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%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.16",
%%%     date            = "06 April 2024",
%%%     time            = "15:44:15 MST",
%%%     filename        = "fishes.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "https://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "36807 44789 266302 2468387",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography; BibTeX; Fishes",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE bibliography of the
%%%                        journal Fishes (CODEN none, ISSN 2410-3888),
%%%                        published by MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
%%%                        Publication began with volume 1, number 1, in
%%%                        2016.  There was only one issue that year,
%%%                        but subsequent annual volumes have 4 issues.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has a Web site at
%%%
%%%                            https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.16, the COMPLETE year coverage
%%%                        looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             2016 (   5)    2019 (  60)    2022 ( 143)
%%%                             2017 (  21)    2020 (  37)    2023 ( 393)
%%%                             2018 (  49)    2021 (  72)    2024 (  70)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        850
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  850
%%%
%%%                        Data for this bibliography have been largely
%%%                        derived from the publisher Web sites, with
%%%                        additions from the BibNet Project and TeX
%%%                        User Group bibliography archives.
%%%
%%%                        Numerous errors in the sources noted above
%%%                        have been corrected.   Spelling has been
%%%                        verified with the UNIX spell and GNU ispell
%%%                        programs using the exception dictionary
%%%                        stored in the companion file with extension
%%%                        .sok.
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen
%%%                        as name:year:abbrev, where name is the
%%%                        family name of the first author or editor,
%%%                        year is a 4-digit number, and abbrev is a
%%%                        3-letter condensation of important title
%%%                        words. Citation tags were automatically
%%%                        generated by software developed for the
%%%                        BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted in
%%%                        publication order within each journal,
%%%                        using bibsort -byvolume.
%%%
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%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
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%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:
@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|https://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:
@String{j-FISHES                = "Fishes"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:
@Article{Gaemers:2016:TDE,
  author =       "Pieter A. M. Gaemers",
  title =        "Taxonomy, Distribution and Evolution of Trisopterine
                 {Gadidae} by Means of Otoliths and Other
                 Characteristics",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "18--51",
  day =          "17",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes1010018",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:18 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  note =         "See correction \cite{Gaemers:2017:CPM}.",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/1/1/18",
  abstract =     "In a greater study of the recent fossil Gadidae, the
                 object of this paper is to better define the
                 trisopterine species and their relationships. The
                 taxonomy of the four recent species usually included in
                 the genus Trisopterus is further elaborated by means of
                 published and new data on their otoliths, by published
                 data on general external features and meristics of the
                 fishes, and their genetics. Fossil otoliths, from the
                 beginning of the Oligocene up to the present, reveal
                 much of their evolution and throw more light on their
                 relationships. Several succeeding and partly
                 overlapping lineages representing different genera are
                 recognized during this time interval. The genus
                 Neocolliolus Gaemers, 1976, for \bioname{Trisopterus
                 esmarkii} (Nilsson, 1855), is more firmly based. A new
                 genus, Allotrisopterus, is introduced for
                 \bioname{Trisopterus minutus} (Linnaeus, 1758). The
                 similarity with \bioname{Trisopterus capelanus}
                 (Lacep{\`e}de, 1800) is an example of convergent
                 evolution. The tribe Trisopterini Endo (2002) should
                 only contain Trisopterus, Allotrisopterus and
                 Neocolliolus as recent genera. Correct identification
                 of otoliths from fisheries research and from sea bottom
                 samples extends the knowledge of the present day
                 geographical distribution of T. capelanus and T. luscus
                 (Linnaeus, 1758). T. capelanus is also living along the
                 Atlantic coast of Portugal and at least up to and
                 including the R{\'\i}a de Arosa, Galicia, Spain. There
                 it can easily be mistaken for A. minutus that is also
                 living there. Otoliths of T. luscus have been
                 identified from the Evvo{\"\i}k{\'o}s Channel between
                 Euboia and the mainland of Greece, thus it must live
                 also in the Aegean Sea. Otoliths prove to be a powerful
                 tool in taxonomy, biogeography and evolution of
                 teleosts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Murzina:2016:LFA,
  author =       "Svetlana A. Murzina and Zinaida A. Nefedova and
                 Svetlana N. Pekkoeva and Tatiana R. Ruokolainen and
                 Pauli O. Ripatti and Andrey V. Semushin and Nina N.
                 Nemova",
  title =        "Lipids and Fatty Acids of the {White Sea} Herring
                 \bioname{Clupea pallasi marisalbi} {Berg}
                 ({Clupeiformes, Clupeidae}) from Different Habitats of
                 the {White Sea}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "65--76",
  day =          "13",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes1010065",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:18 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/1/1/65",
  abstract =     "Habitation conditions significantly affect the
                 physiological and biochemical state of aquatic
                 organisms, including the balance of lipids that
                 performs important functions in cellular metabolism.
                 The lipid and fatty acid profiles of White Sea herring
                 in Dvina, Kandalaksha, and Onega bays, and in the
                 waters of Tersky Shore (the mouth of the Varzuga River)
                 in autumn (after the fattening period) were studied.
                 Different methods --- thin-layer, high-performance
                 liquid and gas chromatography --- were used for this
                 purpose. Determined heterogeneity on studied parameters
                 of lipid metabolism of fish from different habitats is
                 associated with differences in trophic and hydrological
                 conditions in these bays. Variations of lipid
                 compositions of herring groups can be a reflection of
                 qualitative and quantitative strategies of biochemical
                 adaptations, aimed at compensating the lipid metabolism
                 of fish under different trophic--ecological conditions
                 of habitation in the White Sea.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Booth:2016:FAP,
  author =       "Mark A. Booth and D. Stewart Fielder",
  title =        "Fortification of an Aquafeed with Potassium Chloride
                 Does Not Improve Survival of Juvenile {Australian}
                 Snapper \bioname{Pagrus auratus} Reared in Potassium
                 Deficient Saline Groundwater",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52--64",
  day =          "09",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes1010052",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:18 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/1/1/52",
  abstract =     "This study was done to determine if fortification of a
                 commercial aquafeed with KCl could improve the survival
                 of juvenile Australian snapper \bioname{Pagrus auratus}
                 reared in K + deficient saline groundwater (KDSGW;
                 {$<$5} mg K + L \minus 1). Experiment 1 (Exp. 1) tested
                 whether feeding an aquafeed fortified with zero, 25, or
                 50 g KCl kg \minus 1 for 6 days affected feed intake
                 and survival of fish transferred immediately from
                 estuarine water to KDSGW of the equivalent salinity (20
                 g\cdotp L \minus 1). Experiment 2 (Exp. 2) investigated
                 whether an aquafeed fortified with zero, 10, or 25 g
                 KCl kg \minus 1 affected survival, feed intake, and
                 growth rate (SGR) of snapper reared in KDSGW fortified
                 to have 40\% or 100\% the [K + ] of equivalent salinity
                 estuarine water (20 g\cdotp L \minus 1). The results of
                 Exp. 1 demonstrated there was no benefit of fortifying
                 aquafeed with KCl; fish transferred into KDSGW stopped
                 feeding and developed symptoms akin to tetany. Some
                 individuals also died and others became moribund. Exp.
                 1 was terminated according to animal care and ethics
                 guidelines. The results of Exp. 2 indicated the amount
                 of KCl added to the aquafeed did not affect survival,
                 feed intake, or food conversion ratio (FCR) of snapper,
                 irrespective of water treatment. However, SGR and FCR
                 was better when fish were reared in normal estuarine
                 water and KDSGW fortified to have 100\% the [K + ] of
                 equivalent salinity estuarine water. Our results
                 demonstrated that juvenile snapper were unable to
                 utilize the KCl added to the aquafeed and were probably
                 reliant on sequestering K + ions from the water column
                 in order to maintain functions involving hydromineral
                 homeostasis. Fortification of aquafeeds with KCl does
                 not ameliorate the negative effects of KDSWG on the
                 survival of juvenile snapper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Esteban:2016:WNJ,
  author =       "Maria Angeles Esteban",
  title =        "Welcome to the New Journal \bioname{Fishes}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "16--17",
  day =          "31",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes1010016",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:18 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/1/1/16",
  abstract =     "This study was done to determine if fortification of a
                 commercial aquafeed with KCl could improve the survival
                 of juvenile Australian snapper \bioname{Pagrus auratus}
                 reared in K + deficient saline groundwater (KDSGW;
                 {$<$5} mg K + L \minus 1). Experiment 1 (Exp. 1) tested
                 whether feeding an aquafeed fortified with zero, 25, or
                 50 g KCl kg \minus 1 for 6 days affected feed intake
                 and survival of fish transferred immediately from
                 estuarine water to KDSGW of the equivalent salinity (20
                 g\cdotp L \minus 1). Experiment 2 (Exp. 2) investigated
                 whether an aquafeed fortified with zero, 10, or 25 g
                 KCl kg \minus 1 affected survival, feed intake, and
                 growth rate (SGR) of snapper reared in KDSGW fortified
                 to have 40\% or 100\% the [K + ] of equivalent salinity
                 estuarine water (20 g\cdotp L \minus 1). The results of
                 Exp. 1 demonstrated there was no benefit of fortifying
                 aquafeed with KCl; fish transferred into KDSGW stopped
                 feeding and developed symptoms akin to tetany. Some
                 individuals also died and others became moribund. Exp.
                 1 was terminated according to animal care and ethics
                 guidelines. The results of Exp. 2 indicated the amount
                 of KCl added to the aquafeed did not affect survival,
                 feed intake, or food conversion ratio (FCR) of snapper,
                 irrespective of water treatment. However, SGR and FCR
                 was better when fish were reared in normal estuarine
                 water and KDSGW fortified to have 100\% the [K + ] of
                 equivalent salinity estuarine water. Our results
                 demonstrated that juvenile snapper were unable to
                 utilize the KCl added to the aquafeed and were probably
                 reliant on sequestering K + ions from the water column
                 in order to maintain functions involving hydromineral
                 homeostasis. Fortification of aquafeeds with KCl does
                 not ameliorate the negative effects of KDSWG on the
                 survival of juvenile snapper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Morphis:2016:AVA,
  author =       "Gregory Morphis and Aggeliki Kyriazopoulou and
                 Constantina Nasopoulou and Eleni Sioriki and
                 Constantinos A. Demopoulos and Ioannis Zabetakis",
  title =        "Assessment of the in Vitro Antithrombotic Properties
                 of Sardine (\bioname{Sardina pilchardus}) Fillet Lipids
                 and Cod Liver Oil",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--15",
  day =          "28",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes1010001",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:18 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/1/1/1",
  abstract =     "The aim of the current study was to compare the
                 biological activities of total polar lipids (TPL) and
                 thin-layer chromatography (TLC) polar lipid fractions
                 of sardine fillet and cod liver oil against
                 atherogenesis. TPL and TLC polar lipid fractions
                 obtained from these two sources were assessed for their
                 ability to inhibit the platelet-activating-factor
                 (PAF)-induced platelet aggregation (PAF-antagonists) or
                 to induce platelet aggregation (PAF-agonists), since
                 PAF plays a crucial role in the initiation and
                 development of atherosclerosis. This study focused on
                 the polar lipids since previous studies have underlined
                 that the antithrombotic properties of foodstuffs are
                 mainly attributed to polar lipid micro-constituents.
                 TPL of sardine fillet induced platelet aggregation,
                 while TPL of cod liver had a bimodal effect on
                 platelets. TLC polar lipid fractions of both samples
                 exhibited in vitro aggregatory and inhibitory activity
                 towards platelets. However, TLC sardine polar lipid
                 fractions showed stronger in vitro antithrombotic
                 activities than the cod liver oil ones. These data
                 constitute evidence of the putative contribution of
                 fish polar lipids against cardiovascular diseases,
                 underling firstly the beneficial effect of fish and
                 fish lipids as functional foodstuffs against
                 atherogenesis and secondly the more important role of
                 sardine polar lipids as opposed to cod liver oil.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Martinez-Cardenas:2017:PCD,
  author =       "Leonardo Mart{\'\i}nez-C{\'a}rdenas and Carlos A.
                 {\'A}lvarez-Gonz{\'a}lez and Oscar U.
                 Hern{\'a}ndez-Almeida and Carlos A. Fr{\'\i}as-Quintana
                 and Jes{\'u}s T. Ponce-Palafox and Sergio
                 Castillo-Vargasmachuca",
  title =        "Partial Characterization of Digestive Proteases in the
                 Green Cichlid, \bioname{Cichlasoma beani}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4",
  day =          "08",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2010004",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:18 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/1/4",
  abstract =     "This study undertakes the characterization of
                 digestive proteases in the juvenile green cichlid,
                 Cichlasoma beani. The results obtained showed a higher
                 activity of alkaline proteases (0.14 \pm 0.01 U mg
                 protein \minus 1) compared to acid proteases (0.07 \pm
                 0.01 U mg protein \minus 1) in this species. The
                 optimum temperature of the alkaline proteases was 65
                 \degree C and these enzymes were more thermostable to
                 temperature changes than the acid proteases,
                 characterized by an optimal temperature of 55 \degree
                 C. The pH optimum was 2 for acid proteases, and 11 for
                 alkaline proteases, which were also more stable to
                 changes in pH between 8 and 10. The use of specific
                 inhibitors showed an acid protease inhibition of 88\%
                 with pepstatin A as inhibitor. In the zymogram SDS-PAGE
                 analysis of alkaline proteases, five active fractions
                 were revealed, indicating the presence of serine
                 proteases. These results confirm that both alkaline and
                 acid proteases are involved in the digestion of C.
                 beani, and suggest that this species is omnivorous with
                 carnivorous tendencies. The present study contributes
                 to our knowledge about the digestive physiology of C.
                 beani, and can be applied towards improved
                 understanding of the kinds of protein sources that
                 could be used in the development of inerts diets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Frias-Quintana:2017:UPS,
  author =       "Carlos A. Fr{\'\i}as-Quintana and Carlos A.
                 {\'A}lvarez-Gonz{\'a}lez and Dariel Tovar-Ram{\'\i}rez
                 and Rafael Mart{\'\i}nez-Garc{\'\i}a and Susana
                 Camarillo-Coop and Emyr Pe{\~n}a and Mario A. Galaviz",
  title =        "Use of Potato Starch in Diets of Tropical Gar
                 (\bioname{Atractosteus tropicus}, Gill 1863) Larvae",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3",
  day =          "07",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2010003",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:18 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/1/3",
  abstract =     "Tropical gar, \bioname{Atractosteus tropicus}, is a
                 carnivorous fish species from Southern M{\'e}xico with
                 high value and acceptance in local markets. Therefore,
                 the present study aims to spare proteins in diets for
                 larviculture of this species. An experiment was
                 performed using three different experimental diets with
                 increasing carbohydrate levels based on potato starch
                 (S) and decreasing protein content (P) and total
                 energy: 16\% S (16\% S--44\% P), 22\% S (22\% S--40\%
                 P) and 28\% S (28\% S--36\% P). Tropical gar larvae
                 (five days post-hatching, 2.1 mm average notochordal
                 length) were assessed for growth, survival, degree of
                 cannibalism, and digestive enzyme activities for 30
                 days. Highest growth and survival (24\%), as well as
                 the lowest cannibalism (33\%), was seen in larvae fed
                 the 28\% S diet, and these larvae also had the highest
                 lipase, amylase and glucosidase activities (0.28, 0.56
                 and 0.11 units, respectively). Protease activity
                 (alkaline protease, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and leucine
                 aminopeptidase) was higher in the larvae fed the 22\% S
                 diet than in those given the 16\% S and 28\% S diets.
                 In conclusion, dietary inclusion of potato starch at
                 28\% S enhanced growth, survival and some digestive
                 enzyme activities, and decreased cannibalism in the
                 larval gar. Potato starch could replace dietary protein
                 as a major source of energy for A. tropicus larvae,
                 thereby reducing the cost of diets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Setiawati:2017:USS,
  author =       "Martiwi Diah Setiawati and Tasuku Tanaka",
  title =        "Utilization of Scatterplot Smoothers to Understand the
                 Environmental Preference of Bigeye Tuna in the Southern
                 Waters off {Java--Bali}: Satellite Remote Sensing
                 Approach",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2",
  day =          "09",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2010002",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:18 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/1/2",
  abstract =     "The southern waters off Java-Bali were recognized as
                 spawning and potential fishing ground for tuna species.
                 However, few studies have been conducted on this area.
                 In this paper, the environmental preference of bigeye
                 tuna was assessed based on catch data and three main
                 environmental satellite data; namely; sea surface
                 temperature (SST), sea surface chlorophyll (SSC), and
                 sea surface height deviation (SSHD). Then, the
                 relationship between bigeye tuna catches and
                 environmental satellite data was analyzed by using a
                 simplified method of the Generalized Additive Model
                 (GAM) which is called scatterplot smoothers. This
                 method is the forerunner of GAM and has not yet been
                 applied for fisheries analysis. The aim of this study
                 was to evaluate its performance for/in analyzing bigeye
                 tuna habitat preference. The result indicated that SST,
                 SSC, and SSHD had a high correlation with the bigeye
                 tuna's spatial patterns. Furthermore, spatial patterns
                 of bigeye tuna preference display typical
                 characteristics of low SST, low SSC, and low positive
                 SSHD as well as areas with extreme SSHD values, which
                 are almost the same results as those identified with
                 GAM analysis in the same study area.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Enyidi:2017:EFP,
  author =       "Uchechukwu D. Enyidi and Juhani Pirhonen and Juhani
                 Kettunen and Jouni Vielma",
  title =        "Effect of Feed Protein:Lipid Ratio on Growth
                 Parameters of {African} Catfish \bioname{Clarias
                 gariepinus} after Fish Meal Substitution in the Diet
                 with Bambaranut (\bioname{Voandzeia subterranea}) Meal
                 and Soybean (\bioname{Glycine max}) Meal",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1",
  day =          "30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2010001",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:18 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/1/1",
  abstract =     "Fishmeal (FM) was substituted with soybean meal
                 (Glycine max) (SBM) and bambaranut meal (Voandzeia
                 subterranea) (BNM) in 10 experimental African catfish,
                 \bioname{Clarias gariepinus}, diets. Feed formulation
                 was designed using mixture model. The inclusion level
                 of the three protein ingredients varied between 0\% and
                 60\%. Remaining 40\% comprised of basal ingredients
                 kept constant for all 10 feeds. African catfish of
                 average initial weight 35.2 \pm 0.9 g were fed with one
                 of the treatment diets for 28 days. The protein:lipid
                 ratios of the diets (range 1.5--3.4:1) were used in
                 evaluating the feed utilization and growth of the fish.
                 We found that catfish performances were mainly
                 depending on ingredients and not the ratio itself. The
                 protein:lipid ratios in the diets made of plant
                 ingredients were high but SGR was low. Specific growth
                 rate (SGR) increased with the increase of feed FM
                 content, being ca. 5\% day\minus 1 with 60\% FM diet
                 but ca. 2\% day\minus 1 at both 60\% BNM and 60\% SBM
                 diets. SGR was similar (3.5\% day\minus 1) with diets
                 of 30\% BNM or SBM inclusion with 30\% FM. Feed
                 conversion ratio increased from below 0.6 of the 60\%
                 FM diet up to 1.5 (60\% SBM) and 1.7 (60\% BNM).
                 Protein efficiency ratio decreased linearly with
                 increasing FM substitution, but protein productive
                 value (PPV) was similar for catfish fed 60\% FM diet
                 and its 50\% substitution with BNM or SBM. These
                 results suggest that protein:lipid ratio cannot be used
                 in assessing nutritional performance if the source of
                 feed ingredient vary widely. However, these results
                 suggest that BNM can partly substitute FM and
                 completely replace SBM in the diets of African
                 catfish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Palm:2017:TAI,
  author =       "Harry W. Palm and Irfan Yulianto and Uwe Piatkowski",
  title =        "Trypanorhynch Assemblages Indicate Ecological and
                 Phylogenetical Attributes of Their Elasmobranch Final
                 Hosts",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8",
  day =          "17",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2020008",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/2/8",
  abstract =     "This study explores non-metric multidimensional
                 scaling (nMDS) as a tool for investigating parasites as
                 indicators of the elasmobranch biology. An attractive
                 feature of nMDS is its ability to allow
                 assemblage-level parasite data to be simultaneously
                 applied to questions of host biology. This method was
                 examined using the tapeworm order Trypanorhyncha
                 Diesing, 1863, which is known to be transmitted among
                 their hosts through the marine food web (via
                 predation), can unambiguously be identified in the
                 intermediate and final hosts, and has the potential as
                 an indicator of the host feeding biology. Our analyses
                 focused on trypanorhynch assemblages in elasmobranchs
                 as definitive hosts. The relationships between
                 trypanorhynch assemblages and the depth, feeding
                 ecology, habitat, and phylogeny for all sharks were
                 complex, but we found that depth distribution, diet
                 composition and habitat type were the major influencing
                 factors. Several species of sharks showed different
                 characters than known from their descriptions that
                 could be attributed to the change of shark behavior or
                 the trypanorhynch host path. The relationship between
                 the trypanorhynch assemblage and factors for
                 carcharhiniform species alone was more robust than for
                 all sharks. In the carcharhiniform analysis, the
                 relationship between habitat type and trypanorhynch
                 assemblage was most remarkable. Overlapping host
                 ecology was evident even in phylogenetically-distant
                 related hosts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sakihara:2017:MDD,
  author =       "Troy S. Sakihara and Atsuko Fukunaga and Kimberly A.
                 Peyton",
  title =        "Mugilids Display Distinct Trait-Mediated Patterns with
                 a Reinvasion of {Para} Grass \bioname{Urochloa mutica}
                 in a Tropical Estuary",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7",
  day =          "23",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2020007",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/2/7",
  abstract =     "Aggressive invasions by species such as para grass
                 Urochloa mutica (Forssk.) are pervasive throughout the
                 tropics, but the impacts on estuarine habitats and
                 biota are poorly understood. After weed control was
                 reduced in a tropical estuary, U. mutica reinvaded this
                 area composed of two contiguous habitats: a shallow
                 pond and a deeper river. These habitats are especially
                 important for \bioname{Mugil cephalus}, a culturally
                 prized native mullet, and introduced Moolgarda engeli
                 not targeted in the fishery. We investigated the
                 potential impacts of U. mutica on juvenile and adult
                 mullets by comparing the catch per unit effort (CPUE)
                 of the two mullet species and the physiochemical
                 measurements from the two contiguous habitats during
                 different stages of its reinvasion. Overall, negative
                 effects on the CPUE of M. cephalus and M. engeli were
                 found as a result of the U. mutica reinvasion. The M.
                 cephalus CPUE was consistently higher in the shallow
                 pond habitat compared to the deeper river habitat. It
                 decreased after U. mutica was established, correlative
                 to the invasive grass canopies smothering the shallow
                 habitat favored by juveniles. The M. engeli CPUE
                 significantly declined during the initial periods of U.
                 mutica reinvasion, but did not decline further after
                 the grass became established. No differences in the M.
                 engeli CPUE between habitats were found, indicating
                 that M. engeli are habitat generalists. These findings
                 are among the first in an insular tropical estuary
                 demonstrating a negative relationship between an
                 invasive grass and relative abundances of two
                 confamiliar fish, while revealing distinct patterns
                 attributed to species-specific traits. Importantly, the
                 broad overlapping biogeographic distribution of M.
                 cephalus and U. mutica, and the negative relationship
                 between these species, raises widespread concern for
                 this mullet as a globally important fisheries
                 species.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Greenwood:2017:DSH,
  author =       "M. F. D. Greenwood",
  title =        "Distribution, Spread, and Habitat Predictability of a
                 Small, Invasive, Piscivorous Fish in an Important
                 Estuarine Fish Nursery",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6",
  day =          "13",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2020006",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/2/6",
  abstract =     "Invasive species often cause negative ecological and
                 economic effects. Florida has {$>$20} established
                 invasive fish species but only seven exist in
                 saltwater. The present study examined
                 \bioname{Belonesox belizanus} (Pike Killifish), a
                 Central American euryhaline fish introduced to Tampa
                 Bay (west-central Florida) in the early 1990s, which
                 has quantifiably reduced populations of small-bodied
                 native fishes and may compete with prized sportfish
                 juveniles in estuarine nursery habitat. Long-term
                 monitoring revealed that B. belizanus occurs in
                 estuarine waterbodies along a 31-km stretch of the
                 bay's eastern fringe, with a second, smaller population
                 in two western tributaries. Spread rate was estimated
                 to be 5.5--13 km year \minus 1, intermediate among
                 invasive poeciliids. A novel implementation of boosted
                 regression tree modeling to assess B. belizanus habitat
                 predictability found greater probability of presence
                 with decreasing water depth and pH, whereas presence
                 tended to be greatest at polyhaline salinity. It is
                 hypothesized that B. belizanus distribution in Tampa
                 Bay is constrained by deep, seawall habitats acting as
                 ecological barriers. Further B. belizanus spread
                 therefore may be most likely to occur by human release
                 (from aquaria or bait buckets) or bird carry-off. Newly
                 restored tidal habitat within the current range
                 probably will be invaded quite quickly by B.
                 belizanus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Mozanzadeh:2017:MRS,
  author =       "Mansour Torfi Mozanzadeh and Jasem G. Marammazi and
                 Morteza Yaghoubi and Naser Agh and Esmaeil Pagheh and
                 Enric Gisbert",
  title =        "Macronutrient Requirements of Silvery-Black Porgy
                 (\bioname{Sparidentex hasta}): a Comparison with Other
                 Farmed Sparid Species",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5",
  day =          "13",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2020005",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/2/5",
  abstract =     "Silvery-black porgy (\bioname{Sparidentex hasta}) is
                 recognized as one of the most promising fish species
                 for aquaculture diversification in the Persian Gulf and
                 the Oman Sea regions. In this regard, S. hasta has
                 received considerable attention, and nutritional
                 studies focused on establishing the nutritional
                 requirements for improving diet formulation have been
                 conducted during recent years. Considering the results
                 from different dose--response nutritional studies on
                 macronutrient requirements conducted in this species,
                 it can be concluded that diets containing ca. 48\%
                 crude protein, 15\% crude lipid, 15\% carbohydrates and
                 20 KJ g \minus 1 gross energy are recommended for
                 on-growing S. hasta juveniles. In addition, the optimum
                 essential amino acid profile for this species
                 (expressed as g 16 g N \minus 1), should be
                 approximately arginine 5.3, lysine 6.0, threonine 5.2,
                 histidine 2.5, isoleucine 4.6, leucine 5.4, methionine
                 + cysteine 4.0 (in a diet containing 0.6 cysteine),
                 phenylalanine + tyrosine 5.6 (in a diet containing 1.9
                 tyrosine), tryptophan 1.0 and valine 4.6. Moreover, the
                 optimum dietary n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty
                 acids and soybean lecithin are recommended to be 0.8\%
                 and 6\%, respectively. The maximum replacement of fish
                 meal with soy protein is recommended to be between
                 16.5\% and 27.3\%. In addition, different vegetal oil
                 sources are also recommended for partial and almost
                 complete replacement of fish oil in diets. Although the
                 nutritional requirements in terms of macronutrients
                 have been established under laboratory conditions, the
                 analysis of the available literature indicate that
                 future studies need to be conducted using a more
                 holistic approach under intensive farming conditions in
                 which different nutrients or additives need to be
                 tested under different rearing conditions for refining
                 nutrient requirements in this species.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Romano:2017:WOC,
  author =       "Nicla Romano and Giuseppe Scapigliati and Luigi
                 Abelli",
  title =        "Water Oxygen Content Affects Distribution of {T} and
                 {B} Lymphocytes in Lymphoid Tissues of Farmed Sea Bass
                 (\bioname{Dicentrarchus labrax})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16",
  day =          "14",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2030016",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/3/16",
  abstract =     "Intensive aquaculture systems have stimulated proper
                 management in order to limit stressful stocking
                 conditions and environmental impact. This should
                 improve fish wellness and counteract adverse water
                 characteristics such as high concentrations of carbon.
                 The oxygen can be considered a key factor since
                 critical conditions leading to chronic rise of blood
                 catecholamines can depress the number and
                 Oxygen-carrying capacity of erythrocytes. In this
                 research, we evaluated the effects of variation in
                 water oxygen (from 6 \pm 1 to 13 \pm 1 mg/L) on
                 lymphocytes density in sea bass by using flow cytometry
                 and immunohistochemistry. Gut, gill, and thymus T-cells
                 were significantly enhanced in percentage in
                 hyperoxygenated fish compared with normo-oxygenated
                 group, while Peripheral Blood Leukocytes (PBL), head
                 kidney, and spleen T-cells were not significantly
                 different. Contrarily, in PBL, head kidney and spleen
                 hyper-oxygenation treatment provoked an enhancement of
                 B lymphocyte percentages. The distribution of positive
                 T-cells in hyper-oxygenated fish varied in the organs
                 and followed the relative increments/decrements
                 observed in flow cytometry. This study remarks the
                 sensitivity of sea bass adaptive immunocytes to oxygen
                 concentration, evidenced by the modification of
                 parameters. Sea bass culture under high-flow water
                 recycling and at around 12--13 mg/L oxygen
                 concentrations is therefore suggested to enhance the
                 immune response capacity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Gaemers:2017:RDT,
  author =       "Pieter A. M. Gaemers and Jan Y. Poulsen",
  title =        "Recognition and Distribution of Two {North Atlantic}
                 \bioname{Gadiculus} Species, \bioname{G. argenteus} and
                 \bioname{G. thori} ({Gadidae}), Based on Otolith
                 Morphology, Larval Pigmentation, Molecular Evidence,
                 Morphometrics and Meristics",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15",
  day =          "29",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2030015",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/3/15",
  abstract =     "The silvery pout genus Gadiculus consists of small
                 aberrant codfishes with several extinct and currently
                 only one recognized extant species. The oldest
                 representatives of a Gadiculus lineage known from
                 otoliths are Early Miocene in age. Fossil evidence has
                 showed Gadiculus to originate from older genera
                 diverging early from other true cods of the family
                 Gadidae. As adult specimens of different species have
                 been found to be highly similar and difficult to
                 distinguish based on meristic and morphometric data,
                 the number of species in this gadid genus has been
                 controversial since different larval morphotypes were
                 first discovered some 100 years ago. For almost 70
                 years, Gadiculus thori and Gadiculus argenteus have
                 been considered subspecies only, with a distribution in
                 the Northeast Atlantic Ocean including the
                 Mediterranean. In this study, we resolve the
                 long-standing issue of extant Gadiculus not being
                 monotypic. New results in the form of distinct adult
                 otoliths and molecular data unambiguously show two
                 species of Gadiculus present --- in agreement with
                 larval morphotypes. Morphometric, meristic and
                 molecular characters, as well as larval pigmentation
                 are discussed in addition to present and past
                 geographic distributions of the two taxa from
                 distributions of fossil otoliths. At present, the
                 cold-water species Gadiculus thori (northern silvery
                 pout) is distributed in cold-temperate and subarctic
                 latitudes in the Northeast Atlantic, including a new
                 range extension off Southeast Greenland. Gadiculus
                 argenteus (southern silvery pout) occurs in warmer
                 waters and is distributed in the warm-temperate East
                 Atlantic and Mediterranean. Fossil otoliths show that
                 both species often co-existed in the Mediterranean from
                 the Late Pliocene to the Middle Pleistocene.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Kawase:2017:DES,
  author =       "Hiroshi Kawase and Ryo Mizuuchi and Hirofumi Shin and
                 Yuki Kitajima and Koh Hosoda and Masahiro Shimizu and
                 Daisuke Iwai and Shigeru Kondo",
  title =        "Discovery of an Earliest-Stage ``{Mystery Circle}''
                 and Development of the Structure Constructed by
                 Pufferfish, \bioname{Torquigener albomaculosus}
                 ({Pisces: Tetraodontidae})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14",
  day =          "23",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2030014",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/3/14",
  abstract =     "Male pufferfish (Torquigener albomaculosus) construct
                 ``mystery circles'', geometric circular structures with
                 radially aligned peaks and valleys, on sandy seabeds
                 for reproduction. We discovered an earliest-stage
                 mystery circle composed of dozens of irregular
                 depressions. The structure changed to a primitive
                 circular form with radially aligned valleys and a
                 circular depression in the central area on day 2. The
                 number of valleys increased, and the radius of the
                 structure was much smaller than that of the final
                 structure. These features were observed from days 2 to
                 4, considered the early stage of construction. The
                 mystery circle had radially aligned peaks and valleys
                 with a central flat area, while the radius and the
                 differences in elevation between the peaks and valleys
                 were increasing. These features, which were observed
                 from days 5 to 8, were considered the middle stage of
                 construction. On day 9, the mystery circle was
                 completed. An irregular pattern was formed in the
                 central area, and the radially aligned peaks were
                 decorated with shell and coral fragments. These are the
                 first recorded observations of construction of a
                 mystery circle from the earliest stage.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Doring:2017:EFB,
  author =       "Julian D{\"o}ring and Maik Tiedemann and Moritz
                 St{\"a}bler and Hans Sloterdijk and Werner Ekau",
  title =        "\bioname{Ethmalosa fimbriata} ({Bowdich} 1825), a
                 Clupeid Fish That Exhibits Elevated Batch Fecundity in
                 Hypersaline Waters",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13",
  day =          "18",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2030013",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/3/13",
  abstract =     "Little is known about the concerted influence of
                 temperature and salinity on the fecundity of clupeid
                 fishes. Due to a globally changing climate, both
                 physical parameters might act as stressors, severely
                 affecting the reproductive potential of clupeid fish
                 populations inhabiting tropical estuaries. Differences
                 in relative batch fecundities, the gonado-somatic
                 index, and the condition index of bonga shad
                 (\bioname{Ethmalosa fimbriata}) were analysed in
                 individual females sampled at the Senegalese coast and
                 inside the inverse Sine Saloum estuary, where salinity
                 increases upstream in all seasons. Multiple linear
                 regression models on fecundity and gonadal energy
                 storage show that clupeids can adapt towards increasing
                 their reproductive investment at temperatures (26--30
                 \degree C) and salinities (42--51), which by far exceed
                 marine conditions, in an effort to maximize recruitment
                 success. This reproductive strategy, however, is
                 accompanied by a trade-off between reproductive effort
                 and somatic growth, which ultimately limits the
                 species' reproductive potential inside the estuary. The
                 observed high variability in batch fecundities might be
                 a viable mechanism to adjust to fluctuating and rather
                 extreme environmental conditions. Understanding the
                 spawning biology of exploited clupeid fishes in
                 drastically changing environments is crucial for
                 evaluating the reproductive potential of stocks at the
                 outer reach of their physiological performance curve.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Dedman:2017:ASM,
  author =       "Simon Dedman and Rick Officer and Deirdre Brophy and
                 Maurice Clarke and David G. Reid",
  title =        "Advanced Spatial Modeling to Inform Management of
                 Data-Poor Juvenile and Adult Female Rays",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12",
  day =          "04",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2030012",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/3/12",
  abstract =     "Chronic overfishing has depleted numerous elasmobranch
                 stocks in the North East Atlantic, but addressing this
                 issue has been hampered by management complications and
                 lacking data. Spatial management approaches have thus
                 been advocated. This work presents a novel application
                 and further development of an advanced spatial modeling
                 technique to identify candidate nursery grounds and
                 spawning areas for conservation, by subsetting already
                 limited data. Boosted Regression Tree models are used
                 to predict abundance of juvenile and mature female
                 cuckoo (\bioname{Leucoraja naevus}), thornback
                 (\bioname{Raja clavata}), blonde (R aja brachyura), and
                 spotted (R aja montagui) rays in the Irish Sea using
                 fish survey data and data describing fishing pressure,
                 predation and environmental variables. Model-predicted
                 spatial abundance maps of these subsets reveal distinct
                 nuances in species distributions with greater
                 predictive power than maps of the whole stock. These
                 resulting maps are then integrated into a single easily
                 understood map using a novel approach, standardizing
                 and facilitating the spatial management of data-limited
                 fish stocks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Gaemers:2017:CPM,
  author =       "Pieter A. M. Gaemers",
  title =        "Correction: {Pieter A. M. Gaemers. Taxonomy,
                 Distribution and Evolution of Trisopterine Gadidae by
                 Means of Otoliths and Other Characteristics.
                 \booktitle{Fishes} 2016, {\bf 1}, 18--51}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11",
  day =          "17",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2030011",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Gaemers:2016:TDE}.",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/3/11",
  abstract =     "Chronic overfishing has depleted numerous elasmobranch
                 stocks in the North East Atlantic, but addressing this
                 issue has been hampered by management complications and
                 lacking data. Spatial management approaches have thus
                 been advocated. This work presents a novel application
                 and further development of an advanced spatial modeling
                 technique to identify candidate nursery grounds and
                 spawning areas for conservation, by subsetting already
                 limited data. Boosted Regression Tree models are used
                 to predict abundance of juvenile and mature female
                 cuckoo (\bioname{Leucoraja naevus}), thornback
                 (\bioname{Raja clavata}), blonde (R aja brachyura), and
                 spotted (R aja montagui) rays in the Irish Sea using
                 fish survey data and data describing fishing pressure,
                 predation and environmental variables. Model-predicted
                 spatial abundance maps of these subsets reveal distinct
                 nuances in species distributions with greater
                 predictive power than maps of the whole stock. These
                 resulting maps are then integrated into a single easily
                 understood map using a novel approach, standardizing
                 and facilitating the spatial management of data-limited
                 fish stocks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Liao:2017:MRS,
  author =       "Qiuhong Liao and Tetsuhito Suzuki and Kohno Yasushi
                 and Dimas Firmanda Al Riza and Makoto Kuramoto and
                 Naoshi Kondo",
  title =        "Monitoring {Red Sea} Bream Scale Fluorescence as a
                 Freshness Indicator",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10",
  day =          "10",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2030010",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/3/10",
  abstract =     "Red sea bream (\bioname{Pagrus major}) scale
                 fluorescence characteristics were identified as a
                 potential rapid and non-destructive means for assessing
                 the fish's freshness. To investigate this, live red sea
                 breams were purchased, slaughtered, and prior to
                 measurement, stored at 22 \pm 2 \degree C for 27 h.
                 During subsequent storage, the K value of the dorsal
                 meat --- as a standard freshness indicator --- along
                 with front-face fluorescence spectra of representative
                 dorsal scales, were measured simultaneously at 3 h
                 intervals. Two major fluorescent peaks, A and B, were
                 identified with excitation and emission wavelength
                 pairs of 280/310 nm and 340/420 nm, which were mainly
                 contributed to by tyrosine and collagen, respectively.
                 Subsequent analysis showed that the fluorescence
                 intensity ratio of peak B to A (I B / I A) increased
                 linearly during storage (R 2 = 0.95) and is proposed as
                 a potential non-destructive index of fish freshness.
                 Thus, our results suggest that the fluorescence
                 characteristics of fish scales can be used to assess
                 fish carcass freshness during storage.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Oliveira:2017:PRD,
  author =       "Catarina C. V. Oliveira and Mayra I. Grano-Maldonado
                 and Rui A. Gon{\c{c}}alves and Paulo A. Frias and
                 Ant{\'o}nio V. Sykes",
  title =        "Preliminary Results on the Daily and Seasonal Rhythms
                 of Cuttlefish \bioname{Sepia officinalis} ({Linnaeus},
                 1758) Locomotor Activity in Captivity",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9",
  day =          "28",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2030009",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:19 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/3/9",
  abstract =     "This research was aimed at characterizing the daily
                 rhythms of locomotor activity of cuttlefish Sepia
                 officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), a promising aquaculture
                 species, in a captive environment. Cuttlefish were
                 distributed within two tanks equipped with infrared
                 photocells, allowing the monitoring of locomotor
                 activity continuously from August to February. Results
                 showed a preference of cuttlefish for being active
                 during the night in summer (24.2 \pm 1.3 \degree C) and
                 in autumn (18.4 \pm 3.4 \degree C), with maximum
                 activity peaks observed, respectively, at 01:09 h and
                 21:47 h, in close relation with sunset time. In winter
                 (12.7 \pm 1.4 \degree C), this preference changed, with
                 higher levels of activity observed during the afternoon
                 in December (15:20 h) and in January (18:13 h), thus
                 suggesting this species as possessing a dualistic
                 behaviour. Levels of activity progressively decreased
                 during autumn and winter, likely related to low
                 temperatures. The present study offers new insights on
                 the behaviour of \bioname{Sepia officinalis},
                 presenting a variability of patterns across seasons,
                 regulated by environmental synchronizers; photoperiod
                 determining the activity periods, and temperature
                 modulating the levels of activity. Such information may
                 be a valuable tool for the improvement of cuttlefish
                 culture protocols in aquaculture, and consequently its
                 welfare.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Garrido:2017:PRL,
  author =       "Diego Garrido and Diana B. Reis and Diego Orol and Rui
                 A. Gon{\c{c}}alves and M. Virginia Mart{\'\i}n and
                 Ant{\'o}nio V. Sykes and Covadonga Rodr{\'\i}guez and
                 Beatriz C. Felipe and Xiaodong Zheng and Luis Lagos and
                 Eduardo Almansa",
  title =        "Preliminary Results on Light Conditions Manipulation
                 in \bioname{Octopus vulgaris} ({Cuvier}, 1797)
                 Paralarval Rearing",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21",
  day =          "24",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2040021",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/4/21",
  abstract =     "High paralarvae mortality is a major bottleneck
                 currently hindering the control over the lifecycle of
                 common octopus (\bioname{Octopus vulgaris} Cuvier,
                 1797). It is believed that this problem might be
                 related to either zoo-technical and/or nutritional
                 aspects. The present paper is focused on the study of
                 different zoo-technical aspects related to light
                 conditions on the rearing of paralarvae, including the
                 effects of polarization in prey ingestion, the use of a
                 blue filter to simulate natural conditions, and the use
                 of focused light to avoid reflections of the rearing
                 tank's walls. In the first experiment, O. vulgaris
                 paralarvae ingestion of Artemia sp. and copepods (Tisbe
                 sp.) was assessed under either normal or polarized
                 light. In the second experiment, the effect of a blue
                 filter with natural light or focused artificial light
                 on growth and mortality was assessed over 15 days of
                 rearing. Ingestion rate was not influenced by light
                 polarization. Nonetheless, a significantly higher
                 ingestion of Artemia sp. with respect to copepods was
                 observed. The blue filter promoted the use of natural
                 light conditions in Octopus paralarval culture, while
                 focused light reduced the collision of the paralarvae
                 against the walls. However, no significant differences
                 were found in paralarval growth nor survival.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Caccia:2017:APE,
  author =       "Elisabetta Caccia and Maria Agnello and Marcello Ceci
                 and Patricia Strickler Dinglasan and Gerardo R. Vasta
                 and Nicla Romano",
  title =        "Antimicrobial Peptides Are Expressed during Early
                 Development of Zebrafish (\bioname{Danio rerio}) and
                 Are Inducible by Immune Challenge",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20",
  day =          "08",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2040020",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/4/20",
  abstract =     "Antimicrobial peptides (AMPS) are ancestral components
                 in the evolution of immunity from protozoans to
                 metazoans. Their expression can be constitutive or
                 inducible by infectious challenge. Although
                 characterized in detail in their structure and
                 activity, the temporal and spatial expression of AMPS
                 during vertebrate embryogenesis is still poorly
                 understood. In the present study, we identified
                 selected AMPs in zebrafish, and characterized their
                 expression during early development, and upon
                 experimental immune challenge in adult animals, with
                 the goal of establishing this genetically-tractable
                 model system for further AMP studies. By mining
                 available genomic databases, zebrafish AMP sequences
                 homologous to AMPs from other vertebrates were selected
                 for further study. These included parasin I and its
                 enzyme cathepsin D, \beta -defensin (DB1),
                 liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2),
                 bactericidal permeability-increasing protein (BPI), and
                 chromogranin-A and -B (CgA and CgB). Specific primers
                 were designed for RT-PCR amplification of each AMP gene
                 of interest and amplicons between 242 bp and 504 bp
                 were obtained from RNA extracted from adult zebrafish.
                 Sequencing of the amplicons and alignment of their
                 deduced amino acid sequences with those from AMPs from
                 other vertebrate species confirmed their identity. The
                 temporal expression of AMPs was investigated by RT-PCR
                 analysis in fertilized oocytes, embryos, and adult
                 individuals. Parasin I and chatepsin D transcripts were
                 detectable immediately after fertilization, while the
                 transcripts for CgA and CgB became evident starting at
                 48 h post fertilization. Mature transcripts of LEAP2
                 and DB1 were detectable only in the adult zebrafish,
                 while BPI transcripts were detectable starting from the
                 12th day post fertilization. To explore the possible
                 upregulation of AMP expression by infectious challenge,
                 experiments were carried out in adult zebrafish by
                 intraperitoneal injection of a cocktail of
                 lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Except for
                 CgA and CgB, amplicons corresponding to all tested AMPs
                 showed stronger signals in the experimental animals as
                 compared to the unchallenged controls. This study
                 provided information on the early expression of AMPs in
                 zebrafish from ontogeny to adulthood and their
                 inducibility by microbials. This information could be
                 useful to actuate new prophylactic strategies as an
                 alternative to the use of antibiotics in culture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lerner:2017:RSX,
  author =       "Justin Lerner and Juan C. Levesque and Liana
                 Talaue-McManus",
  title =        "Recreational Swordfish (\bioname{Xiphias gladius})
                 Fishery: Angler Practices in {South Florida (USA)}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18",
  day =          "27",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2040018",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/4/18",
  abstract =     "The management of highly migratory species (HMS) is a
                 complex domestic and international system that was
                 initially established to regulate HMS taken in
                 commercial fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean. For
                 managing HMS taken in recreational fisheries, the
                 authority and the data required is lacking and remains
                 to be stipulated by regulating bodies. In the {United
                 States}, Florida saltwater anglers target various HMS,
                 but swordfish (\bioname{Xiphias gladius}) is a favorite
                 among anglers. The recreational swordfish fishery off
                 the Southeast Florida coast has experienced resurgence
                 in recent years, with directed tournaments resuming in
                 2001 after being absent almost 20 years. Today, South
                 Florida supports the largest group of recreational
                 swordfish anglers in the world. Despite the increasing
                 popularity and interest, little data is available
                 describing the recreational swordfish fishery and its
                 socio-economic aspects in South Florida. This study
                 aimed to compile, describe, and identify the
                 demographics, fishing tactics, costs, and fishery
                 management perceptions of recreational swordfish
                 anglers in South Florida based on nonprobability
                 purposive sampling organized through the Southeast
                 Swordfish Club (SESC). The sample size (n = 38)
                 represented about 16--38\% of the SESC members and
                 between 6\% and 8\% of the recreational anglers that
                 actively targeted swordfish in South Florida during the
                 time of the survey. We acknowledge the sample size was
                 small (n = 38), but believe the study encompassed the
                 most active swordfish anglers given their knowledge,
                 expertise, and connection with the fishery in terms of
                 participants, fishing effort, and fishing techniques.
