sengupta:2016:RBB,
  author =       "Binanda Sengupta and Samiran Bag and Sushmita Ruj and
                 Kouichi Sakurai",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on
                 Distributed Computing and Networking",
  title =        "{Retricoin}: {Bitcoin} Based on Compact Proofs of
                 Retrievability",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "14:1--14:10",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2833312.2833317",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4032-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4032-8",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ICDCN '16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2833317",
  articleno =    "14",
  keywords =     "bilinear pairings, Bitcoin, mining pool, proofs of
                 retrievability",
  location =     "Singapore, Singapore",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@InCollection{Sharples:2016:BKD,
  author =       "Mike Sharples and John Domingue",
  booktitle =    "Adaptive and Adaptable Learning",
  title =        "The Blockchain and Kudos: A Distributed System for
                 Educational Record, Reputation and Reward",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "490--496",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45153-4_48",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-45153-4_48",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Shi:2016:NPW,
  author =       "Ning Shi",
  title =        "A new proof-of-work mechanism for {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      "Financial Innovation",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "99--122",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-016-0045-6",
  ISSN =         "2199-4730",
  ISSN-L =       "2199-4730",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40854-016-0045-6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Financial Innovation",
  journal-URL =  "https://jfin-swufe.springeropen.com/",
}

@InProceedings{Shrestha:2016:TDD,
  author =       "Ajay Kumar Shrestha and Julita Vassileva",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the International Conference on Big
                 Data and Advanced Wireless Technologies}",
  title =        "Towards Decentralized Data Storage in General Cloud
                 Platform for Meta-products",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "60:1--60:7",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3010089.3016029",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4779-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4779-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "BDAW '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3010089.3016029",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3016029",
  articleno =    "60",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Cloud Computing; Cloud Services;
                 Distributed Architecture; IOT; Meta-Products; Smart
                 Contract",
  location =     "Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria",
  pagecount =    "7",
}

@Misc{Sirer:2016:BGS,
  author =       "Emin G{\"u}n Sirer",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} guarantees strong, not eventual,
                 consistency",
  howpublished = "Hacking, Distributed",
  year =         "2016",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 17:42:58 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://hackingdistributed.com/2016/03/01/bitcoin-guarantees-strong-not-eventual-consistency/.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Sirer:2016:TPS,
  author =       "Emin G{\"u}n Sirer",
  title =        "Technical Perspective: The state (and security) of the
                 {Bitcoin} economy",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "59",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "85--85",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2896382",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 15 14:58:10 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2016/4/200172/fulltext",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Article{SM-D:2016:BRB,
  author =       "{SM-D}",
  title =        "Book Review: {{\booktitle{Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency
                 Technologies}}, Arvind Narayanan, Joseph Bonneau,
                 Edward Felten, Andrew Miller and Steven Goldfeder}",
  journal =      j-NETWORK-SECURITY,
  volume =       "2016",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "4--4",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "NTSCF5",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1016/s1353-4858(16)30074-5",
  ISSN =         "1353-4858 (print), 1872-9371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1353-4858",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:11:55 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1353485816300745",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Network Security",
  journal-URL =  "https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/network-security",
}

@InProceedings{Song:2016:FVC,
  author =       "Dawn Song",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 16th Conference on Formal Methods
                 in Computer-Aided Design}",
  title =        "Formal Verification for Computer Security: Lessons
                 Learned and Future Directions",
  publisher =    "FMCAD Inc",
  address =      "Austin, TX",
  pages =        "1--1",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "0-9835678-6-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "97-80983-567-8-6-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "FMCAD '16",
  URL =          "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3077629.3077630",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3077630",
  location =     "Mountain View, California",
  pagecount =    "1",
}

@Article{Sun:2016:BBS,
  author =       "Jianjun Sun and Jiaqi Yan and Kem Z. K. Zhang",
  title =        "Blockchain-based sharing services: What blockchain
                 technology can contribute to smart cities",
  journal =      "Financial Innovation",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-016-0040-y",
  ISSN =         "2199-4730",
  ISSN-L =       "2199-4730",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40854-016-0040-y",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Financial Innovation",
  journal-URL =  "https://jfin-swufe.springeropen.com/",
}

@Misc{Supra:2016:IHC,
  author =       "J. D. Supra",
  title =        "Investment Highlights from {CoinDesk};s State of the
                 Blockchain",
  howpublished = "Web document.",
  day =          "30",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 15:19:24 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Swan:2016:BTS,
  author =       "Melanie Swan",
  booktitle =    "{Rule Technologies. Research, Tools, and
                 Applications}",
  title =        "Blockchain Temporality: Smart Contract Time
                 Specifiability with Blocktime",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "184--196",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42019-6_12",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-42019-6_12",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Tapscott:2016:BRHa,
  author =       "Don Tapscott and Alex Tapscott",
  title =        "Blockchain revolution: how the technology behind
                 {Bitcoin} is changing money, business, and the world",
  publisher =    "Portfolio / Penguin",
  address =      "New York, NY, USA",
  pages =        "xx + 348",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "1-101-98013-3 (hardcover), 1-101-98015-X (e-book),
                 0-399-56406-3 (International edition)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-101-98013-2 (hardcover), 978-1-101-98015-6
                 (e-book), 978-0-399-56406-2 (International edition)",
  LCCN =         "HG1710 .T385 2016",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  author-dates = "1947--",
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Blockchains (Databases);
                 Bitcoin; Electronic commerce; Mobile commerce; Banks
                 and banking; Technological innovations; Financial
                 institutions",
}

@Book{Tapscott:2016:BRHb,
  author =       "Don Tapscott and Alex Tapscott and Jeff Cummings",
  title =        "Blockchain revolution: [how the technology behind
                 {Bitcoin} is changing money, business, and the world]",
  publisher =    "Brilliance Audio",
  address =      "Grand Haven, MI, USA",
  year =         "2016",
  ISBN =         "1-5113-5766-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-5113-5766-1",
  LCCN =         "RZC 5626",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  note =         "11 audio discs (14 hr., 17 min.).",
  abstract =     "Although many opportunities for the blockchain require
                 a digital currency, Bitcoin is only one application of
                 this great innovation in computer science. The
                 blockchain can hold any legal document, from deeds and
                 marriage licenses to educational degrees and birth
                 certificates. Call it the World Wide Ledger. It enables
                 smart contracts, decentralized autonomous
                 organizations, decentralized government services, and
                 transactions among other things. The Internet of
                 Everything needs a Ledger of Everything: the blockchain
                 is a truly open, distributed, global platform that
                 fundamentally changes what people can do online, how
                 they do it, and who can participate.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  author-dates = "1947--",
  remark =       "Subtitle from container. Compact disc. Accompanying
                 reference guide included as a PDF on bonus disc.",
  subject =      "Electronic funds transfers; Bitcoin; Electronic
                 commerce; Mobile commerce; Banks and banking;
                 Technological innovations; Financial institutions;
                 Technological innovations; Bitcoin; Electronic
                 commerce; Electronic funds transfers; Technological
                 innovations; Mobile commerce",
}

@Misc{Timon:2016:FPP,
  author =       "J. Timo{\'n} and M. Friedenbach",
  title =        "{Freicoin}: a peer-to-peer digital currency delivering
                 freedom from usury",
  howpublished = "Web site",
  year =         "2016",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 08:50:38 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://freico.in/",
  abstract =     "Freicoin is a peer-to-peer (P2P) currency based on the
                 accounting concept of a proof-of-work block chain used
                 by Satoshi Nakamoto in the creation of
                 Bitcoin.\par

                 Unlike Bitcoin, Freicoin has a demurrage fee that
                 ensures its circulation and bearers of the currency pay
                 this fee automatically. This demurrage fee was proposed
                 by Silvio Gesell to eliminate the privileged position
                 held by money compared with capital goods, which is the
                 underlying cause of the boom\slash bust business cycle
                 and the entrenchment of the financial elite, and has
                 been tested several times with positive results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Tschorsch:2016:BBT,
  author =       "F. Tschorsch and B. Scheuermann",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} and Beyond: A Technical Survey on
                 Decentralized Digital Currencies",
  journal =      "IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials",
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "2084--2123",
  month =        "Third Quarter",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2016.2535718",
  ISSN =         "1553-877X",
  ISSN-L =       "1553-877X",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Altcoins; billion dollar economy; blockchain;
                 Contracts; cryptocurrencies; Cryptography;
                 decentralized digital currency; design space
                 exploration; digital currencies; distributed consensus;
                 electronic money; Internet; Online banking; Protocols;
                 Space exploration; survey; tutorial; Tutorials;
                 {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} protocol",
}

@InCollection{Ulieru:2016:BBA,
  author =       "Mihaela Ulieru",
  booktitle =    "{Banking Beyond Banks and Money}",
  title =        "{Blockchain 2.0} and Beyond: Adhocracies",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "297--303",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42448-4_15",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-42448-4_15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Underwood:2016:NBB,
  author =       "Sarah Underwood",
  title =        "News: Blockchain beyond {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "59",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "15--17",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2994581",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 31 16:06:16 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2016/11/209132/fulltext",
  abstract =     "Blockchain technology has the potential to
                 revolutionize applications and redefine the digital
                 economy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2994581",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  pagecount =    "3",
}

@InProceedings{Upadhyaya:2016:CEC,
  author =       "R. Upadhyaya and A. Jain",
  booktitle =    "2016 International Conference on Computing,
                 Communication and Automation (ICCCA)",
  title =        "Cyber ethics and cyber crime: A deep dwelved study
                 into legality, ransomware, underground web and
                 {Bitcoin} wallet",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "143--148",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/CCAA.2016.7813706",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Algorithm design and analysis; bitcoin; bitcoin
                 wallet; computer crime; Computers; consumer confidence;
                 crypto virus; cryptographic protocols; cryptography;
                 cryptolocker ransomware; CTB locker; cyber crime; cyber
                 ethics; cyber Laws; cyber wars; darknet; e-commerce;
                 electronic commerce; Electronic mail; Encryption;
                 information systems; Internet; invasive software;
                 legality; locker bot; malware; ransomware; The Dark
                 Net; tor; trojan horse; Trojan horses; underground Web;
                 Web threats",
}

@InProceedings{Velasco:2016:SBE,
  author =       "Pablo R. Velasco",
  booktitle =    "Innovative Methods in Media and Communication
                 Research",
  title =        "Sketching {Bitcoin}: Empirical Research of Digital
                 Affordances",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "99--122",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-40700-5_6",
  ISBN =         "3-319-40700-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-40700-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-40700-5_6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Viana:2016:TTI,
  author =       "Diego Viana",
  title =        "Two Technical Images: Blockchain and High-Frequency
                 Trading",
  journal =      "Philosophy \& Technology",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s13347-016-0247-x",
  ISSN =         "2210-5433 (print), 2210-5441 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "2210-5433",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13347-016-0247-x",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/13347",
}

@InProceedings{Vilim:2016:ABM,
  author =       "Matthew Vilim and Henry Duwe and Rakesh Kumar",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 53rd Annual Design Automation
                 Conference",
  title =        "Approximate {Bitcoin} mining",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "97:1--97:6",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2897937.2897988",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4236-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4236-0",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Algorithm design and analysis; Approximate Computing;
                 approximate mining circuits; approximate {Bitcoin}
                 mining; Approximation algorithms; better than
                 worst-case; BTWC; computation intensive process;
                 cryptocurrency; cryptography; Cryptography; data
                 mining; Delays; Error-Tolerance; fault tolerant
                 computing; financial data processing; Hardware; Online
                 banking; Pipelines; probability; SHA-256; {Bitcoin};
                 {Bitcoin} framework; {Bitcoin} transactions",
}

@InCollection{Vukolic:2016:QSB,
  author =       "Marko Vukoli{\'c}",
  booktitle =    "{Open Problems in Network Security}",
  title =        "The Quest for Scalable Blockchain Fabric:
                 Proof-of-Work vs. {BFT} Replication",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "112--125",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39028-4_9",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-39028-4_9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Wang:2016:MMB,
  author =       "Huaiqing Wang and Kun Chen and Dongming Xu",
  title =        "A maturity model for blockchain adoption",
  journal =      "Financial Innovation",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-016-0031-z",
  ISSN =         "2199-4730",
  ISSN-L =       "2199-4730",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40854-016-0031-z",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Financial Innovation",
  journal-URL =  "https://jfin-swufe.springeropen.com/",
}

@InCollection{Weber:2016:UBP,
  author =       "Ingo Weber and Xiwei Xu and R{\'e}gis Riveret and
                 Guido Governatori and Alexander Ponomarev and Jan
                 Mendling",
  booktitle =    "{Business Process Management}",
  title =        "Untrusted Business Process Monitoring and Execution
                 Using Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "329--347",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-45348-4_19",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-45348-4_19",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Wijaya:2016:ABT,
  author =       "Dimaz Ankaa Wijaya and Joseph K. Liu and Ron Steinfeld
                 and Shi-Feng Sun and Xinyi Huang",
  booktitle =    "Information Security Practice and Experience",
  title =        "Anonymizing {Bitcoin} Transaction",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "271--283",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-49151-6_19",
  ISBN =         "3-319-49151-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-49151-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-49151-6_19",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Wijaya:2016:EAM,
  author =       "D. A. Wijaya",
  booktitle =    "2016 International Conference on Computer, Control,
                 Informatics and its Applications (IC3INA)",
  title =        "Extending asset management system functionality in
                 {Bitcoin} platform",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "97--101",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/IC3INA.2016.7863031",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "asset management; Asset management; asset management;
                 asset management system; bitcoin; bitcoin platform;
                 blockchain; data; digital payment system; distributed
                 database; distributed databases; electronic money;
                 Mathematical model; Online banking; open ledger;
                 Peer-to-peer computing; Protocols; Public key;
                 record-keeping tool",
}

@InProceedings{Wrner:2016:DRT,
  author =       "Dominic W{\"o}rner",
  booktitle =    "Tackling Society's Grand Challenges with Design
                 Science",
  title =        "Design of a Real-Time Data Market Based on the 21
                 {Bitcoin} Computer",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "228--232",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-39294-3_20",
  ISBN =         "3-319-39294-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-39294-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-39294-3_20",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Xu:2016:BIA,
  author =       "Jennifer J. Xu",
  title =        "Are blockchains immune to all malicious attacks?",
  journal =      "Financial Innovation",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-016-0046-5",
  ISSN =         "2199-4730",
  ISSN-L =       "2199-4730",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40854-016-0046-5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Financial Innovation",
  journal-URL =  "https://jfin-swufe.springeropen.com/",
}

@InProceedings{Yamada:2016:BLS,
  author =       "Yuki Yamada and Tatsuo Nakajima and Mizuki Sakamoto",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on
                 Advances in Mobile Computing and Multi Media}",
  title =        "{Blockchain-LI}: A Study on Implementing
                 Activity-Based Micro-Pricing Using Cryptocurrency
                 Technologies",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "203--207",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3007120.3007151",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4806-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4806-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "MoMM '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3007120.3007151",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3007151",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Human behavior change; Mobile devices;
                 Mobile payment; Transaction costs",
  location =     "Singapore, Singapore",
  pagecount =    "5",
}

@Article{Yue:2016:HDG,
  author =       "Xiao Yue and Huiju Wang and Dawei Jin and Mingqiang Li
                 and Wei Jiang",
  title =        "Healthcare Data Gateways: Found Healthcare
                 Intelligence on Blockchain with Novel Privacy Risk
                 Control",
  journal =      j-J-MED-SYST,
  volume =       "40",
  number =       "10",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "JMSYDA",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10916-016-0574-6",
  ISSN =         "",
  ISSN-L =       "0148-5598",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10916-016-0574-6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Medical Systems",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/journal/10916",
}

@Article{Zeilinger:2016:DAM,
  author =       "Martin Zeilinger",
  title =        "Digital Art as `Monetised Graphics': Enforcing
                 Intellectual Property on the Blockchain",
  journal =      "Philosophy \& Technology",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s13347-016-0243-1",
  ISSN =         "2210-5433 (print), 2210-5441 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "2210-5433",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13347-016-0243-1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/13347",
}

@InProceedings{Zhang:2016:TCA,
  author =       "Fan Zhang and Ethan Cecchetti and Kyle Croman and Ari
                 Juels and Elaine Shi",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "{Town Crier}: An Authenticated Data Feed for Smart
                 Contracts",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "270--282",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2976749.2978326",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4139-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4139-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '16",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2976749.2978326",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "2978326",
  keywords =     "authenticated data feeds, Bitcoin, Ethereum, intel
                 SGX, smart contracts, trusted hardware",
  location =     "Vienna, Austria",
  pagecount =    "13",
}

@InCollection{Zhao:2016:HVP,
  author =       "Zhichao Zhao and T.-H. Hubert Chan",
  booktitle =    "Information and Communications Security",
  title =        "How to Vote Privately Using {Bitcoin}",
  volume =       "9543",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "82--96",
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-29814-6_8",
  ISBN =         "3-319-29814-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-29814-6",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  MRnumber =     "3502793",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-29814-6_8",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Zhao:2016:OBI,
  author =       "J. Leon Zhao and Shaokun Fan and Jiaqi Yan",
  title =        "Overview of business innovations and research
                 opportunities in blockchain and introduction to the
                 special issue",
  journal =      "Financial Innovation",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-016-0049-2",
  ISSN =         "2199-4730",
  ISSN-L =       "2199-4730",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  note =         "See erratum \cite{Zhao:2017:EOB}.",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40854-016-0049-2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Financial Innovation",
  journal-URL =  "https://jfin-swufe.springeropen.com/",
}

@InProceedings{Zhou:2016:DBA,
  author =       "X. Zhou and Q. Wu and B. Qin and X. Huang and J. Liu",
  booktitle =    "{2016 IEEE Trustcom\slash BigDataSE\slash ISPA}",
  title =        "Distributed {Bitcoin} Account Management",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "105--112",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/TrustCom.2016.0052",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "attribute based encryption; bitcoin protocols;
                 Companies; Cryptography; DBAM framework; distributed
                 bitcoin account management; distributed electronic
                 cash; electronic money; Elliptic curves; financial data
                 processing; Investment; Online banking; Privacy;
                 private key; private key cryptography; Protocols;
                 secret sharing",
}

@Article{Zhu:2016:AOA,
  author =       "Huasheng Zhu and Zach Zhizhong Zhou",
  title =        "Analysis and outlook of applications of blockchain
                 technology to equity crowdfunding in {China}",
  journal =      "Financial Innovation",
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-016-0044-7",
  ISSN =         "2199-4730",
  ISSN-L =       "2199-4730",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40854-016-0044-7",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Financial Innovation",
  journal-URL =  "https://jfin-swufe.springeropen.com/",
}

@InProceedings{Zhu:2016:IIS,
  author =       "Y. Zhu and R. Guo and G. Gan and W. T. Tsai",
  booktitle =    "2016 IEEE 40th Annual Computer Software and
                 Applications Conference (COMPSAC)",
  title =        "Interactive Incontestable Signature for Transactions
                 Confirmation in {Bitcoin} Blockchain",
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "443--448",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/COMPSAC.2016.142",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin blockchain; Blockchain; computational law;
                 Computer security; cybersecurity; dealer
                 incontestability; digital signatures; electronic money;
                 Generators; IIS scheme; interactive incontestable
                 signature; Interactive Proof; nonrepudiation; Online
                 banking; owner unforgeability; payment; Protocols;
                 Public key; Signature; stock exchange; Stock markets;
                 transaction confirmation",
}

@InProceedings{Abbasi:2017:VVI,
  author =       "Abdul Ghafoor Abbasi and Zaheer Khan",
  booktitle =    "{Companion Proceedings of the10th International
                 Conference on Utility and Cloud Computing}",
  title =        "{VeidBlock}: Verifiable Identity Using Blockchain and
                 Ledger in a Software Defined Network",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "173--179",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3147234.3148088",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5195-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5195-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "UCC '17 Companion",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3147234.3148088",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3148088",
  keywords =     "authentication; blockchain; ledger; privacy; software
                 defined network; verifiable",
  location =     "Austin, Texas, USA",
  pagecount =    "7",
}

@InProceedings{Abdelraheem:2017:SER,
  author =       "Mohamed Ahmed Abdelraheem and Tobias Andersson and
                 Christian Gehrmann",
  title =        "Searchable Encrypted Relational Databases: Risks and
                 Countermeasures",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "70--85",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_5",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Achenbach:2017:BIR,
  author =       "Dirk Achenbach and Ingmar Baumgart and Jochen Rill",
  title =        "{Die Blockchain im Rampenlicht}. ({German}) [{The}
                 blockchain in the spotlight]",
  journal =      "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "673--677",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11623-017-0856-2",
  ISSN =         "1614-0702 (print), 1862-2607 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1614-0702",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11623-017-0856-2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/11623",
  language =     "German",
}

@InCollection{Adams:2017:BGD,
  author =       "Richard Adams and Beth Kewell and Glenn Parry",
  booktitle =    "World Sustainability Series",
  title =        "Blockchain for Good? {Digital} Ledger Technology and
                 Sustainable Development Goals",
  publisher =    "Springer International Publishing",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "127--140",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67122-2_7",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Akoka:2017:MET,
  author =       "Jacky Akoka and Isabelle Comyn-Wattiau",
  booktitle =    "Conceptual Modeling Perspectives",
  title =        "A Method for Emerging Technology Evaluation.
                 {Application} to Blockchain and Smart Data Discovery",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "247--258",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67271-7_17",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67271-7_17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Al-Bassam:2017:SSC,
  author =       "Mustafa Al-Bassam",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Blockchain,
                 Cryptocurrencies and Contracts}",
  title =        "{SCPKI}: A Smart Contract-based {PKI} and Identity
                 System",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "35--40",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3055518.3055530",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4974-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4974-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "BCC '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3055518.3055530",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3055530",
  location =     "Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Ali:2017:IDP,
  author =       "Muhammad Salek Ali and Koustabh Dolui and Fabio
                 Antonelli",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference
                 on the Internet of Things}",
  title =        "{IoT} Data Privacy via Blockchains and {IPFS}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "14:1--14:7",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3131542.3131563",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5318-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5318-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "IoT '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3131542.3131563",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3131563",
  articleno =    "14",
  keywords =     "blockchain; computer networks; distributed access
                 model; internet of things; privacy",
  location =     "Linz, Austria",
  pagecount =    "7",
}

@InCollection{AlOmar:2017:MBB,
  author =       "Abdullah {Al Omar} and Mohammad Shahriar Rahman and
                 Anirban Basu and Shinsaku Kiyomoto",
  booktitle =    "Security, Privacy, and Anonymity in Computation,
                 Communication, and Storage",
  title =        "{MediBchain}: A Blockchain Based Privacy Preserving
                 Platform for Healthcare Data",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "534--543",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72395-2_49",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-72395-2_49",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Anceaume:2017:BDS,
  author =       "Emmanuelle Anceaume and Romaric Ludinard and Maria
                 Potop-Butucaru and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Tronel",
  booktitle =    "Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed
                 Systems",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} a Distributed Shared Register",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "456--468",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69084-1_34",
  ISBN =         "3-319-69084-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-69084-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-69084-1_34",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Angeletti:2017:PPD,
  author =       "Fabio Angeletti and Ioannis Chatzigiannakis and Andrea
                 Vitaletti",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the First International Workshop on
                 Human-centered Sensing, Networking, and Systems}",
  title =        "Privacy Preserving Data Management in Recruiting
                 Participants for Digital Clinical Trials",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "7--12",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3144730.3144733",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5480-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5480-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "HumanSys'17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3144730.3144733",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3144733",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Clinical Trial; IoT; mHealth; Privacy;
                 Wearables",
  location =     "Delft, Netherlands",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@Misc{Anonymous:2017:BDD,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "[{Bitcoin}] Developer Documentation",
  howpublished = "Web site.",
  year =         "2017",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 08:31:22 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitcoin.org/en/developer-documentation",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  lastaccessed = "04 December 2017",
}

@Misc{Anonymous:2017:BPP,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System: The
                 paper that first introduced {Bitcoin}",
  howpublished = "Web site",
  year =         "2017",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 08:29:37 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  note =         "Includes links to translations of the 2008 Nakamoto
                 paper to several other languages.",
  URL =          "https://bitcoin.org/en/bitcoin-paper",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  lastaccessed = "04 December 2017",
}

@Misc{Anonymous:2017:BW,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Wiki",
  howpublished = "Web site",
  year =         "2017",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 08:32:13 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Main_Page",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  lastaccessed = "04 December 2017",
}

@Misc{Anonymous:2017:HDB,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "How does {Bitcoin} work?",
  howpublished = "Web site.",
  year =         "2017",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 04 08:27:23 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://bitcoin.org/en/how-it-works",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Anonymous:2017:VPC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{Venezuela} Plans a Cryptocurrency, {Maduro} Says",
  journal =      j-NY-TIMES,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "3",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "NYTIAO",
  ISSN =         "0362-4331 (print), 1542-667X, 1553-8095",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-4331",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 20 07:51:10 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.nytimes.com/2017/12/03/world/americas/venezuela-cryptocurrency-maduro.html",
  abstract =     "The ``petro'' will be used in the country's fight
                 against the Trump administration's financial
                 ``blockade,'' President Nicolas Maduro said.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "New York Times",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.nytimes.com/",
}

@InProceedings{Apostolaki:2017:HBR,
  author =       "Maria Apostolaki and Aviv Zohar and Laurent Vanbever",
  booktitle =    "2017 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (SP)",
  title =        "Hijacking {Bitcoin}: Routing Attacks on
                 Cryptocurrencies",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "375--392",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SP.2017.29",
  ISBN =         "1-5090-5532-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-5090-5532-6",
  ISSN =         "1081-6011 (print), 2375-1207 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1081-6011",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7958588/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "ASes; authorisation; autonomous systems; BGP; BGP
                 hijack; BGP hijacks; BGP routing data; bitcoin;
                 computer crime; cryptocurrencies; cryptocurrency;
                 cryptography; data mining; Delays; electronic money;
                 Internet; Internet routing infrastructure; IP networks;
                 mining pools; P2P networks; Peer-to-peer computing;
                 Routing; routing; routing advertisements; routing
                 attacks; routing manipulation; Routing protocols;
                 telecommunication network routing; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin}
                 hijacking; {Bitcoin} topology; {Bitcoin} traffic
                 manipulation",
}

@Article{Aste:2017:BTF,
  author =       "Tomaso Aste and Paolo Tasca and Tiziana {Di Matteo}",
  title =        "Blockchain Technologies: The Foreseeable Impact on
                 Society and Industry",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "50",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "18--28",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571064",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 2 08:46:55 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2010.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/co/2017/09/mco2017090018-abs.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/magazines/computer",
}

@InProceedings{Ateniese:2017:RBX,
  author =       "Giuseppe Ateniese and Bernardo Magri and Daniele
                 Venturi and Ewerton Andrade",
  booktitle =    "2017 IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy
                 (EuroSP)",
  title =        "Redactable Blockchain --- or --- Rewriting History in
                 {Bitcoin} and Friends",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "111--126",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/EuroSP.2017.37",
  ISBN =         "1-5090-5761-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-5090-5761-0",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7961975/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; chameleon hash functions; Contracts;
                 cryptography; electronic money; hash collisions;
                 Organizations; redactable blockchain; Software;
                 Standards",
}