                 As such, it is highly probable that a large portion of
                 the recreational swordfish angling population was
                 represented by members of the SESC in terms of
                 swordfishing gear, techniques, and socio-economics,
                 which reduced apparent bias in the study. Overall, the
                 annual income of recreational swordfish anglers in 2007
                 ranged from US \$15,000 to \$200,000 with an average
                 income of \$91,940 ($ n = 33$). Sixty-nine percent of
                 polled anglers indicated they had more than 26 years of
                 recreational fishing experience and 81\% had less than
                 10 years of experience targeting swordfish in South
                 Florida. Thirty-seven percent of surveyed anglers
                 indicated they departed from Port Everglades, Florida.
                 To target swordfish, anglers generally used five rods
                 and set their bait, commonly squid, at 91 m. Anglers
                 also indicated they changed their fishing tactics from
                 day to night, and took about five fishing trips per
                 month. Overall, anglers spent around \$14,210 on annual
                 costs associated with swordfishing, which was 16\% of
                 their annual income. Many polled anglers also reported
                 they were dissatisfied with the current swordfish
                 management regulations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Goncalves:2017:PIW,
  author =       "Renata Gon{\c{c}}alves and Maria Alexandra
                 Teod{\'o}sio and Joana Cruz and Radhouan Ben-Hamadou
                 and Ana Dulce Correia and Lu{\'\i}s Ch{\'\i}charo",
  title =        "Preliminary Insight into Winter Native Fish
                 Assemblages in {Guadiana Estuary} Salt Marshes Coping
                 with Environmental Variability and Non-Indigenous Fish
                 Introduction",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19",
  day =          "26",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2040019",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/4/19",
  abstract =     "This work aims to undertake a preliminary
                 characterization of winter fish assemblages in the salt
                 marsh areas of Guadiana lower estuary (South-East
                 Portugal) and discusses the potential risks of habitat
                 dominance by a non-indigenous species (NIS). To this
                 effect, six field campaigns were carried out in four
                 sampling sites during winter season targeting the
                 collection of fish species. A total of 48 samples were
                 collected. Individuals from seven different taxa
                 (marine and estuarine) were collected, although the
                 assemblage was dominated by two estuarine species ---
                 the native Pomatoschistus sp. (goby) and the NIS
                 \bioname{Fundulus heteroclitus} (mummichog). Goby was
                 the most abundant taxa in the majority of salt marsh
                 habitats, except for one specific, marsh pool, where
                 extreme environmental conditions were registered,
                 namely high temperature and salinity. Such conditions
                 may have boosted the intrusion of mummichog in this
                 area. This species is well adapted to a wide range of
                 abiotic factors enabling them to colonize habitats
                 where no predators inhabit. Impacts of mummichog
                 introduction in the Guadiana salt marsh area are still
                 unpredictable since this is the first time they have
                 been recorded in such high density. Nevertheless, in
                 scenarios of increased anthropogenic pressure and,
                 consequently, habitat degradation, there is a potential
                 risk of mummichog spreading to other habitats and
                 therefore competing for space and food resources with
                 native species.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Enyidi:2017:CVP,
  author =       "Uchechukwu D. Enyidi",
  title =        "\bioname{Chlorella vulgaris} as Protein Source in the
                 Diets of {African} Catfish \bioname{Clarias
                 gariepinus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17",
  day =          "16",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes2040017",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/2/4/17",
  abstract =     "Plant proteins substitutes of fishmeal in aquafeed are
                 usually lacking in some essential amino acids and fatty
                 acids. The microalgae \bioname{Chlorella vulgaris} has
                 good-quality protein with amino acids rich in
                 methionine, lysine and alanine. Four novel diets having
                 C. vulgaris as the main source of protein were produced
                 for African catfish \bioname{Clarias gariepinus} with
                 an initial average weight of 1.09 \pm 0.05 g. The diets
                 were labeled Feed 1 (F1) to feed 4 (F4). The treatment
                 diets were included 25\% (F1), 15\% (F2), 5\% (F3) and
                 0\% (F4) green algae meal. The basal ingredients of the
                 feed were corn (maize) included as F1, 40\%, F2, 43\%,
                 F3, 53\% and F4, 43\%; and millet meal, which varied in
                 F1 as 23\%, F2, 30\%, F3, 30\% and F4, 30\%. The
                 ingredients were preconditioned at 110 \degree C and
                 pelleted. Post-fingerling African catfish were stocked
                 at 10 fish per aquarium. There were three replicate
                 aquariums for each feed type and the fish were fed for
                 60 d. The specific growth rate was best for the catfish
                 fed with 25\% C. vulgaris diet 7.86 \pm 0\% day \minus
                 1, and worst at 6.77 \pm 0.07\% day \minus 1 for the
                 control group F4, 0\% algal meal. The food conversion
                 ratio (FCR) was lowest (1.88 \pm 0.02) for 25\% algal
                 meal diet (F1) and highest (2.98 \pm 0.01) for the 0\%
                 algal meal diet F4. Similarly, catfish had average
                 weight gain of 121.02 \pm 0.04 g for those fed with F1
                 compared to 62.50 \pm 0.0 g for those fed with 0\%
                 algae F4. Protein efficiency ratio was highest for the
                 F1-fed fish (2.46 \pm 0.22) and lowest for those fed
                 with F4 (2.02 \pm 0.09). The hepatosomatic index was
                 lowest for F1-fed fish (1.48 \pm 0.01) and highest for
                 catfish fed with F4 (2.50 \pm 0.59). Based on the
                 results, C. vulgaris is a good protein source for
                 African catfish and can also substitute fishmeal in the
                 catfish diets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sharda:2018:STS,
  author =       "Sakshi Sharda and Emmanuelle Argenti and Kay Lucek",
  title =        "On the Status of Threespine Stickleback
                 (\bioname{Gasterosteus aculeatus} {Linnaeus} 1758) in
                 {Lake Bracciano, Italy}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "17",
  day =          "15",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010017",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/17",
  abstract =     "For many species, the Mediterranean region harbors
                 distinct lineages that are of conservation concerns.
                 However, many of these are threatened by habitat
                 degradation and by the introduction of non-native
                 species. Here, we assess the status of the native
                 threespine stickleback (\bioname{Gasterosteus
                 aculeatus}) in the Lake Bracciano region in Italy,
                 where stickleback have been historically present.
                 During a dedicated sampling campaign in summer 2015,
                 surveying the potential habitats that sticklebacks
                 commonly occupy, we could not confirm the presence of
                 this species but found introduced species to be often
                 most abundant. Stickleback are thus likely to either
                 have become extinct over the last decades or be on the
                 verge to extinction in the Lake Bracciano region.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Pasaribu:2018:ENT,
  author =       "Wesly Pasaribu and Sukenda Sukenda and Sri Nuryati",
  title =        "The Efficacy of \geoname{Nile} Tilapia ({Oreochromis}
                 niloticus) Broodstock and Larval Immunization against
                 \bioname{Streptococcus agalactiae} and
                 \bioname{Aeromonas hydrophila}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "16",
  day =          "07",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010016",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/16",
  abstract =     "\bioname{Streptococcus agalactiae} and
                 \bioname{Aeromonas hydrophila} have been recognized as
                 the causative agents of mortality in tilapia larvae
                 with single infection and coinfection. The objective of
                 this study was to evaluate the efficacy of maternal
                 transfer and offspring protection from the immunization
                 of monovalent and bivalent vaccines on Nile tilapia
                 (\bioname{Oreochromis niloticus}) broodstock and larval
                 immunization. Four groups of broodstock were
                 intraperitoneally injected with formalin killed
                 whole-cells of S. agalactiae (Sa group), A. hydrophila
                 (Ah group), the bivalent mixed vaccine of them (Biv
                 group), and phosphate-buffered saline as a control (Pbs
                 group). Immunization of the larvae produced from
                 immunized broodstock with a bivalent vaccine (Biv1
                 group) and Pbs (Pbs1 group) was performed by immersion
                 at 20 days after hatch. Larvae produced from the Pbs
                 group were unvaccinated as the control (Pbs2 group).
                 Changes in the specific antibody and relative percent
                 survival were measured. The Sa and Ah groups that could
                 increase specific antibodies and protection against
                 pathogenic bacteria were challenged with the homologous
                 bacteria. The Biv group stimulated and protected
                 against both S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila. The
                 specific antibody of the Biv1 group was higher than the
                 Pbs1 and Pbs2 groups. The last observation in this
                 study showed that the relative percent survival of the
                 Biv group after challenged S. agalactiae, A.
                 hydrophila, and coinfection were 74.74 \pm 3.18\%,
                 73.81 \pm 8.58\%, and 71.48 \pm 5.70\%, respectively.
                 The use of bivalent vaccines on the broodstock and
                 larvae may be a strategy to reduce mortality in Nile
                 tilapia larvae caused by single pathogen infection of
                 S. agalactiae and A. hydrophila, or coinfection with
                 both S. agalactiae and \bioname{A. hydrophila}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Das:2018:EFA,
  author =       "Mousumi Das and Ferdous Ibn Rahim and Md. Amzad
                 Hossain",
  title =        "Evaluation of Fresh \bioname{Azolla pinnata} as a
                 Low-Cost Supplemental Feed for {Thai} Silver Barb
                 \bioname{Barbonymus gonionotus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15",
  day =          "05",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010015",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/15",
  abstract =     "Aquatic fern Azolla pinnata comprises significant high
                 food value with a good proportion of protein, vitamins,
                 and minerals. This study was carried out to examine the
                 effect of fresh A. pinnata as a substitution of
                 commercial fish feed (CFF) for Thai silver barb
                 Barbonymus gonionotus. Post fingerlings of B.
                 gonionotus were reared in five treatments, labeled T 1
                 to T 5, by substituting 0\%, 25\%, 50\%, 75\%, and
                 100\% protein of CFF with A. pinnata protein (dry
                 matter basis) respectively for 56 days. The specific
                 growth rate, net production rate, protein efficiency
                 ratio, proximate composition, and overall conditions of
                 fish were not significantly varied between the fish
                 reared completely with CFF and 25\% substitution with
                 A. pinnata. However, a significantly higher profit rate
                 (431.49 USD ha \minus 1 56 day \minus 1) was calculated
                 for fish reared in T 2 than other treatments. In
                 contrast, there was a significant reduction of growth
                 and other parameters of the fish that were observed in
                 the case where more than 25\% CFF was substituted with
                 A. pinnata. The poorest performance was observed in
                 fish fed completely with A. pinnata, at T 5. Based on
                 the results, 25\% of CFF of Thai silver barb could be
                 substituted with fresh A. pinnata without significantly
                 lowering their growth and product quality and could
                 contribute significant to a higher profit margin.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Hossain:2018:ASC,
  author =       "Mohammad Y. Hossain and Robert L. {Vadas, Jr.} and
                 Ramon Ruiz-Carus and Shams M. Galib",
  title =        "{Amazon} Sailfin Catfish \bioname{Pterygoplichthys
                 pardalis} ({Loricariidae}) in {Bangladesh}: a Critical
                 Review of Its Invasive Threat to Native and Endemic
                 Aquatic Species",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14",
  day =          "22",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010014",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/14",
  abstract =     "The Amazon sailfin catfish \bioname{Pterygoplichthys
                 pardalis} is native to the Amazon River basin. It has
                 since expanded its range to North America, the
                 Caribbean, and more recently to South Asia, as with
                 some of its congeners. Our paper reviews recent data
                 from Bangladesh, clarifies taxonomic identification,
                 and examines the potential effects of P. pardalis and
                 congeneric species on local aquatic ecosystems and
                 elsewhere in South Asia. Range expansions there
                 probably reflect aquarium releases and escapes from
                 aquaculture farms, as exacerbated by dispersal due to
                 storm flooding and in impacted waters like irrigation
                 canals. Given their potential ecosystem-level effects,
                 we also review potential control mechanisms and human
                 use for these invasive loricariids.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Asnicar:2018:SGE,
  author =       "Davide Asnicar and Giedr{\.e} A{\v{s}}monait{\.e} and
                 Lina Birgersson and Charlotta Kvarnemo and Ola Svensson
                 and Joachim Sturve",
  title =        "Sand Goby --- an Ecologically Relevant Species for
                 Behavioural Ecotoxicology",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13",
  day =          "20",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010013",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/13",
  abstract =     "Locomotion-based behavioural endpoints have been
                 suggested as suitable sublethal endpoints for human and
                 environmental hazard assessment, as well as for
                 biomonitoring applications. Larval stages of the sand
                 goby (\bioname{Pomatoschistus minutus}) possess a
                 number of attractive qualities for experimental testing
                 that make it a promising species in behavioural
                 ecotoxicology. Here, we present a study aimed at
                 developing a toolkit for using the sand goby as novel
                 species for ecotoxicological studies and using
                 locomotion as an alternative endpoint in toxicity
                 testing. Exposure to three contaminants (copper (Cu),
                 di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and perfluorooctanoic acid
                 (PFOA)) was tested in the early life stages of the sand
                 goby and the locomotion patterns of the larvae were
                 quantified using an automatic tracking system. In a
                 photo-motor test, sand goby larvae displayed
                 substantially higher activity in light than in dark
                 cycles. Furthermore, all tested compounds exerted
                 behavioural alterations, such as hypo- and
                 hyperactivity. Our experimental results show that sand
                 goby larvae produce robust and quantifiable locomotive
                 responses, which could be used within an
                 ecotoxicological context for assessing the behavioural
                 toxicity of environmental pollutants, with particular
                 relevance in the Nordic region. This study thus
                 suggests that sand goby larvae have potential as an
                 environmentally relevant species for behavioural
                 ecotoxicology, and as such offer an alternative to
                 standard model species.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Pagliarulo:2018:GSS,
  author =       "Caterina Pagliarulo and Daniela Sateriale and Elisa
                 Scioscia and Nunziatina De Tommasi and Roberta
                 Colicchio and Chiara Pagliuca and Elena Scaglione and
                 Japo Jussila and Jenny Makkonen and Paola Salvatore and
                 Marina Paolucci",
  title =        "Growth, Survival and Spore Formation of the Pathogenic
                 Aquatic Oomycete \bioname{Aphanomyces astaci} and
                 Fungus \bioname{Fusarium avenaceum} Are Inhibited by
                 \bioname{Zanthoxylum rhoifolium} Bark Extracts In
                 Vitro",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "12",
  day =          "15",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010012",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/12",
  abstract =     "This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of
                 Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark (Zr-b) extracts against
                 pathogenic aquatic oomycete/fungal isolates that cause
                 different diseases in native European crayfish
                 resulting in an elevated mortality rate and severe
                 economic repercussions. n -hexane, chloroform,
                 chloroform--methanol (9:1) and methanol extracts of
                 Zr-b were used to evaluate the antifungal activity
                 against the strain UEF88662 of Aphanomyces astaci
                 (oomycete) and the strain SMM2 of Fusarium avenaceum
                 (fungus). The anti-oomycete and antifungal activity was
                 quantitatively evaluated by growth, survival and
                 sporulation microbiological assays. The extracts tested
                 demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on
                 oomycete and fungal growth and survival, as well as on
                 the production of oomycete and fungal spores. This work
                 presents alternatives for the treatment and prevention
                 of the spreading of \bioname{Aphanomyces astaci} and
                 Fusarium avenaceum, the etiological agents of the
                 diseases crayfish plague and brown spot disease,
                 respectively. The antifungal properties of Zanthoxylum
                 rhoifolium bark extracts warrant further research on
                 their use in the prevention and treatment of both
                 oomycete and fungal diseases. The antifungal properties
                 of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark extracts, shown in
                 vitro, indicate the possibility of their use in new
                 therapeutic and prophylactic strategies, providing
                 perspectives for the design of in vivo studies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Svendsen:2018:EHA,
  author =       "Morten Bo S{\o}ndergaard Svendsen and Nikolaj Reducha
                 Andersen and Per Juel Hansen and John Fleng
                 Steffensen",
  title =        "Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Fish: Insights from
                 \bioname{Prymnesium parvum}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11",
  day =          "14",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010011",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/11",
  abstract =     "Blooms of the planktonic alga \bioname{Prymnesium
                 parvum} pose a global threat, causing fish kills
                 worldwide. Early studies on the exposure of fish to P.
                 parvum indicate that toxic effects are related to gill
                 damage. The more strictly defined concept of adverse
                 outcome pathways has been suggested as a replacement
                 for the mode of action in toxicology studies. In this
                 study, rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) were exposed
                 to P. parvum. During exposure, oxygen consumption was
                 determined by respirometry, and ventilation and
                 coughing rate were determined via video surveillance.
                 Per breath oxygen consumption was calculated to assess
                 the ventilation effort to obtain a unit of oxygen. A
                 second experiment monitored fish behavior to assess
                 recovery. The results indicated that oxygen consumption
                 initially increased, but on average fell below the
                 standard oxygen consumption at 70\% relative exposure.
                 Being a function of ventilation frequency and oxygen
                 consumption, the per breath oxygen consumption
                 decreased throughout exposure. Behavioral results
                 determined that short-term P. parvum exposure
                 subsequently caused the exposed fish to seek flow
                 refuge immediately and to a greater extent than
                 unexposed fish. The adverse outcome pathway of P.
                 parvum on rainbow trout is that P. parvum acts as a
                 gill irritant resulting in non-recoverable respiratory
                 failure.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Hushangi:2018:EPA,
  author =       "Ramtin Hushangi and Seyed Pezhman Hosseini Shekarabi",
  title =        "Effect of a Peracetic Acid-Based Disinfectant on
                 Growth, Hematology and Histology of Juvenile Rainbow
                 Trout (\bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "10",
  day =          "06",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010010",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/10",
  abstract =     "The effects of a peracetic acid-based disinfectant
                 product (Aquastart \circledR) were assessed on some
                 hematological parameters, histological aspects and skin
                 bacterial load of rainbow trout, likewise bacterial
                 load of the rearing tank water. A total of 180 healthy
                 rainbow trout weighing 124.65 \pm 10 g were divided
                 into two groups, each in three replicates in
                 flow-through tanks. First group was exposed to
                 Aquastart at 8.9 ppm for 30 min and second group was
                 considered as the control. The fish were then reared
                 for 60 days prior to sampling for hematological and
                 histological studies. The lowest bacterial load level
                 in both water columns and trout skin were observed in
                 the treated trout (p {$<$} 0.05). Meanwhile, no
                 significant impact on growth performance was recorded
                 between treated and control fish. The immunocompetent
                 cells population size in control fish were
                 significantly lower than treated fish (p {$<$} 0.05).
                 Histologically, no evidence of abnormality was seen in
                 the gills, kidney, and liver tissues of treated fish.
                 These results showed that application of Aquastart at
                 8.9 ppm is safe for use in flow-through tanks farming
                 rainbow trout.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Casado:2018:ASG,
  author =       "Francisco Casado and Santiago Casado and Diana
                 Ceballos-Francisco and Mar{\'\i}a {\'A}ngeles Esteban",
  title =        "Assessment of the Scales of Gilthead Seabream
                 (\bioname{Sparus aurata} {L.}) by Image Analysis and
                 Atomic Force Microscopy",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "9",
  day =          "30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010009",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/9",
  abstract =     "Understanding the protective role of fish skin is
                 critical to improving the development of aquaculture,
                 since skin is the main surface that separates the
                 animal from its always hazardous environment. Many
                 techniques have been used for its study, but certain
                 structural characteristics of fish skin still remain
                 not clearly understood. That is the case with scales,
                 which have always been attributed a mere protective
                 role, but which are proving to have more functions than
                 it was traditionally thought. To acquire a deeper
                 knowledge, scales from six different regions of
                 gilthead seabream (\bioname{Sparus aurata} {L.}) were
                 studied and measured by image analysis. Results prove
                 that scales from the base of the dorsal fin are larger
                 than those in other parts of the fish body while scales
                 from the peduncle are the smallest of the skin.
                 Furthermore, a technique relatively new in this field,
                 known as atomic force microscopy (AFM), was used to
                 obtain representations of the ultrastructure of the
                 scales and measure certain features such as the circuli
                 and the lines in the basal layer. The data obtained
                 allowed us to compare the height of circuli among the
                 different scales, showing that they were higher in
                 scales from the dorsum and the operculum. The present
                 results introduce a nanostructural model of the scales
                 of gilthead seabream that might serve as a useful
                 guideline for future studies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Martinez:2018:HKT,
  author =       "Danixa Mart{\'\i}nez and Juan Pablo Pontigo and
                 Francisco J. Morera and Alejandro. Ya{\~n}{\'e}z and
                 Luis Vargas-Chacoff",
  title =        "Head Kidney Transcriptome Analysis and
                 Characterization for the Sub-{Antarctic} Notothenioid
                 Fish \bioname{Eleginops maclovinus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8",
  day =          "25",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010008",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/8",
  abstract =     "This study describes de novo transcriptome sequencing
                 and annotation analyses for the head kidney of the
                 sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish \bioname{Eleginops
                 maclovinus}, a sister group of the Antarctic
                 notothenioid fish clade. Moreover, E. maclovinus is one
                 of the most eurythermal and euryhaline representatives
                 of the Notothenioidei suborder. RNA-seq data were
                 generated by the 454 GS Junior system, resulting in
                 11,207 contigs that were then assembled by the Genomic
                 Workbench CLC software. The transcriptome was annotated
                 by BLASTing each sequence against the universal,
                 non-redundant NCBI database (National Center for
                 Biotechnology Information) using the AUSTRAL-omics
                 computer cluster. A significant number of transcripts
                 related to innate and adaptive immunity were found in
                 the sequences, which could be used as references in
                 future immunological studies in E. maclovinus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Office:2018:ARF,
  author =       "Fishes Editorial Office",
  title =        "Acknowledgement to Reviewers of {{\booktitle{Fishes}}}
                 in 2017",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7",
  day =          "25",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010007",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/7",
  abstract =     "This study describes de novo transcriptome sequencing
                 and annotation analyses for the head kidney of the
                 sub-Antarctic notothenioid fish \bioname{Eleginops
                 maclovinus}, a sister group of the Antarctic
                 notothenioid fish clade. Moreover, E. maclovinus is one
                 of the most eurythermal and euryhaline representatives
                 of the Notothenioidei suborder. RNA-seq data were
                 generated by the 454 GS Junior system, resulting in
                 11,207 contigs that were then assembled by the Genomic
                 Workbench CLC software. The transcriptome was annotated
                 by BLASTing each sequence against the universal,
                 non-redundant NCBI database (National Center for
                 Biotechnology Information) using the AUSTRAL-omics
                 computer cluster. A significant number of transcripts
                 related to innate and adaptive immunity were found in
                 the sequences, which could be used as references in
                 future immunological studies in E. maclovinus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Gonzalez-Silvera:2018:EDT,
  author =       "Daniel Gonzalez-Silvera and Marcelino Herrera and
                 Inmaculada Gir{\'a}ldez and Mar{\'\i}a {\'A}ngeles
                 Esteban",
  title =        "Effects of the Dietary Tryptophan and Aspartate on the
                 Immune Response of Meagre (\bioname{Argyrosomus
                 regius}) after Stress",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6",
  day =          "24",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010006",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/6",
  abstract =     "Stress is one of the main problems of farmed fish,
                 where it has been seen to result in a variety of
                 disorders and negative effects. It is considered very
                 important to minimize such effects and one option is
                 the use of dietary additives. In the present
                 experiment, meagre (\bioname{Argyrosomus regius})
                 specimens were fed three different diets: a control
                 diet consisting of a commercial feed, a
                 tryptophan-supplemented diet and an
                 aspartate-supplemented diet. For each diet, fish were
                 divided into three subgroups: non-stressed (resting),
                 exposed to crowding or air-exposed. Just before the
                 stress, and one and six hours post-stress, serum
                 samples were taken to study several immune parameters
                 (protease, antiprotease, peroxidase and lysozyme) and
                 the bactericidal activity against three fish-pathogenic
                 bacteria (Vibrio angillarum, \bioname{V. harveyi} and
                 \bioname{Photobacterium damselae} subsp. piscicida).
                 The results demonstrated that feeding the animals with
                 the supplemented diets modulates the seric immune
                 parameters, particularly when animals were stressed by
                 air exposure.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Angradi:2018:FOR,
  author =       "Ted R. Angradi",
  title =        "A Field Observation of Rotational Feeding by
                 \bioname{Neogobius melanostomus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5",
  day =          "22",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010005",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/5",
  abstract =     "Neogobius melanostomus, the round goby, was recorded
                 by underwater video feeding on crushed dreissenid
                 mussels at a depth of 12 m in Georgian Bay of Lake
                 Huron, a Laurentian Great Lake. In the video, gobies
                 used rotational or twist feeding to tear away particles
                 from crushed mussels. At least 43 examples of this
                 feeding maneuver occur in the video. Up to 120 gobies m
                 \minus 2 were visible at a time in the video. Mean
                 standard length of gobies appearing in the video was 37
                 mm. Mean standard length of fish exhibiting twist
                 feeding was larger, 48 mm. Mean size of intact mussels
                 in visible clusters was about 10 $ \times $ 20 mm, a
                 size which exceeds the gape width of the largest gobies
                 observed in the video. \bioname{Neogobius melanostomus}
                 is known to use twisting to wrest small attached
                 mussels from the substrates which can be crushed by
                 their pharyngeal teeth. I surmise that the behavior
                 observed in the video is an opportunistic manifestation
                 of this inherent behavioral adaptation to overcome gap
                 limitation and exploit a temporary windfall of food.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Goncalves:2018:PEM,
  author =       "Rui A. Gon{\c{c}}alves and Marco Tarasco and Dian
                 Schatzmayr and Paulo Gavaia",
  title =        "Preliminary Evaluation of Moniliformin as a Potential
                 Threat for Teleosts",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4",
  day =          "16",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010004",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/4",
  abstract =     "Aquaculture feed manufacturers and producers
                 increasingly recognize the importance of mycotoxins,
                 which contaminate plant-based meals used in compound
                 aquafeeds, and their potential to negatively impact
                 production. Though data on the worldwide occurrence of
                 legislated mycotoxins e.g., trichothecenes and
                 zearalenone (ZEN) are well documented, relatively
                 little information is available regarding other
                 mycotoxins also produced by Fusarium, notably
                 moniliformin (MON). Given that MON is known to affect
                 the survival, growth, skeletal formation and bone
                 mineralization in terrestrial species, its widespread
                 occurrence on maize and maize by-products typically
                 used in aquaculture makes it relevant to study these
                 parameters in teleost fish. In the present work we have
                 tested the effect of MON exposure on survival, bone
                 development and mineralization using zebrafish
                 (\bioname{Danio rerio}) as a model species and fish
                 derived osteo-chondroprogenitor cell line for in vitro
                 studies. Moniliformin exposure did not decrease bone
                 mineralization in zebrafish larvae or extracellular
                 matrix mineralization in the mineralogenic cell line
                 VSa13. Here, the minimal in vitro cytotoxicity
                 concentration was found to be 1000 $ \mu $ g L \minus 1
                 MON. Incidence of deformities was also not altered by
                 MON at the concentration tested (450 $ \mu $ g L \minus
                 1) although larval growth was affected, as shown by a
                 decrease in the standard length of exposed specimens at
                 20 days post fertilization. Survival decreased
                 significantly in larvae exposed to MON concentrations
                 higher than 900 \mu g L \minus 1. Influence of MON on
                 survival and growth might be relevant for aquaculture
                 industry. As MON is a water-soluble mycotoxin, its
                 leaching from feed is highly probable, so MON
                 assimilation into the surrounding aqueous environment
                 should also be considered. Tested levels in fish larvae
                 are within the reported occurrence levels of MON in
                 commercial feed and plant meals.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Esteves:2018:OPC,
  author =       "Eduardo Esteves and Jaime An{\'\i}bal",
  title =        "Optimization of Processing Conditions of Traditional
                 Cured Tuna Loins --- Muxama",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3",
  day =          "09",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010003",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/3",
  abstract =     "Muxama is a traditional highly-valued food product
                 prepared from dry-cured tuna loins in southern Portugal
                 and Spain. The production procedure has seen little
                 change over the last centuries. The muxama's stability
                 is due to reduced water activity. In addition, the
                 drying method has secondary effects on characteristics
                 of flavor, color, and the nutritional value of the
                 product. Our objectives were to describe the dynamics
                 of important physicochemical parameters such as
                 moisture content, water activity (a W), NaCl
                 concentration (as water--phase salt, Z NaCl), pH and
                 color, during the salting and drying stages of muxama
                 production, and to test the effect(s) of changes in the
                 traditional processing conditions followed in southern
                 Portugal, aiming at optimizing the production
                 procedure. The lowest values of moisture and a W and
                 highest Z NaCl obtained after drying tuna loins for
                 seven days at 20 \degree C exceeded the values reported
                 for commercial products and have impact on the
                 appearance (color) of the product. Therefore, drying
                 tuna loins at lower temperatures (ca. 14 \degree C) is
                 probably more appropriate. The results obtained in this
                 study could be used in the design of future experiments
                 at other conditions and to assess other quality
                 parameters, e.g., total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N),
                 thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS),
                 microorganism abundance and sensory attributes, and
                 subsequent validation trials.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Xenarios:2018:IRP,
  author =       "Stefanos Xenarios and Henrique Queiroga and Ana I.
                 Lilleb{\o} and Ana Aleixo",
  title =        "Introducing a Regulatory Policy Framework of Bait
                 Fishing in {European} Coastal Lagoons: the Case of {Ria
                 de Aveiro in Portugal}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2",
  day =          "05",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010002",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/2",
  abstract =     "The harvesting of bait through digging in coastal
                 mudflats is practiced for recreational and commercial
                 purposes in European coastal systems including the Ria
                 de Aveiro coastal lagoon on the northwest Atlantic
                 coast of Portugal. The scale of harvesting in the Ria
                 de Aveiro has recently increased due to the current
                 economic climate in Portugal, with targeting of the
                 polychaete, \bioname{Diopatra neapolitana} species or
                 ``casulo'' as it is widely known in the Aveiro region.
                 The national authorities have attempted to control
                 casulo digging by issuing a regulation (Ordinance) in
                 2014 on the maximum daily catch limit to be caught by
                 each individual. The daily catch limit is intended to
                 represent the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) for
                 casulo beyond which overfishing will occur. The
                 monitoring of the regulatory measures is expected to be
                 conducted through on-site inspections in the digging
                 areas. However, weak law enforcement was noticed, while
                 there is also controversy over the daily catch limit
                 (quota) stipulated by the Ordinance. To this end, the
                 current study attempted to assess digging activities
                 through remote monitoring and random inspections for a
                 better policy enforcement of the national regulation.
                 In addition, different harvesting scenarios were
                 employed through a simplified bioeconomic model to
                 attribute the current and future harvesting trends of
                 bait digging in Aveiro coastal lagoon. The study
                 findings indicate that remote monitoring coupled with
                 some onsite interviews could be a more effective
                 approach for the implementation of the current bait
                 digging policy. Further, the results point to a
                 distinctive discrepancy between the daily catch amount
                 (MSY) introduced by the national legislation and the
                 study findings which should be further scrutinized. The
                 diggers seem to have reached the sustainable harvest
                 identified by the present research. The current
                 economic hardship in Portugal and the low profitability
                 in similar employment sectors will possibly attract
                 more diggers and increase harvesting in the near
                 future. An increased harvest would likely trigger
                 overfishing of D. neapolitana with unknown consequences
                 for the population of the species as well as the
                 aquatic ecosystem. The socio-economic and environmental
                 effects are yet to be further clarified with more
                 detailed data and advanced modeling techniques to
                 ensure the sustainability of the activity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Takase:2018:CIG,
  author =       "Mai Takase and Hideki Ushio",
  title =        "Changes in Intestinal Gene Expression of Zebrafish
                 (\bioname{Danio rerio}) Related to Sterol Uptake and
                 Excretion upon $ \beta $-Sitosterol Administration",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1",
  day =          "04",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3010001",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:20 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/1/1",
  abstract =     "Replacement of fishmeal with plant ingredients will
                 introduce not only plant oil and protein but also
                 phytosterol to the fish diet. Mammals strictly restrict
                 the uptake of phytosterol at intestinal epithelial
                 cells by regulating the gene expressions of sterol
                 uptake and excretion proteins; however, phytosterol is
                 found in the fish muscle and other organs. In order to
                 assess the ability of phytosterol uptake by the
                 intestinal epithelial cells of fish, no-sterol diet,
                 cholesterol-, and \beta -sitosterol-containing diet was
                 separately administered to zebrafish, and the relative
                 mRNA expressions related to sterol uptake and excretion
                 were evaluated. Gene expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like
                 protein 1 in the sitosterol-fed group was significantly
                 higher than that of the cholesterol-fed group (p {$<$}
                 0.05). The expression of apolipoprotein A-I gene was
                 also higher in the sitosterol-fed group than that in
                 the no-sterol and cholesterol-fed groups. The
                 expressions of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G,
                 member 5 and 8, were significantly higher in the
                 sitosterol-fed group, compared to the no-sterol group.
                 Regarding the gene expression of ATP-binding cassette
                 sub-family A, member 1, the sitosterol-fed group showed
                 higher expression level compared to the other groups (p
                 {$<$} 0.01). These results suggest that fish should be
                 tolerant to phytosterols in contrast to mammals.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Valero:2018:IEI,
  author =       "Yulema Valero and Alberto Cuesta and Matteo Cammarata
                 and Mar{\'\i}a Angeles Esteban and Elena Chaves-Pozo",
  title =        "Immune-Endocrine Interactions in the Fish Gonad during
                 Infection: an Open Door to Vertical Transmission",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "24",
  day =          "13",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3020024",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/2/24",
  abstract =     "The interaction between the immune and endocrine
                 systems has long been recognized in vertebrates. In
                 fish, it is known that the prevalence and intensity of
                 such infections are higher in males than in females and
                 probably related to sex steroid hormone levels. In
                 addition, the immune response in the fish gonad tissues
                 is specifically regulated to prevent infertility. This
                 condition is used by some pathogens to colonize the
                 fish gonad, evade the systemic immune response, and so
                 spread to the progeny. This review brings up to date
                 our knowledge concerning fish gonad immunity and its
                 regulation, immune-endocrine interactions, and how some
                 pathogens use this tissue to spread to the progeny
                 through vertical transmission. More specifically, we
                 will look at the case of the European sea bass and
                 nodavirus (NNV). Sea bass is a very susceptible fish
                 species to NNV infections, and this virus has been
                 associated to vertical transmission since it is
                 detected in gonad fluids as well as in testicular
                 gametes. In fact, sea bass immunity in the gonad is
                 regulated in a very different way to other target
                 tissues (brain and retina) or immune-relevant tissues
                 (head-kidney or spleen).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Mensoor:2018:DHM,
  author =       "Montazer Mensoor and Ali Said",
  title =        "Determination of Heavy Metals in Freshwater Fishes of
                 the {Tigris River in Baghdad}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23",
  day =          "13",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3020023",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/2/23",
  abstract =     "The presence of heavy metals in freshwater fish
                 represents a global public health issue. The current
                 study aimed to determine the heavy metal concentration
                 and toxicity in some freshwater fish species collected
                 from the Tigris River in Baghdad. Out of the many fish
                 species in Iraq, the current study selected the Genus
                 Barbus as it represents the most popular fish food in
                 Iraq. The sample included twenty fishes and the
                 selected sample locations covered two industrial areas
                 in Baghdad (one north of Baghdad and one south of
                 Baghdad). The levels of heavy metals were determined by
                 using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The
                 results showed that concentrations of heavy metals in
                 the sampled fishes exceeded the acceptable levels for
                 food sources for human consumption. The results of this
                 study showed high levels of cadmium and chromium levels
                 in the tissues of the selected fish sample. Cd and Cr
                 were among the highest concentrations and both exceeded
                 the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture
                 Organization of the United Nations acceptable levels
                 for heavy metals in fishes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Hasan:2018:RBP,
  author =       "Tajmira Hasan and Md. Foysul Hossain and Md. Mamun and
                 Md. Jahangir Alam and Mohammad Abdus Salam and S. M.
                 Rafiquzzaman",
  title =        "Reproductive Biology of \bioname{Puntius sophore} in
                 {Bangladesh}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "22",
  day =          "11",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3020022",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/2/22",
  abstract =     "Pool barb (\bioname{Puntius sophore}) is an important
                 small indigenous species of Bangladesh, belonging to
                 the family Cyprinidae of the order Cypriniformes. The
                 main objectives of the present study were to identify
                 the breeding season of Pool barb through observation of
                 the gonadosomatic index (GSI), fecundity, oocytes
                 diameter, and gonadal histology of the species. GSI was
                 calculated and fecundity was determined by the
                 gravimetric method. Interestingly, the highest value of
                 GSI was 15.43 \pm 2.20 for the month of April at
                 Gazipur while it was 15.60 \pm 1.74 in June for
                 Jessore. In Gazipur, the highest fecundity (5053 \pm
                 878.27) was recorded in the month of April and the
                 highest fecundity (5433 \pm 968.26) was recorded in the
                 month of June for Jessore. Histology of the ovary of
                 Pool barb shows the presence of early and late
                 perinucleolar stage of oocytes during March indicating
                 immature oocyte. Histological data revealed that the
                 spawning season of Pool barb starts from March to July
                 with a peak during April to May for Gazipur region and
                 May to July for Jessore region. Finally, these results
                 can be concluded that breeding season may vary from
                 region to region due to environmental as well as other
                 factors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ivanova:2018:WTU,
  author =       "Lada Ivanova and Haitham Tartor and S{\o}ren Grove and
                 Anja B. Kristoffersen and Silvio Uhlig",
  title =        "Workflow for the Targeted and Untargeted Detection of
                 Small Metabolites in Fish Skin Mucus",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21",
  day =          "07",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3020021",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/2/21",
  abstract =     "The skin mucus of fish is in permanent contact with
                 the aquatic environment. Data from the analysis of the
                 chemical composition of skin mucus could potentially be
                 used for monitoring the health status of the fish.
                 Knowledge about mucus composition or change in
                 composition over time could also contribute to
                 understanding the aetiology of certain diseases. The
                 objective of the present study was the development of a
                 workflow for non-invasive sampling of skin mucus from
                 farmed salmon (\bioname{Salmo salar}) for the targeted
                 and untargeted detection of small metabolites. Skin
                 mucus was either scraped off, wiped off using medical
                 wipes, or the mucus' water phase was absorbed using the
                 same type of medical wipes that was used for the wiping
                 method. Following a simple filtration step, the
                 obtained mucus samples were subjected to hydrophilic
                 interaction chromatography coupled to high-resolution
                 mass spectrometry. Post-acquisition processing included
                 the targeted analysis of 86 small metabolites, of which
                 up to 60 were detected in absorbed mucus. Untargeted
                 analysis of the mucus samples from equally treated
                 salmon revealed that the total variation of the
                 metabolome was lowest in absorbed mucus and highest in
                 the scraped mucus. Thus, future studies including
                 small-molecule metabolomics of skin mucus in fish would
                 benefit from a sampling regime employing absorption of
                 the water phase in order to minimize the bias related
                 to the sampling step. Furthermore, the absorption
                 method is also a less invasive approach allowing for
                 repetitive sampling within short time intervals.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Grano-Maldonado:2018:TSU,
  author =       "Mayra I. Grano-Maldonado and Juan Moreno-Navas and
                 Maria Amparo Rodriguez-Santiago",
  title =        "Transmission Strategies Used by \bioname{Gyrodactylus
                 gasterostei} ({Monogenea}) on Its Host, the
                 Three-Spined Stickleback \bioname{Gasterosteus
                 aculeatus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "20",
  day =          "29",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3020020",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/2/20",
  abstract =     "The monogenean Gyrodactylus gasterostei and its host,
                 the three-spined stickleback \bioname{Gasterosteus
                 aculeatus}, were employed as a model system to
                 investigate the influence of gyrodactylid maturity on
                 host transfer. Laboratory experiments included the
                 determination of maturity (presence of a male
                 copulatory organ) and reproductive status (presence of
                 a daughter parasite) of the transmitting worms.
                 Parasites with a male copulatory organ were more likely
                 to abandon the host and attempt a host transfer.
                 Additionally, in vivo video observation suggested that
                 detached worms employ water turbulence to assist their
                 effective transfer onto a new host.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Arndt:2018:SEM,
  author =       "Erik Arndt and Or Givan and Dor Edelist and Oren Sonin
                 and Jonathan Belmaker",
  title =        "Shifts in {Eastern Mediterranean} Fish Communities:
                 Abundance Changes, Trait Overlap, and Possible
                 Competition between Native and Non-Native Species",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19",
  day =          "20",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3020019",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/2/19",
  abstract =     "During the last few decades the fish community has
                 changed substantially along the Eastern Mediterranean
                 continental shelf, which is a hotspot of invasion by
                 species that had migrated via the Suez Canal. Trawl
                 data from the Israeli coast spanning two periods
                 (1990--1994 and 2008--2011) were compared to identify
                 species with substantial variation in their relative
                 abundance between the two periods. The aim of this
                 study was to examine if certain ecological traits
                 characterize fish species showing an increase or
                 decrease in relative abundance, and if non-indigenous
                 fishes with strongly increasing populations may have
                 caused the decline of native species with similar
                 habitats and diets. We found that the main predictors
                 of population trends were species length, habitat
                 affinity, and maximum depth, with larger and soft
                 bottom species displaying decreasing abundances.
                 Comparing native and non-indigenous fishes with similar
                 habitat and diet, we found a potential for competitive
                 impact of the Indo-Pacific \bioname{Plotosus lineatus}
                 and two Upeneus spp. on the native Mullus species.
                 However, competition with non-indigenous fishes could
                 not generally explain the dramatic decline of many
                 other native species between the two study periods.
                 Alternative causes, such as fishery pressure and
                 increasing water temperature, are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Moyano:2018:ESI,
  author =       "Francisco Javier Moyano",
  title =        "Editorial for the Special Issue on Nutritional
                 Requirements in New Fish Species under Culture",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18",
  day =          "23",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3020018",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/2/18",
  abstract =     "The worldwide interest in developing the culture of
                 nonconventional fish species determines the need to
                 increase knowledge in different aspects of their basic
                 physiology, as well as in the application of such
                 information into practical protocols to be used in
                 their feeding, reproduction, and general handling
                 \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lindseth:2018:USM,
  author =       "Adelaide V. Lindseth and Phillip S. Lobel",
  title =        "Underwater Soundscape Monitoring and Fish
                 Bioacoustics: a Review",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "36",
  day =          "12",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030036",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/36",
  abstract =     "Soundscape ecology is a rapidly growing field with
                 approximately 93\% of all scientific articles on this
                 topic having been published since 2010 (total about 610
                 publications since 1985). Current acoustic technology
                 is also advancing rapidly, enabling new devices with
                 voluminous data storage and automatic signal detection
                 to define sounds. Future uses of passive acoustic
                 monitoring (PAM) include biodiversity assessments,
                 monitoring habitat health, and locating spawning
                 fishes. This paper provides a review of ambient sound
                 and soundscape ecology, fish acoustic monitoring,
                 current recording and sampling methods used in
                 long-term PAM, and parameters/metrics used in acoustic
                 data analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Jerez:2018:SIF,
  author =       "Salvador Jerez and Ioannis Fakriadis and Maria
                 Papadaki and M. Virginia Mart{\'\i}n and Juana Rosa
                 Cejas and Constantinos C. Mylonas",
  title =        "Spawning Induction of First-Generation ({F1}) Greater
                 Amberjack \bioname{Seriola dumerili} in the {Canary
                 Islands, Spain} Using {GnRHa} Delivery Systems",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "35",
  day =          "05",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030035",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/35",
  abstract =     "The development of a sustainable aquaculture industry
                 requires the closing of the life-cycle of a potential
                 species in captivity, and the establishment of breeding
                 selection programs using hatchery-produced breeding
                 stocks. The greater amberjack \bioname{Seriola
                 dumerili} is a cosmopolitan pelagic species that has
                 been considered as a good candidate for the species
                 diversification of aquaculture production in the
                 Mediterranean region. However, commercial production is
                 still very limited due to bottlenecks in reproduction,
                 larval rearing and management control during grow out.