@InProceedings{Atzei:2017:SAE,
  author =       "Nicola Atzei and Massimo Bartoletti and Tiziana
                 Cimoli",
  booktitle =    "{Principles of Security and Trust}",
  title =        "A Survey of Attacks on {Ethereum} Smart Contracts
                 ({SoK})",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "164--186",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-54455-6_8",
  ISBN =         "3-662-54455-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-662-54455-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:51:20 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-54455-6_8",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Augot:2017:UCS,
  author =       "Daniel Augot and Herv{\'e} Chabanne and Thomas
                 Chenevier and William George and Laurent Lambert",
  booktitle =    "Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and
                 Blockchain Technology",
  title =        "A User-Centric System for Verified Identities on the
                 {Bitcoin} Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "390--407",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_22",
  ISBN =         "3-319-67816-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-67816-0",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_22",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Awan:2017:BTA,
  author =       "Malik Khurram Awan and Agostino Cortesi",
  booktitle =    "Computer Information Systems and Industrial
                 Management",
  title =        "Blockchain Transaction Analysis Using Dominant Sets",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "229--239",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59105-6_20",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-59105-6_20",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Azouvi:2017:WSI,
  author =       "Sarah Azouvi and Mustafa Al-Bassam and Sarah
                 Meiklejohn",
  booktitle =    "Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and
                 Blockchain Technology",
  title =        "Who Am I? {Secure} Identity Registration on
                 Distributed Ledgers",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "373--389",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_21",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_21",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Badertscher:2017:BTL,
  author =       "Christian Badertscher and Ueli Maurer and Daniel
                 Tschudi and Vassilis Zikas",
  booktitle =    "{Advances in cryptology -- CRYPTO 2017. 37th annual
                 international cryptology conference, Santa Barbara, CA,
                 USA, August 20--24, 2017. Proceedings. Part I}",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} as a Transaction Ledger: A Composable
                 Treatment",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "324--356",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63688-7_11",
  ISBN =         "3-319-63687-1 (paperback), 3-319-63688-X (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-63687-0 (paperback), 978-3-319-63688-7
                 (e-book)",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:12:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-63688-7_11",
  ZMnumber =     "06802617",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Bag:2017:BBW,
  author =       "S. Bag and S. Ruj and K. Sakurai",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} Block Withholding Attack: Analysis and
                 Mitigation",
  journal =      "IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and
                 Security",
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "1967--1978",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/TIFS.2016.2623588",
  ISSN =         "1556-6013 (print), 1556-6021 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1556-6013",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin block withholding attack; block withholding
                 attack; BWH attack; commitment schemes; Computational
                 modeling; cryptographic commitment schemes;
                 Cryptography; cryptography; Electronic mail; electronic
                 money; Games; hash function; mining pool; Online
                 banking; pool attacks; Protocols; rogue miners; rogue
                 pool administrators; selfish miner; selfish {Bitcoin}
                 miner; sponsored block withholding attack; Statistical
                 analysis; {Bitcoin} mining; {Bitcoin} protocol",
}

@Article{Bailis:2017:RPC,
  author =       "Peter Bailis and Arvind Narayanan and Andrew Miller
                 and Song Han",
  title =        "Research for Practice: Cryptocurrencies, Blockchains,
                 and Smart Contracts; Hardware for Deep Learning",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "60",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "48--51",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3024928",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Sat May 27 15:08:46 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2017/5/216321/fulltext",
  abstract =     "Expert-curated guides to the best of CS research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3024928",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@Book{Bandelj:2017:MTE,
  editor =       "Nina Bandelj and Frederick F. Wherry and Viviana A.
                 Rotman Zelizer",
  title =        "Money talks: explaining how money really works",
  publisher =    pub-PRINCETON,
  address =      pub-PRINCETON:adr,
  pages =        "xii + 269",
  year =         "2017",
  ISBN =         "0-691-16868-7 (hardcover)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-691-16868-5 (hardcover)",
  LCCN =         "HG221 .M8143 2017",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "The world of money is being transformed as households
                 and organizations face changing economies, and new
                 currencies and payment systems like Bitcoin and Apple
                 Pay gain ground. What is money, and how do we make
                 sense of it? Money Talks is the first book to offer a
                 wide range of alternative and unexpected explanations
                 of how social relations, emotions, moral concerns, and
                 institutions shape how we create, mark, and use money.
                 This collection brings together a stellar group of
                 international experts from multiple disciplines
                 sociology, economics, history, law, anthropology,
                 political science, and philosophy to propose fresh
                 explanations for money's origins, uses, effects, and
                 future. Money Talks explores five key questions: How do
                 social relationships, emotions, and morals shape how
                 people account for and use their money? How do
                 corporations infuse social meaning into their financing
                 and investment practices? What are the historical,
                 political, and social foundations of currencies? When
                 does money become contested, and are there things money
                 shouldn't buy? What is the impact of the new
                 twenty-first-century currencies on our social
                 relations? At a time of growing concern over financial
                 inequality, Money Talks overturns conventional views
                 about money by revealing its profound social
                 potential.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Money; Social aspects; Political aspects; Economics;
                 Sociological aspects; Sociological aspects; Money;
                 Political aspects; Social aspects",
  tableofcontents = "Introduction. Advancing money talks / Nina Bandelj,
                 Frederick F. Wherry and Viviana A. Zelizer \\
                 Part I. Beyond fungibility. Economics and the social
                 meaning of money / Jonathan Morduch \\
                 Morals and emotions of money / Nina Bandelj \ldots{}
                 [et al.] \\
                 How relational accounting matters / Frederick F. Wherry
                 \\
                 Part II. Beyond special monies. The social meaning of
                 credit, value, and finance / Bruce G. Carruthers \\
                 From industrial money to generalized capitalization /
                 Simone Polillo \\
                 Part III. Creating money. The constitutional approach
                 to money: monetary design and the production of the
                 modern world / Christine Desan \\
                 The market mirage / David Singh Grewal \\
                 The macro-social meaning of money: from territorial
                 currencies to global money / Eric Helleiner \\
                 Part IV. Contested money. Money and emotion: win-win
                 bargains, win-lose contexts, and the emotional labor of
                 commercial surrogates / Arlie Hochschild \\
                 Paid to donate: egg donors, sperm donors, and gendered
                 experiences of bodily commodifications / Rene Almeling
                 \\
                 Money and family relationships: the biography of
                 transnational money / Supriya Singh \\
                 Part V. Money futures. Money talks, plastic money
                 tattles: the new sociability of money / Alya Guseva and
                 Akos Rona-Tas \\
                 Blockchains are a diamond's best friend: Zelizer for
                 the Bitcoin moment / Bill Maurer \\
                 Utopian monies: complementary currencies, Bitcoin, and
                 the social life of money / Nigel Dodd",
}

@Article{Bano:2017:RSB,
  author =       "Shehar Bano and Mustafa Al-Bassam and George
                 Danezis",
  title =        "The Road to Scalable Blockchain Designs",
  journal =      j-LOGIN,
  volume =       "42",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "LOGNEM",
  ISSN =         "1044-6397",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 03 15:19:39 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.usenix.org/publications/login/winter2017/bano",
  abstract =     "Bitcoin has become centralized and slow due to the
                 inherent limitations of its blockchain. A number of
                 alternative blockchain designs have been proposed to
                 address these issues. Off-chain solutions allow for
                 small and frequent transactions to take place over
                 low-tier blockchain instances, parallel to and backed
                 by the main blockchain. On-chain solutions directly
                 modify the blockchain design to support high
                 performance. We focus on the latter and summarize and
                 discuss recent approaches to on-chain scaling of
                 blockchains.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     ";login: the USENIX Association newsletter",
}

@Article{Bariviera:2017:IBR,
  author =       "Aurelio F. Bariviera",
  title =        "The inefficiency of {Bitcoin} revisited: a dynamic
                 approach",
  journal =      j-ECONOM-LETT,
  volume =       "161",
  pages =        "1--4",
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "ECLEDS",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2017.09.013",
  ISSN =         "0165-1765 (print), 1873-7374 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0165-1765",
  MRclass =      "91B24",
  MRnumber =     "3723207",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 12:18:39 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Economics Letters",
  journal-URL =  "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01651765",
}

@InProceedings{Bartoletti:2017:ABO,
  author =       "Massimo Bartoletti and Livio Pompianu",
  title =        "An Analysis of {Bitcoin} {{\tt OP\_RETURN}} Metadata",
  crossref =     "Jakobsson:2017:FCD",
  pages =        "218--230",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_14",
  ISBN =         "3-319-70278-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-70278-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bartoletti:2017:CDM,
  author =       "Massimo Bartoletti and Roberto Zunino",
  title =        "Constant-Deposit Multiparty Lotteries on {Bitcoin}",
  crossref =     "Jakobsson:2017:FCD",
  pages =        "231--247",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_15",
  ISBN =         "3-319-70278-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-70278-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bartoletti:2017:GFB,
  author =       "Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Livio
                 Pompianu and Andrea Bracciali",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Scalable and
                 Resilient Infrastructures for Distributed Ledgers}",
  title =        "A General Framework for Blockchain Analytics",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "7:1--7:6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152824.3152831",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5173-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5173-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SERIAL '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3152824.3152831",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3152831",
  articleno =    "7",
  keywords =     "analytics, Bitcoin, blockchain, Ethereum",
  location =     "Las Vegas, Nevada",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Bartoletti:2017:PSP,
  author =       "Massimo Bartoletti and Stefano Lande and Alessandro
                 Sebastian Podda",
  title =        "A Proof-of-Stake Protocol for Consensus on {Bitcoin}
                 Subchains",
  crossref =     "Jakobsson:2017:FCD",
  pages =        "568--584",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_36",
  ISBN =         "3-319-70278-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-70278-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_36",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Beck:2017:BTB,
  author =       "Prof. Dr. Roman Beck and Prof. Dr. Michel Avital and
                 Prof. Dr. Matti Rossi and Prof. Dr. Jason Bennett
                 Thatcher",
  title =        "Blockchain Technology in Business and Information
                 Systems Research",
  journal =      "Business \& Information Systems Engineering",
  volume =       "59",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "381--384",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12599-017-0505-1",
  ISSN =         "1867-0202 (print), 2363-7005 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1867-0202",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12599-017-0505-1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Business \& Information Systems Engineering",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/12599",
}

@InProceedings{Bell:2017:AOS,
  author =       "Jonathan Bell and Thomas D. LaToza and Foteini
                 Baldmitsi and Angelos Stavrou",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on
                 Software Engineering for Science}",
  title =        "Advancing Open Science with Version Control and
                 Blockchains",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "13--14",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SE4Science.2017..11",
  ISBN =         "1-5386-2791-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-5386-2791-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SE4Science '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3105498",
  location =     "Buenos Aires, Argentina",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@Article{Benchoufi:2017:BTI,
  author =       "Mehdi Benchoufi and Philippe Ravaud",
  title =        "Blockchain technology for improving clinical research
                 quality",
  journal =      "Trials",
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-2035-z",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13063-017-2035-z",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Berg:2017:BEB,
  author =       "Chris Berg and Sinclair Davidson and Jason Potts",
  title =        "The Blockchain Economy: A beginner's guide to
                 institutional cryptoeconomics",
  journal =      "Medium",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "26",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 20 17:09:18 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://medium.com/@cryptoeconomics/the-blockchain-economy-a-beginners-guide-to-institutional-cryptoeconomics-64bf2f2beec4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Berg:2017:BIT,
  author =       "Chris Berg and Sinclair Davidson and Jason Potts",
  title =        "Blockchains industrialise trust",
  journal =      "{SSRN} Electronic Journal",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "19",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3074070",
  ISSN =         "1556-5068",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 11:58:18 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3074070",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bergquist:2017:DCT,
  author =       "Jonatan Bergquist and Aron Laszka and Monika Sturm and
                 Abhishek Dubey",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Scalable and
                 Resilient Infrastructures for Distributed Ledgers}",
  title =        "On the Design of Communication and Transaction
                 Anonymity in Blockchain-based Transactive Microgrids",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "3:1--3:6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152824.3152827",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5173-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5173-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SERIAL '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3152824.3152827",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3152827",
  articleno =    "3",
  keywords =     "anonymity; blockchain; distributed ledger; onion
                 routing; privacy; transactive energy platforms;
                 zero-knowledge proofs",
  location =     "Las Vegas, Nevada",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Bessani:2017:BFT,
  author =       "Alysson Bessani and Jo{\~a}o Sousa and Marko
                 Vukoli{\'c}",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Scalable and
                 Resilient Infrastructures for Distributed Ledgers}",
  title =        "A {Byzantine} Fault-tolerant Ordering Service for the
                 Hyperledger Fabric Blockchain Platform",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "6:1--6:2",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152824.3152830",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5173-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5173-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SERIAL '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3152824.3152830",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3152830",
  articleno =    "6",
  keywords =     "blockchain; Byzantine fault tolerance",
  location =     "Las Vegas, Nevada",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InCollection{Bhardwaj:2017:BTD,
  author =       "Shweta Bhardwaj and Manish Kaushik",
  booktitle =    "Smart Computing and Informatics",
  title =        "Blockchain --- Technology to Drive the Future",
  publisher =    "Springer Singapore",
  pages =        "263--271",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5547-8_28",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Bheemaiah:2017:CEN,
  author =       "Kariappa Bheemaiah",
  title =        "Complexity Economics: A New Way to Witness
                 Capitalism",
  crossref =     "Bheemaiah:2017:BA",
  pages =        "155--225",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2674-2_4",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2674-2_4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Bheemaiah:2017:DBE,
  author =       "Kariappa Bheemaiah",
  title =        "Debt-based Economy: The Intricate Dance of Money and
                 Debt",
  crossref =     "Bheemaiah:2017:BA",
  pages =        "1--24",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2674-2_1",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2674-2_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Bheemaiah:2017:FF,
  author =       "Kariappa Bheemaiah",
  title =        "Fragmentation of Finance",
  crossref =     "Bheemaiah:2017:BA",
  pages =        "25--82",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2674-2_2",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2674-2_2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Bheemaiah:2017:IC,
  author =       "Kariappa Bheemaiah",
  title =        "Innovating Capitalism",
  crossref =     "Bheemaiah:2017:BA",
  pages =        "83--154",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2674-2_3",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2674-2_3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Biryukov:2017:FSD,
  author =       "Alex Biryukov and Dmitry Khovratovich and Sergei
                 Tikhomirov",
  booktitle =    "{Financial Cryptography and Data Security}",
  title =        "{Findel}: Secure Derivative Contracts for {Ethereum}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "453--467",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_28",
  ISBN =         "3-319-70278-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-70278-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:51:20 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_28",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bistarelli:2017:EEV,
  author =       "Stefano Bistarelli and Marco Mantilacci and Paolo
                 Santancini and Francesco Santini",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Symposium on Applied Computing",
  title =        "An End-to-end Voting-system Based on {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1836--1841",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3019612.3019841",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4486-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4486-9",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SAC '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3019841",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, electronic voting, verifiable voting-system",
  location =     "Marrakech, Morocco",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Bistarelli:2017:GBF,
  author =       "Stefano Bistarelli and Francesco Santini",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on
                 Availability, Reliability and Security",
  title =        "Go with the {-Bitcoin-} Flow, with Visual Analytics",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "38:1--38:6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3098954.3098972",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5257-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5257-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ARES '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3098972",
  articleno =    "38",
  keywords =     "Analysis Tool, {Bitcoin}, Visual Analytics",
  location =     "Reggio Calabria, Italy",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InCollection{Bocek:2017:SCT,
  author =       "Thomas Bocek and Burkhard Stiller",
  booktitle =    "Digital Marketplaces Unleashed",
  title =        "Smart Contracts --- Blockchains in the Wings",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "169--184",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-49275-8_19",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Bogner:2017:SUA,
  author =       "Andreas Bogner",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Joint
                 Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and
                 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Symposium on
                 Wearable Computers}",
  title =        "Seeing is Understanding: Anomaly Detection in
                 Blockchains with Visualized Features",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "5--8",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123024.3123157",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5190-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5190-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "UbiComp '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3123024.3123157",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3123157",
  keywords =     "anomaly detection; block-chain; Ethereum; machine
                 learning; visualization",
  location =     "Maui, Hawaii",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@Article{Bohme:2017:TGD,
  author =       "Rainer B{\"o}hme and Paulina Pesch",
  title =        "{Technische Grundlagen und datenschutzrechtliche
                 Fragen der Blockchain-Technologie}. ({German})
                 [{Technical} basics and data protection questions of
                 blockchain technology]",
  journal =      "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "473--481",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11623-017-0815-y",
  ISSN =         "1614-0702 (print), 1862-2607 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1614-0702",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11623-017-0815-y",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/11623",
  language =     "German",
}