                 The aim of the present study was to examine the
                 reproductive development of hatchery-produced greater
                 amberjack and to develop a spawning induction protocol
                 based on the use of gonadotropin releasing hormone
                 agonist (GnRHa) in a controlled-release delivery
                 system. The results showed that hatchery-produced
                 greater amberjack undergo normal gametogenesis and can
                 be induced to undergo maturation, ovulation and
                 spawning after multiple administrations of GnRHa
                 implants, over an extended spawning period lasting from
                 May to September in the Canary Islands, Spain. The use
                 of GnRHa-delivery systems resulted in multiple spawns
                 of fertilized and viable eggs. Egg production was high
                 and egg quality adequate for the implementation of
                 larval rearing for commercial purposes. The handling
                 required to administer the GnRHa implants during the
                 prolonged spawning season did not result in any
                 negative effect on the welfare and reproductive
                 performance of the fish based on evaluation of several
                 biochemical parameters. The developed reproduction
                 control method shows great potential to advance the
                 commercial production of greater amberjack, by enabling
                 the use of hatchery-produced broodstocks for further
                 breeding selection.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Barragan-Mendez:2018:AEC,
  author =       "Cristina Barrag{\'a}n-M{\'e}ndez and Fini
                 S{\'a}nchez-Garc{\'\i}a and Ignacio Sobrino and Juan
                 Miguel Mancera and Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo",
  title =        "Air Exposure in Catshark (\bioname{Scyliorhinus
                 canicula}) Modify Muscle Texture Properties: a Pilot
                 Study",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "34",
  day =          "04",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030034",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/34",
  abstract =     "Sharks are captured by tons for human consumption.
                 Improving the quality of their meat will produce
                 fillets that may have a higher economic value in the
                 market, and thus be beneficial for the management of
                 this fishery. In other animal species destined for
                 human consumption, a negative relationship between
                 pre-slaughtering stress and meat quality has been
                 demonstrated. By studying the commercial small-spotted
                 catshark (\bioname{Scyliorhinus canicula}), this work
                 aimed at linking pre-slaughter handling of captured
                 sharks and muscle fillets quality. An experimental
                 group of adult and subadult living catsharks captured
                 by hand and exposed to air (for 18 min, which is the
                 minimum time this species is exposed to air in the
                 fishing deck during fisheries procedures), and an
                 undisturbed group, were evaluated. After air exposure,
                 catsharks returned to water for recovery. Muscle
                 lactate and water content were quantified after acute
                 exposure (for 18 min), 5 h and 24 h. This challenge
                 elicited stress responses in the muscle such as
                 increased lactate levels and immediate dehydration,
                 followed by recovery of lactate levels and
                 overhydration. Muscle consistency, a relevant variable
                 describing quality of seafood according to its ability
                 to be swallowed by the consumer, paralleled muscle
                 water content changes. The results indicated for the
                 first time that handling alive sharks exposed to air
                 results in muscle fillets with different texture
                 properties. Whether these changes in muscle texture
                 induce higher quality fillets has yet to be proven. Our
                 recommendation is to minimize time of air exposure
                 experienced by sharks when captured, including fast
                 slaughtering instead of leaving them to die by
                 asphyxia, as current on-board procedures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Jahangiri:2018:APW,
  author =       "Ladan Jahangiri and Mar{\'\i}a {\'A}ngeles Esteban",
  title =        "Administration of Probiotics in the Water in Finfish
                 Aquaculture Systems: a Review",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33",
  day =          "22",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030033",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/33",
  abstract =     "Over the last few decades, the contribution of
                 aquaculture to animal protein production has increased
                 enormously, and the sector now provides almost half of
                 the fish and shellfish consumed worldwide, making it a
                 major food producer. Nevertheless, many factors,
                 including infections, pollution, and stress, may result
                 in significant economic losses. The aquaculture
                 industry will not be totally successful without the
                 therapeutic and preventive means to control all these
                 factors. Antibiotics (long used in aquaculture
                 practice) have tended to aggravate the problem by
                 increasing antibiotic resistance. Concomitantly,
                 probiotics have widely been suggested as eco-friendly
                 alternatives to antibiotics. However, the way in which
                 probiotics are applied in aquaculture is a key factor
                 in their favorable performance. The aim of this review
                 was to examine the current state of probiotics
                 administration through the water in finfish
                 aquaculture. The review also attempts to cover the
                 research gaps existing in our knowledge of this
                 administration mode, and to suggest the issues that
                 need to be investigated in greater depth.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Majumdar:2018:CPM,
  author =       "Bhaskar Chandra Majumdar and Faria Afrin and Md. Golam
                 Rasul and Dinesh Chandra Shaha and A. K. M. Azad Shah",
  title =        "Changes in Physicochemical, Microbiological, and
                 Sensory Properties of Sun-Dried \bioname{Mystus
                 vittatus} During Storage at Ambient Temperature",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "32",
  day =          "20",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030032",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/32",
  abstract =     "The objective of this study was to investigate the
                 changes in physicochemical, microbiological, and
                 sensory properties of sun-dried Mystus vittatus during
                 storage at ambient temperature. The fish was dried
                 under sun exposure on bamboo mats for 5--6 days until
                 the moisture content reduced to approximately 10--15\%.
                 The dried fish was then packed into airtight
                 polyethylene bags and stored at ambient temperature (24
                 to 29 {$^\circ $}C) for 90 days. The physical and
                 sensory properties revealed that the dried fish was
                 acceptable for human consumption for up to 60 days. The
                 pH value slightly decreased from 6.42 to 5.95 during
                 the storage period. The moisture content increased
                 significantly (p {$<$} 0.05), while no significant
                 difference was observed for the protein, lipid, and ash
                 contents (on a dry matter basis) with the increase in
                 the storage time. The peroxide value, acid value, and
                 conjugated dienes of the lipids increased significantly
                 during the storage period. The microbial load also
                 increased with the increase in the storage period. The
                 results of this study suggest that the product was
                 slightly oxidized during the storage period and could
                 be stored for up to two months.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Midway:2018:IGE,
  author =       "Stephen R. Midway and Andrew Ostrowski and Lindsey
                 West and Mario Hernandez and Matthew D. Robertson",
  title =        "Improved Growth Estimates for \bioname{Lethrinus
                 harak}: Measuring Increments, Adjusting Ages, and
                 Fitting Flexible Growth Models",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "31",
  day =          "14",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030031",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/31",
  abstract =     "Thumbprint emperor (Lethrinus harak) are a widely
                 distributed, tropical species ranging throughout the
                 Indo-Pacific region. In coastal Tanzania, overfishing
                 is likely occurring and thumbprint emperor are commonly
                 represented in catches. The goal of this study was to
                 estimate age and growth to provide basic life history
                 information that may help inform future management. We
                 sampled a total of n = 55 thumbprint emperors from both
                 fishery-dependent and fishery-independent sources.
                 Annular age estimates were improved with measurements
                 of otolith markings. Fish ages ranged from zero to five
                 years. We also evaluated the addition of otolith edge
                 size (a proxy for fractional age) to age estimation,
                 and fit two von Bertalanffy growth models---one for the
                 whole ages and one for the fractional ages---using a
                 flexible Bayesian framework. Growth parameters were
                 similar between the two models, and ultimately, L
                 {\infty} (maximum asymptotic size parameter) estimates
                 were comparable to other published values for the
                 species, although our estimates of K (growth
                 coefficient parameter) were smaller. Robust aging
                 techniques for tropical fishes can provide a foundation
                 for basic fishery management, which would help to
                 sustain the future of this widely distributed fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Kampouris:2018:FRC,
  author =       "Thodoros E. Kampouris and Debora Milenkova and Ioannis
                 E. Batjakas",
  title =        "On the Finding of the Rare Crab \bioname{Paragalene
                 longicrura} ({Nardo}, 1868) ({Crustacea, Decapoda,
                 Brachyura, Progeryonidae}) from {Thermaikos Gulf,
                 Northwest Aegean Sea, Greece}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30",
  day =          "08",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030030",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/30",
  abstract =     "The finding of a rare crab, Paragalene longicrura, is
                 herein recorded from Thermaikos Gulf. This constitutes
                 the northmost record of the species in Greek waters.
                 The species is only known from sporadic records in the
                 eastern Mediterranean basin. Ecological remarks on the
                 habitat of P. longicrura and other decapod species are
                 described for the first time for the Mediterranean.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Simeon:2018:IAS,
  author =       "Benaya Meitasari Simeon and Efin Muttaqin and Ulfah
                 Mardhiah and Muhammad Ichsan and Dharmadi and Andhika
                 Prima Prasetyo and Fahmi and Irfan Yulianto",
  title =        "Increasing Abundance of Silky Sharks in the {Eastern
                 Indian Ocean}: Good News or a Reason to be Cautious?",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29",
  day =          "18",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030029",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/29",
  abstract =     "The silky shark (\bioname{Carcharhinus falciformis})
                 is the most common shark landed in Indonesian waters,
                 including in the Indian Ocean. However, even though
                 they are frequently caught, there is a lack of
                 information on the population and abundance of silky
                 sharks in the Indian Ocean. Cilacap and Tanjung Luar
                 are two of Indonesia's shark fishery hotspots, both
                 located on the edge of the Indian Ocean, which is a
                 part of the Indonesian Fisheries Management Area (FMA)
                 573. The fishers from both places usually have fishing
                 grounds in that particular fisheries management area.
                 This research aims to update the abundance, and to
                 investigate the factors, which influence catches of
                 silky shark in the FMA 573 based on monthly enumeration
                 during 2015--2016. This study found that standardized
                 catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) or abundance indices of
                 silky shark in the Indonesian FMA 573 increased from
                 2015 to 2016. We suggested that fish immigration and
                 decreasing fishing pressure may affect the fish
                 abundance. Fisheries management is required to regulate
                 the fishing pressure, such as controlling the number of
                 boats/licenses and the number of trips or fishing gear,
                 as well as initializing spatial and temporal fishing
                 closure.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Tahar:2018:FWQ,
  author =       "Alexandre Tahar and Alan Kennedy and Richard D.
                 Fitzgerald and Eoghan Clifford and Neil Rowan",
  title =        "Full Water Quality Monitoring of a Traditional
                 Flow-Through Rainbow Trout Farm",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28",
  day =          "17",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030028",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/28",
  abstract =     "Traditional freshwater rainbow trout farms are still
                 popular in some European countries such as Poland,
                 France and Ireland. These systems generally operate in
                 flow-through configuration. The impact such production
                 systems might have on water quality remains mostly
                 unknown. The present study was set up to fulfil this
                 objective of monitoring water quality on different fish
                 farm locations in order to identify the impacts of the
                 whole farm (comparison of farm inlet and outlet) and at
                 pond scale in order to understand the water quality
                 dynamics and to better understand the impact of
                 multiple water reuse (water passes) in a given pond on
                 water quality. In the absence of any sort of water
                 treatment, an increase in the number of water passes
                 was shown to create an increase in ammonium
                 concentration along the farm. Finally, this traditional
                 flow-through rainbow trout production system was
                 revealed to almost be at its full carrying capacity
                 with respect to internal water quality parameters and
                 fish welfare. To increase fish production, some water
                 treatment techniques (solid/liquid separation,
                 nitrification) would have to be introduced in order to
                 optimize the rearing water quality for fish growth and
                 to minimize the release of pollutants in the receiving
                 water to limit the impact on the environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Nieves-Rodriguez:2018:EGD,
  author =       "Karen N. Nieves-Rodr{\'\i}guez and Carlos Alfonso
                 {\'A}lvarez-Gonz{\'a}lez and Emyr S.
                 Pe{\~n}a-Mar{\'\i}n and Fernando Vega-Villasante and
                 Rafael Mart{\'\i}nez-Garc{\'\i}a and Susana
                 Camarillo-Coop and Dariel Tovar-Ram{\'\i}rez and Laura
                 T. Guzm{\'a}n-Villanueva and Karl B. Andree and Enric
                 Gisbert",
  title =        "Effect of $ \beta $-Glucans in Diets on Growth,
                 Survival, Digestive Enzyme Activity, and Immune System
                 and Intestinal Barrier Gene Expression for Tropical Gar
                 (\bioname{Atractosteus tropicus}) Juveniles",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27",
  day =          "10",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030027",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/27",
  abstract =     "The application of {\beta}-1,3/1,6-glucan derived from
                 yeast at five concentrations (0\%, 0.5\%, 1.0\%, 1.5\%,
                 and 2.0\%) in formulated diets was evaluated in
                 juveniles for its effects on the growth, survival,
                 digestive enzymatic activity, and expression of genes
                 associated with the immune system (interlukin-10
                 (IL-10), transforming growth factor (TGF), occludin
                 (OCC), mucin2 (MUC2), lysozyme (LYS), and
                 nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2))
                 in tropical gar (\bioname{Atractosteus tropicus}). For
                 the experiment, three replicates of 30 fish per
                 experimental unit (70 L) were cultivated for 62 days.
                 The growth results showed no statistically significant
                 differences in relation to weight and total length
                 between treatments. The activity of digestive enzymes
                 (alkaline proteases, trypsin, leucine aminopeptidase,
                 and amylase) did not show significant differences
                 between treatments, except for chymotrypsin activity,
                 where fish fed 1.0\% and 1.5\% of {\beta}-glucans
                 showed higher activities compared with the rest of the
                 treatments. On the other hand, the analysis of gene
                 expression did not show significant differences between
                 treatments, although a tendency of increase in the
                 expression of IL-10, TGF, MUC2, and OCC was observed
                 with an addition of 1.5\% of the prebiotic, but there
                 was a decrease in the fish fed with 2\% of the
                 prebiotic. It is possible to include concentrations of
                 between 0.5\% and 1.5\% of {\beta}-glucans in the diets
                 for A. tropicus, with no detectable adverse effects on
                 growth, survival, digestive enzyme activity, or
                 specific gene expression. {\beta}-glucan 1,3/1,6 added
                 at 1.0\% and 1.5\% in the diet significantly increases
                 chymotrypsin activity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Kitasato:2018:ADB,
  author =       "Airi Kitasato and Tomo Miyazaki and Yoshihiro Sugaya
                 and Shinichiro Omachi",
  title =        "Automatic Discrimination between \bioname{Scomber
                 japonicus} and \bioname{Scomber australasicus} by
                 Geometric and Texture Features",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26",
  day =          "27",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030026",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/26",
  abstract =     "This paper proposes a method for automatic
                 discrimination of two mackerel species:
                 \bioname{Scomber japonicus} (chub mackerel) and
                 \bioname{Scomber australasicus} (blue mackerel).
                 Because S. japonicus has a much higher market price
                 than S. australasicus, the two species must be properly
                 sorted before shipment, but their similar appearance
                 makes discrimination difficult. These species can be
                 effectively distinguished using the ratio of the base
                 length between the dorsal fin's first and ninth spines
                 to the fork length. However, manual measurement of this
                 ratio is time-consuming and reduces fish freshness. The
                 proposed technique instead uses image processing to
                 measure these lengths. We were able to successfully
                 discriminate between the two species using the ratio as
                 a geometric feature, in combination with several
                 texture features. We then quantitatively verified the
                 effectiveness of the proposed method and demonstrated
                 that it is highly accurate in classifying mackerel.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Rasul:2018:BMS,
  author =       "Md. Golam Rasul and Bhaskar Chandra Majumdar and Faria
                 Afrin and Mohammad Abu Jafor Bapary and A. K. M. Azad
                 Shah",
  title =        "Biochemical, Microbiological, and Sensory Properties
                 of Dried Silver Carp (\bioname{Hypophthalmichthys
                 molitrix}) Influenced by Various Drying Methods",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25",
  day =          "25",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3030025",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/3/25",
  abstract =     "An experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of
                 different drying methods with different pre-treatments
                 on the physico-chemical, microbiological, and sensory
                 properties of the silver carp,
                 \bioname{Hypophthalmichthys molitrix}. In order to
                 achieve this objective, the collected fresh fish were
                 dried using traditional (without any pre-treatment),
                 improved (fish soaked in a 5\% salt solution for 10 min
                 and then treated with chili powder (0.3\%) and turmeric
                 powder (0.3\%)), and solar tunnel (fish soaked in a 5\%
                 salt solution for 10 min) drying methods. The results
                 showed that the dried fish produced by the solar tunnel
                 drying method were rehydrated more rapidly than the
                 products produced by the traditional and improved
                 drying methods. The moisture content of the dried H.
                 molitrix was varied from 18.24 to 25.43\% on a fresh
                 matter basis. There was no significant (p $>$ 0.05)
                 difference found regarding the protein, lipid, and ash
                 content among the different drying methods on a dry
                 matter basis. The total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N)
                 contents ranged between 37.58 and 45.03 mg/100 g, and
                 significantly (p {$<$} 0.05) the lowest TVB-N was
                 observed in dried fish produced by the solar tunnel
                 drying method. Moreover, the highest peroxide and acid
                 values were found in the traditionally produced dried
                 fish as compared with the fish dried by the improved
                 and solar tunnel drying methods. The aerobic plate
                 count of dried fish ranged from 4.52 to 7.51 log CFU/g.
                 The sensory evaluation results revealed that the
                 solar-dried products showed superior quality than the
                 products produced by the traditional and improved
                 drying methods. The results revealed that the dried
                 fish produced by the solar tunnel drying method
                 provided the best product in terms of physico-chemical,
                 microbiological, and sensory aspects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{vonSiebenthal:2018:TOU,
  author =       "Elena Wernicke von Siebenthal and Kristina Rehberger
                 and Christyn Bailey and Albert Ros and Elio L. Herzog
                 and Helmut Segner",
  title =        "Trade-Offs Underwater: Physiological Plasticity of
                 Rainbow Trout (\bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss})
                 Confronted by Multiple Stressors",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "49",
  day =          "16",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040049",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/49",
  abstract =     "Organisms have evolved mechanisms to partition the
                 available resources between fitness-relevant
                 physiological functions. Organisms possess phenotypic
                 plasticity to acclimate to changing environmental
                 conditions. However, this comes at a cost that can
                 cause negative correlations or ``trade-offs'', whereby
                 increasing investments in one function lead to
                 decreased investments in another function. The aim of
                 the present study was to investigate the prioritization
                 of resource allocation between growth, pathogen
                 defense, and contaminant response in juvenile rainbow
                 trout (\bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss}) exposed to
                 changes of resource income or expenditure. We performed
                 a multifactorial experiment with three
                 resource-impacting stressors --- limited food
                 availability, a parasitic infection, exposure to a
                 vitellogenesis-inducing contaminant --- and
                 combinations thereof. Treatment with the individual
                 stressors evoked the expected responses in the
                 respective physiological target systems --- body
                 growth, immune system, and hepatic vitellogenin
                 transcription --- but we found little evidence for
                 significant negative relations (trade-offs) between the
                 three systems. This also applied to fish exposed to
                 combinations of the stressors. This high phenotypic
                 flexibility of trout in their resource allocation
                 suggests that linear resource allocations as mechanisms
                 of phenotypic plasticity may be too simplistic, but it
                 also may point to a greater capacity of ectothermic
                 than endothermic vertebrates to maintain key
                 physiological processes under competing resource needs
                 due to lower maintenance costs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ruiz-Jarabo:2018:NRE,
  author =       "Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo and Pura M{\'a}rquez and Luis
                 Vargas-Chacoff and Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha and
                 Salvador C{\'a}rdenas and Juan Miguel Mancera",
  title =        "Narrowing the Range of Environmental Salinities Where
                 Juvenile Meagre (\bioname{Argyrosomus regius}) Can Be
                 Cultured Based on an Osmoregulatory Pilot Study",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "48",
  day =          "13",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040048",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/48",
  abstract =     "Aquaculture in Europe aims to diversify and optimize
                 fish farming. The meagre (\bioname{Argyrosomus regius})
                 arose as a promising species due to its fast growth
                 rates and flesh quality. Thus, it is currently being
                 produced in several Mediterranean countries, mainly in
                 sea-cages and salt-marshes. However, although meagre
                 naturally spend the first years of life in brackish
                 waters, to date it is cultured in seawater. Here, we
                 show that juveniles may not successfully face either
                 freshwater or hyper-osmotic environments as high as 55
                 ppt salinity. We found that 55 ppt induced catabolism
                 and mobilization of energy metabolites stored in the
                 liver, probably to maintain its osmotic balance.
                 Furthermore, we found that osmoregulatory tissues such
                 as gills managed to maintain plasma osmolality levels
                 without differences in meagre acclimated at 5, 12 and
                 39 ppt salinity. Our results demonstrate the euryhaline
                 capacity of this species, highlighting that juveniles
                 may be cultured in a wider range of salinities rather
                 than just at seawater. Future studies should focus on
                 optimal environmental salinities for the growth of A.
                 regius juveniles, including long-term experiments
                 limited to the range of 5 ppt to full-strength
                 seawater. Minimizing fish energy consumption in
                 osmoregulation could be economically beneficial for the
                 aquaculture industry in Europe.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Luer:2018:PHH,
  author =       "Carl A. Luer and Catherine J. Walsh",
  title =        "Potential Human Health Applications from Marine
                 Biomedical Research with Elasmobranch Fishes",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "47",
  day =          "06",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040047",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/47",
  abstract =     "Members of the subclass of fishes collectively known
                 as elasmobranchs (Class Chondrichthyes, Subclass
                 Elasmobranchii) include sharks, skates, rays,
                 guitarfish, and sawfish. Having diverged from the main
                 line of vertebrate evolution some 400 million years
                 ago, these fishes have continued to be successful in
                 our ever-changing oceans. Much of their success must be
                 attributed to their uncanny ability to remain healthy.
                 Based on decades of basic research, some of their
                 secrets may be very close to benefitting man. In this
                 short review, some of the molecular and cellular
                 biological areas that show promise for potential human
                 applications are presented. With a brief background and
                 current status of relevant research, these topics
                 include development of new antibiotics and novel
                 treatments for cancer, macular degeneration, viral
                 pathogens, and Parkinson's disease; potentially useful
                 genomic information from shark transcriptomes; shark
                 antibody-derived drug delivery systems; and immune
                 cell-derived compounds as potential cancer therapeutic
                 agents.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Trifonova:2018:CAB,
  author =       "Oxana P. Trifonova and Dmitry L. Maslov and Anton N.
                 Mikhailov and Konstantin V. Zolotarev and Kirill V.
                 Nakhod and Valeriya I. Nakhod and Nataliya F. Belyaeva
                 and Marina V. Mikhailova and Petr G. Lokhov and
                 Alexander I. Archakov",
  title =        "Comparative Analysis of the Blood Plasma Metabolome of
                 Negligible, Gradual and Rapidly Ageing Fishes",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "46",
  day =          "04",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040046",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/46",
  abstract =     "There are a number of different animals that belong to
                 long- and short-lived species and show a various rate
                 of ageing, providing an ideal model to investigate
                 mechanisms of longevity. In this work, a metabolome
                 profiling of blood plasma from fishes with various
                 ageing rates---negligible (Pike \bioname{Esox lucius}
                 and Sterlet \bioname{Acipenser ruthenus}), gradual
                 (Zander \bioname{Sander lucioperca} and Perch
                 \bioname{Perca fluviatilis}) and rapid (Chum Salmon
                 \bioname{Oncorhynchus keta} and Pink Salmon
                 \bioname{Oncorhynchus gorbuscha})---was assessed by
                 means of direct infusion to quadrupole time-of-flight
                 mass spectrometry. Of the 2056 distinct m/z features
                 detected by a mass spectrometry metabolic profiling of
                 blood plasma samples, fifteen metabolites in the
                 classes of dipeptides, fatty acids, glycerolipids,
                 phosphoethanolamines and phosphatidylcholines were
                 significantly associated with ageing rate, independent
                 of species differences. This is the first study of the
                 metabolome of fishes with various ageing rate, and this
                 untargeted approach highlighted the metabolic
                 conditions that may serve to assess the ageing
                 process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Reading:2018:OEQ,
  author =       "Benjamin J. Reading and Linnea K. Andersen and
                 Yong-Woon Ryu and Yuji Mushirobira and Takashi Todo and
                 Naoshi Hiramatsu",
  title =        "Oogenesis and Egg Quality in Finfish: Yolk Formation
                 and Other Factors Influencing Female Fertility",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "45",
  day =          "21",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040045",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/45",
  abstract =     "Egg quality in fishes has been a topic of research in
                 aquaculture and fisheries for decades as it represents
                 an important life history trait and is critical for
                 captive propagation and successful recruitment. A major
                 factor influencing egg quality is proper yolk
                 formation, as most fishes are oviparous and the
                 developing offspring are entirely dependent on stored
                 egg yolk for nutritional sustenance. These maternally
                 derived nutrients consist of proteins, carbohydrates,
                 lipids, vitamins, minerals, and ions that are
                 transported from the liver to the ovary by lipoprotein
                 particles including vitellogenins. The yolk composition
                 may be influenced by broodstock diet, husbandry, and
                 other intrinsic and extrinsic conditions. In addition,
                 a number of other maternal factors that may influence
                 egg quality also are stored in eggs, such as gene
                 transcripts, that direct early embryonic development.
                 Dysfunctional regulation of gene or protein expression
                 may lead to poor quality eggs and failure to thrive
                 within hours of fertilization. These gene transcripts
                 may provide important markers as their expression
                 levels may be used to screen broodstock for potential
                 spawning success. In addition to such intrinsic
                 factors, stress may lead to ovarian atresia or
                 reproductive failure and can impact fish behavior,
                 fecundity, and ovulation rate. Finally, postovulatory
                 aging may occur when eggs become overripe and the fish
                 fails to spawn in a timely fashion, leading to low
                 fertility, often encountered during manual strip
                 spawning of fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Hussain:2018:OPR,
  author =       "Md. Ashraf Hussain and Md. Lutful Kabir and Md. Abu
                 Sayeed and A. T. M. Mahbub-E-Elahi and Md. Sultan Ahmed
                 and Md Jakiul Islam",
  title =        "Organochlorine Pesticide Residues and Microbiological
                 Quality Assessment of Dried Barb, \bioname{Puntius
                 sophore}, from the Northeastern Part of {Bangladesh}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "44",
  day =          "09",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040044",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/44",
  abstract =     "The present study was carried out in the northeastern
                 part of Bangladesh to investigate organochlorine
                 pesticide (OCP) residues in and microbiological quality
                 of dried barb (\bioname{Puntius sophore}). Samples were
                 collected from both producers and retailers from
                 December 2016 to April 2017. A control sample was also
                 prepared in the laboratory with the same raw fish used
                 by the producers to compare the results. Gas
                 chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD)
                 was used to detect and quantify OCP residues. Six
                 samples out of 27 (about 22\%) were found to be
                 contaminated with OCP residues. Among these six
                 adulterated samples, four were from retailers and two
                 from producers. Only aldrin was detected in four
                 samples, and in the other two samples both aldrin +
                 dieldrin and aldrin + endrin were detected. Aldrin was
                 found in quantities between 0.332 and 0.967 ppm,
                 dieldrin 0.762 ppm, and endrin 0.828 ppm. All these
                 values were much higher than the maximum residual limit
                 (MRL) of 0.1 ppm. Total plate count (TPC) of producer
                 samples ranged from 5.3 {\pm} 0.02 log cfu g {-1} to
                 5.4 {\pm} 0.03 log cfu g {-1} and 6.2 {\pm} 0.02 log
                 cfu g {-1} to 6.4 {\pm} 0.02 log cfu g {-1} for
                 retailer samples and 5.0 {\pm} 0.03 log cfu g {-1} to
                 5.2 {\pm} 0.04 log cfu g {-1} for control samples.
                 Fungal count ranged from 3.2 {\pm} 0.04 log cfu g {-1}
                 to 3.5 {\pm} 0.04 log cfu g {-1}, 3.4 {\pm} 0.04 log
                 cfu g {-1} to 3.6 {\pm} 0.03 log cfu g {-1}, and 2.2
                 {\pm} 0.05 log cfu g {-1} to 2.5 {\pm} 0.03 log cfu g
                 {-1} for producer, retailer, and control samples,
                 respectively. All the producer and retailer samples and
                 one-third of the control samples were found to be
                 contaminated with \bioname{Escherichia coli}, whereas
                 Salmonella spp. were detected in amounts of 13.3\% in
                 producer samples and 20\% in retailer samples and none
                 in the control. In case of Vibrio spp., maximum count
                 was found in retailer samples (13.3\%), whereas
                 producer and control samples showed none. The findings
                 of the present study show that the presence of
                 pesticides and poor microbiological quality of dried
                 barb are alarming for consumers in Bangladesh and might
                 cause prolonged disease and impending longstanding risk
                 to human health.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Papadaki:2018:DAR,
  author =       "Maria Papadaki and Jos{\'e} Benito Peleteiro and
                 Blanca Alvarez-Bl{\'a}zquez and Jos{\'e} Luis
                 Rodr{\'\i}guez Villanueva and Fatima Linares and
                 Antonio Vilar and Evaristo P{\'e}rez Rial and Nuria
                 Lluch and Ioannis Fakriadis and Irini Sigelaki and
                 Constantinos C. Mylonas",
  title =        "Description of the Annual Reproductive Cycle of
                 Wreckfish \bioname{Polyprion americanus} in Captivity",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "43",
  day =          "19",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040043",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/43",
  abstract =     "Successful spontaneous reproduction and the production
                 of viable offspring of wild fish in captivity can take
                 some years of adaptation, and may also involve
                 different environmental conditions, sex ratios and
                 densities compared to natural populations. We followed
                 the reproductive cycle of wreckfish \bioname{Polyprion
                 americanus} ---a late maturing, deep-sea benthic
                 species---in captivity in three different broodstocks
                 in Spain under natural photoperiod and temperature, and
                 one broodstock in Greece under a constant temperature
                 of 16 {$^\circ $}C for two consecutive years, to
                 describe the reproductive cycle of the species and the
                 associated sex steroid hormone profiles. Oogenesis
                 begun in the fall and post-vitellogenic oocytes of 1250
                 {\mu}m were present between March and June. Males were
                 in spermiation condition and produced good-quality
                 sperm throughout the year, regardless of the
                 temperature profile to which they were exposed. Some
                 females completed oogenesis, underwent oocyte
                 maturation, and spawned spontaneously under both
                 constant and fluctuating temperatures. The sex steroid
                 hormones of both males and females followed the
                 already-known profiles during fish gametogenesis,
                 except for 17,20{\beta}-dihydroxy-progesterone, which
                 did not seem to be related to either female or male
                 maturation. The female reproductive dysfunctions that
                 were identified included (a) the arrest of oogenesis at
                 the cortical alveoli stage in certain females; (b) the
                 failure to undergo oocyte maturation in others; and (c)
                 the production of large percentages of unfertilized
                 eggs from the females that spawned spontaneously. Our
                 study suggests that reproduction in captivity is
                 possible in wreckfish maintained under typical marine
                 aquaculture conditions, but that reliable spawning and
                 production of high-quality eggs may require some years
                 of adaptation to captivity, before the reproductive
                 dysfunctions will be overcome.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Axen:2018:OMA,
  author =       "Charlotte Ax{\'e}n and Niccol{\`o} Vendramin and Anna
                 Toffan",
  title =        "Outbreak of Mortality Associated with Acipenser
                 Iridovirus {European} ({AcIV-E}) Detection in
                 {Siberian} Sturgeon (\bioname{Acipenser baerii}) Farmed
                 in {Sweden}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42",
  day =          "16",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040042",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/42",
  abstract =     "Infectious disease is a major challenge in aquaculture
                 and poses a constraint for the development of farming
                 of new species. In 2017, Siberian sturgeon
                 (\bioname{Acipenser baerii}) juveniles were imported
                 from Italy to a Swedish farm. Transport conditions were
                 suboptimal. Thirty percent died during transport and
                 within the first days after arrival. Ten days after
                 arrival, mortalities started to occur again, which
                 prompted initiation of an investigation into the
                 mortalities. Diseased fish were transported live to the
                 National Veterinary Institute (SVA) for necropsy and
                 further analysis. Pathological and histopathological
                 investigation was conducted. Virology was performed on
                 gills and internal organs by cell culture isolation and
                 using specific PCR protocols against nervous necrosis
                 virus (NNV) and Acipenser iridovirus European (AcIV-E).
                 The juveniles displayed neurological signs such as
                 lethargy, inability to maintain an upright position,
                 and erratic swimming. Body condition was below normal,
                 and gills were pale. One fish had petechial hemorrhages
                 on the abdomen and the snout. Two specimens had
                 intestinal hyperemia. Ventricles were air-filled, and
                 swim bladders were deflated. Viral cell cultures gave
                 negative results, but PCR analysis of gills and
                 internal organs detected the presence of AcIV-E. We
                 conclude that AcIV-E was associated with disease and
                 high mortality in the sturgeon juveniles, and stress
                 probably aggravated the course of the infection.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Reverter:2018:BER,
  author =       "Miriam Reverter and Nathalie Tapissier-Bontemps and
                 David Lecchini and Bernard Banaigs and Pierre Sasal",
  title =        "Biological and Ecological Roles of External Fish
                 Mucus: a Review",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41",
  day =          "09",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040041",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/41",
  abstract =     "Fish mucus layers are the main surface of exchange
                 between fish and the environment, and they possess
                 important biological and ecological functions. Fish
                 mucus research is increasing rapidly, along with the
                 development of high-throughput techniques, which allow
                 the simultaneous study of numerous genes and molecules,
                 enabling a deeper understanding of the fish mucus
                 composition and its functions. Fish mucus plays a major
                 role against fish infections, and research has mostly
                 focused on the study of fish mucus bioactive molecules
                 (e.g., antimicrobial peptides and immune-related
                 molecules) and associated microbiota due to their
                 potential in aquaculture and human medicine. However,
                 external fish mucus surfaces also play important roles
                 in social relationships between conspecifics (fish
                 shoaling, spawning synchronisation, suitable habitat
                 finding, or alarm signals) and in interspecific
                 interactions such as prey-predator relationships,
                 parasite--host interactions, and symbiosis. This
                 article reviews the biological and ecological roles of
                 external (gills and skin) fish mucus, discussing its
                 importance in fish protection against pathogens and in
                 intra and interspecific interactions. We also discuss
                 the advances that ``omics'' sciences are bringing into
                 the fish mucus research and their importance in
                 studying the fish mucus composition and functions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lindseth:2018:ALL,
  author =       "Adelaide V. Lindseth and Phillip S. Lobel",
  title =        "Addendum: {Lindseth, A. and Lobel, P. S. Underwater
                 Soundscape Monitoring and Fish Bioacoustics: a Review.
                 {{\booktitle{Fishes}}} 2018, {\bf 3}, 36}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40",
  day =          "08",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040040",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/40",
  abstract =     "Fish mucus layers are the main surface of exchange
                 between fish and the environment, and they possess
                 important biological and ecological functions. Fish
                 mucus research is increasing rapidly, along with the
                 development of high-throughput techniques, which allow
                 the simultaneous study of numerous genes and molecules,
                 enabling a deeper understanding of the fish mucus
                 composition and its functions. Fish mucus plays a major
                 role against fish infections, and research has mostly
                 focused on the study of fish mucus bioactive molecules
                 (e.g., antimicrobial peptides and immune-related
                 molecules) and associated microbiota due to their
                 potential in aquaculture and human medicine. However,
                 external fish mucus surfaces also play important roles
                 in social relationships between conspecifics (fish
                 shoaling, spawning synchronisation, suitable habitat
                 finding, or alarm signals) and in interspecific
                 interactions such as prey-predator relationships,
                 parasite--host interactions, and symbiosis. This
                 article reviews the biological and ecological roles of
                 external (gills and skin) fish mucus, discussing its
                 importance in fish protection against pathogens and in
                 intra and interspecific interactions. We also discuss
                 the advances that ``omics'' sciences are bringing into
                 the fish mucus research and their importance in
                 studying the fish mucus composition and functions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Esquivel-Muelbert:2018:AVR,
  author =       "Juan R. Esquivel-Muelbert and Luisa Fontoura and
                 {\'E}verton Zardo and Danilo P. {Streit, Jr.} and
                 Adriane Esquivel-Muelbert and Juan R. E. Garcia",
  title =        "Assessing the Viability of Reintroduction of Locally
                 Extinct Migratory Fish \bioname{Brycon orbignyanus}:
                 Successful Growth, Dispersal and Maturation",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "39",
  day =          "01",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040039",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/39",
  abstract =     "The reintroduction of threatened fish species in areas
                 where wild populations have been depleted due to
                 anthropogenic impacts is an increasingly popular
                 conservation tool and mitigation policy. Despite the
                 importance of fish reintroduction for conservation
                 purposes, little is known about its efficiency. Here,
                 we assessed the viability of reintroduction of the
                 endangered migratory fish, Brycon orbignyanus, in an
                 area of the Upper Uruguay River basin where the species
                 has not been reported for more than 30 years. We
                 released 4000 yearling juveniles in the Pelotas River
                 in 2014 and maintained 400 juveniles in captivity as a
                 control population. After three years, a total of 13
                 individuals was recaptured, of which, 10 were
                 considered sexually mature with first maturation being
                 recorded in animals larger than 42 cm in total body
                 length. The age--length comparison with a control
                 population growth curve showed that recaptured fish
                 were slightly bigger than those in captivity.
                 Furthermore, important ecological attributes as
                 schooling behavior and dispersal capacity were recorded
                 for all recaptured individuals. Combined, our results
                 suggest that the re-establishment of a self-sustained
                 population of locally extinct species B. orbignyanus in
                 the Pelotas River may be successful if sustained over
                 time and supported by conservation policies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Naslund:2018:RMB,
  author =       "Joacim N{\"a}slund",
  title =        "Relative Mass of Brain- and Intestinal Tissue in
                 Juvenile Brown Trout: No Long-Term Effects of
                 Compensatory Growth; with Additional Notes on Emerging
                 Sex-Differences",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "38",
  day =          "28",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040038",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/38",
  abstract =     "This study investigated whether compensatory growth
                 causes long-term effects in relative brain- or
                 intestine size in a wild, predominantly anadromous,
                 population of brown trout (\bioname{Salmo trutta}). The
                 subject fish belonged to two treatment groups; one
                 group had undergone starvation and subsequent growth
                 compensation, while the other were unrestricted
                 controls. The main hypothesis that compensatory growth
                 would negatively affect brain and intestinal size, as a
                 consequence of growth trade-offs during the
                 compensatory phase, could not be supported as no
                 significant differences were detected between the
                 treatment groups. Further exploratory analyses
                 suggested that males and females started to diverge in
                 both brain and intestine size at around 130 mm fork
                 length, with females developing relatively smaller
                 brains and larger intestines. The size at which the
                 differences appear is a typical size for smoltification
                 (saltwater preadaptation), and females tend to smoltify
                 to a higher proportion than males. Smoltification is
                 known to cause a more elongated morphology and
                 relatively smaller heads in salmonids, and the marine
                 lifestyle is associated with rapid growth, which could
                 require relatively larger intestines. Hence, these
                 emerging sex differences could be a consequence of
                 sex-biased smoltification rates. An investigation of
                 wild smolts of both sexes indicated no differences in
                 brain or intestine mass between male and female
                 smolts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lacy:2018:IRT,
  author =       "Shaw Lacy and Fernando Ugalde and Luca Mao",
  title =        "Invasive Rainbow Trout (\bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss})
                 Are Not Affected by Different Land Uses in a Multi-Use,
                 {Mediterranean} Climate Landscape",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "37",
  day =          "26",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes3040037",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:21 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/3/4/37",
  abstract =     "Land use carries implications for freshwater fish
                 conservation. Plantation forestry practices have been
                 shown to have negative impacts on resident fish fauna,
                 but little work has been conducted to assess these
                 impacts on invasive vs. native fish populations. Ten
                 headwater catchments in the Mediterranean climate zone
                 of Chile were used to assess the impacts of land use
                 (pine plantations vs. native forests) on fish condition
                 (length--weight relationship) and abundance
                 (catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE)) of the invasive trout
                 \bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss} and the threatened native
                 catfish Nematogenys inermis. Negative impacts on trout
                 condition were associated with a lack of canopy cover
                 and river topology. The presence of N. inermis was
                 associated with catchment factors less favourable to
                 trout. Current environmental regulations and forestry
                 management practices do not appear to create negative
                 pressures on invasive trout from land use practices,
                 despite expectations from the literature. Assessing how
                 land use management regulations impact invasive and
                 native fishes should be a part of species conservation
                 and territorial planning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Woodward:2019:EIA,
  author =       "Melanie A. Woodward and Lucy A. Winder and Penelope J.
                 Watt",
  title =        "Enrichment Increases Aggression in Zebrafish",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "22",
  day =          "19",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010022",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/22",
  abstract =     "Environmental enrichment, or the enhancement of an
                 animal's surroundings when in captivity to maximise its
                 wellbeing, has been increasingly applied to fish
                 species, particularly those used commercially.
                 Laboratory species could also benefit from enrichment,
                 but it is not always clear what constitutes an enriched
                 environment. The zebrafish, \bioname{Danio rerio}, is
                 used widely in research and is one of the most
                 commonly-used laboratory animals. We investigated
                 whether changing the structural complexity of housing
                 tanks altered the behaviour of one strain of zebrafish.
                 Fish were kept in three treatments: (1) very enhanced
                 (VE); (2) mildly enhanced (ME); and (3) control (CT).
                 Level of aggression, fertilisation success, and growth
                 were measured at regular intervals in a subset of fish
                 in each treatment group. The VE fish were more
                 aggressive over time than either ME or CT fish, both in
                 the number of attacks they made against a mirror image
                 and in their tendency to stay close to their reflection
                 rather than avoid it. Furthermore, VE fish were shorter
                 than CT fish by the end of the experiment, though mass
                 was not significantly affected. There was no
                 significant effect of treatment on fertilisation
                 success. These findings suggest that the way in which
                 fish are housed in the laboratory can significantly
                 affect their behaviour, and potentially, their growth.
                 The zebrafish is a shoaling species with a dominance
                 hierarchy, and so may become territorial over objects
                 placed in the tank. The enrichment of laboratory tanks
                 should consider aspects of the species' behaviour.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Cortay:2019:DAP,
  author =       "Aurore Cortay and Tatiana Colchen and Pascal Fontaine
                 and Alain Pasquet",
  title =        "Does Addition of Perch Larvae as Prey Affect the
                 Growth, Development and Cannibalism Rate of Pikeperch
                 Larvae?",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "21",
  day =          "18",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010021",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/21",
  abstract =     "Cannibalism occurs in many cultured fish species,
                 especially at the larval and juvenile stages of
                 piscivorous taxa. In farmed percid species, such as
                 pikeperch (\bioname{Sander lucioperca}), intra-cohort
                 cannibalism is a major issue inducing significant
                 losses of the initial stocking density during the first
                 weeks of rearing. Therefore, the present study was
                 designed to investigate the effects of perch larvae
                 (\bioname{Perca fluviatilis}) as live prey on growth,
                 survival and cannibalism in pikeperch larvae under
                 experimental conditions. Additionally, zootechnical and
                 behavioural variables linked to aggressiveness (S
                 postures, attacks, bites and ingestion), and group
                 structures were considered. The survival rate was not
                 different between the two groups (72\% with prey vs.
                 69\% without prey), but the cannibalism rate was higher
                 in the group with the prey (28\% vs. 10\%). The means
                 of final weight and length of pikeperch larvae were
                 higher in the group fed with perch larvae, but size
                 heterogeneity measured by the coefficients of variation
                 for these two parameters did not differ. The specific
                 growth rate was higher in the group fed with perch
                 larvae, but there was no difference between the two
                 groups concerning Fulton's condition factor. Among all
                 the behavioural variables (aggressiveness, group
                 structure), none differed between the two groups.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ord:2019:ISP,
  author =       "James Ord",
  title =        "Ionic Stress Prompts Premature Hatching of Zebrafish
                 (\bioname{Danio rerio}) Embryos",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "20",
  day =          "13",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010020",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/20",
  abstract =     "Ionic homeostasis is an essential component of
                 functioning cells, and ionic stress imposed by
                 excessive salinity can disrupt cellular and
                 physiological processes. Therefore, increasing salinity
                 of aquatic environments---a consequence of global
                 climate change---has the potential to adversely affect
                 the health of aquatic animals and their ecosystems. The
                 ability to respond adaptively to adverse environmental
                 changes is essential for the survival of species, but
                 animals in early embryonic stages may be particularly
                 vulnerable, as they cannot easily escape from such
                 conditions. Herein, the effects of increasing salinity
                 on the mortality and hatching time of zebrafish
                 (\bioname{Danio rerio}) embryos were investigated.
                 Increasing salinity significantly affected mortality
                 after 24 h of exposure beginning from {$<$2} h
                 post-fertilisation, with 10 parts per thousand (ppt)
                 inducing complete lethality. The 24-h LC50 of NaCl to
                 embryos was estimated to be approximately 5.6 ppt.
                 Interestingly, 5 ppt, a test concentration only
                 slightly lower than the LC50, induced earlier hatching
                 than at lower concentrations. This earlier hatching was
                 also observed even when exposure was commenced at later
                 stages of embryogenesis, despite later-stage embryos
                 not suffering appreciable mortality in response to
                 salinity. The results suggest that earlier hatching is
                 a plastic response which may function to enable embryos
                 to evade unfavourable conditions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Simat:2019:VAS,
  author =       "Vida {\v{S}}imat and {\v{Z}}eljka Trumbi{\'c}",
  title =        "Viability of \bioname{Anisakis} spp. Larvae After
                 Direct Exposure to Different Processing Media and
                 Non-Thermal Processing in Anchovy Fillets",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19",
  day =          "13",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010019",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/19",
  abstract =     "Anisakiasis is fish-borne zoonoses caused by nematodes
                 of the genus Anisakis, contracted by the ingestion of
                 live L3 infective larvae through consumption of raw,
                 undercooked or thermally unprocessed seafood products,
                 such as carpaccio, and white marinated and dry-salted
                 anchovies. In order to maintain the organoleptic
                 properties of the product, the freezing of fish prior
                 to processing is often ignored, especially in
                 households, and traditional processing methods are not
                 sufficient to kill Anisakis larvae. In this study, we
                 investigated the survival and resistance of Anisakis
                 spp. larvae in different processing solutions including
                 varying salt and sugar content, lemon juice, acetic
                 acid, alcohol, wine, and apple vinegar. We also
                 performed a viability test of larvae during processing
                 in anchovy fillets. When exposed directly to different
                 NaCl concentrations, larvae were killed after
                 approximately three days in the strongest (35\%) and 10
                 days in the weakest solution (5\%). In lemon juice and
                 lemon juice with added acetic acid, the survival of
                 larvae was around 5 days. In intact alcohol vinegar,
                 larvae were killed under less than 48 h, while in the
                 solution with water their resistance was prolonged to
                 almost 40 days. In fillets, larvae showed increased
                 resistance during carpaccio and white wine vinegar
                 marinades and only dry salting was effective in
                 destroying Anisakis spp. larvae.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Coccia:2019:CSE,
  author =       "Elena Coccia and Francesco Siano and Maria Grazia
                 Volpe and Ettore Varricchio and Orhan Tufan Eroldogan
                 and Marina Paolucci",
  title =        "Chestnut Shell Extract Modulates Immune Parameters in
                 the Rainbow Trout \bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "18",
  day =          "12",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010018",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/18",
  abstract =     "In this study, chestnut (Castanea sativa) shell was
                 extracted with different solvents, and immunomodulatory
                 activity was investigated in an in vitro model system
                 using blood and intestinal leukocytes of
                 \bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss}. Gallic acid (GA) was
                 used as a standard. Chestnut shell extract (CSE) and GA
                 readily entered both blood and intestinal leukocytes.
                 Superoxide anion production and phagocytosis were
                 decreased by low doses of CSE and increased with high
                 doses. CSE and GA differently regulated cytokine
                 expression in blood and intestinal leukocytes. High
                 doses of CSE upregulated IL-1{\beta}, TNF-{\alpha}, and
                 IL-10 in intestinal leukocytes and IL-10 in blood
                 leukocytes. Low doses of CSE upregulated IL-1{\beta}
                 and TNF-{\alpha} in blood leukocytes. GA appeared to be
                 effective only in blood leukocytes. The effects of CSE
                 on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines seemed to
                 suggest an alert effect of the immune defense system
                 against a possible infectious agent. The less evident
                 effect of GA in comparison to CSE could have been
                 attributable to the synergistic and/or additive effects
                 of polyphenols in the latter. The immune-stimulating
                 activity of CSE reported here could be useful for
                 future practical applications in fish health.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Unger:2019:RST,
  author =       "Shem Unger and Caleb Hickman",
  title =        "Report on the Short-Term Scavenging of Decomposing
                 Native and Non-Native Trout in {Appalachian} Streams",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "17",
  day =          "01",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010017",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/17",
  abstract =     "Trout fishing is one of the primary recreational
                 activities in the southern Appalachians, with large
                 amounts of fish stocked on a regular basis. However,
                 very little is known regarding the fate of hatchery
                 reared carcasses not captured by anglers, representing
                 a likely important ecological resource to local
                 communities. We tested the efficacy of underwater video
                 to characterize short term decomposition and
                 consumption by aquatic scavengers of native brook and
                 non-native rainbow trout, \bioname{Salvelinus
                 fontinalis} and Oncorhychus mykiss. This study took
                 place on the Cherokee Qualla Boundary in North
                 Carolina, a location with one of the highest riverine
                 stocked trout densities in the eastern {United States}.
                 During May 2017, 10 waterproof cameras were deployed
                 for 1-hour intervals on each carcass twice daily for a
                 period of 5 days. We observed that 75.3\% of recorded
                 video contained river chub, Nocomis micropogon, with
                 only 24.7\% visited by crayfish, with a maximum of 9
                 and a mean of 1.93 for N. micropogon. Half of the
                 carcasses were removed within 2 days. Based on natural
                 history evidence and some trail cameras, we believe
                 that otters were removing carcasses. Otters showed no
                 preference for either trout species. Underwater video
                 allowed us to characterize initial decomposition within
                 stream diurnal scavengers in a short period using a
                 visual, non-destructive low-cost method. Future studies
                 should monitor large mammalian scavengers to further
                 elucidate the role of fish stocking on aquatic
                 communities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Wylie:2019:TCD,
  author =       "Matthew J. Wylie and Jane E. Symonds and Alvin N.
                 Setiawan and Glen W. Irvine and Hui Liu and Abigail
                 Elizur and P. Mark Lokman",
  title =        "Transcriptomic Changes during Previtellogenic and
                 Vitellogenic Stages of Ovarian Development in Wreckfish
                 ({H{\=a}puku}), \bioname{Polyprion oxygeneios}
                 ({Perciformes})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "16",
  day =          "28",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010016",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/16",
  abstract =     "`Wreckfish' a collective of species belonging to the
                 family Polyprionidae, are an important commercial
                 fishery and have significant aquaculture potential.
                 Until now, genomic or transcriptomic information for
                 any species within the genus Polyprion has either
                 remained unpublished or is non-existent. Using Illumina
                 HiSeq, we compared the transcriptomes of h{\=a}puku
                 (\bioname{Polyprion oxygeneios}) ovaries to explore
                 developmental stage-specific variations underlying
                 their reproductive physiology. We sought to identify
                 differentially expressed genes and the associated
                 shifts in biological pathways between previtellogenic
                 and early vitellogenic ovaries. Ovarian tissue was
                 repeatedly biopsied by gonopore cannulation from the
                 same females (n = 3) throughout oogenesis. Reproductive
                 status of initial biopsies was confirmed as being
                 previtellogenic and that in biopsies collected eight
                 weeks later as early vitellogenic. A de novo h{\=a}puku
                 transcriptome was assembled (146,189 transcripts) from
                 RNA-Seq data without a reference genome. On average,
                 each tissue sample contained 17.5 million trimmed
                 reads. Gene annotation was 80\% when using BLASTX
                 against Genbank Non Redundant database. Fifty-three
                 transcripts were differentially expressed within the
                 FDR of 0.05 when previtellogenic and early vitellogenic
                 ovaries were compared; this reduced to 35
                 differentially expressed genes when transcript
                 duplications were pooled. Among these were genes
                 tentatively associated with the electron transport
                 chain, lipid metabolism, steroidogenesis and
                 mineral/solute transportation. These data provide a
                 snap-shot into stage-specific physiological events
                 during oogenesis in the ovary of a teleost and an
                 extensive molecular resource for research on species in
                 the Genus Polyprion.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Torrecillas:2019:SMF,
  author =       "Silvia Torrecillas and Daniel Montero and David
                 Dom{\'\i}nguez and Lidia Robaina and Marisol
                 Izquierdo",
  title =        "Skin Mucus Fatty Acid Composition of Gilthead Sea
                 Bream (\bioname{Sparus aurata}): a Descriptive Study in
                 Fish Fed Low and High Fish Meal Diets",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15",
  day =          "27",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010015",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/15",
  abstract =     "Terrestrial protein and lipid sources are commonly
                 used as substitutes for marine fishery-derived raw
                 ingredients in fish diets. However, their use is
                 related with several side-effects on marine fish
                 performance, health, or disease resistance. Physical
                 barriers of the skin, gills, and gut constitute the
                 primary defense mechanism of fish. Skin mucus mucosal
                 mucins, water, proteins, ions, and lipids determine the
                 physical, chemical, and protective characteristics of
                 skin mucus. Very little is known about the influence of
                 diet composition on fish skin mucus fatty acid profile.
                 Gilthead sea bream skin mucus contained 10\% of total
                 lipids (TL), which consisted of 50--60\% neutral (NL)
                 and 40--50\% polar lipids (PL) fractions. {\Sigma}n{-}3
                 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA)
                 deposition was preferential in the NL fraction, whereas
                 {\Sigma}n{-}6LC-PUFA accumulation was similar in both
                 lipid classes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:{6n-3})
                 was the main LC-PUFA stored in skin mucus (14\% TL) in
                 relation to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:{5n-3})
                 (2--3\% TL) and arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:{4n-6}) (2\%
                 TL). This study denotes the importance of DHA as
                 component of skin mucus lipids compared to other
                 essential fatty acids, such as EPA and ARA, as well as
                 importance of maintaining an adequate {\Sigma}n{-}3/
                 {\Sigma}n{-}6 ratio, regardless of dietary intake.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Perez:2019:WPA,
  author =       "Evaristo P{\'e}rez and F{\'a}tima Linares and Jos{\'e}
                 Luis Rodr{\'\i}guez Villanueva and Antonio Vilar and
                 Constantinos C. Mylonas and Ioannis Fakriadis and Maria
                 Papadaki and Nikos Papandroulakis and Ioannis Papadakis
                 and Roc{\'\i}o Robles and Christian Fauvel and Javier
                 Roo and Jos{\'e} Benito Peleteiro and Nuria Lluch and
                 Gema Pazos and Bel{\'e}n M{\'e}ndez and Irini Sigelaki
                 and Castora G{\'o}mez and Montse P{\'e}rez and Blanca
                 {\'A}lvarez-Bl{\'a}zquez",
  title =        "Wreckfish (\bioname{Polyprion americanus}). New
                 Knowledge About Reproduction, Larval Husbandry, and
                 Nutrition. {Promise} as a New Species for Aquaculture",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14",
  day =          "25",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010014",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/14",
  abstract =     "Four different wreckfish (\bioname{Polyprion
                 americanus}) broodstock batches were maintained in
                 research facilities under different photo and
                 thermo-period conditions, one in Greece, the Helenic
                 Center for Marine Research (HCMR, n = 3) and three in
                 Spain: Instituto Espa{\~n}ol de Oceanograf{\'\i}a (IEO,
                 n = 13) in Vigo, Aquarium Finisterrae (MC2, n = 21) in
                 A Coru{\~n}a and Conseller{\'\i}a do Mar (CMRM, n =
                 11). The CMRM includes two centers that work together:
                 Instituto Galego de Formaci{\'o}n en Acuicultura
                 (IGAFA) and Centro de Investigaci{\'o}ns Mari{\~n}as
                 (CIMA), both in Pontevedra. During the five years of
                 the project DIVERSIFY (Exploring the biological and
                 socio-economic potential of new-emerging candidate fish
                 species for the expansion of the European aquaculture
                 industry, 2013--2018) works focused on the reproductive
                 biology of the species, broodstock, and larvae
                 nutrition and development of incubation and larval
                 rearing protocols have been carried out. In terms of
                 reproduction, catch methods of new wild animals, the
                 reproductive cycle, sperm characteristics evaluation,
                 and spontaneous and induced spawning methods have been
                 described for wreckfish. Regarding nutrition, the
                 positive effect of two types of enrichment on the fatty
                 acid profiles of Artemia and rotifer has been verified.
                 The relationship between the fatty acid profile of the
                 diets supplied to the broodstock and the fatty acid
                 profile obtained in the oocytes and eggs of the females
                 fed with different diets, has also been demonstrated.
                 Finally, early larval ontogeny has been described and
                 incubation and larval rearing protocols have been
                 proposed based on the results obtained in the different
                 experiments of temperature, growth, survival, and
                 larval feeding that were carried out.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Debenedetti:2019:PRA,
  author =       "{\'A}ngela L. Debenedetti and Elena Madrid and
                 Mar{\'\i}a Trelis and Francisco J. Codes and Florimar
                 Gil-G{\'o}mez and Sandra S{\'a}ez-Dur{\'a}n and
                 M{\`a}rius V. Fuentes",
  title =        "Prevalence and Risk of Anisakid Larvae in Fresh Fish
                 Frequently Consumed in {Spain}: an Overview",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13",
  day =          "21",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010013",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/13",
  abstract =     "Anisakidosis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by
                 parasitic nematodes of the family Anisakidae, of which
                 the species belonging to \bioname{Anisakis simplex}
                 complex are the most representative. It is considered
                 an emerging disease in Spain. The objective of this
                 study is to analyse the presence of larvae in fish
                 frequently consumed in Spanish supermarkets, inferring
                 the risk of infection. In total 1,786 specimens of 9
                 different fish species, from two geographical origins
                 (Atlantic and Mediterranean), acquired fresh and not
                 eviscerated were examined for anisakid nematodes.
                 Analysis showed that 33.7\% of the samples were
                 parasitized by Anisakis larvae. The horse mackerel
                 (\bioname{Trachurus trachurus}) presented the highest
                 total prevalence (66.0\%), followed by the silver hake
                 (\bioname{Merluccius bilinearis}) (59.5\%), the
                 mackerel (\bioname{Scomber scombrus}) (58.4\%), the
                 blue whiting (\bioname{Micromesistius poutassou})
                 (53.9\%) and the European hake (Merlucius merlucius)
                 (45.0\%). In general, the prevalence was higher in
                 Atlantic than in Mediterranean fish. In all the species
                 analysed, a higher presence of the parasite was
                 detected in the viscera than in the flesh, although in
                 the most parasitized species a noteworthy prevalence
                 and abundance was observed in the flesh. In conclusion,
                 risk factors, like fish species and origin, should be
                 considered by consumers, in addition of following the
                 recommendations established by Commission Regulation
                 (EU) No1276/2011 and the Spanish Royal Decree
                 1420/2006.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Nijssen:2019:DIS,
  author =       "Edwin J. Nijssen and Machiel J. Reinders and
                 Athanasios Krystallis and Gemma Tacken",
  title =        "Developing an Internationalization Strategy Using
                 Diffusion Modeling: the Case of Greater Amberjack",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "12",
  day =          "16",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010012",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/12",
  abstract =     "For farmers of new fish species, market adoption is
                 needed in order to grow a viable business. Farmers may
                 try to sell the new species in their firms' domestic
                 markets, but they might also look at other markets.
                 However, as markets are becoming more global and
                 competitors more international, considering
                 internationalization may be a necessity rather than a
                 choice. Using diffusion modelling, and based on results
                 of an online supermarket experiment, the innovation and
                 imitation parameters are estimated and diffusion curves
                 for five countries predicted in an attempt to determine
                 the best lead market for introducing fillets of farmed
                 greater amberjack (\bioname{Seriola dumerili}). The
                 production capacity consequences of implementing
                 different internationalization strategies (i.e.
                 ``sprinkler'' and ``waterfall'') were also explored. A
                 waterfall strategy refers to the sequential
                 introduction of a product in different markets, whereas
                 the sprinkler strategy concerns the simultaneous
                 introduction of a product in multiple international
                 markets. Since a sprinkler approach requires many
                 resources and the ability to quickly ramp up production
                 capacity, a waterfall approach appears more suitable
                 for farmers of greater amberjack. Italy and Spain
                 appear to be the best lead markets for greater
                 amberjack farmers to enter first.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Tarasco:2019:AOA,
  author =       "Marco Tarasco and Jo{\~a}o Cardeira and Michael N.
                 Viegas and Joana Caria and Gil Martins and Paulo J.
                 Gavaia and M. Leonor Cancela and Vincent Laiz{\'e}",
  title =        "Anti-Osteogenic Activity of Cadmium in Zebrafish",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11",
  day =          "15",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010011",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/11",
  abstract =     "Among the many anthropogenic chemicals that end up in
                 the aquatic ecosystem, heavy metals, in particular
                 cadmium, are hazardous compounds that have been shown
                 to affect developmental, reproductive, hepatic,
                 hematological, and immunological functions in teleost
                 fish. There is also evidence that cadmium disturbs bone
                 formation and skeletal development, but data is scarce.
                 In this work, zebrafish was used to further
                 characterize the anti-osteogenic/osteotoxic effects of
                 cadmium and gain insights into underlying mechanisms.
                 Upon exposure to cadmium, a reduction of the opercular
                 bone growth was observed in 6-days post-fertilization
                 (dpf) larvae and an increase in the incidence of
                 skeletal deformities was evidenced in 20-dpf
                 post-larvae. The extent and stiffness of newly formed
                 bone was also affected in adult zebrafish exposed to
                 cadmium while regenerating their caudal fin. A pathway
                 reporter assay revealed a possible role of the MTF-1
                 and cAMP/PKA signaling pathways in mechanisms of
                 cadmium osteotoxicity, while the expression of genes
                 involved in osteoblast differentiation and matrix
                 production was strongly reduced in cadmium-exposed
                 post-larvae. This work not only confirmed cadmium
                 anti-osteogenic activity and identified targeted
                 pathways and genes, but it also suggested that cadmium
                 may affect biomechanical properties of bone.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Novianto:2019:DAI,
  author =       "Dian Novianto and Ilham and Chandara Nainggolan and
                 Syarif Syamsuddin and Arief Efendi and Sugianto Halim
                 and Yaser Krisnafi and Muhamad Handri and Abdul Basith
                 and Yusrizal and Erick Nugraha and Suciadi Catur
                 Nugroho and Bram Setyadji",
  title =        "Developing an Abundance Index of Skipjack Tuna
                 (\bioname{Katsuwonus pelamis}) from a Coastal Drifting
                 Gillnet Fishery in the Southern Waters of {Indonesia}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "10",
  day =          "11",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010010",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/10",
  abstract =     "Skipjack tuna is targeted by various types of fishing
                 gear in coastal countries. Due to its resilience, it
                 has withstood heavy fishing pressure in the past few
                 decades. Coastal drifting gillnet fleets also mark
                 skipjack as their main target, but it is often
                 overlooked in terms of stock assessment. This study
                 provides new information on an abundance index based on
                 fishery-dependent data from 2010 to 2017. Generalized
                 linear models (GLMs) were used to standardize the
                 catch-per-unit-of-effort (CPUE) using year, quarter,
                 and gross tonnage as the prediction variables. Model
                 goodness-of-fit and model selection were based on the
                 Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), the pseudo
                 coefficient of determination (R 2), and model
                 diagnostics with a residual analysis. The final
                 estimation of the abundance index was calculated by
                 least square means or marginal means. The results
                 showed that the index was heavily influenced by the
                 year and quarter, but it did not relate to the vessel's
                 capacity. While the CPUE series fluctuated greatly, it
                 showed a declining trend over the years of
                 observation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Shamsi:2019:SBP,
  author =       "Shokoofeh Shamsi",
  title =        "Seafood-Borne Parasitic Diseases: a {``One-Health''}
                 Approach Is Needed",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "9",
  day =          "09",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010009",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/9",
  abstract =     "Global consumption of seafood is steadily increasing,
                 as is the variety of seafood, including dishes with raw
                 or undercooked fish, leading to an increased risk of
                 seafood-borne parasitic diseases. To address today's
                 challenges to understand the biology and ecology of
                 these parasites in an ever-changing environment and to
                 tackle their pathogenicity, multidisciplinary research
                 is needed. In addition, the gap between research and
                 stakeholders must be bridged to decrease the risk these
                 parasites pose to public health. A ``One-Health''
                 approach to research is necessary to ensure that
                 consumers, aquatic animals, and environmental health
                 questions are assessed in an integrated and holistic
                 manner, resulting in a more comprehensive understanding
                 of the issues associated with seafood-borne parasitic
                 diseases and potential solutions. However, when it
                 comes to seafood-borne parasitic diseases, there is
                 limited guidance available for a ``One-Health''
                 approach since these diseases can be less known. In
                 this article, the focus is on parasitic diseases caused
                 by seafood, which have been less studied even in some
                 developed countries where seafood is popular. A brief
                 overview of some of the seafood-borne parasitic
                 diseases is provided followed by the significance of
                 the awareness among various stakeholders in a country.
                 In this article, it is argued that researchers and
                 stakeholders are closely connected and a knowledge gap
                 in one can result in a gap in knowledge and awareness
                 in the other, causing an inability to accurately
                 estimate the issues caused by these parasites. It is
                 suggested that raising awareness, supporting research
                 and training of all stakeholders are crucial for the
                 prevention of seafood-borne parasitic diseases and the
                 protection of the health of seafood consumers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Deakin:2019:WCI,
  author =       "Anthony G. Deakin and Joseph W. Spencer and Andrew R.
                 Cossins and Iain S. Young and Lynne U. Sneddon",
  title =        "Welfare Challenges Influence the Complexity of
                 Movement: Fractal Analysis of Behaviour in Zebrafish",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8",
  day =          "07",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010008",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/8",
  abstract =     "The ability to assess welfare is an important
                 refinement that will ensure the good condition of
                 animals used in experimentation. The present study
                 investigated the impact of invasive procedures on the
                 patterns of movement of zebrafish (\bioname{Danio
                 rerio}). Recordings were made before and after fin
                 clipping, PIT tagging and a standard pain test and
                 these were compared with control and sham handled
                 zebrafish. The fractal dimension (FD) from the 3D
                 trajectories was calculated to determine the effect of
                 these treatments on the complexity of movement
                 patterns. While the FD of zebrafish trajectories did
                 not differ over time in either the control or sham
                 group, the FDs of the treatment groups reduced in
                 complexity. The FD of fish injected with different
                 strengths of acetic acid declined in a dose-dependent
                 manner allowing us to develop an arbitrary scale of
                 severity of the treatments. The 3D trajectory plots
                 from some groups indicated the presence of repetitive
                 swimming patterns akin to stereotypical movements. When
                 administered with lidocaine, which has analgesic
                 properties, the movement complexity of fin clipped fish
                 reverted to a pattern that resembled that of control
                 fish. Fractal analysis of zebrafish locomotion could
                 potentially be adopted as a tool for fish welfare
                 assessment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Olsson:2019:PCT,
  author =       "Jens Olsson",
  title =        "Past and Current Trends of Coastal Predatory Fish in
                 the {Baltic Sea} with a Focus on Perch, Pike, and
                 Pikeperch",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7",
  day =          "06",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010007",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/7",
  abstract =     "Coastal predatory fish are of key importance for the
                 provisioning of ecosystem services in the Baltic Sea.
                 Worldwide, however, there has been a general and sharp
                 decline in predatory fish populations, in turn
                 threatening the viability and function of marine
                 ecosystems. On the basis of the literature, the past
                 (data until the 2000s) and current (data until early
                 and mid 2010s) trends in abundance of coastal predatory
                 fish in the Baltic Sea are reviewed in this paper.
                 Potentially important impacting factors behind the
                 temporal development of the populations and measures to
                 strengthen and restore them are also discussed.
                 Available data from coastal fish monitoring programs
                 suggest a stable or increasing abundance of coastal
                 predatory fish as a functional group and for the
                 species perch in the majority of areas assessed in the
                 Baltic Sea. For pike and pikeperch, data to support
                 assessments is scarce, but suggest substantial declines
                 in the abundance of both species in most assessed
                 areas. The impacting factors behind these patterns vary
                 between species and areas, but include climate, habitat
                 exploitation, fishing, and species-interactions in the
                 coastal food web. Measures to restore and support
                 coastal predatory fish communities should follow an
                 ecosystem-based approach to management and include
                 efforts to regulate fisheries sectors in combination
                 with habitat protection and restoration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ruiz-Jarabo:2019:ESA,
  author =       "Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo and Ana Bel{\'e}n Tinoco and Luis
                 Vargas-Chacoff and Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha and Ana
                 Rodr{\'\i}guez-R{\'u}a and Salvador C{\'a}rdenas and
                 Juan Miguel Mancera",
  title =        "Environmental Salinity Affects Growth and Metabolism
                 in Fingerling Meagre (\bioname{Argyrosomus regius})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6",
  day =          "05",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010006",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/6",
  abstract =     "The meagre (\bioname{Argyrosomus regius}), a farmed
                 fish in Mediterranean countries, seasonally migrates
                 from offshore areas to estuaries for reproduction.
                 During the first two years of life, the meagre
                 evidences a certain grade of euryhalinity by staying in
                 brackish waters close to the shore. The aim of the
                 present study was to establish if fingerling growth in
                 brackish water is improved compared to seawater, where
                 current culture procedures are conducted.
                 Three-month-old fingerlings were maintained for 45 days
                 under two different salinity regimens (12 and 39 ppt).
                 Several growth parameters as well as osmoregulatory and
                 metabolic variables were assessed. Specific growth rate
                 and hepatosomatic index values revealed that
                 fingerlings performed better in brackish waters (12
                 ppt) compared to 39 ppt. This study contributes to
                 optimizing meagre rearing conditions, thereby
                 supporting the role of A. regius in aquaculture
                 diversification.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Diken:2019:IEP,
  author =       "G{\"u}rkan Diken and Orhan Demir and Mehmet Naz",
  title =        "The Inhibitory Effects and Positive Contributions of
                 Live Foods on Protease Activities of Meagre,
                 \bioname{Argyrosomus regius} ({Asso} 1801), Larvae In
                 Vitro Assay",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5",
  day =          "04",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010005",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/5",
  abstract =     "The determination of exogenous enzyme contributions in
                 live food is important in larval feeding. This study
                 investigated the potential inhibitory effects and
                 contributions of live foods used from 3 to 32 days
                 after hatching (DAH) on protease activities of meagre
                 (\bioname{Argyrosomus regius}) larvae (ML), using in
                 vitro techniques. Enriched rotifer (R), Artemia nauplii
                 (A0), and Artemia metanauplii (A1) were tested. The
                 highest values of protease activities of ML were
                 determined to occur at 7 DAH for the years 2013 and
                 2014. The lowest values were observed at 15 DAH in 2013
                 and at 20 DAH in 2014. Protease activities of R, A0,
                 and A1 were 21.76 {\pm} 0.31, 36.00 {\pm} 1.48--29.33
                 {\pm} 0.93, and 416.44 {\pm} 19.7--403.53 {\pm} 11.85
                 U/mg protein, respectively (p {$<$} 0.05). The highest
                 inhibitions of live foods were observed at 7 DAH. This
                 situation was related to the inadequacy of protease
                 contributions of live feeds, despite the highest
                 protease value of larvae at 7 DAH (p {$<$} 0.05). The
                 positive contributions of A1 live food on the protease
                 activities of ML were significant (p {$<$} 0.05). The
                 inhibitory effects and positive contributions of live
                 foods on the survival and growth rates of ML should be
                 taken into account for future studies considering the
                 larvae of ML and other marine fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Office:2019:ARF,
  author =       "Fishes Editorial Office",
  title =        "Acknowledgement to Reviewers of {{\booktitle{Fishes}}}
                 in 2018",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4",
  day =          "29",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010004",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/4",
  abstract =     "The determination of exogenous enzyme contributions in
                 live food is important in larval feeding. This study
                 investigated the potential inhibitory effects and
                 contributions of live foods used from 3 to 32 days
                 after hatching (DAH) on protease activities of meagre
                 (\bioname{Argyrosomus regius}) larvae (ML), using in
                 vitro techniques. Enriched rotifer (R), Artemia nauplii
                 (A0), and Artemia metanauplii (A1) were tested. The
                 highest values of protease activities of ML were
                 determined to occur at 7 DAH for the years 2013 and
                 2014. The lowest values were observed at 15 DAH in 2013
                 and at 20 DAH in 2014. Protease activities of R, A0,
                 and A1 were 21.76 {\pm} 0.31, 36.00 {\pm} 1.48--29.33
                 {\pm} 0.93, and 416.44 {\pm} 19.7--403.53 {\pm} 11.85
                 U/mg protein, respectively (p {$<$} 0.05). The highest
                 inhibitions of live foods were observed at 7 DAH. This
                 situation was related to the inadequacy of protease
                 contributions of live feeds, despite the highest
                 protease value of larvae at 7 DAH (p {$<$} 0.05). The
                 positive contributions of A1 live food on the protease
                 activities of ML were significant (p {$<$} 0.05). The
                 inhibitory effects and positive contributions of live
                 foods on the survival and growth rates of ML should be
                 taken into account for future studies considering the
                 larvae of ML and other marine fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Strauch:2019:EOP,
  author =       "Sebastian M. Strauch and Judith Bahr and Bj{\"o}rn
                 Ba{\ss}mann and Adrian A. Bischoff and Michael Oster
                 and Berit Wasenitz and Harry W. Palm",
  title =        "Effects of Ortho-Phosphate on Growth Performance,
                 Welfare and Product Quality of Juvenile {African}
                 Catfish (\bioname{Clarias gariepinus})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3",
  day =          "23",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010003",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/3",
  abstract =     "Ortho-phosphate inside recirculation aquaculture
                 systems is limited as a consequence of precipitation
                 and regular water exchange rates. To improve plant
                 growth in coupled aquaponics, phosphate fertilizer
                 addition to hydroponics can increase PO 4 {3-} -P
                 concentrations inside the process water. We
                 investigated the effects of four PO 4 {3-} -P
                 concentrations ({$<$10} (P0), 40, 80, 120 mg L {-1}) in
                 rearing water on growth performance, feed efficiency,
                 and welfare traits of juvenile African catfish
                 (\bioname{Clarias gariepinus} Burchell, 1822). By
                 trend, optimum specific growth rate of 2.66\% d {-1}
                 and feed conversion ratio of 0.71 were observed at 40
                 and 80 mg L {-1} PO 4 {3-} -P. Higher PO 4 {3-} -P
                 significantly affected skin coloration, swimming
                 activity and external injuries, with the palest and
                 inactive fish combined with most external injuries in
                 the P120 group. Mineral and protein contents in the
                 fish remained unaffected, while fat content inside the
                 fillets enriched with increasing PO 4 {3-} -P.
                 Inorganic P in blood plasma increased significantly,
                 while phosphate concentrations inside the fillet
                 remained unchanged. We suggest that PO 4 {3-} -P
                 concentrations of 40 to 80 mg L {-1} do not reduce the
                 performance of African catfish aquaculture, while
                 increased values of 120 mg L {-1} affect fish welfare.
                 This allows limited addition of PO 4 {3-} -P fertilizer
                 in coupled aquaponics with African catfish to support
                 plant growth.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Cabillon:2019:MBF,
  author =       "Nikko Alvin R. Cabillon and Carlo C. Lazado",
  title =        "Mucosal Barrier Functions of Fish under Changing
                 Environmental Conditions",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2",
  day =          "10",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010002",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/2",
  abstract =     "The skin, gills, and gut are the most extensively
                 studied mucosal organs in fish. These mucosal
                 structures provide the intimate interface between the
                 internal and external milieus and serve as the
                 indispensable first line of defense. They have highly
                 diverse physiological functions. Their role in defense
                 can be highlighted in three shared similarities: their
                 microanatomical structures that serve as the physical
                 barrier and hold the immune cells and the effector
                 molecules; the mucus layer, also a physical barrier,
                 contains an array of potent bioactive molecules; and
                 the resident microbiota. Mucosal surfaces are
                 responsive and plastic to the different changes in the
                 aquatic environment. The direct interaction of the
                 mucosa with the environment offers some important
                 information on both the physiological status of the
                 host and the conditions of the aquatic environment.
                 Increasing attention has been directed to these
                 features in the last year, particularly on how to
                 improve the overall health of the fish through
                 manipulation of mucosal functions and on how the
                 changes in the mucosa, in response to varying
                 environmental factors, can be harnessed to improve
                 husbandry. In this short review, we highlight the
                 current knowledge on how mucosal surfaces respond to
                 various environmental factors relevant to aquaculture
                 and how they may be exploited in fostering sustainable
                 fish farming practices, especially in controlled
                 aquaculture environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Oliveira:2019:INN,
  author =       "Diogo Oliveira and Andr{\'e} M. Machado and Tiago
                 Cardoso and M{\'o}nica Lopes-Marques and L. Filipe C.
                 Castro and Raquel Ruivo",
  title =        "Identification of a Novel Nucleobase-Ascorbate
                 Transporter Family Member in Fish and Amphibians",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1",
  day =          "01",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4010001",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:22 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/1/1",
  abstract =     "Nucleobase-Ascorbate Transporter (NAT) family includes
                 ascorbic acid, nucleobases, and uric acid transporters:
                 With broad evolutionary distribution. In vertebrates,
                 four members have been previously recognized, the
                 ascorbate transporters Slc23a1 and Slc3a2, the
                 nucleobase transporter Slc23a4 and an orphan
                 transporter Slc23a3. Using phylogenetic and synteny
                 analysis, we identify a fifth member of the vertebrate
                 slc23 complement (slc23a5), present in neopterygians
                 (gars and teleosts) and amphibians, and clarify the
                 evolutionary relationships between the novel gene and
                 known slc23 genes. Further comparative analysis puts
                 forward uric acid as the preferred substrate for
                 Slc23a5. Gene expression quantification, using
                 available transcriptomic data, suggests kidney and
                 testis as major expression sites in Xenopus tropicalis
                 (western clawed frog) and \bioname{Danio rerio}
                 (zebrafish). Additional expression in brain was
                 detected in D. rerio, while in the Neoteleostei
                 \bioname{Oryzias latipes} (medaka) slc23a5 expression
                 is restricted to the brain. The biological relevance of
                 the retention of an extra transporter in fish and
                 amphibians is discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Uribe:2019:SAO,
  author =       "Mari Carmen Uribe and Gabino {De la Rosa Cruz} and
                 Adriana {Garc{\'\i}a Alarc{\'o}n} and Juan Carlos
                 {Campuzano Caballero} and Mar{\'\i}a Guadalupe
                 {Guzm{\'a}n B{\'a}rcenas}",
  title =        "Structures Associated with Oogenesis and Embryonic
                 Development during Intraovarian Gestation in Viviparous
                 Teleosts ({Poeciliidae})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "35",
  day =          "19",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020035",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/35",
  abstract =     "Viviparity in teleosts involves, invariably, the ovary
                 in a gestational role. This type of viviparity is due
                 to the combination of unique aspects, different from
                 those found in the rest of vertebrates. These aspects
                 are: the ovary has a saccular structure; the germinal
                 epithelium lines the ovarian lumen; the absence of
                 oviducts; and the intraovarian insemination,
                 fertilization, and gestation. The communication of the
                 germinal zone of the ovary to the exterior is via the
                 caudal zone of the ovary---the gonoduct. The germinal
                 epithelium is composed of oogonia and oocytes scattered
                 individually or in cell nests among somatic epithelial
                 cells. In the ovarian stroma the follicles are included
                 which are formed by the oocyte, which is surrounded by
                 follicular cells and the vascularized theca. The
                 oogenesis comprises three stages: chromatin-nucleolus,
                 previtellogenesis, and vitellogenesis. There is no
                 ovulation, as the oocyte is retained in the follicle.
                 During the insemination, the spermatozoa enter into the
                 ovarian lumen and the intrafollicular fertilization
                 occurs, followed by intrafollicular gestation. The
                 intraovarian gestation of poeciliids involves
                 morphological characteristics associated with the
                 intrafollicular embryogenesis and types of nutrition,
                 such as lecithotrophy and matrotrophy. In
                 lecithotrophy, the nutrients come from the yolk
                 reserves stored during oogenesis, whereas in
                 matrotrophy the nutrients are provided by supplies from
                 maternal tissues to the embryo during gestation. The
                 maternal--embryonic metabolic interchanges converge
                 through the development of the association of maternal
                 and embryonic blood vessels, establishing a follicular
                 placenta.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Reinhardt:2019:THC,
  author =       "Ulrich G. Reinhardt and Peter J. Hrodey",
  title =        "Trap Happiness and Catch Bias in Sea Lamprey Traps",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "34",
  day =          "12",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020034",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/34",
  abstract =     "Sampling fish by trapping can lead to biased
                 conclusions about a population. We used catch data to
                 assess differences between two types of traps for adult
                 sea lamprey (\bioname{Petromyzon marinus}),
                 submerged-funnel traps and studded-tile traps, which
                 are angled ramps with trickle flow leading out of the
                 water. The studded-tile trap at one river caught about
                 50\% more females than the funnel trap. It caught males
                 that had a smaller body size and females with a lower
                 gonado-somatic index (GSI). The likelihood of catching
                 lamprey in the studded-tile trap increased after they
                 had been caught once. This was not the case for the
                 funnel traps, which are used for mark--recapture-based
                 population assessment of invasive sea lamprey in the
                 Great Lakes. The apparent trap response caused by
                 studded-tile traps may have been caused by a behavioral
                 bias, i.e., the traps consistently attracting a subset
                 of the population. Use of the studded-tile trap for
                 population assessment should only be considered after
                 more is known about its recapture bias. The differences
                 between lamprey caught in the two trap types suggests
                 that a variety of trapping methods needs to be employed
                 in order to get a representative sample from a fish
                 population.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Franklin:2019:SKR,
  author =       "Maxwell Franklin and Martin Cenek and E. Jamie
                 Trammell",
  title =        "Studying {Kenai River} Fisheries' Social-Ecological
                 Drivers Using a Holistic Fisheries Agent-Based Model:
                 Implications for Policy and Adaptive Capacity",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "33",
  day =          "31",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020033",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/33",
  abstract =     "Alaska's salmon fisheries are one of the more
                 intensely managed natural resources in the world. The
                 state's salmon fisheries support recreational,
                 subsistence, and commercial harvest with multiple
                 billions of dollars flowing into the economy, and
                 define the cultural identity of many Alaskans. Fishery
                 management practices rely on historic records to set
                 policies with two goals: to meet salmon escapement
                 quota and to maximize salmon harvest. At the same time,
                 rapid social and ecological changes to the sub-Arctic
                 are already impacting salmon runs and fisheries
                 management. Combined with the inability of fishery
                 managers to test the outcome of proposed policy
                 changes, an understanding of the role social and
                 ecological drivers play in harvest and effort is
                 required. To address the two-forked problem of
                 understanding socio-ecological dynamics and potential
                 policy responses to ecological and social changes, we
                 (1) conducted stakeholder workshops to solicit key
                 system drivers, (2) built an integrated agent based
                 model (ABM) of the system's socio-ecological dynamics,
                 and (3) tested the impacts of alternative future
                 scenarios of ecological, social, and policy changes on
                 the system's outcomes. We previously constructed and
                 validated a high-fidelity, data-driven, agent-based
                 model of the Kenai River, Alaska that simulates
                 seasonal harvest of sockeye and {Chinook} salmon, the
                 fishing activities of the personal use fishery,
                 commercial drift, and set gillnet agents. We study the
                 role of key stakeholder and ecological drivers, using
                 the ABM decision support tool, and their implications
                 for fisheries management policies. Analysis of the
                 scenario based studies found resilience in management
                 of commercial fisheries to changing salmon migration
                 dynamics, a lack of adaptive capacity in recreational
                 (personal use) dipnet users to altered sockeye salmon
                 runs, and the possible utility of introducing
                 management measures in the dipnet fishery to manipulate
                 sockeye escapement levels. These findings represent the
                 usefulness of this type of ABM in assisting fishery
                 managers everywhere in investigating possible future
                 outcomes of different management or ecological
                 scenarios.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Bergsson:2019:RPE,
  author =       "Hei{\eth}rikur Bergsson and Nikolaj Reducha Andersen
                 and Morten Bo S{\o}ndergaard Svendsen and Per Juel
                 Hansen and John Fleng Steffensen",
  title =        "Respiratory Physiology of {European} Plaice
                 (\bioname{Pleuronectes platessa}) Exposed to
                 \bioname{Prymnesium parvum}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "32",
  day =          "28",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020032",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/32",
  abstract =     "During the last century, the blooms of the toxic
                 haptophyte \bioname{Prymnesium parvum} have been
                 responsible for massive fish kills in both aquaculture
                 and wild populations. Despite decades of research, the
                 ichthyotoxic properties of P. parvum, and how this alga
                 affects fish, is still debated. Using a novel device to
                 measure the respirometry, ventilation volume,
                 ventilation frequency, oxygen extraction, and oxygen
                 consumption of undisturbed European plaice
                 (\bioname{Pleuronectes platessa}) were acquired during
                 exposure to two algal species as well as hypoxia.
                 Fourteen fish (258 {\pm} 44 g) were initially exposed
                 to severe hypoxia and left to recover for at least 48
                 h. Half of these fish were then exposed to known
                 harmful concentrations of P. parvum (median {\pm}
                 standard deviation (SD); 2.6 $ \times $ 10 5 {\pm} 0.6
                 $ \times $ 10 5 cells mL {-1}), while the remaining
                 half were exposed to the non-toxic alga Rhodomonas
                 salina (median {\pm} SD; 3.2 $ \times $ 10 5 {\pm} 0.7
                 $ \times $ 10 5 cells mL {-1}). During exposure to
                 severe hypoxia, all of the fish were able to maintain
                 oxygen consumption by increasing the ventilation
                 volume. The results from fish that were exposed to P.
                 parvum showed a significant decrease in oxygen
                 extraction (median {\pm} SD; 52.6 {\pm} 6.9 percentage
                 points) from pre-exposure to the end of the experiment,
                 as opposed to fish exposed to R. salina, which were
                 unaffected. These results indicate that suffocation
                 affects the European plaice when exposed to P. parvum.
                 The observed severe decrease in oxygen extraction can
                 be ascribed to either damage of the gill epithelia or
                 increased mucus secretion on the gills, as both would
                 limit the transfer of oxygen, and both have been
                 observed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Fife-Cook:2019:PWF,
  author =       "Isabel Fife-Cook and Becca Franks",
  title =        "Positive Welfare for Fishes: Rationale and Areas for
                 Future Study",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "31",
  day =          "23",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020031",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/31",
  abstract =     "Traditional animal welfare paradigms have focused on
                 maintaining physical health and mitigating negative
                 impacts to wellbeing. Recently, however, the field has
                 increasingly recognized the importance of positive
                 welfare (i.e., mental and physical states that exceed
                 what is necessary for immediate survival) and
                 accordingly introduced manipulations and indicators of
                 positive welfare for use in agriculture, laboratories,
                 and zoos/aquaria. The creation and monitoring of
                 positive welfare requires an in-depth knowledge of
                 species-specific behavior and biology, which
                 necessitates species-specific or, at a minimum,
                 taxa-specific standards. Research on positive welfare
                 in fish is lagging in this regard and therefore merits
                 further consideration. In this paper, we aim to merge
                 what is already known about positive welfare with the
                 existing fish behavior literature to develop a plan of
                 action for fish welfare research that will ultimately
                 contribute to the development of positive welfare
                 standards and assessment strategies for fish. We begin
                 by exploring the origins of positive welfare research
                 and then outline the physical, psychological and
                 species-specific areas of inquiry that can be
                 investigated in fish. In addition to presenting current
                 findings on fish motivation, emotion, potential sources
                 of positive welfare such as fulfillment of motivational
                 urges (establishing agency, engaging in exploration and
                 learning), and play behavior, we also identify
                 promising areas for future research aimed at developing
                 accurate and appropriate indicators of positive welfare
                 in fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Saraiva:2019:GAW,
  author =       "Jo{\~a}o Luis Saraiva and Pablo Arechavala-Lopez and
                 Maria Filipa Castanheira and Jenny Volstorf and Billo
                 Heinzpeter Studer",
  title =        "A Global Assessment of Welfare in Farmed Fishes: The
                 {FishEthoBase}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "30",
  day =          "16",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020030",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/30",
  abstract =     "Fish welfare is an essential issue that needs to be
                 tackled by the aquaculture industry. In order to
                 address it, studies have been limited to a small number
                 of species and the information is generally scattered.
                 In order to have a consistent overview of the welfare
                 of farmed fishes, we present the FishEthoBase, an
                 open-access database that ultimately aims to provide
                 information on the welfare of all fish species
                 currently farmed worldwide. Presently with 41 species,
                 this database is directed to all stakeholders in the
                 field and targets not only to bridge the gaps between
                 them but also to provide scientific information to
                 improve the welfare of fish. The current text explains
                 the database and presents an analysis of the welfare
                 scores of 41 species, suggesting that (i) the general
                 welfare state of farmed fishes is poor, (ii) there is
                 some potential for improvement and (iii) this potential
                 is related to research on species' needs, but (iv)
                 there are many remaining knowledge gaps and (v) current
                 fish farming technologies do not seem to fully address
                 welfare issues. The existence of a framework, such as
                 the FishEthoBase, is proposed as fundamental to the
                 design of strategies that improve the welfare of farmed
                 fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Kim:2019:BRJ,
  author =       "Jaewoo Kim and Caitlyn Bondy and Catherine M. Chandler
                 and Nicholas E. Mandrak",
  title =        "Behavioural Response of Juvenile Common Carp
                 (\bioname{Cyprinus carpio}) and Juvenile Channel
                 Catfish (\bioname{Ictalurus punctatus}) to Strobe
                 Light",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "29",
  day =          "04",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020029",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/29",
  abstract =     "The movement of fish can be regulated by behavioural
                 manipulation through non-physical barrier systems.
                 Aquatic invasive species are becoming one of the major
                 management issues in North America, and threaten native
                 aquatic ecosystems, including freshwater fish.
                 Placements of non-physical barriers in waterways can
                 help disrupt the movement of invasive fish. This study
                 examined the effect of a strobe-light stimulus on the
                 avoidance behaviour of two proxy species, juvenile
                 common carp (\bioname{Cyprinus carpio}) and juvenile
                 channel catfish (\bioname{Ictalurus punctatus}), in a
                 controlled laboratory environment. For each species,
                 three sequential treatments of pre-stimulus,
                 strobe-light stimulus, and post-stimulus for 30 min
                 periods were recorded on acclimated groups of 5
                 juvenile common carp and 5 juvenile channel catfish
                 using 15 and 13 replicates, respectively. The
                 distribution of juvenile common carp individuals
                 throughout the tank did not change significantly with
                 treatment, nor did cohesive grouping behaviour.
                 Similarly, there were no significant differences across
                 experimental treatments in average location/distance of
                 juvenile channel catfish relative to the strobe light
                 or degree of cohesion in response to the strobe light.