@InProceedings{Bore:2017:TBE,
  author =       "Nelson Bore and Samuel Karumba and Juliet Mutahi and
                 Shelby Solomon Darnell and Charity Wayua and Komminist
                 Weldemariam",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on
                 Information and Communication Technologies and
                 Development}",
  title =        "Towards Blockchain-enabled School Information Hub",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "19:1--19:4",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3136560.3136584",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5277-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5277-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ICTD '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3136560.3136584",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3136584",
  articleno =    "19",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Data Management; Education; ICTD",
  location =     "Lahore, Pakistan",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InProceedings{Boshrooyeh:2017:IAI,
  author =       "Sanaz Taheri Boshrooyeh and Alptekin
                 K{\"u}p{\c{c}}{\"u}",
  title =        "{Inonymous}: Anonymous Invitation-Based System",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "219--235",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_13",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Bracamonte:2017:ESI,
  author =       "Vanessa Bracamonte and Hitoshi Okada",
  booktitle =    "{Social Informatics}",
  title =        "An Exploratory Study on the Influence of Guidelines on
                 Crowdfunding Projects in the {Ethereum} Blockchain
                 Platform",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "347--354",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67256-4_27",
  ISBN =         "3-319-67256-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-67256-4",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67256-4_27",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Bradbury:2017:PB,
  author =       "Danny Bradbury",
  title =        "The problem with {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      "Computer Fraud \& Security",
  volume =       "2013",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "58--66",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1016/S1361-3723(13)70101-5",
  ISSN =         "1361-3723 (print), 1873-7056 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1361-3723",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1361372313701015",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer Fraud \& Security",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13613723",
}

@Article{Bruhl:2017:BBD,
  author =       "Volker Br{\"u}hl",
  title =        "{Bitcoins, Blockchain und Distributed Ledgers}",
  journal =      "Wirtschaftsdienst",
  volume =       "97",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "135--142",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s10273-017-2096-3",
  ISSN =         "0043-6275 (print), 1613-978X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0043-6275",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10273-017-2096-3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Wirtschaftsdienst: Journal for Economic Policy",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/10273",
  language =     "German",
}

@InCollection{Brunnler:2017:LBU,
  author =       "Kai Br{\"u}nnler and Dandolo Flumini and Thomas
                 Studer",
  booktitle =    "Logical Foundations of Computer Science",
  title =        "A Logic of Blockchain Updates",
  publisher =    "Springer International Publishing",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "107--119",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72056-2_7",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Buccafurri:2017:OLB,
  author =       "Francesco Buccafurri and Gianluca Lax and Serena
                 Nicolazzo and Antonino Nocera",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on
                 Availability, Reliability and Security}",
  title =        "Overcoming Limits of Blockchain for {IoT}
                 Applications",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "26:1--26:6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3098954.3098983",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5257-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5257-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ARES '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3098954.3098983",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3098983",
  articleno =    "26",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; IoT applications; Public Ledger; Twitter",
  location =     "Reggio Calabria, Italy",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InCollection{Buccafurri:2017:TAB,
  author =       "Francesco Buccafurri and Gianluca Lax and Serena
                 Nicolazzo and Antonino Nocera",
  booktitle =    "{Web Engineering}",
  title =        "{Tweetchain}: An Alternative to Blockchain for
                 Crowd-Based Applications",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "386--393",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60131-1_24",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-60131-1_24",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Burchert:2017:SFB,
  author =       "Conrad Burchert and Christian Decker and Roger
                 Wattenhofer",
  booktitle =    "Stabilization, Safety, and Security of Distributed
                 Systems",
  title =        "Scalable Funding of {Bitcoin} Micropayment Channel
                 Networks",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "361--377",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69084-1_26",
  ISBN =         "3-319-69084-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-69084-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-69084-1_26",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Burniske:2017:BRB,
  author =       "C. Burniske and A. White",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}: Ringing the Bell for a New Asset Class",
  type =         "Research white paper",
  institution =  "Ark Invest",
  address =      "55 West 19th, 5th Floor New York, NY 10011, USA",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2017",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 20 16:30:05 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://research.ark-invest.com/hubfs/1_Download_Files_ARK-Invest/White_Papers/Bitcoin-Ringing-The-Bell-For-A-New-Asset-Class.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Camenisch:2017:PUS,
  author =       "Jan Camenisch and Manu Drijvers and Maria
                 Dubovitskaya",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "Practical {UC-Secure} Delegatable Credentials with
                 Attributes and Their Application to Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "683--699",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3133956.3134025",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4946-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4946-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3133956.3134025",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3134025",
  keywords =     "blockchain; composable security; credentials;
                 delegation; hierarchical issuance; privacy-preserving
                 authentication; zero-knowledge",
  location =     "Dallas, Texas, USA",
  pagecount =    "17",
}

@InProceedings{Campanelli:2017:ZKC,
  author =       "Matteo Campanelli and Rosario Gennaro and Steven
                 Goldfeder and Luca Nizzardo",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Zero-Knowledge Contingent Payments Revisited: Attacks
                 and Payments for Services",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "229--243",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3133956.3134060",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4946-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4946-8",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3134060",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, contingent payments, zero-knowledge
                 protocols",
  location =     "Dallas, Texas, USA",
  pagecount =    "15",
}

@InProceedings{Castellanos:2017:CGO,
  author =       "J. Alejandro F. Castellanos and Debora Coll-Mayor and
                 Jos{\'e} Antonio Notholt",
  booktitle =    "2017 IEEE International Conference on Smart Energy
                 Grid Engineering (SEGE)",
  title =        "Cryptocurrency as guarantees of origin: Simulating a
                 green certificate market with the {Ethereum}
                 Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "367--372",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/SEGE.2017.8052827",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:21:10 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8052827/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "blockchain; Blockchain technology; Blockchain tokens;
                 commerce; Companies; consumer behaviour; Contracts;
                 contracts; Cryptocurrency; cryptocurrency; energy;
                 energy prosumer types; energy providers; energy system
                 operators; Ethereum; Ethereum Blockchain; Europe;
                 European energy suppliers; Fix Price Strategy; green
                 certificate market; green energy; Green products; grey
                 energy; guarantees of origin; incentive mechanisms;
                 incentive schemes; market strategies; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; power markets; premium prices; pricing;
                 renewable energy producers; renewable energy sources;
                 robust paying system; smart contracts; tokenized GoO
                 trading; Variable Price Strategy",
}

@InProceedings{Cecchetti:2017:SCD,
  author =       "Ethan Cecchetti and Fan Zhang and Yan Ji and Ahmed
                 Kosba and Ari Juels and Elaine Shi",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "{Solidus}: Confidential Distributed Ledger
                 Transactions via {PVORM}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "701--717",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3133956.3134010",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4946-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4946-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3133956.3134010",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3134010",
  keywords =     "blockchain; confidential transactions; oblivious ram",
  location =     "Dallas, Texas, USA",
  pagecount =    "17",
}

@InProceedings{Cen:2017:IBP,
  author =       "Yuanyuan Cen and Hui Wang and Xuefeng Li",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on
                 Informatics, Environment, Energy and Applications}",
  title =        "Improving Business Process Interoperability by Shared
                 Ledgers",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "89--93",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3070617.3070631",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5230-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5230-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "IEEA '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3070617.3070631",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3070631",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Business modelling; Business process
                 management; Distributed systems; Financial technology;
                 Information systems; Interoperability of systems",
  location =     "Jeju, Republic of Korea",
  pagecount =    "5",
}

@InProceedings{Chakravorty:2017:UUC,
  author =       "Antorweep Chakravorty and Chunming Rong",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on
                 Ubiquitous Information Management and Communication}",
  title =        "{Ushare}: User Controlled Social Media Based on
                 Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "99:1--99:6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3022227.3022325",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4888-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4888-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "IMCOM '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3022227.3022325",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3022325",
  articleno =    "99",
  keywords =     "blockchain; control; ownership; sharing; social
                 network; traceability",
  location =     "Beppu, Japan",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Chanson:2017:BPE,
  author =       "Mathieu Chanson and Andreas Bogner and Felix Wortmann
                 and Elgar Fleisch",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Joint
                 Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and
                 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Symposium on
                 Wearable Computers}",
  title =        "Blockchain As a Privacy Enabler: An Odometer Fraud
                 Prevention System",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "13--16",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123024.3123078",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5190-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5190-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "UbiComp '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3123024.3123078",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3123078",
  keywords =     "blockchain; data ownership; Ethereum; privacy",
  location =     "Maui, Hawaii",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InProceedings{Chen:2017:BBP,
  author =       "Po-Wei Chen and Bo-Sian Jiang and Cia-Hui Wang",
  booktitle =    "2017 IEEE 13th International Conference on Wireless
                 and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications
                 (WiMob)",
  title =        "Blockchain-based payment collection supervision system
                 using pervasive {Bitcoin} digital wallet",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "139--146",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/WiMOB.2017.8115844",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8115844/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Android App; Androids; blockchain; cloud database;
                 Credit cards; IEEE merchandise; NFC; Organizations;
                 pervasive digital wallet; {Bitcoin}",
}

@InProceedings{Chen:2017:UBB,
  author =       "Lin Chen and Lei Xu and Nolan Shah and Nour Diallo and
                 Zhimin Gao and Yang Lu and Weidong Shi",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Blockchain,
                 Cryptocurrencies and Contracts}",
  title =        "Unraveling Blockchain Based Crypto-currency System
                 Supporting Oblivious Transactions: A Formalized
                 Approach",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "23--28",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3055518.3055528",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4974-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4974-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "BCC '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3055518.3055528",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3055528",
  keywords =     "anonymization; blockchain; privacy",
  location =     "Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Cheng:2017:TDL,
  author =       "Zhongqi Cheng and Tim Schmidt and Guantao Liu and
                 Rainer Doomer",
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "{2017 IEEE International High Level Design Validation
                 and Test Workshop (HLDVT), 5--6 October 2017, Santa
                 Cruz, CA, USA}",
  title =        "Thread- and data-level parallel simulation in
                 {SystemC}, a {Bitcoin} miner case study",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "74--81",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/HLDVT.2017.8167466",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 12:22:33 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "16-core host; 4-core host; 60-core host; Bitcoin;
                 Bitcoin miner model; Computational modeling;
                 coprocessors; data mining; data-level parallel
                 simulation; datalevel parallelism; design complexity;
                 electronic money; Instruction sets; many-core Intel(g)
                 Xeon Phi; multi-threading; multicore processors;
                 multiprocessing systems; Parallel processing; peak
                 simulation; Peer-to-peer computing; Ports (Computers);
                 Synchronization; system level design; system level
                 modeling; system level simulation; SystemC simulation
                 speed; thread-level parallelism",
}

@InProceedings{Choudhuri:2017:FUW,
  author =       "Arka Rai Choudhuri and Matthew Green and Abhishek Jain
                 and Gabriel Kaptchuk and Ian Miers",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "Fairness in an Unfair World: Fair Multiparty
                 Computation from Public Bulletin Boards",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "719--728",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3133956.3134092",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4946-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4946-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3133956.3134092",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3134092",
  keywords =     "fairness; secure multiparty computation",
  location =     "Dallas, Texas, USA",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@Article{Chow:2017:BMC,
  author =       "S. Chow and M. E. Peck",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} mines of {China}",
  journal =      j-IEEE-SPECTRUM,
  volume =       "54",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "46--53",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "IEESAM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2017.8048840",
  ISSN =         "0018-9235 (print), 1939-9340 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9235",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Spectrum",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; bitcoin mines; China; coal; coal-fired power
                 plants; Data mining; Economics; file organisation;
                 foreign exchange trading; minerals; Minerals; mining;
                 Photography; Power generation; power plants; rare earth
                 mineral extraction sites; SHA-256 hash function; Urban
                 areas",
}

@InProceedings{Coblenz:2017:OSB,
  author =       "Michael Coblenz",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on
                 Software Engineering Companion}",
  title =        "{Obsidian}: A Safer Blockchain Programming Language",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "97--99",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSE-C.2017.150",
  ISBN =         "1-5386-1589-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-5386-1589-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ICSE-C '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3098376",
  keywords =     "blockchain programming; blockchain security;
                 programming language usability",
  location =     "Buenos Aires, Argentina",
  pagecount =    "3",
}

@InProceedings{Connor:2017:EBT,
  author =       "Russell O. Connor and Marta Piekarska",
  title =        "Enhancing {Bitcoin} Transactions with Covenants",
  crossref =     "Jakobsson:2017:FCD",
  pages =        "191--198",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_12",
  ISBN =         "3-319-70278-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-70278-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_12",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Conoscenti:2017:PPP,
  author =       "Marco Conoscenti and Antonio Vetr{\`o} and Juan Carlos
                 De Martin",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on
                 Software Engineering Companion}",
  title =        "Peer to Peer for Privacy and Decentralization in the
                 {Internet of Things}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "288--290",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSE-C.2017.60",
  ISBN =         "1-5386-1589-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-5386-1589-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ICSE-C '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3098442",
  keywords =     "block-chain; internet of things; peer to peer;
                 privacy",
  location =     "Buenos Aires, Argentina",
  pagecount =    "3",
}