                 Non-physical barriers have been widely reported to vary
                 between species and environmental conditions. These
                 results suggest that strobe lights evoke no avoidance
                 or attractive responses in juvenile common carp and
                 juvenile channel catfish, and will likely not be an
                 effective barrier to inhibit movements of juvenile
                 invasive fishes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Vieira:2019:SVC,
  author =       "Manuel Vieira and Beatriz P. Pereira and Pedro
                 Pous{\~a}o-Ferreira and Paulo J. Fonseca and M. Clara
                 P. Amorim",
  title =        "Seasonal Variation of Captive Meagre Acoustic
                 Signalling: a Manual and Automatic Recognition
                 Approach",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "28",
  day =          "18",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020028",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/28",
  abstract =     "Many species rely on acoustic communication to fulfil
                 several functions such as advertisement and mediation
                 of social interactions (e.g., agonistic, mating).
                 Therefore, fish calls can be an important source of
                 information, e.g., to recognize reproductive periods or
                 to assess fish welfare, and should be considered a
                 potential non-intrusive tool in aquaculture management.
                 Assessing fish acoustic activity, however, often
                 requires long sound recordings. To analyse these long
                 recordings automatic methods are invaluable tools to
                 detect and extract the relevant biological information.
                 Here we present a study to characterize meagre
                 (\bioname{Argyrosomus regius}) acoustic activity during
                 social contexts in captivity using an automatic
                 pattern-recognition methodology based on the Hidden
                 Markov Model. Calls produced by meagre during the
                 breading season showed a richer repertoire than
                 previously reported. Besides the dense choruses
                 composed by grunts already known for this species,
                 meagre emitted successive series of isolated pulses,
                 audible as `knocks'. Grunts with a variable number of
                 pulses were also registered. The overall acoustic
                 activity was concurrent with the number of spawning
                 events. A diel call rhythms exhibit peak of calling
                 activity from 15:00 to midnight. In addition, grunt
                 acoustic parameters varied significantly along the
                 reproduction season. These results open the possibility
                 to use the meagre vocal activity to predict breeding
                 and approaching spawning periods in aquaculture
                 management.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sorensen:2019:BFP,
  author =       "Peter W. Sorensen and Mara C. P. Rue and Joseph M.
                 Leese and Ratna Ghosal and Hangkyo Lim",
  title =        "A Blend of {F} Prostaglandins Functions as an
                 Attractive Sex Pheromone in Silver Carp",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "27",
  day =          "09",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020027",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/27",
  abstract =     "A series of laboratory experiments tested the
                 hypothesis that the Silver Carp
                 (\bioname{Hypophthalmichthys molitrix}), an invasive
                 river carp from China, employs a prostaglandin F
                 2{\alpha} -derived sex pheromone that is attractive and
                 species-specific. Using electro-olfactogram recording
                 (EOG), we found that the olfactory system of this
                 species is acutely sensitive to three F-series
                 prostaglandins (PGFs) at picomolar concentrations and
                 that this sensitivity is enhanced when juveniles are
                 masculinized using androgens, consistent with
                 expectations of a sex pheromone. Individual PGFs had
                 behavioral activity but it was low, suggesting a
                 mixture might be important. To pursue this possibility,
                 we implanted carps with osmotic pumps containing
                 prostaglandin F 2{\alpha} (PGF 2{\alpha}), a treatment
                 previously shown to elicit release of a PGF-based
                 spawning pheromone in the Common Carp. We found that
                 PGF 2{\alpha} -implanted Silver Carp released a
                 species-specific odor that contained a blend of PGF
                 2{\alpha} and two of its metabolites, which
                 masculinized individuals detected and were attracted to
                 with high sensitivity. Finally, we found that a mixture
                 of these PGFs was attractive to masculinized Silver
                 Carp, while a different mixture released by Bighead
                 Carp was not. We conclude that Silver Carp likely use a
                 species-specific PGF 2{\alpha} -derived sex pheromone
                 that is probably released at spawning and might be
                 useful in its control. Confirmatory studies that
                 explore pheromone function in naturally mature Silver
                 Carp using natural odors in the field should now be
                 conducted to further confirm our proof-of-concept
                 study.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Moreira:2019:IAS,
  author =       "M{\'a}rcio Moreira and Ana{\'\i}sa Cordeiro-Silva and
                 Marisa Barata and Pedro Pous{\~a}o-Ferreira and
                 Florbela Soares",
  title =        "Influence of Age on Stress Responses of White Seabream
                 to Amyloodiniosis",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "26",
  day =          "08",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020026",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/26",
  abstract =     "Amyloodiniosis is a disease that represents a major
                 bottleneck for semi-intensive aquaculture, especially
                 in Southern Europe. The inefficacy of many of the
                 treatments for this disease on marine fish produced in
                 semi-intensive aquaculture has led to a new welfare
                 approach to amyloodiniosis. There is already some
                 knowledge of several welfare issues that lead to
                 amyloodiniosis as well as the stress, physiological,
                 and immunological responses to the parasite by the
                 host, but no work is available about the influence of
                 fish age on the progression of amyloodiniosis. The
                 objective of this work was to determine if stress,
                 hematological, and histopathological responses are age
                 dependent. For that purpose, we determined the
                 mortality rate, histopathological lesions,
                 hematological indexes, and stress responses (cortisol,
                 glucose, lactate, and total protein) in ``Small''
                 (total weight: 50 {\pm} 5.1 g, age: 273 days after
                 eclosion (DAE)) and ``Big'' (total weight: 101.3 {\pm}
                 10.4 g, age: 571 DAE) white seabream (\bioname{Diplodus
                 sargus}) subjected to an \bioname{Amyloodinium
                 ocellatum} infestation (8000 dinospores mL {-1}) during
                 a 24-h period. The results demonstrated a strong stress
                 response to A. ocellatum, with marked differences in
                 histopathological alterations, glucose levels, and some
                 hematological indexes between the fish of the two
                 treatments. This work elucidates the need to take in
                 account the size and age of the fish in the development
                 and establishment of adequate mitigating measures and
                 treatment protocols for amyloodiniosis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Maslov:2019:CAS,
  author =       "Dmitry L. Maslov and Oxana P. Trifonova and Anton N.
                 Mikhailov and Konstantin V. Zolotarev and Kirill V.
                 Nakhod and Valeriya I. Nakhod and Nataliya F. Belyaeva
                 and Marina V. Mikhailova and Petr G. Lokhov and
                 Alexander I. Archakov",
  title =        "Comparative Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Metabolites of
                 Fish with Various Rates of Aging",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "25",
  day =          "31",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020025",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/25",
  abstract =     "Fish species exhibit great diversity rating of aging
                 (from negligible to rapid), which gives a unique
                 possibility for the discovery of the molecular
                 mechanisms that determine the differences in the rate
                 of aging. A mass spectrometric metabolic profiling of
                 skeletal muscle of fish with various aging rates was
                 carried out by direct injection to a quadrupole
                 time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The first group
                 includes long-lived fish species (pike (\bioname{Esox
                 lucius}) and sterlet (\bioname{Acipenser ruthenus}));
                 the second group---species with gradual senescence such
                 as that observed in many mammalian species of similar
                 size (zander (Sandra lucioperca) and perch
                 (\bioname{Perca fluviatilis})) and the third
                 group---species with very short life cycle (chum salmon
                 (\bioname{Oncorhynchus keta}) and pink salmon
                 (\bioname{Oncorhynchus gorbuscha})). Multivariate
                 analysis of metabolic profiles allowed the detecting of
                 about 80 group-specific features associated with amino
                 acids, lipids, biogenic amines, intermediates of
                 glycolysis, glycogenolysis, and citric acid cycle.
                 Possible roles in the aging process are hypothesized
                 for the biochemical pathways of the metabolites that
                 were altered in the different groups.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ido:2019:PMP,
  author =       "Atsushi Ido and Motohisa Kanemaru and Yoshiharu
                 Tanioka",
  title =        "Preliminary Monitoring of Praziquantel in Water and
                 Sediments at a {Japanese} Amberjack (\bioname{Seriola
                 quinqueradiata}) Aquaculture Site",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "24",
  day =          "28",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020024",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/24",
  abstract =     "Praziquantel (PZQ), an active compound against
                 Platyhelminthes, is an essential anthelmintic for the
                 aquaculture industry. However, there are few reports of
                 the environmental risks of PZQ use in aquaculture. In
                 this study, we monitored PZQ in water and sediment at
                 an aquaculture site of Japanese amberjack, also called
                 yellowtail (\bioname{Seriola quinqueradiata}). Although
                 PZQ was detected in water during treatment and 3 days
                 post-treatment, PZQ levels were below the detectable
                 limit in water 60 m from the net pen during the
                 treatment, and in all sediment samples. In this
                 preliminary study, we could not detect residue of PZQ
                 from sediments in the aquaculture site, and no evidence
                 about environmental effect of PZQ administration was
                 obtained.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Goncalves-de-Freitas:2019:SBW,
  author =       "Eliane Gon{\c{c}}alves-de-Freitas and Marcela Cesar
                 Bolognesi and Ana Carolina dos Santos Gauy and Manuela
                 Lombardi Brand{\~a}o and Percilia Cardoso Giaquinto and
                 Marisa Fernandes-Castilho",
  title =        "Social Behavior and Welfare in \geoname{Nile}
                 Tilapia",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23",
  day =          "27",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4020023",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/2/23",
  abstract =     "Fish social behavior can be affected by artificial
                 environments, particularly by factors that act upon
                 species that show aggressive behavior to set social
                 rank hierarchy. Although aggressive interactions are
                 part of the natural behavior in fish, if constant and
                 intense, such interactions can cause severe body
                 injuries, increase energy expenditure, and lead the
                 animals to suffer from social stress. The immediate
                 consequence of these factors is a reduced welfare in
                 social fish species. In this paper, we consider the
                 factors that impact on the social behavior and welfare
                 of Nile tilapia, an African cichlid fish widely used
                 both in fish farms and in research; this species is
                 frequently used as a model for physiology and behavior
                 research. This is a polygynous species whose males
                 interact aggressively, establishing a territorial based
                 hierarchy, where a dominant male and several
                 subordinate males arise. When social stability is
                 shrunk, the negative effects of prolonged fighting
                 emerge. In this paper, we summarized how some of the
                 common practices in aquaculture, such as classifying
                 individuals by matching their sizes, water renewal,
                 stock density, and environment lighting affect Nile
                 tilapia social aggressive interactions and, in turn,
                 impact on its welfare. We also discuss some ways to
                 decrease the effects of aggressive interactions in Nile
                 tilapia, such as environment color and body tactile
                 stimulation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{vonKrogh:2019:VEB,
  author =       "Kristine von Krogh and Erik Ropstad and Rasoul
                 Nourizadeh-Lillabadi and Trude Marie Haug and Finn-Arne
                 Weltzien",
  title =        "In Vitro Effects of Bisphenol {A} and
                 Tetrabromobisphenol {A} on Cell Viability and
                 Reproduction-Related Gene Expression in Pituitaries
                 from Sexually Maturing {Atlantic} Cod (\bioname{Gadus
                 morhua} {L.})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "48",
  day =          "17",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030048",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/48",
  abstract =     "Bisphenol A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)
                 are widely used industrial chemicals, ubiquitously
                 present in the environment. While BPA is a well-known
                 endocrine disruptor and able to affect all levels of
                 the teleost reproductive axis, information regarding
                 TBBPA on this subject is very limited. Using primary
                 cultures from Atlantic cod (\bioname{Gadus morhua}),
                 the present study was aimed at investigating potential
                 direct effects of acute (72 h) BPA and TBBPA exposure
                 on cell viability and the expression of
                 reproductive-relevant genes in the pituitary. The
                 results revealed that both bisphenols stimulate cell
                 viability in terms of metabolic activity and membrane
                 integrity at environmentally relevant concentrations.
                 BPA had no direct effects on gonadotropin gene
                 expression, but enhanced the expression of
                 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor 2a, the
                 main gonadotropin modulator in Atlantic cod. In
                 contrast, TBBPA increased gonadotropin transcript
                 levels but had no effect on GnRH receptor mRNA. In
                 conclusion, both anthropogenic compounds display
                 endocrine disruptive properties and are able to
                 directly interfere with gene expression related to
                 reproductive function in cod pituitary cells at
                 environmentally relevant concentrations in vitro.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Rodriguez-Gonzalez:2019:PML,
  author =       "Tania Rodr{\'\i}guez-Gonz{\'a}lez and Jes{\'u}s Cerezo
                 Valverde and Benjam{\'\i}n Garc{\'\i}a Garc{\'\i}a",
  title =        "Performance of Marine Lecithin Supplemented Feeds for
                 the Common Octopus (\bioname{Octopus vulgaris})
                 Ongrowing: Changes in Proximate Composition and Lipid
                 Classes' Profile",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "47",
  day =          "12",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030047",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/47",
  abstract =     "The development of artificial diets is considered
                 vital for feasible cephalopods' culture.
                 \bioname{Octopus vulgaris} need a diet with a high
                 protein content but also lipids are important at a
                 lower quantity, as polar lipids and LC-PUFA are
                 essential for development during early stages. In the
                 present study the suitability of marine lecithin as a
                 dietary supplement for O. vulgaris juveniles'
                 formulated feeds was tested for 56 days, assessing the
                 performance, changes in proximate composition, and
                 lipid classes' profile in the digestive gland and
                 carcass. Sixteen octopus were fed one of two semi-moist
                 feeds based on dry ingredients: either CALPRO (N = 4)
                 as control or CALPRO-LM (N = 8); which differed from
                 the first, due to the inclusion of 20 g/kg of marine
                 lecithin as a phospholipid dietary supplement. Results
                 showed that marine lecithin did not enhance feed
                 intake, growth, protein or lipid incorporation,
                 nutrients digestibility or feed efficiency. Moreover,
                 at this level of inclusion, the composition of tissues
                 (digestive gland and carcass) regarding macronutrients
                 and lipid classes' profile presented only a small
                 amount of differences. In conclusion, the inclusion of
                 marine lecithin did not promote beneficial effects on
                 performance, making necessary further research related
                 to the nutritional requirements of common octopus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Wagner:2019:NBM,
  author =       "Liane Wagner and Pedro G{\'o}mez-Requeni and Ali A.
                 Moazzami and Torbj{\"o}rn Lundh and Aleksandar
                 Vidakovic and Markus Langeland and Anders Kiessling and
                 Jana Pickova",
  title =        "{$^1$H} {NMR}-Based Metabolomics and Lipid Analyses
                 Revealed the Effect of Dietary Replacement of Microbial
                 Extracts or Mussel Meal with Fish Meal to {Arctic}
                 Charr (\bioname{Salvelinus alpinus})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "46",
  day =          "10",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030046",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/46",
  abstract =     "The effects of replacing 40\% of dietary fish meal
                 (FM) in a reference diet (REF) with either mussel meal
                 (MM), zygomycete fungi (ZYG), extracted baker's yeast
                 (EY), or non-extracted baker's yeast (NY) on the lipid
                 and metabolic profile of Arctic charr
                 (\bioname{Salvelinus alpinus}) were investigated. After
                 a 14-week feeding trial, liver and muscle tissues were
                 collected for lipid (lipid content, lipid class, fatty
                 acid composition) and 1 H NMR-based metabolomics
                 analyses (aqueous and chloroform phases). Lipid
                 analyses showed that fish fed ZYG diet had lower liver
                 lipid content and thereby 10\% higher level of
                 docosahexaenoic acid compared with REF. Metabolomics
                 analyses showed that on the one hand fish fed NY diet
                 affected liver metabolites (2--3 fold higher
                 concentrations of e.g., n,n-dimethylglycine and
                 betaine) compared with REF, while, on the other hand,
                 the muscle metabolic fingerprint was mainly affected by
                 EY. In general, affected metabolites (e.g., alanine,
                 anserine, betaine, hydroxyproline, isoleucine,
                 malonate, n,n-dimethylglycine, proline, succinate, and
                 valine) in fish fed test diets suggested that the test
                 meal ingredients caused mainly a response in muscle
                 metabolism. Fish metabolism was least affected by MM,
                 which suggests that it may be suitable to replace fish
                 meal in Arctic charr diets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Pedescoll:2019:PPW,
  author =       "Anna Pedescoll and Rafael Aguado and Carlos Marcos and
                 Gustavo Gonz{\'a}lez",
  title =        "Performance of a Pool and Weir Fishway for {Iberian}
                 Cyprinids Migration: a Case Study",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "45",
  day =          "16",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030045",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/45",
  abstract =     "One of the movement barriers that fish populations
                 must overcome for migration success in the upper basin
                 of Tormes river (Salamanca, Spain) is a 20 m high dam.
                 The design of its pool and weir fishway for
                 potamodromous fishes (mostly Iberian barbel---
                 Luciobarbus bocagei ---and Northern straight-mouth
                 nase--- Pseudochondrostoma duriense) to overcome the
                 obstacle was improved in 2013. The aim of this study
                 was to assess the efficiency of the fishway using FDX
                 passive integrated transponder (PIT)-Tags inserted into
                 the fish and PIT-Tag detection antennas at the fishway.
                 During several sampling events, 7113 barbel and nase
                 individuals were tagged and released at the point of
                 capture along the basin (2538 and 4575 of which were
                 tagged downstream and upstream, respectively). PIT-Tag
                 Detection Antennas close to the top and bottom of the
                 fishway monitored tagged fish continuously for 10
                 months (from March to December 2017), to analyze the
                 performance of the fishway. Upstream passage efficiency
                 was greater for barbel (60\% and 25\% for barbel and
                 nase, respectively). Differences in passage efficiency
                 between species may be due to differences in their
                 size. Mean length for barbels attempting to pass was
                 336 mm ({\pm}47 mm) while for nases was 143 mm ({\pm}26
                 mm). Moreover, both the number of attempts to pass and
                 ascend time for nases were higher than for barbels.
                 Entrance efficiency was low (3.5\% and 10.8\% for
                 barbel and nase, respectively), although 2017 was a
                 very dry year, thus these results are most likely
                 influenced by flow rates. Therefore, the fishway has
                 proved to be functional but is actually poor for
                 efficiency purposes, especially for small fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Burton:2019:PEA,
  author =       "Michael L. Burton and Jennifer C. Potts and Andrew D.
                 Ostrowski",
  title =        "Preliminary Estimates of Age, Growth and Natural
                 Mortality of Margate, \bioname{Haemulon album}, and
                 Black Margate, \bioname{Anisotremus surinamensis}, from
                 the {Southeastern United States}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "44",
  day =          "15",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030044",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/44",
  abstract =     "Ages of margate, Haemulon album (n = 415) and black
                 margate, Anisotremus surinamensis (n = 130) were
                 determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths collected
                 from the Southeastern {United States} Atlantic coast
                 from 1979 to 2017. Opaque zones were annular, forming
                 between January and June for both species, with peaks
                 in occurrence of otoliths with opaque margins in April
                 for margate and March for black margate. The observed
                 ages for margate were 0--22 years, and the largest fish
                 measured 807 mm TL (total length). Black margate ranged
                 in age from 3 to 17 years, and the largest fish was 641
                 mm TL. Weight--length relationships were: margate,
                 ln(W) = 2.88 ln(TL) {-} 10.44 (n = 1327, r 2 = 0.97,
                 MSE = 0.02), where W is total weight (grams, g); black
                 margate, ln(W) = 3.02 ln(TL) {-} 11.10 (n = 451, r 2 =
                 0.95, MSE = 0.01). Von Bertalanffy growth equations
                 were L t = 731 (1 {-} e {-0}.23(t+0.38)) for margate,
                 and L t = 544 (1 {-} e {-0}.13(t+2.61)) for black
                 margate. After re-estimating black margate growth using
                 a bias-correction procedure to account for the lack of
                 younger fish, growth was described by the equation L t
                 = 523 (1 {-} e {-0}.18(t+0.0001)). Age-invariant
                 estimates of natural mortality were M = 0.19 y {-1} and
                 M = 0.23 y {-1} for margate and black margate,
                 respectively, while age-varying estimates of M ranged
                 from 2.93 {-0}.23 y {-1} for fish aged 0--22 for
                 margate and 7.20 {-} 0.19 y {-1} for fish aged 0--18
                 for black margate. This study presents the first
                 documentation of life-history parameters for margate
                 from the Atlantic waters off the Southeastern {United
                 States}, and the first published estimate of black
                 margate life history parameters from any geographic
                 region.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Herrera:2019:TSC,
  author =       "Mercedes Herrera and Raquel Moreno-Valc{\'a}rcel and
                 Ram{\'o}n De Miguel Rubio and Carlos
                 Fern{\'a}ndez-Delgado",
  title =        "From Transient to Sedentary? {Changes} in the Home
                 Range Size and Environmental Patterns of Movements of
                 {European} Eels (\bioname{Anguilla anguilla}) in a
                 {Mediterranean} River",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "43",
  day =          "13",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030043",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/43",
  abstract =     "The habitat use of eels during the development of
                 sedentary behavior, which depends on the animals' body
                 size, is unknown. Our objective was to analyze, for two
                 years, the changes in the home range of a population of
                 European eel (\bioname{Anguilla anguilla}, Linnaeus,
                 1758) in Southern Europe in relation to the animals'
                 body length (TL), and the influence of environmental
                 factors (water temperature and flow) on the local
                 movements of this population through observation of
                 their sedentary behavior. We used a
                 previously-validated mark--recapture methodology,
                 obtaining a low deviation in the estimation of the
                 extension of the eels' movements. Our results revealed
                 relatively short movements in relation to other
                 populations, and we hypothesize that this could be
                 related to the high habitat diversity and low eel
                 population density in the study area. The home range
                 size showed a high variability and dispersion among the
                 smallest eels, however, as TL increased, the
                 variability of home range size decreased, and home
                 ranges were larger. These changes could be associated
                 with the acquisition of a sedentary lifestyle. Once
                 eels had become sedentary, an environmental pattern was
                 observed between their movements and the water
                 temperature and flow, with larger movements observed as
                 the flow increased and water temperature decreased.
                 This suggests that the temporal and spatial scales of
                 observation are of crucial importance for monitoring
                 eel populations and for the study of population size
                 structure, population dynamics, and biology, which can
                 be used to improve conservation strategies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Pontigo:2019:MEI,
  author =       "Juan Pablo Pontigo and Julia Saravia and Ricardo
                 Oyarz{\'u}n and Margarita P. Gonz{\'a}lez and
                 Christopher Hawes and Francisco J. Morera and Jorge
                 Pino and Simon Wadsworth and Jose Luis P. Mu{\~n}oz and
                 Luis Vargas-Chacoff",
  title =        "Modulation of the Expression of Immune-related Gene in
                 {Atlantic} and {Coho} Salmon during Infestation with
                 the Sea lice \bioname{Caligus rogercresseyi}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "42",
  day =          "25",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030042",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/42",
  abstract =     "\bioname{Caligus rogercresseyi}, a marine
                 ectoparasite, causes notable economic losses for the
                 Chilean salmonid industry. Nevertheless, the
                 immunological responses of infected fish remain poorly
                 understood, including proinflammatory cytokine
                 generation and the respective modulatory effects of
                 various cytokine receptors. This study evaluated mRNA
                 expression of the NLRC5, major histocompatibility
                 complex (MHC) class II, I-kappa-B-alpha, a regulatory
                 that inhibits NF-kappa-B, and proinflammatory cytokines
                 (IL-1{\beta} and IL-18) in the liver and muscle of
                 Atlantic salmon (\bioname{Salmo salar}) and {Coho}
                 salmon (\bioname{Oncorhynchus kisutch}) during a
                 time-course C. rogercresseyi infestation trial. All
                 assessed mRNA were strongly regulated during
                 infestation, but S. salar showed up-regulated
                 expression, possibly accounting for the high
                 infestation vulnerability of this salmonid. In
                 conclusion, this work helps to understand the
                 modulation of the expression of different transcripts
                 involved over short periods of C. rogercresseyi
                 infestation in two salmonid species (\bioname{S. salar}
                 and \bioname{O. kisutch}).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Wylie:2019:ISF,
  author =       "Matthew J. Wylie and Alvin N. Setiawan and Glen W.
                 Irvine and Abigail Elizur and Yonathan Zohar and Jane
                 E. Symonds and P. Mark Lokman",
  title =        "Induced Spawning of {F1} Wreckfish ({H{\=a}puku})
                 \bioname{Polyprion oxygeneios} Using a Synthetic
                 Agonist of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "41",
  day =          "08",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030041",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/41",
  abstract =     "Wild-caught h{\=a}puku (\bioname{Polyprion
                 oxygeneios}) spawn readily in captivity, but although
                 first filial (F1) h{\=a}puku complete vitellogenesis,
                 females fail to undergo oocyte maturation and spawn or
                 produce poor quality eggs. This study investigated
                 whether administration of a synthetic agonist of
                 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRHa) could improve F1
                 h{\=a}puku spawning and complete the life-cycle in
                 captivity. Spawning trials were conducted over 2 years
                 in 2013 and 2014, when F1 were aged five and six years.
                 In 2013, females previously conditioned under a
                 variable or constant temperature regime were implanted
                 with GnRHa (100 {\mu}g/kg {-1}) or blank implants
                 constructed of powdered cellulose and cholesterol.
                 Spawning was erratic and egg quality very poor in all
                 tanks. No F2 offspring were produced by communal
                 spawning. In contrast, viable F2 larvae were produced
                 by strip-spawning and in vitro fertilization after a
                 series of GnRHa injections. In 2014, two additional
                 trials were conducted: females received ethylene-vinyl
                 acetate copolymer (EVAc) matrix implants containing
                 GnRHa (100 {\mu}g/kg {-1}) or blank implants and in the
                 second trial, two GnRHa doses (100 {\mu}g/kg {-1} and
                 50 {\mu}g/kg {-1}) were tested. Eggs were first
                 detected in all tanks 12--17 days post-implantation
                 when females received 100 $ \mu $ g/kg {-1} GnRHa
                 implants, but not in the lower dose or control tanks.
                 In summary, this study achieved induction of female
                 spawning with GnRHa implants (target dose 100 {\mu}g/kg
                 {-1}) and the successful production of F2 h{\=a}puku in
                 captivity by strip-spawning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Taylor:2019:SBC,
  author =       "Brett M. Taylor",
  title =        "Standing Out in a Big Crowd: High Cultural and
                 Economic Value of \bioname{Naso unicornis} in the
                 Insular {Pacific}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "40",
  day =          "03",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030040",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/40",
  abstract =     "Hundreds of fish species are harvested in coral-reef
                 fisheries in the Indo-Pacific region using a variety of
                 fishing gears. This diversity makes the economics,
                 ecology, and management of reef-associated fisheries
                 inherently complex. However, across insular fisheries
                 spanning the tropical Pacific, one species consistently
                 dominates contemporary fisheries catch: the bluespine
                 unicornfish (\bioname{Naso unicornis}, Acanthuridae). I
                 evaluated the relative contribution of N. unicornis to
                 commercial fisheries in the insular Pacific region from
                 long-term ({$>$1} year) fishery surveys across various
                 jurisdictions and provide evidence of the contemporary
                 cultural value of this species. Overall, evidence
                 suggests that N. unicornis is the most
                 commercially-valuable reef-associated fish species
                 across the insular Pacific. This notion, coupled with a
                 diverse representation of N. unicornis across Pacific
                 cultures, suggests that the species is presently
                 underappreciated in its role in coastal fisheries
                 across Pacific Island nations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Saraiva:2019:WFN,
  author =       "Jo{\~a}o L. Saraiva and Pablo Arechavala-Lopez",
  title =        "Welfare of Fish --- No Longer the Elephant in the
                 Room",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "39",
  day =          "03",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030039",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/39",
  abstract =     "Hundreds of fish species are harvested in coral-reef
                 fisheries in the Indo-Pacific region using a variety of
                 fishing gears. This diversity makes the economics,
                 ecology, and management of reef-associated fisheries
                 inherently complex. However, across insular fisheries
                 spanning the tropical Pacific, one species consistently
                 dominates contemporary fisheries catch: the bluespine
                 unicornfish (\bioname{Naso unicornis}, Acanthuridae). I
                 evaluated the relative contribution of N. unicornis to
                 commercial fisheries in the insular Pacific region from
                 long-term ({$>$1} year) fishery surveys across various
                 jurisdictions and provide evidence of the contemporary
                 cultural value of this species. Overall, evidence
                 suggests that N. unicornis is the most
                 commercially-valuable reef-associated fish species
                 across the insular Pacific. This notion, coupled with a
                 diverse representation of N. unicornis across Pacific
                 cultures, suggests that the species is presently
                 underappreciated in its role in coastal fisheries
                 across Pacific Island nations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Hashizume:2019:HMD,
  author =       "Atsushi Hashizume and Atsushi Ido and Takashi Ohta and
                 Serigne Thierno Thiaw and Ryusaku Morita and Munenori
                 Nishikawa and Takayuki Takahashi and Chiemi Miura and
                 Takeshi Miura",
  title =        "Housefly (\booktitle{Musca domestica}) Larvae
                 Preparations after Removing the Hydrophobic Fraction
                 Are Effective Alternatives to Fish Meal in Aquaculture
                 Feed for Red Seabream (\bioname{Pagrus major})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "38",
  day =          "27",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030038",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/38",
  abstract =     "Insects are an attractive alternative to fish meal
                 (FM) as a sustainable protein source in aquaculture
                 feed that does not negatively impact the marine
                 ecosystem. Despite housefly (Musca domestica) larvae
                 having adequacy of amino acid profiles, they have
                 sometimes been reported to be inferior to FM,
                 especially for marine carnivorous fish species. Here,
                 we report that the removal of the hydrophobic fractions
                 from housefly larvae enables significant replacement of
                 FM in the diet of the red seabream (\bioname{Pagrus
                 major}). In a feeding trial, housefly (HF) larvae that
                 had the hydrophobic fraction removed as a complete
                 substitution for 70\% FM produced satisfactory growth.
                 However, HF larvae that were supplemented with the
                 hydrophobic fraction resulted in significant growth
                 reduction. Growth recovery was incomplete by
                 supplementation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and
                 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) to undefatted HF larvae,
                 being equivalent to that of fatty acid content with a
                 control diet. Moreover, fish with a dietary intake of
                 catechol identified from the hydrophobic fraction of
                 the HF showed growth reduction and morphological
                 alterations in the intestine. Our findings indicate
                 that the hydrophobic fraction from HF larvae contains a
                 negative factor for fish growth and eliminating the
                 fraction from HF larvae is thought to be an important
                 process for sustainable aquaculture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Gomez-Requeni:2019:DLC,
  author =       "Pedro G{\'o}mez-Requeni and Mauricio Nestor Kraemer
                 and Luis Fabi{\'a}n Canosa",
  title =        "The Dietary Lipid Content Affects the Tissue Gene
                 Expression of Muscle Growth Biomarkers and the
                 {GH\slash IGF} System of Pejerrey (\bioname{Odontesthes
                 bonariensis}) Juveniles",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "37",
  day =          "27",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030037",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/37",
  abstract =     "Gene expression of growth hormone receptors (GHRs),
                 insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), myostatin (MSTN)
                 and myogenin (MyoG) was analyzed in juveniles pejerrey
                 fed with graded levels of lipids (L): 6\% (L6), 10\%
                 (L10), 25\% (L25). After 14 weeks, no changes were
                 found in liver GHR-I GHR-II and IGF-II mRNA levels
                 whereas IGF-I decreased in L10 and L25. Muscle GHR-I
                 gene expression increased in L25 whereas GHR-II, IGF-II
                 and MyoG were higher in L6. IGF-I and MSTN expression
                 was not affected by the different diets. Adipose IGF-I
                 mRNA levels decreased in L10. Correlations between body
                 weight and members of GH/IGF system in liver and
                 skeletal muscle were found only in L10 group.
                 Correlations found in L10 group between both liver and
                 skeletal muscle GHR-I and IGF-I were lost in either L6
                 or L25 groups. Thus, fish fed with apparently
                 unbalanced dietary lipid contents (6\% and 25\%)
                 exhibit a compensatory regulation of systemic and local
                 components of the GH/IGF axis. Furthermore, the marked
                 inhibition of muscle MyoG gene expression in L25 might
                 limit excessive lipid deposition and fish growth. Our
                 data suggest that a dietary lipid contents of 10\%
                 would promote a particular adjustment of the endocrine
                 and autocrine/paracrine GH/IGF system, stimulating body
                 growth and perhaps muscle hyperplasia. On the other
                 hand, a higher dietary lipid content would uncouple the
                 GH/IGF system, reducing hepatic IGF-I, while slightly
                 increasing hepatic GHR-I, probably to prompt
                 lipolysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Burton:2019:AGN,
  author =       "Michael L. Burton and Jennifer C. Potts and Andrew D.
                 Ostrowski and Kyle W. Shertzer",
  title =        "Age, Growth, and Natural Mortality of Graysby,
                 \bioname{Cephalophilis cruentata}, from the
                 {Southeastern United States}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "36",
  day =          "27",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4030036",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:23 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/3/36",
  abstract =     "Graysby (Cephalophilis cruentata) (n = 1308) collected
                 from the southeastern {United States} Atlantic coast
                 from 2001 to 2016 were aged using sectioned sagittal
                 otoliths. Opaque zones formed February to June (peaking
                 in April). Ages ranged from 2 to 21 years, and the
                 largest fish measured 453 mm TL. Growth morph analysis
                 revealed two regionally distinct growth trajectories:
                 von Bertalanffy growth equations were L t = 388 (1 {-}
                 e {-0}.12(t+5.73)) for fish from North Carolina through
                 southeast Florida (northern region), and L t = 267 (1
                 {-} e {-0}.17(t+6.20)) for fish from the Florida Keys
                 (southern region). When growth was re-estimated using a
                 fixed t 0 value of {-0}.75 to estimate for smaller
                 fish, growth equations were L t = 349 (1 {-} e
                 {-0}.26(t+0.75)) and L t = 250 (1 {-} e
                 {-0}.43(t+0.75)) for fish from the northern and
                 southern regions, respectively. The age-invariant
                 estimate of natural mortality was M = 0.30 for all
                 fish, while age-specific estimates ranged 0.88--0.28 y
                 {-1} for fish aged 1--21 from the northern region and
                 0.89--0.47 y {-1} for fish aged 1--15 from the southern
                 region. This study presents the first comprehensive
                 analysis of life-history parameters for graysby from
                 the Atlantic waters off the southeastern {United
                 States}, including specimens from both recreational and
                 commercial fisheries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Babin:2019:DRA,
  author =       "Amanda Babin and Lauren Fitzpatrick and Tommi
                 Linnansaari and R. Allen Curry",
  title =        "Detection Range of Acoustic Receivers in a Large
                 Hydropower Reservoir",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "60",
  day =          "11",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040060",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/60",
  abstract =     "Acoustic telemetry manufacturers report estimated
                 detection ranges under idealized conditions, but
                 environmental conditions such as water depth, substrate
                 type, and turbulence can affect the range of reliable
                 detection. Range testing of low (Vemco V7 136 dB re 1$
                 \mu $ [email protected]) and high power (V13 147 dB re
                 1$ \mu $ [email protected]) acoustic transmitters
                 (tags) was performed near a hydropower generating
                 station and its associated reservoir using both active
                 (mobile; VR100) and passive (stationary; VR2W/VR2Tx)
                 receivers. Low power tags are typically used to track
                 small fish such as juvenile Atlantic salmon
                 (\bioname{Salmo salar}), whereas high power tags are
                 typically used to track larger fish such as adult
                 salmon. The results found herein were applied to
                 concurrent salmon telemetry studies. Detection ranges
                 of the low power tags were within 246--351 {\pm} 20--70
                 m (mean {\pm} SE), and the high power tags were within
                 537--1106 {\pm} 53--272 m. Observed detection ranges
                 were comparable or higher to manufacturer estimates for
                 both tag types being detected by passive receivers, and
                 were lower than expected for both tag types being
                 detected by active receivers. Passive receivers were
                 further tested by mooring a fixed sentinel tag (low
                 power) on a receiver line at the hydropower site for 50
                 days. The sentinel tag detection range of 212 m was
                 less than the expected range of 280--292 m, and was not
                 found to be significantly impacted by wind speed. There
                 was evidence of a hydropower effect on detection
                 probability (up to 95\% reduction) of both tag types
                 for the active receiver, and detection ranges were
                 significantly lower at the hydropower site than the
                 reservoir site for the high power tag. The results of
                 this study give insight to the initial design of
                 acoustic telemetry studies beyond what can be gathered
                 from manufacturer's estimates, but rather near
                 hydropower facilities and within large reservoirs;
                 however, detection ranges reported herein do not
                 replace the importance of range testing in
                 site-specific conditions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Buckwalter:2019:DLD,
  author =       "Joseph Buckwalter and Paul L. Angermeier and Jane
                 Argentina and Skylar Wolf and Stephen Floyd and Eric M.
                 Hallerman",
  title =        "Drift of Larval Darters (Family {Percidae}) in the
                 {Upper Roanoke River Basin, USA}, Characterized Using
                 Phenotypic and {DNA} Barcoding Markers",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "59",
  day =          "08",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040059",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/59",
  abstract =     "Larval fish ecology is poorly characterized because
                 sampling is difficult and tools for phenotypically
                 identifying larvae are poorly developed. While DNA
                 barcoding can help address the latter problem,
                 `universal' primers do not work for all fish species.
                 The Roanoke River in the southeastern {United States}
                 includes seven darters (Family Percide: Tribe
                 Etheostomatini). We made 393 collections of larval
                 fishes in 2015 and 2018, examined darter larvae for
                 morphometric and pigmentation traits, developed PCR
                 primers amplifying darter DNA, and evaluated three gear
                 types for collecting larval darters. Amplified DNA
                 sequences for 1351 larvae matched archived
                 mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I sequences for
                 darters occurring in the ecosystem. Larval darters were
                 classified to genus with 100\% accuracy using the ratio
                 of pectoral fin length to body length; however,
                 identification to species using morphometrics alone was
                 subject to a misclassification rate of 11.8\%, which
                 can be resolved by considering pigmentation patterns.
                 Gear-types varied considerably in their capture
                 efficacy for larval darters; most Percina larvae were
                 collected in drift nets. Larval Percina species
                 appeared in the drift before Etheostoma species in both
                 study years. Application of molecular genetic and
                 phenotypic tools to larval fish identification can
                 advance understanding of larval darter ecology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ferreira:2019:DEC,
  author =       "Marco Ferreira and Jo{\~a}o Gago and Filipe Ribeiro",
  title =        "Diet of {European} Catfish in a Newly Invaded Region",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "58",
  day =          "08",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040058",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/58",
  abstract =     "Biological invasions are considered to be one of the
                 leading causes of biodiversity loss worldwide.
                 Freshwater ecosystems are amongst the most biodiverse,
                 containing about 50\% of the world's known fish species
                 but, ironically, are the most invaded ecosystems. In
                 Portuguese freshwaters, there are currently 20
                 identified non-native fishes, arriving at an
                 unprecedented rate of a new species every two years. A
                 recent non-native is the European catfish
                 \bioname{Silurus glanis}, a top predator native to
                 Central and Eastern Europe, that arrived at the Lower
                 Tagus (Portugal) circa 2006. This study compares the
                 dietary habits of this top predator in two different
                 habitats of the Lower Tagus in order to evaluate its
                 potential impact. The stomach contents of 96
                 individuals were analyzed, 61 from the lotic
                 environment and 35 from the lentic systems. A total of
                 66 stomachs contained prey items, 38 from the lotic and
                 28 from the lentic. Diet varied considerably between
                 habitats, with shrimp and crayfish being the most
                 abundant prey items in the lentic systems and shrimp
                 and fish the most abundant prey items in the lotic
                 section. Tendency to piscivory was observed in
                 large-sized individuals. Overall, the findings in this
                 study provide the first evidence of the potential
                 impacts of European catfish through predation on the
                 fish communities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lazado:2019:SPS,
  author =       "Carlo C. Lazado and Peter Vilhelm Skov",
  title =        "Secretory Proteins in the Skin Mucus of \geoname{Nile}
                 Tilapia (\bioname{Oreochromis niloticus}) are Modulated
                 Temporally by Photoperiod and Bacterial Endotoxin
                 Cues",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "57",
  day =          "05",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040057",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/57",
  abstract =     "Although it is well known that the biological and
                 physical characteristics of skin mucus in fishes are
                 strongly affected by changes in environmental
                 conditions, the influence of photoperiod and
                 time-dependent bacterial endotoxin stimulation is not
                 well documented. In the present study, we determined
                 the diel variations in the basal activities of
                 secretory proteins with known defense functions in the
                 skin mucus of Nile tilapia (\bioname{Oreochromis
                 niloticus}) maintained under two photic environments:
                 equal length of day and night (12L:12D, LD) or total
                 darkness (0L:24D, DD). A second experiment was
                 conducted to determine how time-dependent (i.e., day
                 versus night) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge could
                 influence these skin mucosal defenses. The results
                 revealed that LD signal differentially modulated the
                 activities of mucosal immune molecules. Fish subjected
                 to LD regime showed significantly higher levels of skin
                 mucus lysozyme and protease at nighttime than at
                 daytime. This distinct feature was not observed in fish
                 under DD. There was no general mucosal response
                 patterns to time-dependent LPS challenge. Nonetheless,
                 protease and lysozyme, which were identified to be at
                 elevated levels at night, were significantly modulated
                 when the endotoxin was administered at nighttime.
                 Ceruloplasmin was the only molecule that responded to
                 LPS challenge at daytime, where its activity
                 significantly increased at 8 h post-stimulation.
                 Collectively, the results revealed that photoperiod
                 cues influenced the activities of mucosal defenses and
                 this may play, at least in part, in the temporal
                 sensitivity to bacterial endotoxin.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Martinez:2019:EEA,
  author =       "Francisca P. Mart{\'\i}nez and Laura Berm{\'u}dez and
                 Mar{\'\i}a J. Aznar and Francisco J. Moyano",
  title =        "Evaluation of Enzyme Additives on the Nutritional Use
                 of Feeds with a High Content of Plant Ingredients for
                 \bioname{Mugil cephalus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "56",
  day =          "04",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040056",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/56",
  abstract =     "The Mugilidae are a group of fish with a great
                 interest for aquaculture due to their omnivorous
                 profile, rapid growth, and resistance to environmental
                 variations. The selection of feed ingredients for these
                 species is currently focused on an extensive use of
                 plant by-products, with this being limited by their
                 content in anti-nutritive factors (mainly phytate and
                 non-starch polysaccharides; NSPs). Nevertheless,
                 specific enzymes can be used to counteract some of
                 those negative effects. In the present study, the
                 effect of pretreating two high-plant feeds with a
                 mixture of enzymes (glucanases + phytase) on the
                 digestive use of protein and phosphorus by juvenile
                 mullets (\bioname{Mugil cephalus}) was assessed using
                 both in vitro and in vivo assays. The enzymatic
                 treatment significantly modified the potential
                 bioavailability of some nutrients, such as a reduction
                 of sugars, pentoses, and phytic phosphorus. Also, it
                 increased the digestibility of protein in one of the
                 feeds but reduced that of phosphorus in both of them.
                 The potential usefulness of enzyme treatment and the
                 information provided by the two types of assays are
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sanchez-Nuno:2019:MPR,
  author =       "Sergio S{\'a}nchez-Nu{\~n}o and Sandra C. Silva and
                 Pedro M. Guerreiro and Borja Ord{\'o}{\~n}ez-Grande and
                 Ignasi Sanahuja and Laura Fern{\'a}ndez-Alacid and
                 Antoni Ibarz",
  title =        "Modulation of Pituitary Response by Dietary Lipids and
                 Throughout a Temperature Fluctuation Challenge in
                 Gilthead Sea Bream",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "55",
  day =          "22",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040055",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/55",
  abstract =     "Low temperatures provoke drastic reductions in
                 gilthead sea bream (\bioname{Sparus aurata}) activity
                 and nourishment, leading to growth arrest and a halt in
                 production. However, scarce data exist concerning the
                 implications of central core control during the cold
                 season. The aim of this work was to study the effects
                 of low temperature and recovery from such exposure on
                 the pituitary activity of sea bream juveniles fed 18\%
                 or 14\% dietary lipid. A controlled indoor trial was
                 performed to simulate natural temperature fluctuation
                 (22 {$^\circ $}C to 14 {$^\circ $}C to 22 {$^\circ
                 $}C). Meanwhile, we determined the regulatory role of
                 the pituitary by analyzing the gene expression of some
                 pituitary hormones and hormone receptors via qPCR, as
                 well as plasma levels of thyroidal hormones. In
                 response to higher dietary lipids, hormone pituitary
                 expressions were up-regulated. Induced low temperatures
                 and lower ingesta modulated pituitary function
                 up-regulating GH and TSH and thyroid and glucocorticoid
                 receptors. All these findings demonstrate the capacity
                 of the pituitary to recognize both external conditions
                 and to modulate its response accordingly. However,
                 growth, peripheral tissues and metabolism were not
                 linked or connected to pituitary function at low
                 temperatures, which opens an interesting field of study
                 to interpret the hypothalamus--pituitary--target axis
                 during temperature fluctuations in fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Degani:2019:VBG,
  author =       "Gad Degani and Amir Alon and Akram Hajouj and Ari
                 Meerson",
  title =        "Vitellogenesis in Blue Gourami is Accompanied by Brain
                 Transcriptome Changes",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "54",
  day =          "29",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040054",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/54",
  abstract =     "The blue gourami (\bioname{Trichogaster trichopterus})
                 is a model for hormonal control of reproduction in
                 Anabantidae fish, but also relevant to other
                 vertebrates. We analyzed the female blue gourami brain
                 transcriptome in two developmental stages:
                 pre-vitellogenesis (PVTL) before yolk accumulation in
                 the oocytes, and high vitellogenesis (HVTL) at the end
                 of yolk accumulation in the oocytes. RNA sequencing of
                 whole-brain transcriptome identified 34,368 unique
                 transcripts, 23,710 of which could be annotated by
                 homology with other species. We focused on the
                 transcripts showing significant differences between the
                 stages. Seventeen and fourteen annotated genes were
                 found to be upregulated in PVTL and HVTL, respectively.
                 Five nuclear transcripts, three of which contain the
                 homeobox domain (ARX, DLX5, CERS6), were upregulated in
                 PVTL. Additionally, several receptors previously known
                 to be involved in reproduction were identified, and
                 three of these, G-protein coupled receptor 54, Membrane
                 progesterone receptor epsilon, and
                 Gonadotropin-releasing hormone II receptor (GPCR, mPR,
                 and GnRHR) were measured by quantitative RT-PCR in
                 brain, pituitary, and ovary samples from PVTL and HVTL
                 stage females. Of these, GPCR was highly expressed in
                 the brain and pituitary as compared to the ovary in
                 both PVTL and HVTL. GnRHR was highly expressed in the
                 ovary compared to the brain and pituitary, and its
                 levels in the brain were significantly higher in PVTL
                 than HVTL. Brain mPR mRNA levels were likewise higher
                 in PVTL than HVTL. In conclusion, this study details
                 changes in the female blue gourami brain transcriptome
                 through yolk accumulation in the oocytes and identifies
                 key genes that may mediate this process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lobel:2019:GAP,
  author =       "Lisa Kerr Lobel and Devin M. Drown and Paul H. Barber
                 and Phillip S. Lobel",
  title =        "A Genetic Assessment of Parentage in the Blackspot
                 Sergeant Damselfish, \bioname{Abudefduf sordidus}
                 ({Pisces: Pomacentridae})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "53",
  day =          "24",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040053",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/53",
  abstract =     "Microsatellite markers were used to investigate the
                 reproductive behavior of the damselfish Abudefduf
                 sordidus at Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean.
                 Genetic results indicated that ten males maintained
                 guardianship over their nest territories for up to nine
                 nest cycles during a 3.5 month period. Genotypes of
                 1025 offspring sampled from 68 nests (composed of 129
                 clutches) were consistent with 95\% of the offspring
                 being sired by the guardian male. Offspring lacking
                 paternal alleles at two or more loci were found in 19
                 clutches, indicating that reproductive parasitism and
                 subsequent alloparental care occurred. Reconstructed
                 maternal genotypes allowed the identification of a
                 minimum of 74 different females that spawned with these
                 ten territorial males. Males were polygynous, mating
                 with multiple females within and between cycles.
                 Genetic data from nests, which consisted of up to four
                 clutches during a reproductive cycle, indicated that
                 each clutch usually had only one maternal contributor
                 and that different clutches each had different dams.
                 Females displayed sequential polyandry spawning with
                 one male within a cycle but switched males in
                 subsequent spawning cycles. These results highlight new
                 findings regarding male parasitic spawning, polygyny,
                 and sequential polyandry in a marine fish with
                 exclusive male paternal care.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Matsubara:2019:CSS,
  author =       "Hajime Matsubara and P. Mark Lokman and Yukinori
                 Kazeto and Hiromi Okumura and Shigeho Ijiri and
                 Toshiaki Hirai and Graham Young and Shinji Adachi and
                 Kohei Yamauchi",
  title =        "Changes in Sex Steroids and Ovarian Steroidogenic
                 Enzyme {mRNA} Levels in Artificially Maturing
                 {Japanese} Eel (\bioname{Anguilla japonica}) and
                 Naturally Maturing New {Zealand} Longfin Eel
                 (\bioname{Anguilla dieffenbachii}) during
                 Vitellogenesis",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "52",
  day =          "17",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040052",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/52",
  abstract =     "Repeated hormone injections are routinely used to
                 induce advanced stages of oogenesis in freshwater eels,
                 but this approach may result in aberrant germ cell
                 development. To investigate the underlying causes,
                 levels of sex steroids (testosterone, T;
                 estradiol-17{\beta}, E2) and ovarian steroidogenic
                 enzyme mRNAs were compared between artificially
                 maturing Japanese eels and wild-caught, spontaneously
                 maturing New Zealand longfin eels. The latter were
                 employed as reference, as wild Japanese eels in
                 advanced stages of oogenesis are near-impossible to
                 catch. Serum T levels in artificially maturing Japanese
                 eel changed with stage in a pattern that was comparable
                 to that in longfin eels. Likewise, ovarian mRNA levels
                 of most steroidogenic enzyme genes were not
                 qualitatively dissimilar between both eel species when
                 taking developmental stage into account. However,
                 aromatase (cyp19a) mRNA levels, together with serum E2
                 levels, rapidly increased in artificially maturing
                 Japanese eels in mid-late stages of oogenesis
                 (gonadosomatic index, GSI = 13.8\%), whereas no such
                 increase was evident in longfin eels (GSI $ \approx $
                 6.9\%). In addition, sex steroid and target gene mRNA
                 levels fluctuated drastically with each hormone
                 injection. We contend that expression of most target
                 genes, possibly even that of cyp19a, during induced
                 oogenesis could be ``normal'', with the drastic
                 fluctuations due most likely to hormone delivery
                 through repeated injections. The effects of these
                 fluctuations on gamete quality remain unknown and
                 resolving this issue may prove fruitful in the future
                 to further artificial propagation of anguillid eels.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Papai:2019:NCB,
  author =       "N{\'o}ra P{\'a}pai and Ferenc Kagan and Gy{\"o}rgy
                 Csik{\'o}s and M{\'o}nika Kosztelnik and Tibor Vellai
                 and M{\'a}t{\'e} Varga",
  title =        "No Correlation between Endo- and Exoskeletal
                 Regenerative Capacities in Teleost Species",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "51",
  day =          "14",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040051",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/51",
  abstract =     "The regeneration of paired appendages in certain fish
                 and amphibian lineages is a well established and
                 extensively studied regenerative phenomenon. The
                 teleost fin is comprised of a proximal endoskeletal
                 part (considered homologous to the Tetrapod limb) and a
                 distal exoskeletal one, and these two parts form their
                 bony elements through different ossification processes.
                 In the past decade, a significant body of literature
                 has been generated about the biology of exoskeletal
                 regeneration in zebrafish. However, it is still not
                 clear if this knowledge can be applied to the
                 regeneration of endoskeletal parts. To address this
                 question, we decided to compare endo- and exoskeletal
                 regenerative capacity in zebrafish (\bioname{Danio
                 rerio}) and mudskippers (Periophthalmus barbarous). In
                 contrast to the reduced endoskeleton of zebrafish,
                 Periophthalmus has well developed pectoral fins with a
                 large and easily accessible endoskeleton. We performed
                 exo- and endoskeletal amputations in both species and
                 followed the regenerative processes. Unlike the almost
                 flawless exoskeletal regeneration observed in
                 zebrafish, regeneration following endoskeletal
                 amputation is often impaired in this species. This
                 difference is even more pronounced in Periophthalmus
                 where we could observe no regeneration in endoskeletal
                 structures. Therefore, regeneration is regulated
                 differentially in the exo- and endoskeleton of teleost
                 species.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Andrews:2019:CAS,
  author =       "Samuel N. Andrews and Sarah V. Hirtle and Tommi
                 Linnansaari and R. Allen Curry",
  title =        "Consumption of {Atlantic} Salmon Smolt by Striped
                 Bass: a Review of the Predator--Prey Encounter
                 Literature and Implications for the Design of Effective
                 Sampling Strategies",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "50",
  day =          "11",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040050",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/50",
  abstract =     "The native striped bass (\bioname{Morone saxatilis})
                 population of the Miramichi River, New Brunswick is
                 undergoing an unprecedented recovery while Atlantic
                 salmon (\bioname{Salmo salar}) numbers within that
                 system continue to decline. Atlantic salmon smolt
                 depart from the Miramichi system during the striped
                 bass spawning period and it is hypothesized that
                 elevated striped bass abundances will increase
                 encounter rates and predation on smolts. We summarize
                 all available striped bass diet studies occurring
                 within the native range of Atlantic salmon and present
                 a review of the feeding behavior and diet preferences
                 of striped bass before, during, and after their
                 spawning period. The key studies vary in methodologies
                 and interpretability. We present a standardized
                 approach for assessing striped bass predation threats
                 and smolt vulnerability and thus an improved
                 understanding of the species interactions to guide
                 future management in the Miramichi River.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Valdez:2019:ASC,
  author =       "Jose W. Valdez and Kapil Mandrekar",
  title =        "Assessing the Species in the {CARES Preservation
                 Program} and the Role of Aquarium Hobbyists in
                 Freshwater Fish Conservation",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "49",
  day =          "29",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes4040049",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/4/4/49",
  abstract =     "Freshwater fish represent half of all fish species and
                 are the most threatened vertebrate group. Given their
                 considerable passion and knowledge, aquarium hobbyists
                 can play a vital role in their conservation. CARES is
                 made up of many organizations, whose purpose is to
                 encourage aquarium hobbyists to devote tank space to
                 the most endangered and overlooked freshwater fish to
                 ensure their survival. We found the CARES priority list
                 contains nearly six hundred species from twenty
                 families and two dozen extinct-in-the-wild species. The
                 major families were typically those with the largest
                 hobbyist affiliations such as killifish, livebearers,
                 and cichlids, the latter containing half of CARES
                 species. CARES included every IUCN threatened species
                 of Pseudomugilidae and Valenciidae, but only one
                 percent of threatened Characidae, Cobitidae, and
                 Gobiidae species. No Loricariidae in CARES were in the
                 IUCN red list as they have not been scientifically
                 described. Tanzania and Mexico contained the largest
                 amount of species, with the latter containing the most
                 endemics. Many species were classified differently than
                 the IUCN, including a third of extinct-in-the-wild
                 species classified as least concern by the IUCN. This
                 vast disconnect exemplifies the importance of future
                 collaboration and information exchange required between
                 hobbyists, the scientific community, and conservation
                 organizations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ceballos-Francisco:2020:ELD,
  author =       "Diana Ceballos-Francisco and Alberto Cuesta and
                 Mar{\'\i}a {\'A}ngeles Esteban",
  title =        "Effect of Light--Dark Cycle on Skin Mucosal Immune
                 Activities of Gilthead Seabream (\bioname{Sparus
                 aurata}) and {European} Sea Bass
                 (\bioname{Dicentrarchus labrax})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "10",
  day =          "24",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010010",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/10",
  abstract =     "Changes in different immune activities in the skin
                 mucus of gilthead seabream (\bioname{Sparus aurata}
                 {L.}) and European sea bass (\bioname{Dicentrarchus
                 labrax} {L.}) specimens exposed to a constant
                 light--dark photoperiod (12 h L:12 h D) were studied.
                 Samples were collected at 08:00 (light on), 14:00,
                 20:00 (light off), 02:00, and again at 08:00 to
                 determine immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels, several
                 enzymes related to the immune system, and bactericidal
                 activity. IgM levels were higher during the day in
                 seabream and reached a minimum value at 20:00, but it
                 was hardly affected in sea bass. No significant
                 variations were recorded in the levels of protease and
                 antiprotease. Peroxidase reached its maximum level in
                 seabream at 02:00, the same time that it reached its
                 minimum level in sea bass. Lysozyme showed little
                 variation in seabream, but it was significantly lower
                 at 14:00 than during the rest of the cycle in sea bass.
                 Finally, different interspecific variations on
                 bactericidal activity against \bioname{Vibrio harveyi}
                 were recorded. The findings demonstrate that the immune
                 parameters present in skin mucus of these important
                 fish species are affected by the light--dark cycle and
                 that there are substantial interspecies differences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lopez:2020:SMC,
  author =       "Annalaura Lopez and Mauro Vasconi and Federica
                 Bellagamba and Tiziana Mentasti and Vittorio Maria
                 Moretti",
  title =        "Sturgeon Meat and Caviar Quality from Different
                 Cultured Species",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "9",
  day =          "07",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010009",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/9",
  abstract =     "Sturgeon raw eggs, caviar and meat obtained from
                 different species reared in an Italian production plant
                 were evaluated for their chemical composition, in order
                 to improve their appreciation on the market and to
                 detect any eventual distinctness related to the
                 species. Mainly, fatty acid (FA) profile of eggs and
                 caviar, determined by Gas-Chromatography coupled to
                 Flame Ionization Detection, showed variability in the
                 interspecific comparison, highlighted by chemometric
                 methods (Linear Discriminant Analysis). Generally, all
                 samples showed a prevalence of unsaturated fatty acids
                 with respect to saturated ones, reaching a content of
                 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) between the 40\% and
                 the 50\% of total FA. A remarkable presence of n3
                 series PUFA was detected in all samples and a selective
                 deposition of many FA into eggs' cellular membranes,
                 yolk lipid and body fat reserves, imputable to the
                 different biological role of single FA during sturgeon
                 reproduction, was evidenced. Chemical composition of
                 sturgeon flesh samples evidenced a high-protein and
                 medium-fat content, characterized by a FA profile of
                 high nutritional value. Moreover, color parameters
                 (redness, yellowness, brightness, Chroma) were measured
                 on sturgeon fillets, showing many species-specific
                 characteristics of sturgeon meat.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Office:2020:ARF,
  author =       "Fishes Editorial Office",
  title =        "Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Fishes in 2019",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8",
  day =          "04",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010008",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/8",
  abstract =     "Sturgeon raw eggs, caviar and meat obtained from
                 different species reared in an Italian production plant
                 were evaluated for their chemical composition, in order
                 to improve their appreciation on the market and to
                 detect any eventual distinctness related to the
                 species. Mainly, fatty acid (FA) profile of eggs and
                 caviar, determined by Gas-Chromatography coupled to
                 Flame Ionization Detection, showed variability in the
                 interspecific comparison, highlighted by chemometric
                 methods (Linear Discriminant Analysis). Generally, all
                 samples showed a prevalence of unsaturated fatty acids
                 with respect to saturated ones, reaching a content of
                 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) between the 40\% and
                 the 50\% of total FA. A remarkable presence of n3
                 series PUFA was detected in all samples and a selective
                 deposition of many FA into eggs' cellular membranes,
                 yolk lipid and body fat reserves, imputable to the
                 different biological role of single FA during sturgeon
                 reproduction, was evidenced. Chemical composition of
                 sturgeon flesh samples evidenced a high-protein and
                 medium-fat content, characterized by a FA profile of
                 high nutritional value. Moreover, color parameters
                 (redness, yellowness, brightness, Chroma) were measured
                 on sturgeon fillets, showing many species-specific
                 characteristics of sturgeon meat.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sanchez-Gonzalez:2020:VTL,
  author =       "Jorge Rub{\'e}n S{\'a}nchez-Gonz{\'a}lez and Amadeo
                 Arbon{\'e}s and Frederic Casals",
  title =        "Variation over Time of Length--Weight Relationships
                 and Condition Factors for Four Exotic Fish Species from
                 a Restored Shallow Lake in {NE Iberian Peninsula}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7",
  day =          "04",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010007",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/7",
  abstract =     "Length--weight relationships (LWRs), condition
                 factors, and their variation over time were analyzed
                 for four exotic freshwater fish (bleak, common carp,
                 pikeperch, and roach) in the Estany d'Ivars i Vila-sana
                 shallow lake in Catalonia, Northern Spain. Fish samples
                 were collected twice a year (early summer and autumn),
                 between 2008 and 2016, by using between three and five
                 multi-mesh nylon gillnets. This study provides novel
                 information about four common exotic fishes outside of
                 their natural range and within the context of a
                 restored shallow lake, where the ichthyologic community
                 is evolving in concordance with the ecosystem
                 conditions and the fish community dynamics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Vijayakumar:2020:ICD,
  author =       "Parameswaran Vijayakumar and M. Leonor Cancela and
                 Vincent Laiz{\'e}",
  title =        "Isolation, Culture, and Differentiation of Blastema
                 Cells from the Regenerating Caudal Fin of Zebrafish",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6",
  day =          "30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010006",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/6",
  abstract =     "The caudal fin of teleost fish has become an excellent
                 system for investigating the mechanisms of epimorphic
                 regeneration. Upon amputation of the caudal fin, a mass
                 of undifferentiated cells, called blastema, proliferate
                 beneath the wound-epidermis and differentiate into
                 various cell types to faithfully restore the missing
                 fin structures. Here we describe a protocol that can be
                 used to isolate and culture blastema cells from
                 zebrafish. Primary cultures were initiated from 36 h
                 post-amputation (hpa) blastema and optimal cell growth
                 was achieved using L-15 medium supplemented with 5\%
                 fetal bovine serum in plates either coated with
                 fibronectin or uncoated. After seeding, zebrafish
                 blastema cells formed a uniform culture and exhibited
                 polygonal shapes with prominent nucleus, while various
                 cell types were also observed after few days in culture
                 indicating cell differentiation. Upon treatment with
                 all- trans retinoic acid, zebrafish blastema cells
                 differentiated into neuron-like and oligodendritic-like
                 cells. Immunocytochemistry data also revealed the
                 presence of mesenchymal and neuronal cells. The
                 availability of blastema cell cultures could contribute
                 to a better understanding of epimorphic regeneration by
                 providing a mean to investigate the mechanisms
                 underlying blastema cell differentiation. Furthermore,
                 this protocol is simple, rapid, and cost-efficient, and
                 can be virtually applied to the development of any fish
                 blastema cell culture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Kampouris:2020:MRG,
  author =       "Thodoros E. Kampouris and Emmanouil Kouroupakis and
                 Ioannis E. Batjakas",
  title =        "Morphometric Relationships of the Global Invader
                 \bioname{Callinectes sapidus} {Rathbun}, 1896
                 ({Decapoda, Brachyura, Portunidae}) from {Papapouli
                 Lagoon, NW Aegean Sea, Greece}. {With} Notes on Its
                 Ecological Preferences",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5",
  day =          "14",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010005",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/5",
  abstract =     "\bioname{Callinectes sapidus} is native to the
                 Atlantic coasts of the Americas. In the Mediterranean,
                 it appeared around 1949 and though that it is
                 established in East Mediterranean waters, relevant
                 studies are limited. The aim of the present study is to
                 report quantitative and qualitative data on the blue
                 crab's biology and ecology in its non-native range,
                 that are indispensable for management purposes.
                 Papapouli Lagoon is in Thermaikos Gulf and is
                 ecologically impacted by the blue crabs. Fyke nets with
                 a 20 mm mesh opening were soaked for 12 to 14 h during
                 each survey. Abiotic environmental parameters were
                 obtained. The length--weight relationships were
                 expressed by the equation W = aL b. The species'
                 ecological preferences at Papapouli Lagoon were
                 assessed with PERMANOVA analysis, using the abiotic
                 parameters as factors. Student's t -tests were used to
                 assess the differences between sexes. The sex ratio of
                 the blue crab's population was assessed by a Chi-square
                 ({\chi} 2) analysis. The sex ratio was found to be
                 1.28:1, in favour of males. The most dominant group
                 size of male blue crabs was the 61--70 mm of CL and
                 130--139 mm of CW. Also, the dominant size group of
                 female blue crabs was 60--69 mm of CL and 120--129 mm
                 CW. The maximum abundance of blue crabs was recorded at
                 a salinity range from 24{\SGMLpermil} to
                 25{\SGMLpermil} and the water temperature range was
                 from 26 to 28 {$^\circ $}C.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Young:2020:LHP,
  author =       "Alan M. Young and James A. Elliott",
  title =        "Life History and Population Dynamics of Green Crabs
                 (\bioname{Carcinus maenas})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4",
  day =          "31",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010004",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/4",
  abstract =     "Carcinus maenas (the ``shore crab'' or ``European
                 green crab'') is a very proficient invader (considered
                 to be one of the world's 100 worst invaders by the
                 IUCN) due to its phenotypic plasticity, wide
                 temperature and salinity tolerance, and an extensive
                 omnivorous diet. Native to Atlantic Europe, it has
                 established two well-studied nonindigenous populations
                 in the northwestern Atlantic and northeastern Pacific
                 and less-studied populations in Australia, Argentina
                 and South Africa. Green crabs are eurythermal and
                 euryhaline as adults, but they are limited to temperate
                 coastlines due to more restrictive temperature
                 requirements for breeding and larval development. They
                 cannot tolerate wave-swept open shores so are found in
                 wave-protected sheltered bays, estuaries and harbors.
                 \bioname{Carcinus maenas} has been the subject of
                 numerous papers, with over 1000 published in the past
                 decade. This review provides an up-to-date account of
                 the current published information on the life history
                 and population dynamics of this very important species,
                 including genetic differentiation, habitat preferences,
                 physical parameter tolerances, reproduction and larval
                 development, sizes of crabs, densities of populations,
                 sex ratios, ecosystem dynamics and ecological impacts
                 in the various established global populations of green
                 crabs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Baduy:2020:DRA,
  author =       "Flavia Baduy and Jo{\~a}o L. Saraiva and Filipe
                 Ribeiro and Adelino V. M. Canario and Pedro M.
                 Guerreiro",
  title =        "Distribution and Risk Assessment of Potential
                 Invasiveness of \bioname{Australoheros facetus}
                 ({Jenyns}, 1842) in {Portugal}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3",
  day =          "27",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010003",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/3",
  abstract =     "Invasive species are recognized as a major cause of
                 biodiversity decline. Legal regulations relating to the
                 prevention, control, or eradication of invasive species
                 should always be up-to-date, as the failure to
                 recognize the problem, lack of adequate scientific
                 information, or long legal intervals required to
                 prepare the legislation may result in irreversible,
                 possibly catastrophic, outcomes. This implies constant
                 monitoring of the species distribution and levels of
                 establishment, as well as detailed knowledge about its
                 biology to predict dissemination and viability under
                 changing environmental conditions. Pre-screening kits
                 for potential invasive species are valuable tools for
                 policy makers, as they provide information about if and
                 how management measures should be taken. The Freshwater
                 Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (FISK) and the Aquatic
                 Species Invasiveness Screening Kit (AS-ISK) have been
                 suggested as reliable tools to assess the potential
                 risk of a species becoming invasive. The present study
                 highlights the spread of the non-native chameleon
                 cichlid \bioname{Australoheros facetus} in several
                 streams of the major river drainages in southern
                 Portugal and compares the fish assemblages and
                 ecological indices in two selected sites in the
                 Vasc{\~a}o and Odelouca rivers. We reviewed the current
                 knowledge on the distribution, physiology, and behavior
                 of A. facetus, and applied the toolkits FISK v2 and
                 AS-ISK to this species to evaluate whether the species
                 should be classified as invasive in Portugal. Field
                 data show high abundance of the species in most streams
                 and dominance in specific hotspots. The scores reached
                 by the kits (FISK v2: 23; AS-ISK: 37) places A. facetus
                 as a species with high potential of invasiveness and
                 support the recent inclusion of this species in the
                 invasive species list in Portugal (Decree-Law 92/2019),
                 but, most of all, highlights the importance of frequent
                 updates in both the field monitoring and the legal
                 regulation and watch lists of invasive organisms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Carballo:2020:HEG,
  author =       "Carlos Carballo and Hyun Suk Shin and Concepci{\'o}n
                 Berbel and Maria Jes{\'u}s Zamorano and Juan Jose
                 Borrego and Eva Armero and Juan Manuel Afonso and
                 Manuel Manchado",
  title =        "Heritability Estimates and Genetic Correlation for
                 Growth Traits and {LCDV} Susceptibility in Gilthead Sea
                 Bream (\bioname{Sparus aurata})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2",
  day =          "25",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010002",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/2",
  abstract =     "The lymphocystis disease (LCD) is a viral infection
                 with a high economic impact in gilthead sea bream
                 aquaculture. In this study, genetic estimates
                 associated with lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV)
                 disease susceptibility and growth were determined in
                 sea bream juveniles. Two fish batches (named batch 1
                 and batch 2) were built from mass spawning and reared
                 under industrial conditions until disease outbreak. At
                 the moment of the sampling (n = 500 specimens for each
                 batch), all animals had the typical LCDV lesions in the
                 skin. For phenotyping, animals were weighted and
                 photographed for image analysis (surface covered and
                 lesion intensity). LCDV DNA copies were quantified in
                 the liver by qPCR. Batch 1 had a higher surface covered
                 and lesion intensity than batch 2, and the body caudal
                 region was the lowest affected region in both batches.
                 The average LCDV DNA copies in liver were higher in the
                 batch 1 than batch 2, and they were positively
                 correlated with severity index (SI) categories (r 2 =
                 0.90--0.94). The total number of families evaluated
                 were 150 and 128 for batch 1 and batch 2, respectively,
                 with a high bias in offspring contribution by family
                 and broodstock. Heritabilities for weight and length
                 were 0.18 and 0.14 in batch 1 and 0.06 and 0.05 in
                 batch 2, respectively. Heritability for the number of
                 viral DNA copies was low ($<$0.08) in both batches.
                 Heritabilities for SI in binary scale were 0.32/0.33
                 and 0.21/0.24 (underlying liability/Bayesian approach)
                 for batch 1 and batch 2, respectively. Genetic
                 correlations were very high and positive when growth
                 traits (weight and length) or disease traits (LCDV DNA
                 copies and SI) were compared. In contrast, the genetic
                 correlations between growth and disease traits were
                 moderate--high and positive in the batch 1 but negative
                 in batch 2. These results indicate the genetic
                 selection for LCDV susceptibility and growth is
                 feasible in sea bream juveniles, although estimates are
                 highly dependent on the age. The information provided
                 is relevant to designing selective breeding programs in
                 sea bream.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Pimentel:2020:SLP,
  author =       "Marta S. Pimentel and Filipa Faleiro and Jorge Machado
                 and Pedro Pous{\~a}o-Ferreira and Rui Rosa",
  title =        "Seabream Larval Physiology under Ocean Warming and
                 Acidification",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1",
  day =          "20",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5010001",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:24 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/1/1",
  abstract =     "The vulnerability of early fish stages represents a
                 critical bottleneck for fish recruitment; therefore, it
                 is essential to understand how climate change affects
                 their physiology for more sustainable management of
                 fisheries. Here, we investigated the effects of warming
                 (OW; +4 {$^\circ $}C) and acidification (OA; {\Delta}pH
                 = 0.5) on the heart and oxygen consumption rates,
                 metabolic enzymatic machinery---namely citrate synthase
                 (CS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and
                 {\ss}-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD), of seabream
                 (\bioname{Sparus aurata}) larvae (fifteen days after
                 hatch). Oxygen consumption and heart rates showed a
                 significant increase with rising temperature, but
                 decreased with p CO 2. Results revealed a significant
                 increase of LDH activity with OW and a significant
                 decrease of the aerobic potential (CS and HOAD
                 activity) of larvae with OA. In contrast, under OA, the
                 activity levels of the enzyme LDH and the LDH:CS ratio
                 indicated an enhancement of anaerobic pathways.
                 Although such a short-term metabolic strategy may
                 eventually sustain the basic costs of maintenance, it
                 might not be adequate under the future chronic ocean
                 conditions. Given that the potential for adaptation to
                 new forthcoming conditions is yet experimentally
                 unaccounted for this species, future research is
                 essential to accurately predict the physiological
                 performance of this commercially important species
                 under future ocean conditions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Hsu:2020:PGA,
  author =       "Te-Hua Hsu and Chang-Wen Huang and Hung-Tai Lee and
                 Yi-Hsuan Kuo and Kwang-Ming Liu and Cheng-Hui Lin and
                 Hong-Yi Gong",
  title =        "Population Genetic Analysis for Stock Enhancement of
                 Silver Sea Bream (\bioname{Rhabdosargus sarba}) in
                 {Taiwan}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19",
  day =          "16",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5020019",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/2/19",
  abstract =     "Stock enhancement is a method for replenishing
                 depleted wild finfish populations by supplementing them
                 with hatchery-raised fish. In Taiwan, silver sea bream
                 (\bioname{Rhabdosargus sarba}) is a predominant
                 commercial species involved in stock enhancement
                 projects. Although management agencies conduct stock
                 enhancement projects, there are a lot of private
                 releases without records. Stock enhancement is
                 performed by the private aquaculture sector without
                 accurate genetic records, potentially leading to
                 unintended consequences for wild populations. We
                 analyzed the genetics of 459 wild and 701
                 hatchery-reared specimens from nine batches produced by
                 various hatcheries. Wild and hatchery-reared samples
                 could be considered two separate clades by using a set
                 of stable and informative microsatellite markers
                 including type I (from gene introns and 3{\prime}UTR)
                 and type II markers (randomly picked up from genome).
                 Type I microsatellite markers could more sensitively
                 reflect the loss of genetic diversity more than type II
                 markers in the domestication process. All specimens
                 were considered native by using mtDNA COI and
                 microsatellites. The genetic composition of the wild
                 population is relatively simple, and the estimated low
                 contribution rate of the hatchery stock (1.3--10.9\%;
                 6--50/459) indicated a weak but significant genetic
                 effect of stock enhancement. Therefore, establishing
                 standards for the stock enhancement of silver sea bream
                 for more effective supplementation of wild populations
                 is imperative.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Koel:2020:YLE,
  author =       "Todd M. Koel and Jeffery L. Arnold and Patricia E.
                 Bigelow and Travis O. Brenden and Jeffery D. Davis and
                 Colleen R. Detjens and Philip D. Doepke and Brian D.
                 Ertel and Hayley C. Glassic and Robert E. Gresswell and
                 Christopher S. Guy and Drew J. MacDonald and Michael E.
                 Ruhl and Todd J. Stuth and David P. Sweet and John M.
                 Syslo and Nathan A. Thomas and Lusha M. Tronstad and
                 Patrick J. White and Alexander V. Zale",
  title =        "{Yellowstone Lake} Ecosystem Restoration: a Case Study
                 for Invasive Fish Management",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18",
  day =          "12",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5020018",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/2/18",
  abstract =     "Invasive predatory lake trout \bioname{Salvelinus
                 namaycush} were discovered in Yellowstone Lake in 1994
                 and caused a precipitous decrease in abundance of
                 native Yellowstone cutthroat trout
                 \bioname{Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri}. Suppression
                 efforts (primarily gillnetting) initiated in 1995 did
                 not curtail lake trout population growth or lakewide
                 expansion. An adaptive management strategy was
                 developed in 2010 that specified desired conditions
                 indicative of ecosystem recovery. Population modeling
                 was used to estimate effects of suppression efforts on
                 the lake trout and establish effort benchmarks to
                 achieve negative population growth ({\lambda} {$<$} 1).
                 Partnerships enhanced funding support, and a scientific
                 review panel provided guidance to increase suppression
                 gillnetting effort to $>$46,800 100-m net nights; this
                 effort level was achieved in 2012 and led to a
                 reduction in lake trout biomass. Total lake trout
                 biomass declined from 432,017 kg in 2012 to 196,675 kg
                 in 2019, primarily because of a 79\% reduction in
                 adults. Total abundance declined from 925,208 in 2012
                 to 673,983 in 2019 but was highly variable because of
                 recruitment of age-2 fish. Overall, 3.35 million lake
                 trout were killed by suppression efforts from 1995 to
                 2019. Cutthroat trout abundance remained below target
                 levels, but relative condition increased, large
                 individuals ($>$ 400 mm) became more abundant, and
                 individual weights doubled, probably because of reduced
                 density. Continued actions to suppress lake trout will
                 facilitate further recovery of the cutthroat trout
                 population and integrity of the Yellowstone Lake
                 ecosystem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{McColl:2020:BCC,
  author =       "Kenneth A. McColl and Agus Sunarto",
  title =        "Biocontrol of the Common Carp (\bioname{Cyprinus
                 carpio}) in {Australia}: a Review and Future
                 Directions",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17",
  day =          "02",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5020017",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/2/17",
  abstract =     "Invasive pest species are recognized as one of the
                 important drivers of reduced global biodiversity. In
                 Australia, the 267 invasive plant, animal and microbial
                 species, established since European colonization in the
                 1770s, have been unequivocally declared the most
                 important threat to species diversity in this country.
                 One invasive pest, the common carp (\bioname{Cyprinus
                 carpio}), has been targeted in an integrated pest
                 management plan that might include cyprinid herpesvirus
                 3 (CyHV-3) as a potential biocontrol agent. The
                 species-specificity of the released virus (and of field
                 variants that will inevitably arise) has been assessed,
                 and the virus judged to be safe. It has also been
                 hypothesised that, because the virulence of the CyHV-3
                 will likely decline following release, the virus should
                 be used strategically: initially, the aim would be to
                 markedly reduce numbers of carp in naive populations,
                 and then some other, as yet uncertain, complementary
                 broad-scale control measure would knock-down carp
                 numbers even further. Brief results are included from
                 recent studies on the modelling of release and spread
                 of the virus, the ecological and social concerns
                 associated with virus release, and the restoration
                 benefits that might be expected following carp control.
                 We conclude that, while further work is required (on
                 the virus, the target species, environmental issues,
                 and especially the identification of a suitable
                 broad-scale complementary control measure), optimism
                 must prevail in order to ensure an eventual solution to
                 this important environmental problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Reyes:2020:NGE,
  author =       "Mar{\'\i}a Reyes and Mar{\'\i}a Rodr{\'\i}guez and
                 Juan Montes and Fernando G. Barroso and Dmitri Fabrikov
                 and Elvira Morote and Mar{\'\i}a Jos{\'e}
                 S{\'a}nchez-Muros",
  title =        "Nutritional and Growth Effect of Insect Meal Inclusion
                 on Seabass (\bioname{Dicentrarchuss labrax}) Feeds",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16",
  day =          "01",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5020016",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/2/16",
  abstract =     "Abajo: se repite los tres en el resumen. This work
                 studies the effect of high-level fish meal replacement
                 with insect meal: YW meal (obtained from Tenebrio
                 larvae fed a broiler diet), BSF meal (from hermetia
                 larvae fed broilers diet), BSFm meal (obtained from
                 hermetia larvae fed discard fish) on growth performance
                 nutritive indices and in vitro digestibility of
                 \bioname{Dicentrarchus labrax} juvenile. Three
                 different insect meals were used: BSF meal from
                 hermetia larvae fed broilers diet; BSF improve (BSFm)
                 obtained from hermetia larvae fed discarded fish; YW
                 meal obtained from the larvae of Tenebrio fed a broiler
                 diet. Five diets were used, a control (C) diet and four
                 experimental diets by replacing fishmeal with insect
                 meal from BSF at 30\% and 50\% (BSF30 and BSF50)
                 substitutions, BSFm at 50\% substitution (BSF50 m) and
                 YM at 50\% substitution (YW50). Nutritional and growth
                 indices worsened by including insect meal, especially
                 for hermetia meal at 50\% substitution, BSF50 and BSF50
                 m. The internal organs' weight reflected the growth of
                 the fish fed each experimental diet. No differences
                 were found in fillet composition. Nevertheless, under
                 our experimental condition, YW replacement obtained
                 better results than both BSF diets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zaragoza:2020:SFS,
  author =       "Patricia Zaragoz{\'a} and Silvia Mart{\'\i}nez-Llorens
                 and Isabel Fern{\'a}ndez-Segovia and Jos{\'e}-Luis
                 Vivancos and Ana Tomas-Vidal and Ana Fuentes and
                 Jos{\'e} Vicente Ros-Lis and Ram{\'o}n
                 Mart{\'\i}nez-M{\'a}{\~n}ez and Jos{\'e} Manuel Barat",
  title =        "Study of Fishmeal Substitution on Growth Performance
                 and Shelf-Life of Giltheadsea Bream
                 (\bioname{Sparusaurata})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15",
  day =          "15",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5020015",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/2/15",
  abstract =     "In this work the effect of partial or total
                 replacement of fishmeal by plant protein sources and
                 krill and squid meal on growth performance and
                 shelf-life of gilthead sea bream was evaluated. Plant
                 protein dietswith 50 g kg {-1} of krill and 100 g kg
                 {-1} of squid were supplemented with synthetic amino
                 acids and at the end of the growing period weight
                 showed no significant differences. The spoilage process
                 of the fish was followed by physicochemical and
                 microbiological measurements together with a
                 colorimetric sensor array (CSA) specially designed for
                 that purpose. The changes in the physicochemical
                 parameters and microbial growth showed that shelf-life
                 of samples were in all cases lower than ninedays. The
                 CSA was not able to show significant differences
                 between both diets, confirming the physicochemical and
                 microbiological results. The fact that the type of feed
                 had no effect on the freshness parameters studied
                 demonstrates that total fishmeal replacement with plant
                 protein blends in the proportions used in this work
                 could be an excellent alternative for feed formulation
                 in aquaculture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Dam:2020:AFR,
  author =       "Chinh Thi My Dam and Mark Booth and Igor Pirozzi and
                 Michael Salini and Richard Smullen and Tomer Ventura
                 and Abigail Elizur",
  title =        "Alternative Feed Raw Materials Modulate Intestinal
                 Microbiota and Its Relationship with Digestibility in
                 Yellowtail Kingfish \bioname{Seriola lalandi}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14",
  day =          "11",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5020014",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/2/14",
  abstract =     "Gut microbiota plays a crucial role in nutrient
                 digestibility and fish health. This study aimed to
                 investigate the effects of alternative feed raw
                 materials on the bacterial communities in the distal
                 intestine and its relationship with nutrient
                 digestibility in yellowtail kingfish (YTK),
                 \bioname{Seriola lalandi}. Two 4-week digestibility
                 trials were conducted to evaluate fish meal (FM), two
                 sources of poultry by-product meal (PBM-1 \& PBM-2),
                 blood meal (BLM), faba bean meal (FBM), corn gluten
                 meal (CGM), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and wheat
                 flour (WH). The nutrient digestibility value was
                 determined using the stripping fecal collection method.
                 Bacterial communities were characterized by
                 high-throughput sequencing based on V3-V4 region of the
                 16S rRNA gene. The most abundant phylum identified in
                 the present study was Proteobacteria. A significant
                 change in the distal intestine was observed in fish fed
                 diets containing CGM and BLM, characterized by a
                 reduction of species richness and diversity.
                 Additionally, significant correlation between nutrient
                 digestibility and intestinal microbiota was observed.
                 Allivibrio, Vibrio, Curvibacter, Ruminococcaceae, and
                 Clostridium were positively correlated, whereas
                 Ralstonia genus was negatively correlated with nutrient
                 digestibility. This study demonstrated that intestinal
                 microbiota could be a useful tool for evaluating the
                 digestibility of feed raw materials; however, further
                 culture-based study is needed to confirm this
                 observation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lindholm-Lehto:2020:AGM,
  author =       "Petra Lindholm-Lehto and Juha Koskela and Janne Kaseva
                 and Jouni Vielma",
  title =        "Accumulation of Geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol in
                 {European} Whitefish \bioname{Coregonus lavaretus} and
                 Rainbow Trout \bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss} in {RAS}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13",
  day =          "11",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5020013",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/2/13",
  abstract =     "Geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB)-induced
                 off-flavors can cause serious problems in a
                 recirculating aquaculture system (RAS), such as delayed
                 harvest and increased production costs, but also damage
                 producers' reputation. Traditionally, off-flavors have
                 been removed by depuration before harvesting. Rainbow
                 trout (\bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss}) and European
                 whitefish (\bioname{Coregonus lavaretus}) are
                 commercially valuable species produced for consumers,
                 both being suitable for rearing in RAS. In this study,
                 European whitefish and rainbow trout were raised from
                 juvenile up to 240 g (European whitefish) and 660 g
                 (rainbow trout) to monitor the long-term accumulation
                 of off-flavors. The concentrations in fillet of rainbow
                 trout reached 3.6 ng{\cdot}g {-1} (MIB) and 5.6 ng$
                 \bullet $ g {-11} (GSM) with lipid content of 22.5\%,
                 while for European whitefish up to 3.2 ng{\cdot}g {-1}
                 (MIB) and 3.9 ng{\cdot}g {-1} (GSM) were found with
                 14.8\% in lipid content. Concentrations up to 58
                 ng{\cdot}L {-1} (MIB) and 49 ng{\cdot}L {-1} (GSM) were
                 found in the circulating water. Based on the results,
                 the accumulation of MIB proceeds at similar pace for
                 both species. In the case of GSM, the accumulation
                 started similarly for both species but proceeded more
                 quickly for rainbow trout after 140 days of the
                 experiment, with a statistically significant difference
                 (p {$<$} 0.05).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Dunker:2020:DRA,
  author =       "Kristine Dunker and Robert Massengill and Parker
                 Bradley and Cody Jacobson and Nicole Swenson and Andy
                 Wizik and Robert DeCino",
  title =        "A Decade in Review: {Alaska}'s Adaptive Management of
                 an Invasive Apex Predator",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12",
  day =          "21",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5020012",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/2/12",
  abstract =     "Northern pike are an invasive species in southcentral
                 Alaska and have caused the decline and extirpation of
                 salmonids and other native fish populations across the
                 region. Over the last decade, adaptive management of
                 invasive pike populations has included population
                 suppression, eradication, outreach, angler engagement,
                 and research to mitigate damages from pike where
                 feasible. Pike suppression efforts have been focused in
                 open drainages of the northern and western Cook Inlet
                 areas, and eradication efforts have been primarily
                 focused on the Kenai Peninsula and the municipality of
                 Anchorage. Between 2010 and 2020, almost 40,000 pike
                 were removed from southcentral Alaska waters as a
                 result of suppression programs, and pike have been
                 successfully eradicated from over 20 lakes and creeks
                 from the Kenai Peninsula and Anchorage, nearly
                 completing total eradication of pike from known
                 distributions in those areas. Northern pike control
                 actions are tailored to the unique conditions of waters
                 prioritized for their management, and all efforts
                 support the goal of preventing further spread of this
                 invasive aquatic apex predator to vulnerable waters.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Cerbule:2020:SLB,
  author =       "Kristine Cerbule and Jacques Godfroid",
  title =        "Salmon Louse (\bioname{Lepeophtheirus salmonis}
                 ({Kr{\o}yer})) Control Methods and Efficacy in
                 {Atlantic Salmon} (\bioname{Salmo salar} ({Linnaeus}))
                 Aquaculture: a Literature Review",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11",
  day =          "31",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5020011",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/2/11",
  abstract =     "The salmon louse (\bioname{Lepeophtheirus salmonis})
                 causes problems in Atlantic salmon (\bioname{Salmo
                 salar}) aquaculture in the Northern Hemisphere, because
                 infestations can result in both a loss of production
                 and in fish mortality. Several types of treatment have
                 been used to control louse infestations, but these have
                 seen varying success. The aim of this review is to
                 examine the efficacy and safety of commonly used
                 treatments (chemical, biological, mechanical, and
                 preventive measures) as documented in peer-reviewed
                 publications. Efficacy is assessed in relation to a
                 reduction in numbers of lice, and safety is assessed as
                 a lack of negative treatment-associated effects on fish
                 health and welfare (Atlantic salmon and/or cleaner
                 fish). Most chemical treatments showed decreasing
                 efficacy over time, together with the use of increasing
                 concentrations as a result of the development of
                 resistance to the treatments by lice. The need for a
                 restrictive use of pesticides to preserve treatment
                 efficacy has been emphasized. The use of cleaner fish
                 was suggested to be effective, with few or no negative
                 effects towards Atlantic salmon. The use of cleaner
                 fish would be preferable to chemical treatment if the
                 farmed fish health and welfare criteria are met. At
                 present, the number of peer-reviewed publications
                 relating to other forms of treatment and prevention are
                 sparse.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Mulokozi:2020:EEA,
  author =       "Deogratias Pius Mulokozi and H{\aa}kan Berg and
                 Torbj{\"o}rn Lundh",
  title =        "An Ecological and Economical Assessment of Integrated
                 Amaranth (\bioname{Amaranthus hybridus}) and
                 \geoname{Nile} Tilapia (\bioname{Oreochromis
                 niloticus}) Farming in \geoname{Dar es Salaam,
                 Tanzania}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30",
  day =          "18",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030030",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/30",
  abstract =     "Organic wastes can be recycled in an ecologically
                 sound way in fishponds by applying integrated
                 agriculture and aquaculture systems (IAA). This kind of
                 waste recycling can help to protect the environment
                 from pollution and improve fishpond yields.
                 Additionally, IAA provides an opportunity for
                 diversification of the output from two or more existing
                 subsystems leading to higher overall farm economic
                 returns. This study explored the potential application
                 of amaranth wastes (AW) as a dietary ingredient for
                 tilapia in a tilapia-amaranths integrated system (ITA).
                 An experimental diet (AD) contained 10\% (based on the
                 control diet, CD) inclusion of AW collected from a
                 nearby vegetable market. The experiments included
                 triplicate treatments with; (i) fish fed on AD, where
                 the pond water was used for irrigating the amaranth
                 plants (IAA-fish), and (ii) fish fed on CD, where no
                 pond water was used for irrigating the amaranth plants
                 (non-IAA fish). 90 days after fish stocking, eighteen 4
                 m 2 amaranth plots were prepared and treated with (i)
                 tap water without fertilization (control amaranths),
                 (ii) water from IAA-fish pond and organically
                 fertilized (IAA amaranths), and (iii) tap water and
                 inorganically fertilized (non-IAA amaranths). The use
                 of AW improved the fish feed conversion ratio. The
                 overall net income from ITA was 3.2, 2.3, 2.6, and 1.8
                 higher than from non-IAA amaranths, IAA-amaranths,
                 non-IAA fish, and IAA fish sub-systems respectively.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Bouska:2020:GSH,
  author =       "Wesley W. Bouska and David C. Glover and Jesse T.
                 Trushenski and Silvia Secchi and James E. Garvey and
                 Ruairi MacNamara and David P. Coulter and Alison A.
                 Coulter and Kevin Irons and Andrew Wieland",
  title =        "Geographic-Scale Harvest Program to Promote
                 Invasivorism of Bigheaded Carps",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29",
  day =          "01",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030029",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/29",
  abstract =     "Invasive bigheaded carps, genus Hypophthalmichthys,
                 are spreading throughout the Mississippi River basin.