@InProceedings{Dai:2017:BCC,
  author =       "Fangfang Dai and Yue Shi and Nan Meng and Liang Wei
                 and Zhiguo Ye",
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "{2017 4th International Conference on Systems and
                 Informatics (ICSAI), 11--13 November 2017, Hangzhou,
                 China}",
  title =        "From {Bitcoin} to cybersecurity: A comparative study
                 of blockchain application and security issues",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "975--979",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSAI.2017.8248427",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 12:22:33 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; blockchain; Computer security; cybersecurity;
                 Memory; Privacy; privacy-protection; Reliability;
                 tamper-proofing",
}

@InCollection{Dannen:2017:BBK,
  author =       "Chris Dannen",
  booktitle =    "Introducing {Ethereum} and {Solidity}",
  title =        "Bridging the Blockchain Knowledge Gap",
  publisher =    pub-APRESS,
  address =      pub-APRESS:adr,
  pages =        "1--20",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2535-6_1",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2535-6_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Dannen:2017:IES,
  author =       "Chris Dannen",
  title =        "Introducing {Ethereum} and {Solidity}",
  publisher =    pub-APRESS,
  address =      pub-APRESS:adr,
  pages =        "xxi + 185",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2535-6",
  ISBN =         "1-4842-2535-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4842-2535-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:51:20 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4842-2535-6",
  abstract =     "Learn how to use Solidity and the Ethereum project ---
                 second only to Bitcoin in market capitalization.
                 Blockchain protocols are taking the world by storm, and
                 the Ethereum project, with its Turing-complete
                 scripting language Solidity, has rapidly become a
                 front-runner. This book presents the blockchain
                 phenomenon in context; then situates Ethereum in a
                 world pioneered by Bitcoin. See why professionals and
                 non-professionals alike are honing their skills in
                 smart contract patterns and distributed application
                 development. You'll review the fundamentals of
                 programming and networking, alongside its introduction
                 to the new discipline of crypto-economics. You'll then
                 deploy smart contracts of your own, and learn how they
                 can serve as a back-end for JavaScript and HTML
                 applications on the Web. Many Solidity tutorials out
                 there today have the same flaw: they are written
                 for``advanced'' JavaScript developers who want to
                 transfer their skills to a blockchain environment.
                 Introducing Ethereum and Solidity is accessible to
                 technology professionals and enthusiasts of ``all
                 levels.'' You'll find exciting sample code that can
                 move forward real world assets in both the academic and
                 the corporate arenas. Find out now why this book is a
                 powerful gateway for creative technologists of all
                 types, from concept to deployment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  tableofcontents = "At a Glance \\
                 Contents \\
                 About the Author \\
                 About the Technical Reviewer \\
                 Chapter 1: Bridging the Blockchain Knowledge Gap \\
                 Blockchain Roll Call! \\
                 What Ethereum Does \\
                 Three Parts of a Blockchain \\
                 Ethereum Assumes Many Chains \\
                 This Is a Scam, Just Like Bitcoin! \\
                 Ether as a Currency and Commodity \\
                 Gresham's Law \\
                 The Path to Better Money \\
                 Cryptoeconomics and Security \\
                 Back to the Good Old Days \\
                 Cryptochaos \\
                 The Power Is in the Protocol \\
                 You Can Build Trustless Systems \\
                 What Smart Contracts (Really) Do \\
                 Objects and Methods for Value \\
                 Just Add Commerce \\
                 Content Creation \\
                 Where's the Data?What Is Mining?Ether and Electricity
                 Prices \\
                 Going Inside the EVM \\
                 The Mist Browser \\
                 Browser vs. Wallet or Keychain \\
                 Solidity Is Kind of Like JavaScript, But and What
                 Ethereum Is Good For \\
                 A Critical Take \\
                 ``Without any possibility of downtime, censorship, or
                 third-party interference'' \\
                 ``A secure, free, and open platform for the Internet of
                 Things'' \\
                 ``Enabling transparent governance for communities and
                 businesses'' \\
                 ``Handles user authentication and secure payments for
                 you, as well as messaging and even decentralized
                 storage'' \\
                 ``No need to sign up or pay for application host: The
                 world's first zero-infrastructure platform'' \\
                 State of Smart Contract Development Today \\
                 Copycat Coins \\
                 Funding Your Project \\
                 Deciding Where You Fit In \\
                 A Note to New Programmers \\
                 Ethereum Is Free and Open Source \\
                 The EVM Is Here to Stay \\
                 What You Can Build Today \\
                 Private and Public Chains \\
                 Send and Receive Ether \\
                 Write Smart Contracts \\
                 Create Provably Fair Applications \\
                 Launch Your Own Token \\
                 The Promise of Decentralized Databases \\
                 What's Next: New Ways of Working \\
                 Summary \\
                 Chapter 2: The Mist Browser \\
                 Wallets as a Computing Metaphor \\
                 Your Address Is What? \\
                 Where Is My Ether? The Bank Teller Metaphor \\
                 In Cryptocurrency, You Hold Your Own Assets \\
                 Visualizing Ethereum Transactions \\
                 Breaking with Banking History \\
                 How Encryption Leads to Trust \\
                 System Requirements \\
                 More about Eth.guide and This Book \\
                 Tools for Developers \\
                 CLI Nodes \\
                 Recommended: Using Parity with Geth \\
                 Finally, into the Mist! \\
                 Downloading and Installing Mist \\
                 Configuring Mist \\
                 Finding Your New Address \\
                 Sending and Receiving Ether \\
                 Understanding Ethereum Account Types \\
                 Backing Up and Restoring Your Keys \\
                 Using Paper Wallets \\
                 Using Mobile Wallets \\
                 Working with Messages and Transactions \\
                 Transactions Change State \\
                 Editing a Global Database \\
                 So, What Is a Blockchain? \\
                 Paying for Transactions \\
                 Understanding Denominations \\
                 Getting Ether \\
                 Anonymity in Cryptocurrency \\
                 Blockchain Explorers \\
                 Summary \\
                 Chapter 3: The EVM \\
                 The Central Bank Network of Yesterday \\
                 What are Virtual Machines, Exactly? \\
                 The Role of the Ethereum Protocol in Banking \\
                 Anyone Can Make a Banking Platform \\
                 What the EVM Does \\
                 EVM Applications Are Called Smart Contracts \\
                 The Name ``Smart Contracts'' \\
                 The EVM Runs Bytecode \\
                 Understanding State Machines \\
                 Digital vs. Analog \\
                 ``State-ments'' \\
                 Data's Role in State",
}

@Article{Daulay:2017:RAA,
  author =       "Raja Sakti Arief Daulay and Surya Michrandi Nasution
                 and Marisa W. Paryasto",
  title =        "Realization and Addressing Analysis In Blockchain
                 {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      "{IOP} Conference Series: Materials Science and
                 Engineering",
  volume =       "260",
  pages =        "012002",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/260/1/012002",
  ISSN =         "1757-8981 (print), 1757-899X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1757-8981",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 11:59:45 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{deBalthasar:2017:ABL,
  author =       "Thibault de Balthasar and Julio Hernandez-Castro",
  booktitle =    "Secure IT Systems",
  title =        "An Analysis of {Bitcoin} Laundry Services",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "297--312",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70290-2_18",
  ISBN =         "3-319-70290-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-70290-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70290-2_18",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{deKruijff:2017:UBU,
  author =       "Joost de Kruijff and Hans Weigand",
  booktitle =    "Advanced Information Systems Engineering",
  title =        "Understanding the Blockchain Using Enterprise
                 Ontology",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "29--43",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59536-8_3",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-59536-8_3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{deSoto:2017:TTC,
  author =       "Hernando de Soto",
  title =        "A tale of two civilizations in the era of {Facebook}
                 and blockchain",
  journal =      "Small Business Economics",
  volume =       "49",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "729--739",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-017-9949-4",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11187-017-9949-4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Dickerson:2017:ACS,
  author =       "Thomas Dickerson and Paul Gazzillo and Maurice Herlihy
                 and Eric Koskinen",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Principles of
                 Distributed Computing}",
  title =        "Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "303--312",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3087801.3087835",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4992-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4992-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "PODC '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3087801.3087835",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3087835",
  keywords =     "blockchain; concurrency; Ethereum; fork-join; miners;
                 smart contracts; validators",
  location =     "Washington, DC, USA",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@InProceedings{DiCrescenzo:2017:PPD,
  author =       "Giovanni {Di Crescenzo} and Brian Coan and Jonathan
                 Kirsch",
  title =        "Privacy-Preserving Deterministic Automata Evaluation
                 with Encrypted Data Blocks",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "275--294",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_16",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{DiFrancescoMaesa:2017:ABU,
  author =       "Damiano {Di Francesco Maesa} and Andrea Marino and
                 Laura Ricci",
  booktitle =    "Complex Networks \& Their Applications {V}",
  title =        "An analysis of the {Bitcoin} users graph: inferring
                 unusual behaviours",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "749--760",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50901-3_59",
  ISBN =         "3-319-50901-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-50901-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-50901-3_59",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{DiFrancescoMaesa:2017:BBA,
  author =       "Damiano {Di Francesco Maesa} and Paolo Mori and Laura
                 Ricci",
  booktitle =    "Distributed Applications and Interoperable Systems",
  title =        "Blockchain Based Access Control",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "206--220",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59665-5_15",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-59665-5_15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Dikshit:2017:EWT,
  author =       "Pratyush Dikshit and Kunwar Singh",
  booktitle =    "2017 ISEA Asia Security and Privacy (ISEASP)",
  title =        "Efficient weighted threshold {ECDSA} for securing
                 {Bitcoin} wallet",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--9",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ISEASP.2017.7976994",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7976994/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Banking; bitcoin; bitcoin transaction; bitcoin wallet
                 security; blockchain; cryptographic algorithms;
                 Cryptography; digital currency; Digital signatures;
                 digital signatures; ECDSA; efficient weighted threshold
                 ECDSA; elliptic curve digital signature algorithm;
                 financial data processing; Peer-to-peer computing;
                 private key cryptography; public key cryptography;
                 publically available database; secret key; security
                 policy; Shamir secret sharing; threshold signature
                 scheme; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} wallet",
}

@InProceedings{Dinh:2017:BFA,
  author =       "Tien Tuan Anh Dinh and Ji Wang and Gang Chen and Rui
                 Liu and Beng Chin Ooi and Kian-Lee Tan",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Conference
                 on Management of Data}",
  title =        "{BLOCKBENCH}: A Framework for Analyzing Private
                 Blockchains",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1085--1100",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3035918.3064033",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4197-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4197-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SIGMOD '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3035918.3064033",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3064033",
  keywords =     "blockchains; consensus; performance benchmark;
                 security; smart contracts; transactions",
  location =     "Chicago, Illinois, USA",
  pagecount =    "16",
}

@Article{DiPierro:2017:WB,
  author =       "Massimo {Di Pierro}",
  title =        "What Is the Blockchain?",
  journal =      j-COMPUT-SCI-ENG,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "92--95",
  month =        sep # "\slash " # oct,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "CSENFA",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MCSE.2017.3421554",
  ISSN =         "1521-9615 (print), 1558-366X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1521-9615",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 7 06:51:00 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computscieng.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/cs/2017/05/mcs2017050092-abs.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computing in Science and Engineering",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5992",
}

@InProceedings{Divita:2017:ABM,
  author =       "Joseph Divita and Roger A. Hallman",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on
                 Availability, Reliability and Security",
  title =        "An Approach to Botnet Malware Detection Using
                 Nonparametric {Bayesian} Methods",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "75:1--75:9",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3098954.3107010",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5257-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5257-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ARES '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3107010",
  articleno =    "75",
  keywords =     "Botnets, Cybersecurity, Nonparametric Bayesian
                 Methods",
  location =     "Reggio Calabria, Italy",
  pagecount =    "9",
}

@InCollection{Dixon:2017:BMB,
  author =       "Peter Dixon",
  booktitle =    "Innovationen und Innovationsmanagement in der
                 Finanzbranche",
  title =        "{Blockchain: Mehr als Bitcoin}. ({German})
                 [{Blockchain}: More than {Bitcoin}]",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "215--229",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-15648-0_10",
  ISBN =         "3-658-15648-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-658-15648-0",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-15648-0_10",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
}

@InProceedings{Dlamini:2017:DSS,
  author =       "N. P. Dlamini and M. S. Scott and K. K. Nair",
  booktitle =    "{2017 IST-Africa Week Conference (IST-Africa)}",
  title =        "Development of an {SMS} system used to access
                 {Bitcoin} wallets",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--10",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.23919/ISTAFRICA.2017.8102316",
  ISBN =         "1-5386-3837-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-5386-3837-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8102316/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Crypto currency; Internet; low-end mobile
                 phone; Mobile communication; Mobile handsets;
                 Prototypes; Software; {Bitcoin} wallet",
}