                 To explore the efficacy of a consumer-based market
                 (i.e., invasivorism) to manage them, we developed a
                 conceptual model and evaluated three harvest
                 approaches---direct contracted removal, volume-based
                 incentives (``fisher-side'' control), and set-quota
                 harvest (``market-side'' control). We quantified the
                 efficacy of these approaches and potential population
                 impact in the Illinois River. Contracted removal was
                 effective for suppressing small populations at the edge
                 of the range but cannot support a market.
                 ``Fisher-side'' removals totaled 225,372 kg in one
                 year. However, participation was low, perhaps due to
                 reporting requirements for fishers. The
                 ``market-side'', set-quota approach removed $>$1.3
                 million kg of bigheaded carp in less than 6 months.
                 Larger, older fish were disproportionately harvested,
                 which may hinder the ability to suppress population
                 growth. Total density declined in one river reach, and
                 harvest may reduce upstream movement toward the
                 invasion fronts. With sufficient market demand, harvest
                 may control bigheaded carp. However, lack of processing
                 infrastructure and supply chain bottlenecks could
                 constrain harvest, particularly at low commodity
                 prices. Given the geographical scale of this invasion
                 and complicated harvest logistics, concerns about
                 economic dependence on invasivorism that encourage
                 stock enhancement are likely unmerited.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Wiryawan:2020:CPU,
  author =       "Budy Wiryawan and Neil Loneragan and Ulfah Mardhiah
                 and Sonja Kleinertz and Prihatin Ika Wahyuningrum and
                 Jessica Pingkan and Wildan and Putra Satria Timur and
                 Deirdre Duggan and Irfan Yulianto",
  title =        "Catch per Unit Effort Dynamic of Yellowfin Tuna
                 Related to Sea Surface Temperature and Chlorophyll in
                 {Southern Indonesia}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28",
  day =          "31",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030028",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/28",
  abstract =     "Tuna fisheries are the most valuable fisheries in the
                 world, with an estimated market value of at least
                 US\$42 billion in 2018. Indonesia plays an important
                 role in the global tuna fisheries and has committed to
                 improve its fisheries management; therefore, a pilot of
                 long-term spatial-temporal data bases was developed in
                 2012, however none have utilized data to have better
                 understanding for management improvement. In this
                 study, the annual and seasonal variation of large (\ge
                 10 kg) Yellowfin Tuna (YFT) catch per unit effort
                 (CPUE) have been investigated and the influence of sea
                 surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a on these
                 variables examined. We used fish landing data from West
                 Nusa Tenggara recorded every month between 2012 and
                 2017 and analyzed using generalized linear models and
                 generalized additive models. We found a seasonal and
                 annual pattern of tuna abundance affected by SST and
                 chlorophyll- a (chl a) and related to upwelling and El
                 Nino event. These results also suggest that a two-month
                 closure to fishing in August and September in southern
                 Lombok is worth considering by the Government to
                 maximize conservation of stocks due to a high abundance
                 of juveniles emerging during the upwelling months from
                 June to August.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Hayer:2020:UED,
  author =       "Cari-Ann Hayer and Michael F. Bayless and Amy George
                 and Nathan Thompson and Catherine A. Richter and Duane
                 C. Chapman",
  title =        "Use of Environmental {DNA} to Detect Grass Carp
                 Spawning Events",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27",
  day =          "27",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030027",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/27",
  abstract =     "The timing and location of spawning events are
                 important data for managers seeking to control invasive
                 grass carp populations. Ichthyoplankton tows for grass
                 carp eggs and larvae can be used to detect spawning
                 events; however, these samples can be highly
                 debris-laden, and are expensive and laborious to
                 process. An alternative method, environmental DNA
                 (eDNA) technology, has proven effective in determining
                 the presence of aquatic species. The objectives of this
                 project were to assess the use of eDNA collections and
                 quantitative eDNA analysis to assess the potential
                 spawning of grass carp in five reservoir tributaries,
                 and to compare those results to the more traditional
                 method of ichthyoplankton tows. Grass carp eDNA was
                 detected in 56\% of sampling occasions and was detected
                 in all five rivers. Concentrations of grass carp eDNA
                 were orders of magnitude higher in June, corresponding
                 to elevated discharge and egg presence. Grass carp
                 environmental DNA flux (copies/h) was lower when no
                 eggs were present and was higher when velocities and
                 discharge increased and eggs were present. There was a
                 positive relationship between grass carp eDNA flux and
                 egg flux. Our results support the further development
                 of eDNA analysis as a method to detect the spawning
                 events of grass carp or other rheophilic spawners.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Bernet:2020:ZFI,
  author =       "Daniel Bernet and Thomas Wahli and Christoph K{\"u}ng
                 and Helmut Segner",
  title =        "Zooplankton Feeding Induces Macroscopical Gonad
                 Malformations in Whitefish (\bioname{Coregonus} ssp.)
                 from {Lake Thun, Switzerland}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26",
  day =          "20",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030026",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/26",
  abstract =     "Alterations in gonad morphology are widespread in wild
                 fish populations. Whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake
                 Thun, Switzerland, display a high prevalence of
                 macroscopical gonad malformations including fusions to
                 the musculature, segmented gonads and intersex
                 condition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate
                 whether the gonad morphological changes in Lake Thun
                 whitefish are caused by genetic factors, environmental
                 factors (water, diet) or ``gene $ \times $
                 environment'' interaction. We performed two independent
                 experiments of a three-year duration in which we reared
                 whitefish from fertilization until adulthood and tested
                 the possible causative factors using a matrix design:
                 (i) genetics---comparing the prevalence of gonad
                 malformations in whitefish of different genetic origin
                 reared under identical environmental conditions (same
                 diet, same water, same experimental facility); (ii)
                 environment---comparing the prevalence of gonad
                 malformations in whitefish of the same genetic origin
                 reared in different water sources and/or fed with
                 different diets; and (iii) gene-environment
                 interaction---comparing the prevalence of gonad
                 morphological alterations in relation to the
                 combinations of genetics and environmental factors. Two
                 diets were used for the rearing experiments: either
                 zooplankton collected in Lake Thun which represents the
                 natural diet of whitefish, or an artificial dry food
                 which was used as control. The key finding of this
                 study is that the inducing factor of the gonad
                 malformations is contained in the zooplankton of Lake
                 Thun. Fish fed with this diet developed a significantly
                 higher prevalence of malformations than fish from any
                 other treatment, irrespective of the genetic origin
                 and/or the water source. This result could be repeated
                 in the two independent experiments. Importantly, the
                 prevalence values observed in the experimental fish fed
                 with Lake Thun zooplankton were similar to the
                 prevalence values recorded in free-ranging whitefish in
                 the lake. The findings of this study advance the
                 understanding of the causes of gonad morphological
                 alterations in wild fish populations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Suski:2020:DCD,
  author =       "Cory D. Suski",
  title =        "Development of Carbon Dioxide Barriers to Deter
                 Invasive Fishes: Insights and Lessons Learned from
                 Bigheaded Carp",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25",
  day =          "13",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030025",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/25",
  abstract =     "Invasive species are a threat to biodiversity in
                 freshwater. Removing an aquatic invasive species
                 following arrival is almost impossible, and preventing
                 introduction is a more viable management option.
                 Bigheaded carp are an invasive fish spreading
                 throughout the Midwestern {United States} and are
                 threatening to enter the Great Lakes. This review
                 outlines the development of carbon dioxide gas (CO 2)
                 as a non-physical barrier that can be used to deter the
                 movement of fish and prevent further spread. Carbon
                 dioxide gas could be used as a deterrent either to
                 cause avoidance (i.e., fish swim away from zones of
                 high CO 2), or by inducing equilibrium loss due to the
                 anesthetic properties of CO 2 (i.e., tolerance). The
                 development of CO 2 as a fish deterrent started with
                 controlled laboratory experiments demonstrating stress
                 and avoidance, and then progressed to larger field
                 applications demonstrating avoidance at scales that
                 approach real-world scenarios. In addition, factors
                 that influence the effectiveness of CO 2 as a fish
                 barrier are discussed, outlining conditions that could
                 make CO 2 less effective in the field; these factors
                 that influence efficacy would be of interest to
                 managers using CO 2 to target other fish species, or
                 those using other non-physical barriers for fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Harris:2020:PGA,
  author =       "Sheila C. Harris and W. Robert Cope and Isaac Wirgin
                 and Eric M. Hallerman",
  title =        "Population Genetic Assessment of Anadromous and
                 Resident Striped Bass (\bioname{Morone saxatilis}) in
                 the {Roanoke River System, Eastern United States}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "24",
  day =          "07",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030024",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/24",
  abstract =     "Striped bass is the subject of important commercial
                 and sport fisheries in North America. The Roanoke River
                 drainage---especially Smith Mountain Lake, Leesville
                 Lake, and Kerr Reservoir---has popular recreational
                 striped bass fisheries. After construction of five
                 hydroelectric dams, populations became landlocked,
                 declined, and have been supplemented by stocking. A key
                 basis for responsibly augmenting populations is to
                 characterize genetic variation and incorporate the
                 findings into responsible hatchery and stocking
                 practices. Genetic variation at 12 microsatellite DNA
                 loci was evaluated among 837 striped bass representing
                 16 collections across the native range; populations
                 from rivers in South Carolina, North Carolina,
                 Chesapeake Bay, and Hudson River were screened to
                 provide context for assessing genetic structure within
                 the Roanoke system. Analysis of population genetic
                 differentiation showed landlocked Roanoke River striped
                 bass to be distinctive. Subject to genetic isolation,
                 high M ratios, and relatively low N e estimates suggest
                 loss of genetic variation, and relatedness analysis
                 showed heightened frequencies of related individuals.
                 These insights into population genetics, demographics,
                 and existing guidelines for broodstock acquisition and
                 mating designs can inform genetically cognizant
                 hatchery management and stocking for striped bass in
                 the Roanoke River drainage. In particular, we recommend
                 the use of larger numbers of breeders and factorial
                 mating designs to increase the genetic diversity of
                 propagated striped bass stocked within the Roanoke
                 River drainage.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Costa:2020:ZMN,
  author =       "Bruna Patricia Dutra Costa and Layana Aquino Moura and
                 Sabrina Alana Gomes Pinto and Monica Lima-Maximino and
                 Caio Maximino",
  title =        "Zebrafish Models in Neural and Behavioral Toxicology
                 across the Life Stages",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "23",
  day =          "31",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030023",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/23",
  abstract =     "The industry is increasingly relying on fish for
                 toxicity assessment. However, current guidelines for
                 toxicity assessment focus on teratogenicity and
                 mortality. From an ecotoxicological point of view,
                 however, these endpoints may not reflect the ``full
                 picture'' of possible deleterious effects that can
                 nonetheless result in decreased fitness and/or
                 inability to adapt to a changing environment, affecting
                 whole populations. Therefore, assessing sublethal
                 effects add relevant data covering different aspects of
                 toxicity at different levels of analysis. The impacts
                 of toxicants on neurobehavioral function have the
                 potential to affect many different life-history traits,
                 and are easier to assess in the laboratory than in the
                 wild. We propose that carefully-controlled laboratory
                 experiments on different behavioral domains---including
                 anxiety, aggression, and exploration---can increase our
                 understanding of the ecotoxicological impacts of
                 contaminants, since these domains are related to traits
                 such as defense, sociality, and reproduction, directly
                 impacting life-history traits. The effects of selected
                 contaminants on these tests are reviewed, focusing on
                 larval and adult zebrafish, showing that these
                 behavioral domains are highly sensitive to small
                 concentrations of these substances. These strategies
                 suggest a way forward on ecotoxicological research
                 using fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Glencross:2020:ASC,
  author =       "Brett D. Glencross and David Huyben and Johan W.
                 Schrama",
  title =        "The Application of Single-Cell Ingredients in
                 Aquaculture Feeds --- a Review",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "22",
  day =          "16",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030022",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/22",
  abstract =     "Single-cell ingredients (SCI) are a relatively broad
                 class of materials that encompasses bacterial, fungal
                 (yeast), microalgal-derived products or the combination
                 of all three microbial groups into microbial bioflocs
                 and aggregates. In this review we focus on those dried
                 and processed single-cell organisms used as potential
                 ingredients for aqua-feeds where the microorganisms are
                 considered non-viable and are used primarily to provide
                 protein, lipids or specific nutritional components.
                 Among the SCI, there is a generalised dichotomy in
                 terms of their use as either single-cell protein (SCP)
                 resources or single-cell oil (SCO) resources, with SCO
                 products being those oleaginous products containing 200
                 g/kg or more of lipids, whereas those products
                 considered as SCP resources tend to contain more than
                 300 g/kg of protein (on a dry basis). Both SCP and SCO
                 are now widely being used as protein/amino acid
                 sources, omega-3 sources and sources of bioactive
                 molecules in the diets of several species, with the
                 current range of both these ingredient groups being
                 considerable and growing. However, the different array
                 of products becoming available in the market, how they
                 are produced and processed has also resulted in
                 different nutritional qualities in those products. In
                 assessing this variation among the products and the
                 application of the various types of SCI, we have taken
                 the approach of evaluating their use against a set of
                 standardised evaluation criteria based around key
                 nutritional response parameters and how these criteria
                 have been applied against salmonids, shrimp, tilapia
                 and marine fish species.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Jung:2020:FDO,
  author =       "Joo-Young Jung and Soohwan Kim and Kyochan Kim and
                 Bong-Joo Lee and Kang-Woong Kim and Hyon-Sob Han",
  title =        "Feed and Disease at Olive Flounder
                 (\bioname{Paralichthys olivaceus}) Farms in {Korea}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21",
  day =          "14",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030021",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/21",
  abstract =     "The objective of this study was to conduct field
                 experiments comparing formulated (extruded pellets
                 (E.P)) and raw-fish (moist pellets (M.P)) feeds at two
                 flounder aquaculture farms for six months to obtain the
                 basic data necessary for improving aquafarmers'
                 awareness of feed-quality issues and firmly establish
                 and expand the use of formulated feed. According to the
                 results, the M.P group was higher in weight gain, feed
                 efficiency ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and
                 specific growth rate and lower in mortality rate than
                 the E.P group. All cases of mortality were caused by
                 six kinds of disease, four of which (Vibrio sp.,
                 Edwardsiella sp., Streptococcus sp., and
                 Scuticociliates) were common to the two groups, whereas
                 Lymphocystis arose only in the M.P group and abdominal
                 inflation only in the E.P group at both farms. As for
                 mortality in the present experiment, the numbers were
                 1047 at Da-Hae farm and 1167 at Global farm, with more
                 fish dying in the E.P tanks than in the M.P tanks. By
                 multiplying the number of deaths by selling price, the
                 economic losses were \$9650 and \$10,756, respectively.
                 Therefore, it should be considered an urgent priority
                 to develop flounder-exclusive formulated feed for
                 improved digestion and absorption rate and also to
                 establish a water-quality-improvement management
                 plan.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Vu:2020:OLF,
  author =       "Ngoc-Ut Vu and Truong-Giang Huynh",
  title =        "Optimized Live Feed Regime Significantly Improves
                 Growth Performance and Survival Rate for Early Life
                 History Stages of Pangasius Catfish
                 (\bioname{Pangasianodon hypophthalmus})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20",
  day =          "28",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5030020",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/3/20",
  abstract =     "This study aimed to determine the optimal live feed
                 regime (i.e., initial feeding moment, density, and
                 frequency) for maximum growth and survival of pangasius
                 catfish (\bioname{Pangasianodon hypophthalmus}) early
                 life history stages. The first experiment assessed the
                 optimal initial feeding moment (30, 36, 42, and 48 h
                 post hatching, hph). The second experiment assessed
                 feeding density (3, 5, 8 and 11 individuals per mL,
                 ind/mL) at the optimal initial feeding moment (30 hph)
                 which was the best result from the first experiment.
                 The third experiment assessed optimal feeding frequency
                 (1, 2, 4, and 6 times per day) at the optimal initial
                 feeding moment (30 hph) and density (8 ind/mL) which
                 was drawn upon from the second experiment. All
                 experiments were conducted in 20 L containers
                 containing 20 hph P. hypophthalmus larvae at a density
                 of 10 ind/L and fed rotifers (Brachionus angularis) for
                 3 days and then water fleas (\bioname{Moina macrocopa})
                 for 7 days. The first experiment demonstrated that
                 larvae initially fed at 30 hph exhibited a
                 significantly higher survival rate (24\%) than larvae
                 initially fed at 36, 42, and 48 hph (19\%, 16\%, and
                 16\%), respectively. The second experiment demonstrated
                 that larvae fed at 8 and 11 ind/mL densities exhibited
                 significantly higher survival rates (32\% and 32\%)
                 than larvae fed at 3 and 5 ind/mL densities (13\% and
                 23\%), respectively. The third experiment demonstrated
                 that the highest survival rate (66\%) was obtained when
                 larvae were fed 6 times per day. These results provide
                 valuable insights regarding the optimal live feed
                 regime for better growth and survival of P.
                 hypophthalmus larvae, which are commercially important
                 and numerously cultured throughout the Mekong Delta
                 region.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Nikiforidou:2020:VMM,
  author =       "Vasiliki Nikiforidou and Stefanos Zaoutsos and
                 Nikolaos Vlahos and Panagiotis Berillis",
  title =        "Vertebrae Morphometric Measurement and {Ca/P} Levels
                 of Different Age {European} Seabass
                 (\bioname{Dicentrarchus labrax})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "37",
  day =          "08",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5040037",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/4/37",
  abstract =     "The European seabass is one of the most important
                 species of the Mediterranean, specifically Greece.
                 Individuals with different numbers of vertebrae have
                 been reported. This number ranges from 24 to 26
                 vertebrae. In this study a sample of 73 individual
                 seabass were collected from fish farms and divided into
                 three age groups. The first group included fingerling
                 individuals, the second group, juvenile individuals and
                 the third group, adult individuals. The number and the
                 length of their vertebrae were measured by radiographs.
                 The individuals were divided into subgroups according
                 to their vertebrae number, and from each one the tenth
                 vertebra was taken. Ca and P levels (\%) of each tenth
                 vertebra were measured by X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and
                 the Ca/P ratio was determined. Vertebrae length, Ca and
                 P levels and Ca/P ratio were compared among age groups
                 and among individuals with different numbers of
                 vertebrae. It was shown that the European seabass's
                 vertebral column can be divided to three
                 sections---cervical, abdominal and caudal---following
                 the striped bass (\bioname{Morone saxatilis}) model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sorensen:2020:CSD,
  author =       "Peter W. Sorensen and Przemyslaw G. Bajer",
  title =        "Case Studies Demonstrate That Common Carp Can Be
                 Sustainably Reduced by Exploiting Source-Sink Dynamics
                 in {Midwestern} Lakes",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "36",
  day =          "04",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5040036",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/4/36",
  abstract =     "The common carp has been highly problematic in North
                 American ecosystems since its introduction over a
                 century ago. In many watersheds, its abundance appears
                 to be driven by source-sink dynamics in which carp
                 reproduce successfully in peripheral ponds that lack
                 egg/larva micro-predators which then serve as sources
                 of recruits for deeper lakes. This manuscript describes
                 how carp were sustainably reduced in two chains of
                 lakes by disrupting source-sink dynamics in three
                 steps. First, we ascertained whether lakes had
                 problematic densities of carp that could be explained
                 by source-sink dynamics. Second, ways to control
                 recruitment were developed and implemented including:
                 (i) aerating source ponds to reduce hypoxia and
                 increase micro-predator abundance, (ii) blocking carp
                 migration, and (iii) locating and removing adults from
                 sinks using targeted netting guided by Judas fish.
                 Third, we monitored and adapted. Using this strategy,
                 the density of carp in 3 lakes in one chain was reduced
                 from 177 kg/ha to $ \approx $100 kg/ha in 3 years and
                 held constant for a decade. Similarly, adult density
                 was reduced from 300 kg carp/ha in 2 lakes in the other
                 chain to 25 kg/ha. Once carp densities were low,
                 aluminum sulfate treatments became reasonable and once
                 conducted, water quality improved.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Richard:2020:MFW,
  author =       "Adand{\'e} Richard and Liady Mouhamadou Nourou Dine
                 and Djidohokpin Gildas and Adjahouinou Dogb{\`e}
                 Cl{\'e}ment and Azon Mahuan Tobias C{\'e}saire and
                 Micha Jean-Claude and Fiogbe Didier Emile",
  title =        "Multispecies Fresh Water Algae Production for Fish
                 Farming Using Rabbit Manure",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "35",
  day =          "30",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5040035",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/4/35",
  abstract =     "The current study aims at determining the optimal
                 usage conditions of rabbit manure in a multispecies
                 fresh water algae production for fish farming. This
                 purpose, the experimental design is made of six
                 treatments in triplicate including one control T 0, T
                 1, T 2, T 3, T 4, T 5 corresponding respectively to 0,
                 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500 g/m 3 of dry rabbit manure
                 put into buckets containing 40 L of demineralized water
                 and then fertilized. The initial average seeding
                 density is made of 4 $ \times $ 10 3 {\pm} 2.5 $ \times
                 $ 10 2 cells/L of Chlorophyceae, 1.5 $ \times $ 10 3
                 {\pm} 1 $ \times $ 10 2 cells/L of Coscinodiscophyceae,
                 3 $ \times $ 10 3 {\pm} 1.2 $ \times $ 10 2 cells/L of
                 Conjugatophyceae, 2.8 $ \times $ 10 3 {\pm} 1.5 $
                 \times $ 10 2 cells/L of Bascillariophyceae, and 2.5 $
                 \times $ 10 3 {\pm} 1.4 $ \times $ 10 2 cells/L of
                 Euglenophyceae. During the experiments, the effects of
                 these treatments on abiotic and biotic parameters
                 (chlorophyll-a concentration, phytoplankton density and
                 algal density) of different production media were
                 monitored. Results show that average density of
                 different phytoplankton classes is higher in treatment
                 T 5 (7.91 $ \times $ 10 8 {\pm} 6.78 $ \times $ 10 7
                 cells/L) followed by T 4 (5.56 $ \times $ 10 8 {\pm}
                 4.27 $ \times $ 10 7 cells/L), T 2 (3.87 $ \times $ 10
                 8 {\pm} 3.10 $ \times $ 10 8 cells/L), T 3 (3.79 $
                 \times $ 10 8 {\pm} 3.18 $ \times $ 10 8 cells/L), with
                 high significant difference (F (4,84) = 5, 35, p {$<$}
                 0.00). Chl-a concentration varied from 0.07 {\pm} 0.05
                 mg/L (T 0) to 14.47 {\pm} 12.50 mg/L (T 5) with high
                 significant differences observed among treatments (F
                 (5,83) = 3,09, p = 0,01). In addition, fourteen (14)
                 species belonging to eight (8) families, five (5)
                 classes and three (3) phyla were identified in our
                 different production media. During the culture,
                 Chlorophyceae class was the most represented in all
                 treatments with 5 species (36\% of the specific
                 diversity) while Euglenophyceae class (7\%) was the
                 least represented with only one (01) species. According
                 to these results, treatments T 2 (600 g/m 3), T 3 (900
                 g/m 3) and T 4 (1200 g/m 3) of dry rabbit manure are
                 those worthy to be recommended as an alternative for a
                 low cost massive production of multispecies freshwater
                 algae that can be easily used by freshwater zooplankton
                 and macroinvertebrates. Indeed, despite the best
                 performances that it shows, treatment T 5, presents
                 important eutrophication's risks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ytteborg:2020:MTV,
  author =       "Elisabeth Ytteborg and {\O}yvind Johannes Hansen and
                 Vibeke H{\o}st and Sergey Afanasyev and Ireen Vieweg
                 and Jasmine Nahrgang and Aleksei Krasnov",
  title =        "Morphology, Transcriptomics and In Vitro Model of Skin
                 from Polar Cod (\bioname{Boreogadus saida}) and
                 {Atlantic} Cod (\bioname{Gadus morhua})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "34",
  day =          "04",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5040034",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/4/34",
  abstract =     "Fish skin is a multifunctional barrier tissue with
                 high regeneration capacity that interacts with the
                 surrounding environment and provides protection.
                 Functional importance, high complexity and activity
                 make skin an attractive tissue for studying the effects
                 of environmental challenges and chemical stressors in
                 fish. The aim of this work was to characterize skin
                 from polar cod (\bioname{Boreogadus saida}) and
                 Atlantic cod (\bioname{Gadus morhua}), and to test cod
                 skin as an in vitro model in exposure studies. Both
                 species have similar skin structures including
                 epidermis, mucous cells, club cells and scales.
                 However, microarchitectural differences were detected;
                 Atlantic cod has a smooth epidermal surface and
                 overlapping scales, whereas polar cod has a folded
                 outer surface and discontinuous scales. Genome-wide
                 microarray found 6.5k genes with expression
                 differences, which suggested more active turnover of
                 proteins, proliferation and motility of cells in skin
                 of polar cod. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) was used to
                 examine skin responses. Transcriptome response was
                 stronger in the skin of polar cod, with 155
                 differentially expressed genes. The skin from Atlantic
                 cod was further used to develop a cell culture. H 2 O 2
                 decreased the cell migration rate in a dose-dependent
                 manner, which could indicate reduced skin healing
                 capacity. The results revealed novel skin structures
                 and confirmed that the skin from cod is a promising
                 tissue for evaluation of stressors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Newman:2020:CBI,
  author =       "Raymond M. Newman and Fred G. Henson and Carl
                 Richards",
  title =        "Competition between Invasive Ruffe
                 (\bioname{Gymnocephalus cernua}) and Native Yellow
                 Perch (\bioname{Perca flavescens}) in Experimental
                 Mesocosms",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "33",
  day =          "17",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5040033",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/4/33",
  abstract =     "Ruffe (\bioname{Gymnocephalus cernua}) were introduced
                 to North America from Europe in the mid-1980s and based
                 on similar diets and habit use may compete with yellow
                 perch (\bioname{Perca flavescens}). To examine
                 competitive interactions between invasive ruffe and
                 native yellow perch, individually marked perch and
                 ruffe were placed in mesocosms in a small lake.
                 Mesocosms allowed fish to interact and feed on the
                 natural prey populations enclosed. In the first
                 experiment, four treatments were assessed: 28 perch, 14
                 perch + 14 ruffe, 14 perch, and 7 perch + 7 ruffe.
                 Yellow perch growth was significantly lower in the
                 presence of ruffe (ANOVA, p = 0.005) than in treatments
                 containing only perch. In a second experiment, an
                 increasing density of one species was superimposed upon
                 a constant density of the other in parallel treatment
                 series. Growth rates of both ruffe and perch declined
                 when ruffe density was increased (t test, p = 0.006).
                 However, neither ruffe nor perch growth was affected by
                 increasing perch density. Total stomach content mass of
                 perch was significantly decreased by ruffe in both
                 years (p {$<$} 0.02), but no effects of ruffe on the
                 composition of perch diets were observed. Ruffe growth
                 and food consumption was greater than that of perch for
                 both experiments. Ruffe can outcompete yellow perch
                 when both species depend on a limited benthic food
                 resource. Thus there is reason for concern for the
                 ecological effects of ruffe if they expand their range
                 into {Lake Erie} or North American inland lakes that
                 contain yellow perch.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Mmanda:2020:DLF,
  author =       "Francis Pius Mmanda and Jan Erik Lindberg and Anna
                 Norman Hald{\'e}n and Matern S. P. Mtolera and Rukia
                 Kitula and Torbj{\"o}rn Lundh",
  title =        "Digestibility of Local Feed Ingredients in Tilapia
                 \bioname{Oreochromis niloticus} Juveniles, Determined
                 on Faeces Collected by Siphoning or Stripping",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "32",
  day =          "15",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5040032",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/4/32",
  abstract =     "Eight locally available protein source ingredients in
                 Tanzania were selected for assessment of apparent
                 digestibility (AD) in tilapia \bioname{Oreochromis
                 niloticus}, using faeces samples collected by siphoning
                 or stripping. The selected protein source ingredients
                 were Lake Victoria sardines (FM), brewers spent yeast
                 (BSY), moringa leaves (ML), freshwater shrimp (FSH),
                 marine shrimp (MSH), cattle blood (CB), duckweed (DW)
                 and fish frames (FF). The AD (\%) of dry matter (DM),
                 organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) was
                 unaffected (p $>$ 0.782--0.901) by the faeces
                 collection method (i.e., siphoning or stripping), with
                 correlation coefficient (r) of 0.98, 0.99 and 0.93
                 between AD values for DM, OM and CP, respectively,
                 following siphoning and stripping. The AD (\%) of DM,
                 OM, CP and gross energy (GE) in the test ingredients
                 differed (p {$<$} 0.0001). The AD (\%) of DM and OM was
                 lowest in BSY and DW, followed in increasing order by
                 ML, MSH, FF, FSH and CB. In general, the AD (\%) of CP
                 was high ($>$76\%), but with a low value (46\%) for DW.
                 The AD (\%) of GE was closely correlated (r = 0.96)
                 with the AD of OM. In conclusion, FSH, MSH, CB, FF, BSY
                 and ML have acceptable protein digestibility to be used
                 in tilapia diet formulation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ruiz-Garcia:2020:DSM,
  author =       "David Ruiz-Garc{\'\i}a and Kye Adams and Heidi Brown
                 and Andrew R. Davis",
  title =        "Determining Stingray Movement Patterns in a Wave-Swept
                 Coastal Zone Using a Blimp for Continuous Aerial Video
                 Surveillance",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "31",
  day =          "30",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes5040031",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:25 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/5/4/31",
  abstract =     "Stingrays play a key role in the regulation of
                 nearshore ecosystems. However, their movement ecology
                 in high-energy surf areas remains largely unknown due
                 to the notorious difficulties in conducting research in
                 these environments. Using a blimp as an aerial platform
                 for video surveillance, we overcame some of the
                 limitations of other tracking methods, such as the use
                 of tags and drones. This novel technology offered
                 near-continuous coverage to characterise the fine-scale
                 movements of stingrays in a surf area in Kiama,
                 Australia, without any invasive procedures. A total of
                 98 stingray tracks were recorded, providing 6 h 27 min
                 of movement paths. The tracking data suggest that
                 stingrays may use a depth gradient located in the
                 sandflat area of the bay for orientating their
                 movements and transiting between locations within their
                 home range. Our research also indicates that stingray
                 behaviour was influenced by diel periods and tidal
                 states. We observed a higher stingray occurrence during
                 the afternoon, potentially related to foraging and
                 anti-predatory strategies. We also saw a reduced route
                 fidelity during low tide, when the bathymetric
                 reference was less accessible due to stranding risk.
                 Considering the increasing threat of anthropogenic
                 development to nearshore coastal environments, the
                 identification of these patterns can better inform the
                 management and mitigation of threats.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Setyohadi:2021:UIS,
  author =       "Daduk Setyohadi and Umi Zakiyah and Abu Bakar Sambah
                 and Adi Wijaya",
  title =        "Upwelling Impact on \bioname{Sardinella lemuru} during
                 the {Indian Ocean} Dipole in the {Bali Strait,
                 Indonesia}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8",
  day =          "16",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6010008",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/1/8",
  abstract =     "Understanding the impact of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
                 on fishery around Indonesia is important as the fishery
                 resources are small compared to the demand. In this
                 study, we analyzed the effect of positive and negative
                 phases of IOD on chlorophyll-a concentration and the
                 catch of Sardinella lemuru in the Bali Strait. Data are
                 based on field surveys in the Bali Strait during the
                 positive and negative phase of IOD and Sea Surface
                 Temperature (SST) and Sea Surface Chlorophyll (SSC)
                 obtained from the analysis of satellite images. The
                 results suggest that SSC concentration in the strait
                 significantly correlates with the positive and negative
                 phase of IOD, possibly through a change of upwelling
                 and downwelling there. It is suggested that the change
                 of phytoplankton biomass due to positive IOD would
                 result in an increase of \bioname{Sardinella lemuru} in
                 the Bali Strait. This research has direct implications
                 as important information for the government in planning
                 lemuru fisheries management in the Bali Strait based on
                 oceanographic studies and climate phenomena.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zhang:2021:SIS,
  author =       "Xi Zhang and Zhiyuan Shen and Tianpeng Qi and Rujuan
                 Xi and Xiao Liang and Li Li and Rong Tang and Dapeng
                 Li",
  title =        "Slight Increases in Salinity Improve Muscle Quality of
                 Grass Carp (\bioname{Ctenopharyngodon idellus})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7",
  day =          "24",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6010007",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/1/7",
  abstract =     "Fish muscle quality is an important parameter in the
                 aquaculture industry. In this study, we analyzed and
                 compared the muscle quality of grass carp
                 (\bioname{Ctenopharyngodon idellus}) cultured at
                 salinities of 0\permille, 3\permille, and 6\permille
                 (GC0, GC3, GC6). There was no significant difference in
                 crude protein and crude fat content of muscle between
                 GC0 and GC3. Crude fat was significantly lower in GC6
                 compared to the other groups. GC3 and GC6 had higher
                 hydroxyproline content, which suggested that these
                 groups had higher collagen content. GC3 and GC6 had
                 higher contents of free amino acids and umami amino
                 acids than GC0, but there was no significant difference
                 in sweet or sour amino-acid content among groups. GC3
                 and GC6 had better texture properties, including
                 hardness, gumminess, chewiness, resilience, and
                 springiness, than GC0. GC3 had the highest
                 water-holding capacity among the groups. As the
                 salinity increased, the diameter of muscle fibers
                 decreased and the sarcolemma showed a thickening trend.
                 These results suggest that a slight increase in
                 salinity (i.e., 3\permille) can effectively improve the
                 muscle quality of grass carp.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Yick:2021:EIC,
  author =       "Jonah L. Yick and Chris Wisniewski and John Diggle and
                 Jawahar G. Patil",
  title =        "Eradication of the Invasive Common Carp,
                 \bioname{Cyprinus carpio} from a Large Lake: Lessons
                 and Insights from the {Tasmanian} Experience",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6",
  day =          "23",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6010006",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/1/6",
  abstract =     "Common carp (\bioname{Cyprinus carpio}, L. 1758) are
                 the most abundant pest fish species in Australia,
                 detrimental to ecosystem integrity and values, and in
                 need of suitable management solutions. In January 1995,
                 this destructive pest was discovered in two large,
                 connected Tasmanian lakes --- Lakes Crescent (23 km 2)
                 and Sorell (54 km 2). After an initial assessment, carp
                 were immediately contained to these waters using
                 screens to prevent their escape down-stream, followed
                 by swift legislation to enforce closure of the lakes to
                 the public. Assessment and evaluation of carp numbers
                 occurred throughout the eradication program, with
                 effort focused on Lake Crescent. Beginning with
                 undirected removal, techniques progressively evolved to
                 more sophisticated targeted removal with assistance
                 from biotelemetry, in conjunction with gill netting and
                 electro-fishing. Real-time population estimates and in
                 situ observations resulted in a detailed cumulative
                 understanding of carp population dynamics, behaviour
                 and seasonal habitat choice. This allowed strategic
                 deployment of fences to block access to marshes, and
                 the installation of steel traps within the fences.
                 These gears specifically prevented spawning
                 opportunities, while concurrently capturing mature
                 fish. Following 12 years of adaptive and integrated
                 effort, 7797 carp (fry, juvenile and adult) were
                 captured from Lake Crescent, with the last carp being
                 caught in December 2007. The subsequent 14 years of
                 monitoring has not resulted in the capture of any carp,
                 confirming the successful eradication of carp from Lake
                 Crescent. These management practices have been
                 successfully replicated in the larger Lake Sorell,
                 where 41,499 carp (fry, juvenile and adult) have been
                 removed. It is now estimated that there are few, if any
                 carp remaining. Collectively, the techniques and
                 strategies described here were reliable, and can be
                 applied as a model to control or eradicate pest
                 populations of carp in freshwater lakes elsewhere.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Martinez:2021:SGD,
  author =       "Gil Mart{\'\i}nez and Emyr Pe{\~n}a and Rafael
                 Mart{\'\i}nez and Susana Camarillo and Warren Burggren
                 and Alfonso {\'A}lvarez",
  title =        "Survival, Growth, and Development in the Early Stages
                 of the Tropical Gar \bioname{Atractosteus tropicus}:
                 Developmental Critical {Windows} and the Influence of
                 Temperature, Salinity, and Oxygen Availability",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5",
  day =          "12",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6010005",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/1/5",
  abstract =     "Alterations in fish developmental trajectories occur
                 in response to genetic and environmental changes,
                 especially during sensitive periods of development
                 (critical windows). Embryos and larvae of
                 \bioname{Atractosteus tropicus} were used as a model to
                 study fish survival, growth, and development as a
                 function of temperature (28 \degree C control, 33
                 \degree C, and 36 \degree C), salinity (0.0 ppt
                 control, 4.0 ppt, and 6.0 ppt), and air saturation
                 (control $ \approx $95\% air saturation, hypoxia $
                 \approx $30\% air saturation, and hyperoxia $ \approx
                 $117\% air saturation) during three developmental
                 periods: (1) fertilization to hatch, (2) day 1 to day 6
                 post hatch (dph), and (3) 7 to 12 dph. Elevated
                 temperature, hypoxia, and hyperoxia decreased survival
                 during incubation, and salinity at 2 and 3 dph. Growth
                 increased in embryos incubated at elevated temperature,
                 at higher salinity, and in hyperoxia but decreased in
                 hypoxia. Changes in development occurred as alterations
                 in the timing of hatching, yolk depletion, acceptance
                 of exogenous feeding, free swimming, and snout shape
                 change, especially at high temperature and hypoxia. Our
                 results suggest identifiable critical windows of
                 development in the early ontogeny of A. tropicus and
                 contribute to the knowledge of fish larval ecology and
                 the interactions of individuals $ \times $ stressors $
                 \times $ time of exposure.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Martens:2021:ECF,
  author =       "Kyle D. Martens and Jason Dunham",
  title =        "Evaluating Coexistence of Fish Species with Coastal
                 Cutthroat Trout in Low Order Streams of {Western Oregon
                 and Washington, USA}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4",
  day =          "30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6010004",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/1/4",
  abstract =     "When multiple species of fish coexist there are a host
                 of potential ways through which they may interact, yet
                 there is often a strong focus on studies of single
                 species without considering these interactions. For
                 example, many studies of forestry--stream interactions
                 in the Pacific Northwest have focused solely on the
                 most prevalent species: Coastal cutthroat trout. To
                 examine the potential for interactions of other fishes
                 with coastal cutthroat trout, we conducted an analysis
                 of 281 sites in low order streams located on
                 Washington's Olympic Peninsula and along the central
                 Oregon coast. Coastal cutthroat trout and juvenile coho
                 salmon were the most commonly found salmonid species
                 within these streams and exhibited positive
                 associations with each other for both presence and
                 density. Steelhead were negatively associated with the
                 presence of coastal cutthroat trout as well as with
                 coho salmon and sculpins (Cottidae). Coastal cutthroat
                 trout most frequently shared streams with juvenile coho
                 salmon. For densities of these co-occurring species,
                 associations between these two species were relatively
                 weak compared to the strong influences of physical
                 stream conditions (size and gradient), suggesting that
                 physical conditions may have more of an influence on
                 density than species interactions. Collectively, our
                 analysis, along with a review of findings from prior
                 field and laboratory studies, suggests that the net
                 effect of interactions between coastal cutthroat trout
                 and coho salmon do not appear to inhibit their presence
                 or densities in small streams along the Pacific
                 Northwest.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Office:2021:ARF,
  author =       "Fishes Editorial Office",
  title =        "Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Fishes in 2020",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3",
  day =          "27",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6010003",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/1/3",
  abstract =     "When multiple species of fish coexist there are a host
                 of potential ways through which they may interact, yet
                 there is often a strong focus on studies of single
                 species without considering these interactions. For
                 example, many studies of forestry--stream interactions
                 in the Pacific Northwest have focused solely on the
                 most prevalent species: Coastal cutthroat trout. To
                 examine the potential for interactions of other fishes
                 with coastal cutthroat trout, we conducted an analysis
                 of 281 sites in low order streams located on
                 Washington's Olympic Peninsula and along the central
                 Oregon coast. Coastal cutthroat trout and juvenile coho
                 salmon were the most commonly found salmonid species
                 within these streams and exhibited positive
                 associations with each other for both presence and
                 density. Steelhead were negatively associated with the
                 presence of coastal cutthroat trout as well as with
                 coho salmon and sculpins (Cottidae). Coastal cutthroat
                 trout most frequently shared streams with juvenile coho
                 salmon. For densities of these co-occurring species,
                 associations between these two species were relatively
                 weak compared to the strong influences of physical
                 stream conditions (size and gradient), suggesting that
                 physical conditions may have more of an influence on
                 density than species interactions. Collectively, our
                 analysis, along with a review of findings from prior
                 field and laboratory studies, suggests that the net
                 effect of interactions between coastal cutthroat trout
                 and coho salmon do not appear to inhibit their presence
                 or densities in small streams along the Pacific
                 Northwest.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Young:2021:ASL,
  author =       "Bradley Young and B. J. Allaire and Stephen Smith",
  title =        "Achieving Sea Lamprey Control in {Lake Champlain}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2",
  day =          "26",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6010002",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/1/2",
  abstract =     "The control of parasitic sea lamprey in Lake Champlain
                 has been a necessary component of its fishery
                 restoration and recovery goals for 30 years. While
                 adopting the approach of the larger and established sea
                 lamprey control program of the Laurentian Great Lakes,
                 local differences emerged that shifted management focus
                 and effort as the program evolved. Increased investment
                 in lamprey assessment and monitoring revealed
                 under-estimations of population density and
                 distribution in the basin, where insufficient control
                 efforts went unnoticed. As control efforts improved in
                 response to a better understanding of the population,
                 the effects of lamprey on the fishery lessened. A
                 long-term evaluation of fishery responses when lamprey
                 control was started, interrupted, delayed, and enhanced
                 provided evidence of a recurring relationship between
                 the level of control effort applied and the measured
                 suppression of the parasitic sea lamprey population.
                 Changes in levels of control efforts over time showed
                 repeatedly that measurable suppression of the parasitic
                 population required effective control of 80\% of the
                 known larval population. Understanding the importance
                 of assessment and monitoring and the relationship
                 between control effort and population suppression has
                 led to recognition that a comprehensive, not
                 incremental, approach is needed to achieve effective
                 control of sea lamprey in Lake Champlain.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Flinn:2021:TGM,
  author =       "Shane A. Flinn and Stephen R. Midway",
  title =        "Trends in Growth Modeling in Fisheries Science",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1",
  day =          "19",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6010001",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/1/1",
  abstract =     "Growth models estimate life history parameters (e.g.,
                 growth rates and asymptotic size) that are used in the
                 management of fisheries stocks. Traditionally in
                 fisheries science, it was common to fit one growth
                 model---the von Bertalanffy growth model---to
                 size-at-age data. However, in recent years, fisheries
                 science has seen an increase in the number of growth
                 models available and the evaluation of multiple growth
                 models for a given species or study. We reviewed n =
                 196 peer-reviewed age and growth studies and n = 50
                 NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)
                 regional stock assessments to examine trends in the use
                 of growth models and model selection in fisheries over
                 time. Our results indicate that the total number of age
                 and growth studies increased annually since 1988 with a
                 slight proportional increase in the use of multi-model
                 frameworks. Information theoretic approaches are
                 replacing goodness-of-fit and a priori model selection
                 in fisheries studies; however, this trend is not
                 reflected in NOAA stock assessments, which almost
                 exclusively rely on the von Bertalanffy growth model.