@InProceedings{Dmitrienko:2017:SWA,
  author =       "Alexandra Dmitrienko and David Noack and Moti Yung",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2017 ACM on Asia Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security",
  title =        "Secure Wallet-Assisted Offline {Bitcoin} Payments with
                 Double-Spender Revocation",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "520--531",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3052973.3052980",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4944-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4944-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ASIA CCS '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3052980",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, double-spender revocation, offline payments,
                 secure hardware, zero confirmation transactions",
  location =     "Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Dorri:2017:TOB,
  author =       "Ali Dorri and Salil S. Kanhere and Raja Jurdak",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
                 Internet-of-Things Design and Implementation}",
  title =        "Towards an Optimized {BlockChain} for {IoT}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "173--178",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3054977.3055003",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4966-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4966-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "IoTDI '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3054977.3055003",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3055003",
  keywords =     "BlockChain; Internet of Things; Privacy; Security",
  location =     "Pittsburgh, PA, USA",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:AT,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Authorizing Transactions",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "103--109",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_13",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:BPT,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Bringing the Pieces Together",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "189--202",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_21",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_21",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:CTH,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Choosing a Transaction History",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "165--181",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_19",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_19",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:DCP,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Discovering the Core Problem",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "29--32",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_4",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:DDS,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Distributing the Data Store Among Peers",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "145--152",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_17",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:DO,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Documenting Ownership",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "63--69",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_9",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:DT,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Disambiguating the Term",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "33--37",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_5",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:HD,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Hashing Data",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "71--79",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_10",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/hash.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_10",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:HRW,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Hashing in the Real World",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "81--92",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_11",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/hash.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_11",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:IPU,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Identifying and Protecting User Accounts",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "93--101",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_12",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_12",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:PB,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Planning the Blockchain",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "57--62",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_8",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_8",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:PDS,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Protecting the Data Store",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "135--143",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_16",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_16",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:PI,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Paying for Integrity",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "183--188",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_20",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_20",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:RB,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Reinventing the Blockchain",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "213--220",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_23",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_23",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:RP,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Recognizing the Potential",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "19--25",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_3",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_3",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:SBP,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Seeing the Big Picture",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "9--17",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_2",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_2",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:SGF,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Summarizing and Going Further",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "235--248",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_25",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_25",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:SL,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Seeing the Limitations",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "205--211",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_22",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_22",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:SMT,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Spending Money Twice",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "49--54",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_7",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_7",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:STD,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Storing Transaction Data",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "111--122",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_14",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:TLA,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Thinking in Layers and Aspects",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "3--7",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_1",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:UB,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Using the Blockchain",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "223--233",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_24",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_24",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:UDS,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Using the Data Store",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "123--134",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_15",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:UNO,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Understanding the Nature of Ownership",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "39--47",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_6",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Drescher:2017:VAT,
  author =       "Daniel Drescher",
  title =        "Verifying and Adding Transactions",
  crossref =     "Drescher:2017:BB",
  pages =        "153--164",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_18",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-2604-9_18",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Dring:2017:EBT,
  author =       "Tina D{\"u}ring and Hagen Fisbeck",
  booktitle =    "{CSR} und Digitalisierung. ({German}) [{CSR} and
                 digitization]",
  title =        "{Einsatz der Blockchain-Technologie f{\"u}r eine
                 transparente Wertsch{\"o}pfungskette}. ({German})
                 [{Use} of blockchain technology for a transparent value
                 chain]",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "449--464",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53202-7_33",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
}

@InCollection{Dubovitskaya:2017:HBC,
  author =       "Alevtina Dubovitskaya and Zhigang Xu and Samuel Ryu
                 and Michael Schumacher and Fusheng Wang",
  booktitle =    "{Data Management and Analytics for Medicine and
                 Healthcare}",
  title =        "How Blockchain Could Empower {eHealth}: An Application
                 for Radiation Oncology",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "3--6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67186-4_1",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67186-4_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Durand:2017:DWT,
  author =       "Arnaud Durand and Pascal Gremaud and Jacques
                 Pasquier",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference
                 on the Internet of Things}",
  title =        "Decentralized {Web of Trust} and Authentication for
                 the {Internet of Things}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "27:1--27:2",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3131542.3140263",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5318-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5318-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "IoT '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3131542.3140263",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3140263",
  articleno =    "27",
  keywords =     "authentication; blockchain; IoT; public key
                 infrastructure",
  location =     "Linz, Austria",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InCollection{During:2017:EBT,
  author =       "Tina D{\"u}ring and Hagen Fisbeck",
  booktitle =    "{CSR und Digitalisierung}",
  title =        "Einsatz der Blockchain-Technologie f{\"u}r eine
                 transparente Wertsch{\"o}pfungskette",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53202-7_33",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 08:10:08 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-662-53202-7_33",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Dyer:2017:OPE,
  author =       "James Dyer and Martin Dyer and Jie Xu",
  title =        "Order-Preserving Encryption Using Approximate Integer
                 Common Divisors",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "257--274",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_15",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_15",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Eberhardt:2017:BIC,
  author =       "Jacob Eberhardt and Stefan Tai",
  booktitle =    "{Service-Oriented and Cloud Computing}",
  title =        "On or Off the Blockchain? {Insights} on Off-Chaining
                 Computation and Data",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "3--15",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67262-5_1",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67262-5_1",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Egelund-Muller:2017:AEF,
  author =       "Benjamin Egelund-M{\"u}ller and Martin Elsman and
                 Fritz Henglein and Omri Ross",
  title =        "Automated Execution of Financial Contracts on
                 Blockchains",
  journal =      "Business \& Information Systems Engineering",
  volume =       "59",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "457--467",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12599-017-0507-z",
  ISSN =         "1867-0202 (print), 2363-7005 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1867-0202",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12599-017-0507-z",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Business \& Information Systems Engineering",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/12599",
}

@InProceedings{Emmadi:2017:RIP,
  author =       "Nitesh Emmadi and Harika Narumanchi",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on
                 Distributed Computing and Networking}",
  title =        "Reinforcing Immutability of Permissioned Blockchains
                 with Keyless Signatures' Infrastructure",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "46:1--46:6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3007748.3018280",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4839-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4839-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ICDCN '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3007748.3018280",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3018280",
  articleno =    "46",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Blockchain; Hashchain; Keyless Signatures'
                 Infrastructure; Merkle Tree; Permissioned Environments;
                 Permissionless Environments",
  location =     "Hyderabad, India",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InProceedings{Engelmann:2017:TEA,
  author =       "Felix Engelmann and Henning Kopp and Frank Kargl and
                 Florian Glaser and Christof Weinhardt",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Scalable and
                 Resilient Infrastructures for Distributed Ledgers}",
  title =        "Towards an Economic Analysis of Routing in Payment
                 Channel Networks",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "2:1--2:6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152824.3152826",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5173-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5173-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SERIAL '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3152824.3152826",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3152826",
  articleno =    "2",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, blockchain, Ethereum, payment channel,
                 simulation",
  location =     "Las Vegas, Nevada",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InCollection{Epishkina:2017:DCH,
  author =       "Anna Epishkina and Sergey Zapechnikov",
  booktitle =    "Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing",
  title =        "Discovering and Clustering Hidden Time Patterns in
                 Blockchain Ledger",
  publisher =    "Springer International Publishing",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "245--250",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63940-6_35",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Ermilov:2017:ABA,
  author =       "Dmitry Ermilov and Maxim Panov and Yury Yanovich",
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "{2017 16th IEEE International Conference on Machine
                 Learning and Applications (ICMLA), 18--21 December
                 2017, Cancun, Mexico}",
  title =        "Automatic {Bitcoin} Address Clustering",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "461--466",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICMLA.2017.0-118",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 12:22:33 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8260674/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Authentication; Bitcoin;
                 Bitcoin,-blockchain,-clustering,-privacy,-anonymity;
                 Clustering algorithms; Companies; History; Mixers",
}

@InProceedings{Eskandari:2017:DDA,
  author =       "Mojtaba Eskandari and Bruno Crispo and Anderson
                 Santana de Oliveira",
  title =        "{DLoc}: Distributed Auditing for Data Location
                 Compliance in Cloud",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "202--218",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_12",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_12",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Evans-Greenwood:2017:DLL,
  author =       "Peter Evans-Greenwood",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on
                 World Wide Web Companion}",
  title =        "Distributed Ledgers \& Linked Data",
  publisher =    "International World Wide Web Conferences Steering
                 Committee",
  address =      "Republic and Canton of Geneva, Switzerland",
  pages =        "1451--1451",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3041021.3053898",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4914-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4914-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "WWW '17 Companion",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3053898",
  keywords =     "blockchain; distributed ai; distributed ledgers;
                 linked data",
  location =     "Perth, Australia",
  pagecount =    "1",
}

@Article{Eyal:2017:BTT,
  author =       "Ittay Eyal",
  title =        "Blockchain Technology: Transforming Libertarian
                 Cryptocurrency Dreams to Finance and Banking
                 Realities",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "50",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "38--49",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MC.2017.3571042",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 2 08:46:55 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2010.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/co/2017/09/mco2017090038-abs.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/magazines/computer",
}

@InProceedings{Fadhil:2017:LBA,
  author =       "Muntadher Fadhil and Gareth Owenson and Mo Adda",
  booktitle =    "2017 IFIP\slash IEEE Symposium on Integrated Network
                 and Service Management (IM)",
  title =        "Locality based approach to improve propagation delay
                 on the {Bitcoin} peer-to-peer network",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "556--559",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.23919/INM.2017.7987328",
  ISSN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7987328/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "BCBSN; Clustering Evaluation; clustering protocol;
                 clustering structures; communication link cost
                 reduction; connectivity locality; cost reduction;
                 Delays; double spend attacks; electronic money;
                 geographical location; geography; locality based
                 approach; location based clustering; location
                 based-distance; mobile computing; pattern clustering;
                 peer-to-peer computing; Peer-to-peer computing;
                 peer-to-peer electronic currency system; Propagation
                 Delay; Propagation delay; Protocols; transaction
                 propagation delay; transaction verification delay
                 overhead; {Bitcoin}; {Bitcoin} nodes; {Bitcoin}
                 peer-to-peer network",
}

@Article{Fairley:2017:BWF,
  author =       "P. Fairley",
  title =        "Blockchain world --- Feeding the blockchain beast: if
                 {Bitcoin} ever does go mainstream, the electricity
                 needed to sustain it will be enormous",
  journal =      j-IEEE-SPECTRUM,
  volume =       "54",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "36--59",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "IEESAM",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/MSPEC.2017.8048837",
  ISSN =         "0018-9235 (print), 1939-9340 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9235",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Spectrum",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; blockchain world; Central Processing Unit;
                 Data mining; Hardware; Medical services; power grids;
                 virtual currency; {Bitcoin}",
}

@Article{Fauzi:2017:IAU,
  author =       "Muhammad Reza Rizky Fauzi and Surya Michrandi Nasution
                 and Marisa W. Paryasto",
  title =        "Implementation and Analysis of the use of the
                 Blockchain Transactions on the Workings of the
                 {Bitcoin}",
  journal =      "{IOP} Conference Series: Materials Science and
                 Engineering",
  volume =       "260",
  pages =        "012003",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1088/1757-899x/260/1/012003",
  ISSN =         "1757-8981 (print), 1757-899X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1757-8981",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 11:59:45 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Fezeu:2017:SID,
  author =       "H. Kamdem Fezeu and T. Djotio and R. Oulad Haj Thami",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2Nd International Conference on
                 Big Data, Cloud and Applications}",
  title =        "Safe and Irrefutable Decentralized Communication:
                 Bringing Non-Repudiation to Mesh Networks",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "37:1--37:6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3090354.3090392",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4852-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4852-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "BDCA'17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3090354.3090392",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3090392",
  articleno =    "37",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Information Security; Internet of Things;
                 Mesh Networks",
  location =     "Tetouan, Morocco",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@InCollection{Filtz:2017:EBA,
  author =       "Erwin Filtz and Axel Polleres and Roman Karl and
                 Bernhard Haslhofer",
  booktitle =    "Data Science Analytics and Applications",
  title =        "Evolution of the {Bitcoin} Address Graph",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "77--82",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-19287-7_11",
  ISBN =         "3-658-19287-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-658-19287-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-19287-7_11",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InBook{Finn:2017:CB,
  author =       "Ed Finn",
  booktitle =    "What Algorithms Want:Imagination in the Age of
                 Computing",
  title =        "Counting {Bitcoin}",
  publisher =    pub-MIT,
  address =      pub-MIT:adr,
  pages =        "272-",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "",
  ISBN =         "0-262-33883-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-262-33883-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=7904154",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Finn:2017:WAW,
  author =       "Ed Finn",
  title =        "What algorithms want: imagination in the age of
                 computing",
  publisher =    pub-MIT,
  address =      pub-MIT:adr,
  pages =        "viii + 257",
  year =         "2017",
  ISBN =         "0-262-03592-8 (hardcover)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-262-03592-7 (hardcover)",
  LCCN =         "HM851 .F5565 2017",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Information technology; Social aspects; Computers;
                 Algorithms",
  tableofcontents = "Acknowledgements \\
                 Introduction \\
                 What is an algorithm? \\
                 Building the star trek computer \\
                 House of cards: the aesthetics of abstraction \\
                 Coding cow clicker: the work of algorithms \\
                 Counting bitcoin \\
                 Coda: the algorithmic imagination \\
                 Notes \\
                 Figure credits \\
                 Works cited \\
                 Index",
}

@InProceedings{Foth:2017:PBT,
  author =       "Marcus Foth",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 29th Australian Conference on
                 Computer-Human Interaction}",
  title =        "The Promise of Blockchain Technology for Interaction
                 Design",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "513--517",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152771.3156168",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5379-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5379-3",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "OZCHI '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3152771.3156168",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3156168",
  keywords =     "blockchain; distributed ledger; interaction design;
                 provenance",
  location =     "Brisbane, Queensland, Australia",
  pagecount =    "5",
}

@Article{Fox:2017:B,
  author =       "Dirk Fox",
  title =        "{Bitcoin}",
  journal =      "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "507--507",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11623-017-0821-0",
  ISSN =         "1614-0702 (print), 1862-2607 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1614-0702",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11623-017-0821-0",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/11623",
}

@InProceedings{Fraser:2017:SFS,
  author =       "J. G. Fraser and A. Bouridane",
  booktitle =    "2017 Seventh International Conference on Emerging
                 Security Technologies (EST)",
  title =        "Have the security flaws surrounding {Bitcoin} affected
                 the currency's value?",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "50--55",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/EST.2017.8090398",
  ISSN =         "2472-7601",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8090398/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Blockchain; Companies; Crypto Currency
                 Digital Security; Digital Currency; Fluctuations;
                 Online banking; Protocols",
}

@InProceedings{Frey:2017:SSG,
  author =       "Remo Manuel Frey and Thomas Hardjono and Christian
                 Smith and Keeley Erhardt and Alex `Sandy' Pentland",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the Fourth International ACM Workshop
                 on Managing and Mining Enriched Geo-Spatial Data}",
  title =        "Secure Sharing of Geospatial Wildlife Data",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "5:1--5:6",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3080546.3080550",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5047-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5047-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "GeoRich '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3080546.3080550",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3080550",
  articleno =    "5",
  keywords =     "animal; blockchain; crime; cyber-poaching; data
                 sharing; geospatial; GPS; hunting; privacy; security;
                 species protection; wildlife",
  location =     "Chicago, Illinois",
  pagecount =    "6",
}

@Article{Fridgen:2017:EDI,
  author =       "Prof. Dr. Gilbert Fridgen and Sven Radszuwill and
                 Andr{\'e} Schweizer and Prof. Dr. Nils Urbach",
  title =        "{Entwicklung disruptiver Innovationen mit Blockchain:
                 Der Weg zum richtigen Anwendungsfall}. ({German})
                 [{Developing} Disruptive Innovations with Blockchain:
                 The Road to the Right Use Case]",
  journal =      "Wirtschaftsinformatik \& Management",
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "52--59",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s35764-017-0108-0",
  ISSN =         "1867-5905 (print), 1867-5913 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1867-5905",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s35764-017-0108-0",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Wirtschaftsinformatik \& Management",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/35764",
  language =     "German",
}

@InProceedings{Friebe:2017:DDD,
  author =       "Sebastian Friebe and Martin Florian",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the SIGCOMM Posters and Demos",
  title =        "{DPS}-Discuss: Demonstrating Decentralized,
                 Pseudonymous, {Sybil}-resistant Communication",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "74--75",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123878.3131991",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5057-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5057-0",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SIGCOMM Posters and Demos '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3131991",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, Censorship, Pseudonymity, Sybil-Resistance,
                 Tor",
  location =     "Los Angeles, CA, USA",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@InProceedings{Frowis:2017:CWT,
  author =       "Michael Fr{\"o}wis and Rainer B{\"o}hme",
  title =        "In Code We Trust?",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "357--372",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_20",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_20",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Furuta:2017:TES,
  author =       "Yuuji Furuta and Naoto Yanai and Masashi Karasaki and
                 Katsuhiko Eguchi and Yasunori Ishihara and Toru
                 Fujiwara",
  title =        "Towards Efficient and Secure Encrypted Databases:
                 Extending Message-Locked Encryption in Three-Party
                 Model",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "55--69",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_4",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{G:2017:BFM,
  author =       "B. G.",
  title =        "{Bitcoin} is fiat money, too: What {Charles
                 Kindleberger} has to say about cryptocurrencies",
  journal =      j-ECONOMIST,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  day =          "22",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "EONOEH",
  ISSN =         "0013-0613 (print), 1476-8860 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0013-0613",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jan 19 06:04:10 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.economist.com/blogs/freeexchange/2017/09/not-so-novel",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "The Economist",
  remark =       "From the article: ``\ldots{} it has always been
                 tempting for private finance to create too much money.
                 There is no evidence that money born on a distributed
                 ledger will be clean of this sin.'' ``[the distributed
                 ledger] us not new, and it has failed spectacularly in
                 the past. \ldots{} History instructs that no governance
                 is perfect, and humans are reliably awful.''",
}

@InProceedings{Gadriwala:2017:APC,
  author =       "Umme Salma Gadriwala and Christopher Kumar Anand and
                 Curtis D'Alves and Bill O'Farrell",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 27th Annual International
                 Conference on Computer Science and Software
                 Engineering}",
  title =        "Accelerating {Poly1305} Cryptographic Message
                 Authentication on the {Z14}",
  publisher =    pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  pages =        "48--54",
  year =         "2017",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CASCON '17",
  URL =          "http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3172795.3172802",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3172802",
  location =     "Markham, Ontario, Canada",
  pagecount =    "7",
}

@TechReport{Gandal:2017:PMB,
  author =       "Neil Gandal and J. T. Hamrick and Tyler Moore and Tali
                 Oberman",
  title =        "Price Manipulation in the {Bitcoin} Ecosystem",
  type =         "Report",
  institution =  "Tel Aviv University and The University of Tulsa",
  address =      "Tel Aviv, Israel and Tulsa, OK, USA",
  day =          "22",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2017",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 06:22:16 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://weis2017.econinfosec.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2017/05/WEIS_2017_paper_21.pdf",
  abstract =     "We identify and analyze the impact of suspicious
                 trading activity (STA) on the Mt. Gox Bitcoin currency
                 exchange between February and November 2013. We discuss
                 two distinct STA periods in which approximately 600,000
                 bitcoins (BTC) valued at \$188 million were acquired by
                 agents who did not pay for the bitcoins. During the
                 second period, the USD-BTC exchange rate rose by an
                 average of \$20 at Mt. Gox on days when suspicious
                 trades took place, compared to a slight decline on days
                 without suspicious activity. Based on rigorous analysis
                 with extensive robustness checks, we conclude that the
                 suspicious trading activity caused the unprecedented
                 spike in the USD-BTC exchange rate in late 2013, when
                 the rate jumped from around \$150 to more than \$1,000
                 in two months.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Garay:2017:BBP,
  author =       "Juan Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos",
  booktitle =    "Advances in Cryptology CRYPTO 2017",
  title =        "The {Bitcoin} Backbone Protocol with Chains of
                 Variable Difficulty",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "291--323",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63688-7_10",
  ISBN =         "3-319-63687-1 (paperback), 3-319-63688-X (e-book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-63687-0 (paperback), 978-3-319-63688-7
                 (e-book)",
  MRclass =      "94A60",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-63688-7_10",
  ZMnumber =     "06802616",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Garay:2017:BPB,
  author =       "Juan A. Garay",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the ACM Workshop on Blockchain,
                 Cryptocurrencies and Contracts}",
  title =        "Basic Properties of the Blockchain: (Invited Talk)",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1--1",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3055518.3055519",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4974-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4974-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "BCC '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3055518.3055519",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3055519",
  location =     "Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates",
  pagecount =    "1",
}

@InCollection{Garcia-Banuelos:2017:OEB,
  author =       "Luciano Garc{\'\i}a-Ba{\~n}uelos and Alexander
                 Ponomarev and Marlon Dumas and Ingo Weber",
  booktitle =    "{Business Process Management}",
  title =        "Optimized Execution of Business Processes on
                 Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "130--146",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-65000-5_8",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-65000-5_8",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Garcia-Barriocanal:2017:DMB,
  author =       "Elena Garc{\'\i}a-Barriocanal and Salvador
                 S{\'a}nchez-Alonso and Miguel-Angel Sicilia",
  booktitle =    "{Metadata and Semantic Research}",
  title =        "Deploying Metadata on Blockchain Technologies",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "38--49",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70863-8_4",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70863-8_4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Gencer:2017:SPS,
  author =       "Adem Efe Gencer and Robbert van Renesse and Emin
                 G{\"u}n Sirer",
  booktitle =    "{Financial Cryptography and Data Security}",
  title =        "Short Paper: Service-Oriented Sharding for
                 Blockchains",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "393--401",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70972-7_22",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70972-7_22",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Gentilal:2017:TBB,
  author =       "Miraje Gentilal and Paulo Martins and Leonel Sousa",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Fourth Workshop on Cryptography and
                 Security in Computing Systems",
  title =        "{TrustZone}-backed {Bitcoin} Wallet",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "25--28",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3031836.3031841",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4869-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4869-0",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CS2 '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3031841",
  keywords =     "TrustZone, Bitcoin, hardware wallet",
  location =     "Stockholm, Sweden",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InProceedings{Ghosh:2017:ACO,
  author =       "Shalini Ghosh and Ariyam Das and Phil Porras and Vinod
                 Yegneswaran and Ashish Gehani",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 23rd ACM SIGKDD International
                 Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining",
  title =        "Automated Categorization of Onion Sites for Analyzing
                 the {Darkweb} Ecosystem",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1793--1802",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3097983.3098193",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4887-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4887-4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "KDD '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3098193",
  keywords =     "classification, clustering, darkweb, keyword
                 discovery, onion sites, semi-supervised learning",
  location =     "Halifax, NS, Canada",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@Article{Gimpel:2017:DTB,
  author =       "Henner Gimpel and Maximilian R{\"o}glinger",
  title =        "Disruptive Technologien --- Blockchain, Deep Learning
                 \& Co.",
  journal =      "Wirtschaftsinformatik \& Management",
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "8--15",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s35764-017-0103-5",
  ISSN =         "1867-5905 (print), 1867-5913 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1867-5905",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s35764-017-0103-5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Wirtschaftsinformatik \& Management",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/35764",
}

@InCollection{Gkaniatsou:2017:LLA,
  author =       "Andriana Gkaniatsou and Myrto Arapinis and Aggelos
                 Kiayias",
  booktitle =    "Information Security",
  title =        "Low-Level Attacks in {Bitcoin} Wallets",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "233--253",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69659-1_13",
  ISBN =         "3-319-69659-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-69659-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-69659-1_13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Gobel:2017:IBS,
  author =       "J. G{\"o}bel and A. E. Krzesinski",
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "{2017 27th International Telecommunication Networks
                 and Applications Conference (ITNAC), 22--24 November
                 2017, Melbourne, VIC, Australia}",
  title =        "Increased block size and {Bitcoin} blockchain
                 dynamics",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "1--6",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ATNAC.2017.8215367",
  ISBN =         "1-5090-6796-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-5090-6796-1",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 12:22:33 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Data structures; Peer-to-peer computing;
                 Proposals; Protocols",
}

@InProceedings{Goldwasser:2017:PAV,
  author =       "Shafi Goldwasser and Sunoo Park",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 on Workshop on Privacy in the
                 Electronic Society}",
  title =        "Public Accountability vs. Secret Laws: Can They
                 Coexist?: A Cryptographic Proposal",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "99--110",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3139550.3139565",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5175-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5175-1",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "WPES '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3139550.3139565",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3139565",
  keywords =     "accountability; cryptography; snark; zero knowledge",
  location =     "Dallas, Texas, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InCollection{Goyal:2017:OCI,
  author =       "Rishab Goyal and Vipul Goyal",
  booktitle =    "{Theory of Cryptography}",
  title =        "Overcoming Cryptographic Impossibility Results Using
                 Blockchains",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "529--561",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70500-2_18",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70500-2_18",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Grcan:2017:BLD,
  author =       "{\"O}nder G{\"u}rcan and Antonella {Del Pozzo} and
                 Sara Tucci-Piergiovanni",
  booktitle =    "On the Move to Meaningful {Internet} Systems. OTM 2017
                 Conferences",
  title =        "On the {Bitcoin} Limitations to Deliver Fairness to
                 Users",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "589--606",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69462-7_37",
  ISBN =         "3-319-69462-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-69462-7",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-69462-7_37",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Green:2017:BAP,
  author =       "Matthew Green and Ian Miers",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGSAC Conference on
                 Computer and Communications Security}",
  title =        "{Bolt}: Anonymous Payment Channels for Decentralized
                 Currencies",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "473--489",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3133956.3134093",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4946-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4946-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CCS '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3133956.3134093",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3134093",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, blockchain, off chain, payments",
  location =     "Dallas, Texas, USA",
  pagecount =    "17",
}

@Article{Grimm:2017:ARB,
  author =       "R{\"u}diger Grimm and Andreas Heinemann",
  title =        "{Alle reden {\"u}ber Blockchain}. ({German})
                 [{Everyone} is talking about blockchain]",
  journal =      "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "469--469",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11623-017-0813-0",
  ISSN =         "1614-0702 (print), 1862-2607 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1614-0702",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11623-017-0813-0",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "{Datenschutz und Datensicherheit --- DuD}",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/11623",
  language =     "German",
}

@InCollection{Halim:2017:BSH,
  author =       "Norul Suhaliana bt Abd Halim and Md Arafatur Rahman
                 and Saiful Azad and Muhammad Nomani Kabir",
  booktitle =    "Recent Trends in Information and Communication
                 Technology",
  title =        "Blockchain Security Hole: Issues and Solutions",
  publisher =    "Springer International Publishing",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "739--746",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59427-9_76",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Halpin:2017:NDI,
  author =       "Harry Halpin",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on
                 Availability, Reliability and Security}",
  title =        "{NEXTLEAP}: Decentralizing Identity with Privacy for
                 Secure Messaging",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "92:1--92:10",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3098954.3104056",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5257-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5257-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "ARES '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3098954.3104056",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3104056",
  articleno =    "92",
  keywords =     "anonymity; decentralization; identity; privacy; secure
                 messaging",
  location =     "Reggio Calabria, Italy",
  pagecount =    "10",
}

@InProceedings{Hariya:2017:BPB,
  author =       "Meet Hariya and Yash Wagle and Achintya Desai and
                 Sachin Deshpande",
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "{2017 International conference of Electronics,
                 Communication and Aerospace Technology (ICECA), 20--22
                 April 2017, Coimbatore, India}",
  title =        "Buyer's protection in {Bitcoin}",
  volume =       "1",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "713--715",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICECA.2017.8203634",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 12:22:33 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; Computer security; Conflict Resolution;
                 Cryptocurrency; Digital signatures; Distributed System;
                 Privacy",
}

@Book{Hart:2017:MHE,
  editor =       "Keith Hart",
  title =        "Money in a human economy",
  volume =       "5",
  publisher =    "Berghahn Books",
  address =      "New York, NY, USA",
  pages =        "vi + 308",
  year =         "2017",
  ISBN =         "1-78533-559-6 (hardcover), 1-78533-560-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-78533-559-4 (hardcover), 978-1-78533-560-0",
  LCCN =         "HG231 .M5864 2017",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 4 08:37:48 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "The human economy",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Money; History; Foreign exchange",
  tableofcontents = "Introduction \\
                 Capitalism and our moment in the history of money /
                 Keith Hart \\
                 Thinking about money \\
                 Money is good to think: from ``wants of the mind'' to
                 conversation, stories and accounts / Jane Guyer \\
                 The shadow of Aristotle: a history of ideas about the
                 origins of money / Joseph Noko \\
                 Luxury and the sexual economy of capitalism / Noam
                 Yuran \\
                 The evolution of money today \\
                 The future of money is shaped by the family practices
                 of the global south / Supriya Singh \\
                 Remittance securitization in the hemisphere of the
                 Americas: from Wall Street to Calle principal and back
                 / David Pedersen \\
                 Cross-border investment in China / Horacio Ortiz \\
                 Value transfer and rent: or, I didn't realize my
                 payment was your annuity / Bill Maurer \\
                 The politics of bitcoin / Nigel Dodd \\
                 Money in its time and place \\
                 A South Asian mercantile model of exchange: hundi
                 during British rule / Marina Martin \\
                 Money and markets for and against the people: the rise
                 and fall of Basotho's economic independence,
                 1830s--1930s / Sean Maliehe \\
                 Gender and money in the Argentinian trueque / Hadrien
                 Saiag \\
                 Imaginary monies in Haiti / Federico Neibourg \\
                 Index",
}

@InCollection{He:2017:BBI,
  author =       "Yunhua He and Hong Li and Xiuzhen Cheng and Yan Liu
                 and Limin Sun",
  booktitle =    "Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications",
  title =        "A {Bitcoin} Based Incentive Mechanism for Distributed
                 {P2P} Applications",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "457--468",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60033-8_40",
  ISBN =         "3-319-60033-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-60033-8",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 16:02:10 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-60033-8_40",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Hentges:2017:FPS,
  author =       "Mitchell Hentges and Sheldon Roddick and Haytham
                 Elmiligi",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 22Nd Western Canadian Conference on
                 Computing Education",
  title =        "{Fambit}: A Promising Solution to Support Open
                 Educational Resources Initiatives",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "4:1--4:4",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3085585.3085589",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5066-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5066-2",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 12:47:36 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "WCCCE '17",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3085589",
  articleno =    "4",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, Microdonation, Online content monetization,
                 WebExtension, World Wide Web",
  location =     "Abbotsford, BC, Canada",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@InProceedings{Herlihy:2017:BFD,
  author =       "Maurice Herlihy",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Principles of
                 Distributed Computing}",
  title =        "Blockchains and the Future of Distributed Computing",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "155--155",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3087801.3087873",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4992-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4992-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "PODC '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3087801.3087873",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3087873",
  keywords =     "blockchain; cryptocurrency; distributed computing",
  location =     "Washington, DC, USA",
  pagecount =    "1",
}

@InProceedings{Hirai:2017:DEV,
  author =       "Yoichi Hirai",
  booktitle =    "{Financial Cryptography and Data Security}",
  title =        "Defining the {Ethereum} Virtual Machine for
                 Interactive Theorem Provers",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "520--535",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_33",
  ISBN =         "3-319-70278-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-70278-0",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:51:20 MST 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-70278-0_33",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Hofmann:2017:CWC,
  author =       "Erik Hofmann and Urs Magnus Strewe and Nicola Bosia",
  title =        "Conclusion --- What Can We Learn from
                 Blockchain-Driven Supply Chain Finance?",
  crossref =     "Hofmann:2018:SCF",
  pages =        "89--91",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62371-9_7",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Hofmann:2017:CWO,
  author =       "Erik Hofmann and Urs Magnus Strewe and Nicola Bosia",
  title =        "Concept --- Where Are the Opportunities of
                 Blockchain-Driven Supply Chain Finance?",
  crossref =     "Hofmann:2018:SCF",
  pages =        "51--75",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62371-9_5",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Hofmann:2017:DHD,
  author =       "Erik Hofmann and Urs Magnus Strewe and Nicola Bosia",
  title =        "Discussion --- How Does the Full Potential of
                 Blockchain Technology in Supply Chain Finance Look
                 Like?",
  crossref =     "Hofmann:2018:SCF",
  pages =        "77--87",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62371-9_6",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Hofmann:2017:IWP,
  author =       "Erik Hofmann and Urs Magnus Strewe and Nicola Bosia",
  title =        "Introduction --- Why to Pay Attention on
                 Blockchain-Driven Supply Chain Finance?",
  crossref =     "Hofmann:2018:SCF",
  pages =        "1--6",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-62371-9_1",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Hopf:2017:RBT,
  author =       "Stefan Hopf and Arnold Picot",
  booktitle =    "Interdisziplin{\"a}re Perspektiven zur Zukunft der
                 Wertsch{\"o}pfung",
  title =        "{Revolutioniert Blockchain-Technologie das Management
                 von Eigentumsrechten und Transaktionskosten?}.
                 ({German}) [{Is} blockchain technology revolutionizing
                 ownership and transaction management?]",
  publisher =    "Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden",
  pages =        "109--119",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-20265-1_9",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
}

@Article{Howard:2017:RPF,
  author =       "Heidi Howard and Dahlia Malkhi and Sasha Spiegelman",
  title =        "Revisiting the {Paxos Foundations}: a Look at Summer
                 Internship Work at {VMware Research}",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "51",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--71",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3139645.3139656",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Fri Sep 15 10:37:05 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/opersysrev.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J597",
}

@InCollection{Hsiao:2017:DVS,
  author =       "Jen-Ho Hsiao and Raylin Tso and Chien-Ming Chen and
                 Mu-En Wu",
  booktitle =    "Advances in Computer Science and Ubiquitous
                 Computing",
  title =        "Decentralized E-Voting Systems Based on the Blockchain
                 Technology",
  publisher =    "Springer Singapore",
  pages =        "305--309",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-7605-3_50",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Huang:2017:BPC,
  author =       "Butian Huang and Zhenguang Liu and Jianhai Chen and
                 Anan Liu and Qi Liu and Qinming He",
  title =        "Behavior pattern clustering in blockchain networks",
  journal =      j-MULTIMEDIA-TOOLS-APPLIC,
  volume =       "76",
  number =       "19",
  pages =        "20099--20110",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "MTAPFB",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-017-4396-4",
  ISSN =         "1380-7501 (print), 1573-7721 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1380-7501",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11042-017-4396-4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Multimedia Tools and Applications",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/11042",
}

@InCollection{Huang:2017:FTP,
  author =       "Hui Huang and Kuan-Ching Li and Xiaofeng Chen",
  booktitle =    "{Cyberspace Safety and Security}",
  title =        "A Fair Three-Party Contract Singing Protocol Based on
                 Blockchain",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "72--85",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-69471-9_6",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-69471-9_6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Hull:2017:BDE,
  author =       "Richard Hull",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 11th ACM International Conference
                 on Distributed and Event-based Systems}",
  title =        "Blockchain: Distributed Event-based Processing in a
                 Data-Centric World: Extended Abstract",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "2--4",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3093742.3097982",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5065-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5065-5",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "DEBS '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3093742.3097982",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3097982",
  keywords =     "Blockchain; Business Collaboration; Business Process
                 Management; Smart Contract",
  location =     "Barcelona, Spain",
  pagecount =    "3",
}

@Article{Hyvarinen:2017:BBA,
  author =       "Hissu Hyv{\"a}rinen and Marten Risius and Gustav
                 Friis",
  title =        "A Blockchain-Based Approach Towards Overcoming
                 Financial Fraud in Public Sector Services",
  journal =      "Business \& Information Systems Engineering",
  volume =       "59",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "441--456",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/s12599-017-0502-4",
  ISSN =         "1867-0202 (print), 2363-7005 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1867-0202",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12599-017-0502-4",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Business \& Information Systems Engineering",
  journal-URL =  "https://link.springer.com/journal/12599",
}

@InProceedings{Ibba:2017:CBO,
  author =       "Simona Ibba and Andrea Pinna and Matteo Seu and
                 Filippo Eros Pani",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the XP2017 Scientific Workshops}",
  title =        "{CitySense}: Blockchain-oriented Smart Cities",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "12:1--12:5",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3120459.3120472",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5264-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5264-2",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "XP '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3120459.3120472",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3120472",
  articleno =    "12",
  keywords =     "blockchain; internet of things; SCRUM; sensing; smart
                 cities",
  location =     "Cologne, Germany",
  pagecount =    "5",
}

@InProceedings{Idalino:2017:PVA,
  author =       "Tha{\'\i}s Bardini Idalino and Dayana Spagnuelo and
                 Jean Everson Martina",
  title =        "Private Verification of Access on Medical Data: An
                 Initial Study",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "86--103",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_6",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_6",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Isler:2017:TSP,
  author =       "Devri{\c{s}} {\.I}{\c{s}}ler and Alptekin
                 K{\"u}p{\c{c}}{\"u}",
  title =        "Threshold Single Password Authentication",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "143--162",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_9",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_9",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Jaag:2017:BTC,
  author =       "Christian Jaag and Christian Bach",
  booktitle =    "{The Changing Postal and Delivery Sector}",
  title =        "Blockchain Technology and Cryptocurrencies:
                 Opportunities for Postal Financial Services",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "205--221",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46046-8_13",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-46046-8_13",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Jabbar:2017:GBI,
  author =       "Karim Jabbar and Pernille Bj{\o}rn",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference on Human
                 Factors in Computing Systems}",
  title =        "Growing the Blockchain Information Infrastructure",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "6487--6498",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3025453.3025959",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-4655-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-4655-9",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "CHI '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3025453.3025959",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3025959",
  keywords =     "Bitcoin, blockchain, entrepreneurship, information
                 infrastructures, open-source, sociomateriality",
  location =     "Denver, Colorado, USA",
  pagecount =    "12",
}

@InProceedings{Jaffe:2017:MUC,
  author =       "Caroline Jaffe and Cristina Mata and Sepandar Kamvar",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Joint
                 Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and
                 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM International Symposium on
                 Wearable Computers}",
  title =        "Motivating Urban Cycling Through a Blockchain-based
                 Financial Incentives System",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "81--84",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123024.3123141",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5190-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5190-4",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "UbiComp '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3123024.3123141",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3123141",
  keywords =     "activity tracking; behavioral psychology; bicycles;
                 blockchain; financial incentives; location tracking",
  location =     "Maui, Hawaii",
  pagecount =    "4",
}

@Article{Jang:2017:ESM,
  author =       "H. Jang and J. Lee",
  title =        "An Empirical Study on Modeling and Prediction of
                 {Bitcoin} Prices with {Bayesian} Neural Networks Based
                 on Blockchain Information",
  journal =      j-IEEE-ACCESS,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2779181",
  ISSN =         "2169-3536",
  ISSN-L =       "2169-3536",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 21 12:22:33 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Access",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=6287639",
  keywords =     "Bayes methods; Bayesian neural network; Biological
                 system modeling; Bitcoin; Blockchain; Neural networks;
                 Predictive model; Predictive models; Time series
                 analysis; Time-series analysis",
}

@InProceedings{Jin:2017:BBB,
  author =       "T. Jin and X. Zhang and Y. Liu and K. Lei",
  booktitle =    "2017 Ninth International Conference on Ubiquitous and
                 Future Networks (ICUFN)",
  title =        "{BlockNDN}: A {Bitcoin} blockchain decentralized
                 system over named data networking",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "75--80",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1109/ICUFN.2017.7993751",
  ISSN =         "2165-8528 (print), 2165-8536 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "2165-8536",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7993751/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; bitcoin; bitcoin blockchain decentralized
                 system; blockchain; BlockNDN; broadcast overhead;
                 cryptography; Data structures; electronic money; IP
                 network; IP networks; named data networking; NDN; next
                 generation networks; peer-to-peer; Peer-to-peer
                 computing; Routing protocols; Synchronization; system
                 architecture; Systems architecture; untrusted
                 networks",
}

@InProceedings{Joy:2017:PTA,
  author =       "Joshua Joy and Greg Cusack and Mario Gerla",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Experiences with
                 the Design and Implementation of Smart Objects}",
  title =        "Poster: Time Analysis of the Feasibility of Vehicular
                 Blocktrees",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "25--26",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3127502.3127516",
  ISBN =         "1-4503-5141-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4503-5141-6",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 18 11:50:20 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       "SMARTOBJECTS '17",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/3127502.3127516",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  acmid =        "3127516",
  keywords =     "blockchain; mobile cloud; vanet privacy; vanet
                 security",
  location =     "Snowbird, Utah, USA",
  pagecount =    "2",
}

@Article{Judmayer:2017:BCI,
  author =       "Aljosha Judmayer and Nicholas Stifter and Katharina
                 Krombholz and Edgar Weippl and Elisa Bertino and Ravi
                 Sandhu",
  title =        "Blocks and Chains: Introduction to {Bitcoin},
                 Cryptocurrencies, and Their Consensus Mechanisms",
  journal =      "Synthesis Lectures on Information Security, Privacy,
                 and Trust",
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--123",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.2200/S00773ED1V01Y201704SPT020",
  ISBN =         "1-62705-713-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-62705-713-4",
  ISSN =         "1945-9742 (print), 1945-9750 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1945-9742",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 30 15:24:52 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=7987472",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Bitcoin; block; blockchain; chain; consensus ledger;
                 cryptographic currency; Nakamoto consensus;
                 Proof-of-Work",
}

@InProceedings{Judmayer:2017:MMC,
  author =       "Aljosha Judmayer and Alexei Zamyatin and Nicholas
                 Stifter and Artemios G. Voyiatzis and Edgar Weippl",
  title =        "Merged Mining: Curse or Cure?",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  pages =        "316--333",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_18",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_18",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Kaaniche:2017:MPP,
  author =       "Nesrine Kaaniche and Maryline Laurent and
                 Pierre-Olivier Rocher and Christophe Kiennert and
                 Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro",
  title =        " $$ \mathcal {PCS} $$, A Privacy-Preserving
                 Certification Scheme",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Alfaro:2017:DPM",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_14",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 08:10:08 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_14",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Kaaniche:2017:PPP,
  author =       "Nesrine Kaaniche and Maryline Laurent and
                 Pierre-Olivier Rocher and Christophe Kiennert and
                 Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro",
  editor =       "Joaquin Garcia-Alfaro and Guillermo Navarro-Arribas
                 and Hannes Hartenstein and Jordi
                 Herrera-Joancomart{\'i}",
  booktitle =    "{European Symposium on Research in Computer Security
                 International Workshop on Data Privacy Management
                 Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology: ESORICS
                 2017, DPM 2017, CBT 2017: Data Privacy Management,
                 Cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Technology}",
  title =        "{PCS}, A Privacy-Preserving Certification Scheme",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "239--256",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_14",
  ISBN =         "3-319-67816-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-319-67816-0",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.A25",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  series =       ser-LNCS,
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  book-DOI =     "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0",
  book-URL =     "http://www.springerlink.com/content/978-3-319-67816-0",
}

@InCollection{Kabashkin:2017:RMB,
  author =       "Igor Kabashkin",
  booktitle =    "{Network and System Security}",
  title =        "Risk Modelling of Blockchain Ecosystem",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "59--70",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-64701-2_5",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-64701-2_5",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Kaga:2017:SPS,
  author =       "Yosuke Kaga and Masakazu Fujio and Ken Naganuma and
                 Kenta Takahashi and Takao Murakami and Tetsushi Ohki
                 and Masakatsu Nishigaki",
  booktitle =    "{Information Security Practice and Experience}",
  title =        "A Secure and Practical Signature Scheme for Blockchain
                 Based on Biometrics",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "877--891",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72359-4_55",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/bitcoin.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-72359-4_55",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Kammuller:2017:PCA,
  author =       "Florian Kamm{\"u}ller",
  booktitle =    "Data Privacy Management, Cryptocurrencies and
                 Blockchain Technology",
  title =        "A Proof Calculus for Attack Trees in {Isabelle}",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "3--18",
  year =         "2017",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-67816-0_1",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 09:11:52 2018",
  bibsource =    "