                 Covariates such as system (e.g., marine or fresh),
                 location of study, diet, family, maximum age, and range
                 of age data used in model fitting did not contribute to
                 which model was ultimately the best fitting, suggesting
                 that there are no large-scale patterns of specific
                 growth models being applied to species with common life
                 histories or other attributes. Given the importance and
                 ubiquity of growth modeling to fisheries science, a
                 historical and contemporary understanding of the
                 practice is critical to evaluate improvements that have
                 been made and future challenges.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Azeiteiro:2021:DTA,
  author =       "Ulisses M. Azeiteiro and M{\'a}rio J. Pereira and
                 Amadeu M. V. M. Soares and Heitor O. Braga and Fernando
                 Morgado and Magda C. Sousa and Jo{\~a}o M. Dias and
                 Carlos Antunes",
  title =        "Dynamics of Two Anadromous Species in a Dam
                 Intersected River: Analysis of Two 100-Year Datasets",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21",
  day =          "05",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020021",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/21",
  abstract =     "Long-term time-series datasets are key for assessing
                 the population dynamics of fish species with economic
                 interest. This study examines two 100-year datasets for
                 sea lamprey \bioname{Petromyzon marinus} and allis shad
                 \bioname{Alosa alosa} from the Minho River. This basin
                 on the Iberian Peninsula is home to one of the largest
                 populations at the southern distribution limit of these
                 critically endangered anadromous fish species. Besides
                 assessing the importance of the environmental drivers
                 of fish capture data (temperature, salinity, upwelling,
                 precipitation, and climatic oscillation), this study
                 also assesses how dam construction affected these
                 populations using intervention analysis --- a
                 statistical tool to detect significant breakpoints in
                 time series data. Results showed contrasting trends
                 between sea lamprey and allis shad, with the number of
                 captured fish from the first progressively improving
                 from 1914 to 2017, and the latter recording a
                 significant decline over time. Although no significant
                 correlations were detected between fishing data and
                 environmental variables, some of the identified
                 breakpoints in the time series data matched the dates
                 when the major dams in Minho River were built. Other
                 historical activities associated with mining might
                 explain the notable changes detected in the trends,
                 while issues associated with illegal, unreported, and
                 unregulated capture data are also discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Cao:2021:EAA,
  author =       "Jie Cao and Qi Wang and Jun Mei and Jing Xie",
  title =        "Effect of 3-Aminobenzoic Acid Ethyl Ester
                 Methanesulfonate ({MS-222}) on Quality of Marine
                 Cultured Turbot (\bioname{Scophthalmus maximus}) during
                 Simulated Transport in Water",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "20",
  day =          "19",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020020",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/20",
  abstract =     "This study evaluated the effect of different
                 concentrations (20, 40 and 60 mg/L) of 3-aminobenzoic
                 acid ethyl ester methanesulfonate (MS-222) on the
                 quality changes in turbot during simulated transport in
                 water. The results showed that the ammonia nitrogen
                 content in the transportation water of each sample
                 increased significantly, and the dissolved oxygen level
                 decreased. The dissolved oxygen content in
                 MS-222-treated samples was higher than that of control
                 group (CK) samples. For turbot flesh quality, simulated
                 transport in water led to a decrease in moisture, fat
                 and protein contents in all samples. The MS-222-treated
                 turbot samples showed higher pH values, glycogen
                 contents, springiness and chewiness values and lower
                 lactic acid contents comparing with the CK samples
                 during simulated transport in water. In addition, the
                 fresh and bitter amino acids in the muscle of turbot
                 increased in each treatment group compared to the
                 non-transported fish at the end of the simulated
                 transport. The results showed that MS-222 treatment
                 could retard the turbot transport stress and improve
                 the quality of turbot during simulated transport in
                 water.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ly:2021:EDD,
  author =       "Khanh Van Ly and David Kamau Murungu and Dung Phuong
                 Nguyen and Ngoc Anh Thi Nguyen",
  title =        "Effects of Different Densities of Sea Grape
                 \bioname{Caulerpa lentillifera} on Water Quality,
                 Growth and Survival of the Whiteleg Shrimp
                 \bioname{Litopenaeus vannamei} in Polyculture System",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19",
  day =          "05",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020019",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/19",
  abstract =     "The integrated aquaculture-seaweed system has been
                 identified as a bio-mitigation strategy to overcome
                 environmental damage, improve the efficiency of
                 nutrient use, maintain good water quality, and ensure
                 the system's sustainability. This study was conducted
                 to determine the appropriate density of sea grape
                 (Caulerpa lentillifera) in polyculture with whiteleg
                 shrimp (\bioname{Litopenaeus vannamei}) in the same
                 culture tank. Five treatments were randomly designed in
                 triplicate tanks where shrimp was monocultured (without
                 sea grape) as a control treatment and four polyculture
                 treatments with different seaweed density levels (0.5,
                 1, 1.5, and 2 kg m \minus 3) for 56 days. The results
                 showed that polyculture of shrimp and sea grape
                 significantly reduced the concentrations of total
                 ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite (NO 2 \minus), nitrate
                 (NO 3 \minus), and phosphate (PO 4 3\minus) in the
                 rearing tanks and significantly improved (p {$<$} 0.05)
                 the growth rate (6.67--6.76\% day \minus 1), survival
                 (73.3--78.5\%), and production of shrimp (3.44--3.87 kg
                 m \minus 3) compared to monoculture (6.24\% day \minus
                 1, 54.8\%, and 2.02 kg m \minus 3, respectively).
                 Applying shrimp and sea grape polyculture at a density
                 of 1 kg m \minus 3 provided a relatively better shrimp
                 performance and feed conversion ratio than other
                 seaweed densities, although not significantly different
                 among polyculture treatments. The findings suggested
                 that sea grape could be used at densities of 0.5--2 kg
                 m \minus 3 in polyculture with whiteleg shrimp, of
                 which 1 kg m \minus 3 resulted in higher production and
                 feed efficiency.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Miyanishi:2021:ESS,
  author =       "Hiroshi Miyanishi and Katsuhisa Uchida",
  title =        "Establishment of a Simplified System to Evaluate
                 Salinity Preference and Validation of Behavioral
                 Salinity Selection in the {Japanese} Medaka,
                 \bioname{Oryzias latipes}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18",
  day =          "28",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020018",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/18",
  abstract =     "In fishes, it is necessary to select a salinity
                 environment suitable for survival. However, little is
                 known about the mechanisms regarding detection and
                 selection of salinity environments in fish. This study
                 involved the establishment of a simple aquarium system
                 in which fish can swim between freshwater (FW) and
                 seawater (SW) in a single tank. In this tank, the lower
                 level contained SW, the upper level contained FW, and
                 the FW and SW levels were clearly separated as
                 different salinity areas. Behavioral experiments of
                 salinity environment selection using this simplified
                 system to evaluate salinity preference showed that
                 FW-acclimated medakas preferred FW to SW. In contrast,
                 SW-acclimated medakas preferred SW to FW. These results
                 indicate that euryhaline medakas prefer the saline
                 habitats to which they are acclimated, when able to
                 select the salinity environment. We identified the
                 taste receptor type-2 and polycystic kidney disease
                 2-like 1 genes as possibly related to high-salinity
                 taste in medaka. The expression of these genes
                 increased at certain time points after SW challenges.
                 In this study, we established an aquarium system to
                 facilitate a simple experiment for salinity preference.
                 Our results suggest that the medaka is good model for
                 research related to seawater environment selection in
                 fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Liang:2021:MCG,
  author =       "Xiao Liang and Ying Wan and Zhiyuan Shen and Yanmei
                 Liu and Dapeng Li and Li Li and Rong Tang and Xi
                 Zhang",
  title =        "Molecular Characterization of \gene{Hsp47} in Grass
                 Carp (\bioname{Ctenopharyngodon idella}) and Its
                 Correlation with {Type I} Collagen in Response to Fish
                 Aerobic Exercise",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17",
  day =          "23",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020017",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/17",
  abstract =     "Heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47) is a collagen-specific
                 molecular chaperone that is indispensable for molecular
                 maturation of collagen. In this study, hsp47 and
                 hsp47-like cDNAs were cloned and characterized in grass
                 carp (\bioname{Ctenopharyngodon idella}). The cDNAs
                 were 1212 and 1218 base pairs long, respectively, and
                 included an open reading frame encoding 403 and 405
                 amino acids. The molecular phylogeny based on the
                 deduced amino acid sequences indicated that the correct
                 sequences of the hsp47 and hsp47-like cDNA were
                 obtained and the deduced proteins clustered distinctly
                 into teleost clades. Primary structure analysis and
                 characterization of Hsp47 and Hsp47-like shared the
                 basic structure and biofunctions of Hsp47 in
                 vertebrates. The spatial pattern of gene expression
                 revealed that hsp47 and hsp47-like were relatively
                 ubiquitous in different tissues and highly expressed in
                 heart and skin. The expression levels of hsp47 and
                 hsp47-like and type I collagen mRNAs varied similarly
                 in different tissues. Type I collagen content increased
                 significantly with the increase of water velocity in
                 the muscle of grass carp in response to aerobic
                 exercise. Among the gene expression changes of hsp47,
                 hsp47-like, col1a1 and col1a2 in muscle that occurred
                 in response to aerobic exercise, the change of type I
                 collagen was most strongly correlated with hsp47
                 expression. Additionally, col1a1 showed the highest
                 correlation with hsp47-like and col1a2 showed the
                 highest correlation with hsp47. These findings suggest
                 that grass carp Hsp47 and Hsp47-like are closely
                 related to type I collagen synthesis. This study
                 firstly suggests fish aerobic exercise can improve type
                 I collagen content and Hsp47 gene expression in muscle
                 of grass carp.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Mukhtar:2021:SMP,
  author =       "Mutia Kamalia Mukhtar and Masita Dwi Mandini Manessa
                 and Supriatna Supriatna and Liya Tri Khikmawati",
  title =        "Spatial Modeling of Potential Lobster Harvest Grounds
                 in {Palabuhanratu Bay, West Java, Indonesia}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16",
  day =          "21",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020016",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/16",
  abstract =     "Palabuhanratu Bay is a location in the southern part
                 of Java Island with a high lobster population. Based on
                 field observation, the lobster population in
                 Palabuhanratu Bay is dominated by \bioname{Panulirus
                 homarus} (green sand lobster), \bioname{Panulirus
                 versicolor} (bamboo lobster), \bioname{Panulirus
                 penicillatus} (black lobster), and \bioname{Panulirus
                 ornatus} (pearl lobster). This study aimed to develop a
                 spatial model using satellite-derived data to predict
                 potential lobster harvest grounds in Palabuhanratu Bay.
                 The Earth observational satellite data used were
                 multispectral Landsat 8-SR imagery, and information
                 about chlorophyll-a, salinity, total suspended solids
                 (TSSs), sea surface temperature (SST), and distance
                 from the coastline was extracted. Multiple linear
                 regression was applied to build the prediction model,
                 which was validated using 10-fold cross-validation. The
                 result of the lobster harvest prediction model agreed
                 with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and adjusted R 2
                 values of 0.326 and 0.708, respectively. The
                 distribution of lobsters was strong at the following
                 preferred ranges: chlorophyll-a: 1.1--1.7 mg/m 3;
                 salinity: 20.2--23.7 ppt; TSS: 40--56.4 mg/L; SST:
                 29.5--29.9 \degree C; and distance from the coastline:
                 500--4700 m. In this study, the habitats of four
                 species of lobsters and their relationships with
                 satellite-derived parameters were evaluated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Espinosa-Ruiz:2021:WIC,
  author =       "Crist{\'o}bal Espinosa-Ru{\'\i}z and Mar{\'\i}a
                 {\'A}ngeles Esteban",
  title =        "Wound-Induced Changes in Antioxidant Enzyme Activities
                 in Skin Mucus and in Gene Expression in the Skin of
                 Gilthead Seabream (\bioname{Sparus aurata} {L.})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15",
  day =          "18",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020015",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/15",
  abstract =     "This study investigated the antioxidant enzyme
                 activities in the skin mucus of gilthead seabream
                 (\bioname{Sparus aurata} {L.}) at 3 and 7 days
                 post-wounding (dpw). The expression levels of the genes
                 that encode stress proteins (grp170, grp94, grp75, sod
                 and hsp70) and skin regeneration-related proteins (tf,
                 igf1, tgfb1, der1, apo1 and erdj3) in the skin also
                 were determined. Mucus and skin samples were obtained
                 from the left and right flanks of non-wounded and
                 wounded fish. In both flanks of the wounded fish,
                 catalase and glutathione reductase activities in the
                 skin mucus increased (p {$<$} 0.05) at 3 and 7 dpw (100
                 \pm 31\% and 111 \pm 25\%, respectively), whereas
                 superoxide dismutase activity increased (p {$<$} 0.05)
                 only at 7 dpw (135 \pm 15\%). The expression levels of
                 stress proteins in the skin of the wounded flank of the
                 wounded fish mainly increased at 7 dpw (grp170
                 increased to 288 \pm 85\%, grp94 to 502 \pm 143\%,
                 grp75 to 274 \pm 69\%, sod to 569 \pm 99\%, and hsp70
                 increased to 537 \pm 14\%) (p {$<$} 0.05). However, the
                 expression levels of the tissue regeneration-related
                 genes varied depending on the flank investigated, on
                 the experimental time, and on the gene studied. To the
                 best of our knowledge, this is the first work to
                 determine the effect of a wound in different skin parts
                 of the same fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Leese:2021:EWT,
  author =       "Joseph M. Leese and Julia McMahon and Joseph C.
                 Colosi",
  title =        "Effects of Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent in a
                 Receiving Stream on Reproductive Behavior of Fathead
                 Minnows (\bioname{Pimephales promelas})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14",
  day =          "12",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020014",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/14",
  abstract =     "Wastewater treatment plant effluents contain a variety
                 of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including
                 chemicals with estrogenic activity such as 17\beta
                 -estradiol (E2), 17\alpha -ethinyl estradiol (EE2), and
                 nonylphenols. These substances can affect both behavior
                 and physiology in vertebrate animals. To explore the
                 presence and effects of these EDCs in a natural
                 setting, juvenile and adult male fathead minnows,
                 \bioname{Pimephales promelas}, were held in cages
                 upstream and downstream of the effluent site of a
                 wastewater treatment plant for 21 days and subsequently
                 tested for changes in reproductive behaviors and
                 production of vitellogenin. Additionally, estrogenic
                 activity in the stream was measured using a yeast
                 bioassay. Estrogenicity was found to be significantly
                 higher downstream of the wastewater effluent when
                 compared to levels upstream. Vitellogenin levels did
                 not show a correlational pattern with levels of
                 estrogenicity in the water, but two measures of
                 reproductive behaviors occurred significantly less
                 often in downstream males than upstream males. This
                 suggests that a brief (three-week) exposure to stream
                 water containing wastewater treatment plant effluent
                 can bring about changes in reproductive behavior of
                 fish and that behavior may be more sensitive to low
                 levels of environmental endocrine disruptors than
                 vitellogenin production.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ruban:2021:BCP,
  author =       "Dmitry A. Ruban and Vladimir A. Ermolaev",
  title =        "Black Caviar Perturbs Reflection of {Russian}
                 Geography: a Research Note of Aquaculture-Triggered
                 Place Naming Puzzle",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13",
  day =          "06",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020013",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/13",
  abstract =     "Black caviar is often thought to be a typically
                 Russian luxurious food product. Recently, its
                 production has extended due to sturgeon aquaculture
                 development. The analysis of the geographical
                 affinities of the full-cycle companies and their
                 aquaculture-sourced black caviar implies that the
                 majority of them employs the Russian Caviar brand
                 and/or refers to the Russian traditions and history.
                 However, names, brands, and/or product positioning of
                 several companies tend to mention geographical objects
                 associated with the tradition places of black caviar
                 production (Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and the Volga
                 River), whereas these companies are located in the
                 other, sometimes remote places (with distances over
                 1000 km). Such marketing solutions of black caviar
                 producers perturb reflection of the Russian geography.
                 The geographical indication (place of origin) of this
                 fish product needs improvement, which is a task for
                 companies, state, and professional societies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lee:2021:MDC,
  author =       "Cheng-Linn Lee and Yuri Kominami and Hideki Ushio",
  title =        "Mechanism of Delayed Convulsion in Fish: the Actions
                 of Norepinephrine in Spinal Cord",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12",
  day =          "31",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020012",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/12",
  abstract =     "Cranial spiking (CS) is among the most popular
                 slaughtering methods for delaying the rigor mortis
                 progress of fish muscles. However, it may cause a
                 convulsion (subsequently referred to as delayed
                 convulsion), which undermines the meat quality and
                 taste. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism
                 underlying the delayed convulsion and examine its
                 influence on ATP consumption. Ten carps, nine tilapias,
                 ten rainbow trouts, two ayus, three greenling,
                 thirty-five red seabreams, two striped jack and two
                 stone flounders underwent CS around the medulla
                 oblongata area, which induced different delayed
                 convulsion profiles specific to each species. To
                 investigate the norepinephrine (NE) actions related to
                 delayed convulsion, 27 red seabreams, a representative
                 fish species that exhibits delayed convulsion, were
                 treated with a monoamine-depleting agent, reserpine, or
                 with a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, pargyline, two
                 hours before CS. Spinal cord destruction (SCD) was
                 employed to completely prevent spinal cord functions of
                 the fish in another group. Compared with the control
                 group (CS only), the reserpine, pargyline, and SCD
                 groups showed significantly inhibited delayed
                 convulsion and ATP consumption. This suggests that
                 delayed convulsion is the main ATP-consuming response.
                 Our findings suggest that delayed clonic convulsion in
                 red seabreams is associated with the rapid decrease in
                 spinal cord NE levels, which triggered the rebound
                 motor neuron hyperactivity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Wenzel:2021:EDP,
  author =       "Lisa Carolina Wenzel and Sebastian Marcus Strauch and
                 Ep Eding and Francisco Xose Presas-Basalo and Berit
                 Wasenitz and Harry Wilhelm Palm",
  title =        "Effects of Dissolved Potassium on Growth Performance,
                 Body Composition, and Welfare of Juvenile {African}
                 Catfish (\bioname{Clarias gariepinus})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11",
  day =          "28",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020011",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/11",
  abstract =     "Optimal crop production in aquaponics is influenced by
                 water pH and potassium concentrations. The addition of
                 potassium hydroxide (KOH) into the recirculating
                 aquaculture system (RAS) may benefit aquaponics by
                 increasing the water pH for better biofilter activity
                 and supplementing K for better plant growth and
                 quality. We investigated the growth, feed conversion,
                 body composition and welfare indicators of juvenile
                 African catfish (\bioname{Clarias gariepinus}) treated
                 with four concentrations of K (K0 = 2, K200 = 218, K400
                 = 418, and K600 = 671 mg L \minus 1). While growth,
                 feed conversion and final body composition were
                 unaffected, the feeding time and individual resting
                 significantly increased with increasing K +. The
                 swimming activity and agonistic behavior were reduced
                 significantly under increased concentrations of K +.
                 Leftover feed and the highest number of skin lesions
                 were observed under K600. We suggest that K +
                 concentrations between 200 and 400 mg L \minus 1 can
                 improve the welfare status of juvenile African catfish.
                 This enables the application of KOH in RAS to supply
                 alkalinity to achieve optimum nitrification at minimum
                 water exchange and improve the nutritional profile of
                 the process water with benefits for the welfare status
                 of African catfish and aquaponics plant production and
                 quality.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zielinski:2021:NSD,
  author =       "Daniel Patrick Zielinski and Peter W. Sorensen",
  title =        "Numeric Simulation Demonstrates That the Upstream
                 Movement of Invasive Bigheaded Carp Can Be Blocked at
                 Sets of {Mississippi River} Locks-and-Dams Using a
                 Combination of Optimized Spillway Gate Operations, Lock
                 Deterrents, and Carp Removal",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10",
  day =          "26",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020010",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/10",
  abstract =     "Invasive bigheaded carp are advancing up the Upper
                 Mississippi River by passing through its locks-and-dams
                 (LDs). Although these structures already impede fish
                 passage, this role could be greatly enhanced by
                 modifying how their spillway gates operate, adding
                 deterrent systems to their locks, and removing carp.
                 This study examined this possibility using numeric
                 modeling and empirical data, which evaluated all three
                 options on an annual basis in both single LDs and pairs
                 under different river flow conditions. Over 100
                 scenarios were modeled. While all three approaches
                 showed promise, ranging from 8\% to 73\% reductions in
                 how many carp pass a single LD, when employed together
                 at pairs of LDs, upstream movement rates of invasive
                 carp could be reduced 98--99\% from current levels.
                 Although modifying spillway gate operation is the least
                 expensive option, its efficacy drops at high flows, so
                 lock deterrents and/or removal using fishing/trapping
                 are required to move towards complete blockage.
                 Improved deterrent efficacy could also offset the need
                 for more efficient removal. This model could help
                 prioritize research and management actions for
                 containing carp.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Coburn:2021:APC,
  author =       "Jessica Coburn and M. Scott Wells and Nicholas B. D.
                 Phelps and T. Gibson Gaylord and Deborah A. Samac",
  title =        "Acceptance of a Protein Concentrate from Alfalfa
                 (\bioname{Medicago sativa}) by Yellow Perch
                 (\bioname{Perca flavescens}) Fed a Formulated Diet",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9",
  day =          "25",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6020009",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:26 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/2/9",
  abstract =     "The majority of plant proteins used in aquatic feeds
                 are derived from seed meals, which may contain
                 antinutritional factors. Protein concentrates from
                 plant foliage have received less attention in fish
                 feeding trials. Alfalfa protein concentrate (APC) is
                 derived from fresh alfalfa foliage that contains
                 approximately 52\% protein and is low in fiber. A
                 feeding trial was done to assess growth and feed
                 efficiency responses of yellow perch (\bioname{Perca
                 flavescens}) fed a formulated diet with 180 g/kg APC
                 replacing all fishmeal compared to a control
                 isonitrogenous diet with fishmeal. Yellow perch
                 accepted the APC diet but gained weight at a lower
                 specific growth rate (\minus 0.07\% per day) and had an
                 elevated feed conversion ratio (+0.32 g feed/g growth)
                 than fish on the control diet containing fishmeal.
                 There was no impact on survivorship or condition nor
                 differences in fillet yield or composition in fish on
                 the diet with APC compared to the control fishmeal
                 diet. These findings indicate that although replacing
                 fishmeal with APC in a perch diet resulted in slower
                 growth rates, the APC was accepted and has promise as a
                 sustainable protein in aquatic feeds.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Guo:2021:CAN,
  author =       "Zhansheng Guo and Zhen Wang and Xuguang Hou",
  title =        "Comparative Analysis of the {nrDNA} Repeat Unit of
                 {Manila} Clam \bioname{Ruditapes philippinarum} and
                 Quahog \bioname{Mercenaria mercenaria}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "42",
  day =          "17",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030042",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/42",
  abstract =     "\bioname{Ruditapes philippinarum} and
                 \bioname{Mercenaria mercenaria} are economically
                 important bivalve species. The complete ribosomal DNA
                 (rDNA) unit sequences of R. philippinarum and M.
                 mercenaria, with as-sembled rDNA unit lengths of 12,910
                 and 12,100 bp, respectively, were obtained in this
                 study for the first time. The rDNA unit structural
                 organisation was similar to that in other eukaryotes,
                 in-cluding the following elements in order: 18S
                 rRNA-internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1); 5.8S
                 rRNA-ITS2-28S rRNA-intergenic spacer (IGS) (3\prime
                 external transcribed spacer (ETS); non-transcribed
                 spacer (NTS)-5\prime ETS). The genetic differences
                 between R. philippinarum and M. mercenaria were mainly
                 attributable to non-coding regions (ITS1, ITS2 and
                 IGS), especially the IGS region. The boundaries of
                 putative 3\prime ETS, NTS and 5\prime ETS were
                 confirmed. Seven and three sub-repeat fragments were
                 found in R. philippinarum and M. mercenaria,
                 respectively. These frag-ments ranged from 4 to 154 bp
                 in length, and were located at the NTS and 5\prime ETS
                 regions. Five and six cytosine--guanine (CpG) islands
                 were detected in R. philippinarum and M. mercenaria,
                 respec-tively, and these covered 85.58\% and 79.29\% of
                 the entire IGS sequence, respectively. The
                 phylo-genetic tree was constructed based on Veneridae
                 ITS and 18S rRNA sequences using the maxi-mum
                 likelihood (ML) method. The ML tree based on ITS
                 revealed that species within the same genus clearly
                 clustered together with relatively high supporting
                 values, and all the genera were recovered as
                 monophyletic. The phylogenetic analyses using 18S rRNA
                 provided a weaker phy-logenetic signal than ITS.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Wei:2021:EEF,
  author =       "Xinyi Wei and Qiuguang Hu and Jintao Ma",
  title =        "Evaluation on the Effect of Fishery Insurance Policy:
                 Evidence Based on Text Mining",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "41",
  day =          "13",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030041",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/41",
  abstract =     "As a quasi-public product, fishery insurance has
                 become an important starting point for the construction
                 of the modern fishery industry chain, supply chain and
                 value chain risk management mechanism. We used visual
                 data processing methods and text mining technology to
                 screen policy samples. We then built a fishery
                 insurance policy evaluation system based on the Policy
                 Modeling Consistency (PMC) index model. We combined the
                 PMC index score and PMC surface to quantitatively
                 analyze the policy samples. This paper has four
                 important findings: (1) After three adjustments and
                 developments, the fishery insurance policy has grown in
                 terms of initial attention, changes, and development
                 and gradually matured. (2) A gap exists between the
                 content of the fishing insurance policy text and the
                 actual demand. The scoring results of the policy
                 samples are concentrated in the acceptable range, the
                 policy effects are not satisfactory, and the
                 formulation of fishery insurance policies has weak
                 links that need to be improved. (3) The consistency and
                 effectiveness of fishery insurance policies have
                 developed simultaneously with fishery insurance
                 research, and the practical effects of high-quality
                 fishery insurance policies are conducive to the
                 development of theoretical research. (4) The policy
                 text of fishery insurance has major problems, such as
                 missing joint force of issuing institutions, low
                 professionalism of the text, inadequate subdivision
                 guidance of fishery insurance, weak social
                 effectiveness, high dependence on financial subsidies,
                 lack of incentive sustainability and corresponding laws
                 and regulations and reduction in policy feasibility
                 among others. Considering the above issues, this paper
                 puts forward relevant policy optimization paths and
                 safeguard measures on the basis of giving priority to
                 greater absolute value.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Chai:2021:IFS,
  author =       "Panfeng Chai and Qiuguang Hu and Xinyi Wei",
  title =        "Influence of Fishery Subsidies on Fishing: Empirical
                 Test Based on {China}'s Provincial Panel Data",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "40",
  day =          "13",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030040",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/40",
  abstract =     "Controversies surrounding fishery subsidy policies are
                 widespread. Many stakeholders believe that fishery
                 subsidies play an important role in ensuring the
                 livelihood of fishermen. At the same time, fishery
                 subsidies pose a threat to the stock of fishery
                 resources and affect the sustainable development of
                 fisheries. Based on the panel data of 30 provinces,
                 municipalities, and autonomous regions in China from
                 2007 to 2017, the article empirically examines the
                 influence of fishery subsidies on fishing. The results
                 of the study show that China\prime s fishery subsidies
                 are negatively correlated with fishing. On average, for
                 each 1\% increase in fishery subsidies, fishing will
                 decrease by 2.9\%. That is to say, in general, fishery
                 subsidies are conducive to the sustainable development
                 of fisheries. The results of heterogeneity analysis
                 based on geographic location and economic development
                 level show that fishery subsidies do not have a
                 palpable negative influence on fishing in coastal areas
                 or developed regions, whereas have an obvious adverse
                 influence on fishing in inland areas or underdeveloped
                 regions. The deterioration of the fishing environment
                 and the natural environment explains the occurrence of
                 this differentiation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Chu:2021:SLP,
  author =       "Yuanming Chu and Mingtang Tan and Zhengkai Yi and
                 Zhaoyang Ding and Dazhang Yang and Jing Xie",
  title =        "Shelf-Life Prediction of Glazed Large Yellow Croaker
                 (\bioname{Pseudosciaena crocea}) during Frozen Storage
                 Based on {Arrhenius} Model and Long-Short-Term Memory
                 Neural Networks Model",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "39",
  day =          "10",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030039",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/39",
  abstract =     "In this study, the changes in centrifugal loss, TVB-N,
                 K-value, whiteness and sensory evaluation of glazed
                 large yellow croaker were analyzed at \minus 10, \minus
                 20, \minus 30 and \minus 40 \degree C storage. The
                 Arrhenius prediction model and long-short-term memory
                 neural networks (LSTM-NN) prediction model were
                 developed to predict the shelf-life of the glazed large
                 yellow croaker. The results showed that the quality of
                 glazed large yellow croaker gradually decreased with
                 the extension of frozen storage time, and the decrease
                 in quality slowed down at lower temperatures. Both the
                 Arrhenius model and the LSTM-NN prediction model were
                 good tools for predicting the shelf-life of glazed
                 large yellow croaker. However, for the relative error,
                 the prediction accuracy of LSTM-NN (with a mean value
                 of 7.78\%) was higher than that of Arrhenius model
                 (with a mean value of 11.90\%). Moreover, the LSTM-NN
                 model had a more intelligent, convenient and fast data
                 processing capability, so the new LSTM-NN model
                 provided a better choice for predicting the shelf-life
                 of glazed large yellow croaker.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Abo-Taleb:2021:GPF,
  author =       "Hamdy A. Abo-Taleb and Mohamed M. M. El-feky and Ahmad
                 M. Azab and Mohamed M. Mabrouk and Mohamed A. Elokaby
                 and Mohamed Ashour and Abdallah Tageldein Mansour and
                 Othman F. Abdelzaher and Khamael M. Abualnaja and Ahmed
                 E. Sallam",
  title =        "Growth Performance, Feed Utilization, Gut Integrity,
                 and Economic Revenue of Grey Mullet, \bioname{Mugil
                 cephalus}, Fed an Increasing Level of Dried Zooplankton
                 Biomass Meal as Fishmeal Substitutions",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "38",
  day =          "10",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030038",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/38",
  abstract =     "Fishmeal is the most expensive feedstuff in the
                 aquafeed and one of the most environmentally limiting
                 factor of aquaculture development. Therefore, the
                 search for alternative protein sources is a continuous
                 process. The present feeding trial was conducted to
                 evaluate the effects of replacing fishmeal with
                 zooplankton biomass meal (ZBM) on the growth
                 performance, nutrient utilization, intestine, and liver
                 histological changes of grey mullet, \bioname{Mugil
                 cephalus} (initial weight of 0.10 \pm 0.01 g). Five
                 isoproteic (35\% crude protein) and isolipidic (8\%
                 crude lipid) diets were formulated as the control diet
                 (Z 0) and the other four diets (Z 25, Z 50, Z 75, and Z
                 100), where 25\%, 50\%, 75\%, and 100\% of fishmeal was
                 replaced by ZBM, respectively. After 60 days of
                 feeding, the final weight, weight gain, and daily
                 growth index of the grey mullet fed the Z 100 diet were
                 higher than those fed the control diet (p {$<$} 0.05).
                 In addition, the better values of feed conversion
                 ratio, protein efficiency ratio and lipid efficiency
                 ratio were recorded in the fish fed with the Z 100
                 diet. Additionally, the intestinal villus length,
                 crypts depth, and muscle thickness were significantly
                 improved with ZBM inclusion (p {$<$} 0.05). Meanwhile,
                 there were no histopathological changes observed on the
                 liver when compared with the control group. From the
                 economic point of view, dietary substitution of
                 fishmeal by ZBM (Z 100) reduced the cost of diet
                 formulation by 18\% and the price per kg weight gain by
                 about 40\%. Overall, according to the findings of this
                 study, substituting fishmeal with ZBM up to 100\% could
                 improve growth performance, feed utilization, gut
                 health status, and profit ability of rearing M.
                 cephalus juveniles.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Haguenauer:2021:DHC,
  author =       "Anne Haguenauer and Fr{\'e}d{\'e}ric Zuberer and
                 Gilles Siu and Daphne Cortese and Ricardo Beldade and
                 Suzanne C. Mills",
  title =        "Deep Heat: a Comparison of Water Temperature, Anemone
                 Bleaching, Anemonefish Density and Reproduction between
                 Shallow and Mesophotic Reefs",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "37",
  day =          "09",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030037",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/37",
  abstract =     "French Polynesia is experiencing increasing coral
                 bleaching events in shallow waters triggered by thermal
                 anomalies and marine heatwaves linked to climate
                 change, a trend that is replicated worldwide. As sea
                 surface thermal anomalies are assumed to lessen with
                 depth, mesophotic deep reefs have been hypothesized to
                 act as refuges from anthropogenic and natural
                 disturbances, the \lq deep reef refugia hypothesis'
                 (DRRH). However, evidence supporting the DRRH is either
                 inconclusive or conflicting. We address this by
                 investigating four assumptions of the DRRH focusing on
                 the symbiotic association between anemones and
                 anemonefish. First, we compare long-term temperature
                 conditions between shallow (8 m) and mesophotic sites
                 (50 m) on the island of Moorea from 2011--2020. Second,
                 we compare the densities of the orange-fin anemonefish,
                 \bioname{Amphiprion chrysopterus} between shallow and
                 mesophotic (down to 60 m) reefs across three
                 archipelagos in French Polynesia. Finally, we compare
                 the percentage of anemone bleaching, as well as
                 anemonefish reproduction, between shallow and
                 mesophotic reefs. We found that the water column was
                 well mixed in the cooler austral winter months with
                 only a 0.19 \degree C difference in temperature between
                 depths, but in the warmer summer months mixing was
                 reduced resulting in a 0.71--1.03 \degree C temperature
                 difference. However, during thermal anomalies, despite
                 a time lag in warm surface waters reaching mesophotic
                 reefs, there was ultimately a 1.0 \degree C increase in
                 water temperature at both 8 and 50 m, pushing
                 temperatures over bleaching thresholds at both depths.
                 As such, anemone bleaching was observed in mesophotic
                 reefs during these thermal anomalies, but was buffered
                 compared to the percentage of bleaching in shallower
                 waters, which was nearly five times greater. Our
                 large-scale sampling across French Polynesia found
                 orange-fin anemonefish, A. chrysopterus, in mesophotic
                 zones in two high islands and one atoll across two
                 archipelagos, extending its bathymetric limit to 60 m;
                 however, orange-fin anemonefish densities were either
                 similar to, or 25--92 times lower than in shallower
                 zones. Three spawning events were observed at 50 m,
                 which occurred at a similar frequency to spawning on
                 shallower reefs at the same date. Our findings of
                 thermal anomalies and bleaching in mesophotic reefs,
                 coupled with mainly lower densities of anemonefish in
                 mesophotic populations, suggest that mesophotic reefs
                 show only a limited ability to provide refugia from
                 anthropogenic and natural disturbances.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Huang:2021:SDP,
  author =       "Yongyu Huang and Lili Zhang and Hui Ge and Guodong
                 Wang and Shiyu Huang and Zhangwu Yang",
  title =        "{SNP} Development in \bioname{Penaeus vannamei} via
                 Next-Generation Sequencing and {DNA} Pool Sequencing",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "36",
  day =          "07",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030036",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/36",
  abstract =     "Next-generation sequencing and pool sequencing have
                 been widely used in SNP (single-nucleotide
                 polymorphism) detection and population genetics
                 research; however, there are few reports on SNPs
                 related to the growth of \bioname{Penaeus vannamei}.
                 The purpose of this study was to call SNPs from
                 rapid-growing (RG) and slow-growing (SG) individuals'
                 transcriptomes and use DNA pool sequencing to assess
                 the reliability of SNPs. Two parameters were applied to
                 detect SNPs. One parameter was the p -values generated
                 using Fisher's exact test, which were used to calculate
                 the significance of allele frequency differences
                 between RG and SG. The other one was the AFI (minor
                 allele frequency imbalance), which was defined to
                 highlight the fold changes in MAF (minor allele
                 frequency) values between RG and SG. There were 216,015
                 hypothetical SNPs, which were obtained based on the
                 transcriptome data. Finally, 104 high-quality SNPs and
                 96,819 low-quality SNPs were predicted. Then, 18
                 high-quality SNPs and 17 low-quality SNPs were selected
                 to assess the reliability of the detection process.
                 Here, 72.22\% (13/18) accuracy was achieved for
                 high-quality SNPs, while only 52.94\% (9/17) accuracy
                 was achieved for low-quality SNPs. These SNPs enrich
                 the data for population genetics studies of P. vannamei
                 and may play a role in the development of SNP markers
                 for future breeding studies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Curiel-Bernal:2021:UOR,
  author =       "Marcelo V. Curiel-Bernal and E. Alberto
                 Arag{\'o}n-Noriega and Miguel {\'A}. Cisneros-Mata and
                 Laura S{\'a}nchez-Velasco and S. Patricia A.
                 Jim{\'e}nez-Rosenberg and Alejandro Par{\'e}s-Sierra",
  title =        "Using Observed Residual Error Structure Yields the
                 Best Estimates of Individual Growth Parameters",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "35",
  day =          "02",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030035",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/35",
  abstract =     "Obtaining the best possible estimates of individual
                 growth parameters is essential in studies of
                 physiology, fisheries management, and conservation of
                 natural resources since growth is a key component of
                 population dynamics. In the present work, we use data
                 of an endangered fish species to demonstrate the
                 importance of selecting the right data error structure
                 when fitting growth models in multimodel inference. The
                 totoaba (\bioname{Totoaba macdonaldi}) is a fish
                 species endemic to the Gulf of California increasingly
                 studied in recent times due to a perceived threat of
                 extinction. Previous works estimated individual growth
                 using the von Bertalanffy model assuming a constant
                 variance of length-at-age. Here, we reanalyze the same
                 data under five different variance assumptions to fit
                 the von Bertalanffy and Gompertz models. We found
                 consistent significant differences between the constant
                 and nonconstant error structure scenarios and provide
                 an example of the consequences using the growth
                 performance index \varphi \prime to show how using the
                 wrong error structure can produce growth parameter
                 values that can lead to biased conclusions. Based on
                 these results, for totoaba and other related species,
                 we recommend using the observed error structure to
                 obtain the individual growth parameters.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Choi:2021:EMT,
  author =       "Soo-Cheol Choi and In-Ah Lee",
  title =        "Effect of {MMP\slash TIMP} Balancing of
                 \bioname{Cynoglossus semilaevis} Shell Extracts on Skin
                 Protection",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "34",
  day =          "24",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030034",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/34",
  abstract =     "Cynoglossus semilaevis shell is a by-product of the
                 Cynoglossus semilaevis, a species of fish mainly
                 distributed along the west coast of Korea. As its skin
                 is very tough and difficult to process, it is not
                 useful as food. For this reason, most of it is
                 discarded except for a small amount that is used as
                 feed, which results in environmental pollution.
                 Considering this, there is a need for research on the
                 development of functional materials using Cynoglossus
                 semilaevis shell. This study focused on the mechanism
                 of in vitro expression function of \bioname{Cynoglossus
                 semilaevis} shell extract (CSE) for skin tissue in
                 human dermal fibroblasts that induced or did not induce
                 wrinkles by UV-B irradiation and aims to use it as a
                 functional material for human skin beauty or wrinkle
                 improvement through extraction and purification.
                 According to the ELISA results using human dermal
                 fibroblast cells, CSE reduced MMP-1 and elastase
                 activity by up to 21.89\% and 12.04\%, respectively, in
                 a concentration-dependent manner, and increased PIP
                 synthesis by up to 62.24\% in a concentration-dependent
                 manner. The RT-PCR test results using mRNA showed the
                 MMP-1, 2, and 3 expression levels were suppressed in
                 the CSE-treated group compared to the UVB-induced group
                 and caused a concentration-dependent increase in TIMP-1
                 in the CSE-treat group. These results suggest that CSE
                 can maintain and improve skin tissue conditions through
                 MMP/TIMP balancing in human dermal fibroblast cell
                 lines and indicate its potential as a functional
                 material for improving skin diseases and suppressing
                 photo-aging.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Faruque:2021:CSA,
  author =       "Hasan Faruque and Hiroyuki Matsuda",
  title =        "Conservative Scoring Approach in Productivity
                 Susceptibility Analysis Leads to an Overestimation of
                 Vulnerability: a Study from the Hilsa Gillnet Bycatch
                 Stocks of {Bangladesh}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33",
  day =          "24",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030033",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/33",
  abstract =     "Despite different approaches used to assign the risk
                 scores for missing information in productivity
                 susceptibility analysis (PSA) --- a widely used
                 semi-quantitative risk assessment tool for target and
                 non-target fisheries stocks --- for the selected
                 attributes of a given species, no formal comparison has
                 been made between scoring approaches in terms of how
                 well they can predict species vulnerability. The
                 present study evaluated the PSA findings of 21 bycatch
                 stocks of the Hilsa (\bioname{Tenualosa ilisha})
                 gillnet fishery of Bangladesh using two different
                 scoring approaches (the conservative scoring approach,
                 CSA; and the alternative scoring approach, ASA) to
                 determine the most reliable approach to minimize false
                 estimates of species vulnerability. Our analysis
                 revealed that the V scores increased by 0.0\minus 0.20
                 with a mean value of 0.09 for 21 selected bycatches
                 when CSA was applied. The inconsistency between the
                 vulnerability (V)-score-suggested fishing status (V \le
                 1.8 = underfishing, V $>$ 1.8 = overfishing) and the
                 fishing status defined by exploitation rate (E $>$ 0.5
                 = overfishing, E {$<$} 0.5 = underfishing) were 38.1\%
                 and 19.0\% under CSA and ASA, respectively. Likewise,
                 the consistency between the V -score-suggested fishing
                 status and fishers' perceived catch trends was found to
                 be higher when using ASA than when using CSA. Our
                 analysis suggests that CSA could overestimate species
                 vulnerability. Therefore, ASA is more reliable than CSA
                 in PSA, which may increase the confidence of fisheries
                 stakeholders in PSA.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{daSilva:2021:VAA,
  author =       "Elisia Gomes da Silva and Guerino Bandeira Junior and
                 Juliana Felipetto Cargnelutti and Roberto Christ Vianna
                 Santos and Andr{\'e} G{\"u}ndel and Bernardo
                 Baldisserotto",
  title =        "In Vitro Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Activity of
                 {S}-(-)-Limonene and {R}-(+)-Limonene against Fish
                 Bacteria",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "32",
  day =          "19",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030032",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/32",
  abstract =     "Brazilian fish farming goes together with the
                 emergence of numerous bacterial diseases, with
                 \bioname{Aeromonas hydrophila} being the main bacterial
                 pathogen. As a consequence, antimicrobials are
                 excessively used. Considering that antimicrobials are
                 relatively stable and nonbiodegradable, medicinal
                 plants and their phytochemicals have been used as
                 alternative treatments of bacteriosis in fish farming.
                 Limonene is a monoterpene available in two enantiomers:
                 R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene. This study analyzed
                 the antibacterial activity of the phytochemicals
                 S-(-)-limonene and R-(+)-limonene against some bacteria
                 isolated from silver catfish (\bioname{Rhamdia
                 quelen}). Furthermore, by means of spectrophotometry
                 and atomic force microscopy, we also investigated the
                 combination therapy of phytochemicals with
                 antimicrobials and their activity in terms of
                 inhibiting biofilm formation. Six clinical isolates and
                 a standard strain were selected for antimicrobial
                 activity testing. Biofilm formation was tested in
                 96-well plates and nylon cubes. The most sensitive of
                 the strains tested was the A. hydrophila strain (MF
                 372510). S-(-)-limonene and R-(+)-limonene had high
                 minimum inhibitory concentrations; however, they
                 strongly inhibited A. hydrophila biofilm formation.
                 R-(+)-limonene and S-(-)-limonene had an additive
                 effect when combined with florfenicol and an
                 antagonistic effect with oxytetracycline. In general,
                 the phytochemicals tested showed strong antibiofilm
                 activity against A. hydrophila, and when in combination
                 therapy with florfenicol, they showed an additive
                 effect against the treatment of \bioname{A.
                 hydrophila}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Aride:2021:DGE,
  author =       "Paulo Henrique R. Aride and Maria Fernanda S. Gomes
                 and Darlan G. Azevedo and Gilson R. Sangali and Ana
                 Cl{\'a}udia F. Silva and Henrique D. Lavander and
                 Andr{\'e} B. Souza and Marcelo F. Polese and Douglas C.
                 Mattos and Lucas A. Bassul and Leonardo D. Cardoso and
                 Adriano T. Oliveira and Caterina Faggio",
  title =        "Dusky Grouper \bioname{Epinephelus marginatus} Growth
                 and Survival When Exposed to Different Photoperiods",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "31",
  day =          "12",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030031",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/31",
  abstract =     "Photoperiod is considered an environmental factor that
                 influences reproduction and the growth processes of
                 fish throughout the year. In the present study, we
                 subjected dusky grouper \bioname{Epinephelus
                 marginatus} to different photoperiods in order to
                 evaluate growth and survival. Juvenile dusky grouper
                 were randomly distributed in twelve 100 L tanks
                 containing four fish per aquarium. The fish were
                 exposed to continuous light, normal photoperiod or
                 continuous darkness for 50 days. Fish were fed 3\% of
                 their total biomass, twice a day, and the diet
                 consisted of ground commercial dry pellets (42\% crude
                 protein, 12\% humidity, 9\% ether extract, 15\% mineral
                 matter, 4\% crude fiber, 3.5\% calcium and 3\% vitamin
                 C, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions).
                 There was no mortality during the experiment. After 50
                 days, the best performance was found for exposure to
                 continuous light (24 h artificial light). The final
                 weight of the fish reared under continuous light was
                 significantly higher than that of the fish exposed to
                 continuous darkness. The specific growth rate of the
                 fish exposed to continuous light was significantly
                 higher than that of the fish exposed to the natural
                 photoperiod and to continuous darkness. Modifications
                 to the photoperiod can be a key factor in increasing
                 the efficacy of current production and the improvement
                 of current aquaculture protocols.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Nguyen:2021:BPF,
  author =       "Van Bon Nguyen and San-Lang Wang and Anh Dzung Nguyen
                 and Tu Quy Phan and Kuaanan Techato and Siriporn
                 Pradit",
  title =        "Bioproduction of Prodigiosin from Fishery Processing
                 Waste Shrimp Heads and Evaluation of Its Potential
                 Bioactivities",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30",
  day =          "11",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030030",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/30",
  abstract =     "The aim of this work was to reuse a fish processing
                 waste, shrimp head powder (SHP), for the production of
                 prodigiosin (PG) via microbial technology and to assess
                 its potential bioactivities. PG was produced in a 12
                 L-bioreactor system, and the highest PG productivity of
                 6310 mg L \minus 1 was achieved when \bioname{Serratia
                 marcescens} CC17 was used for fermentation in a novel
                 designed medium (6.75 L) containing 1.5\% C/N source
                 (SHP/casein = 9/1), 0.02\% K 2 SO 4, ans 0.025\% Ca 3
                 (PO 4) 2, with initial pH 7.0, and fermentation was
                 performed at 28 \degree C for 8 h. The purified PG
                 showed moderate antioxidants, efficient anti-NO
                 (anti-nitric oxide), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
                 inhibitory activities. In a docking study, PG showed
                 better binding energy scores (\minus 12.3 kcal/mol) and
                 more interactions (6 linkages) with several prominent
                 amino acids in the biding sites on AChE that were
                 superior to those of Berberine chloride (\minus 10.8
                 kcal/mol and one linkage). Notably, this is the first
                 investigation using shrimp heads for the mass
                 bioproduction of PG with high productivity, and Ca 3
                 (PO 4) 2 salt was also newly found to significantly
                 enhance PG production by S. marcescens. This study also
                 provided available data on the anti-NO and anti-AChE
                 effects of PG, especially from the docking simulation
                 PG towards AChE that was described for the first time
                 in this study. The above results suggest that SHP is a
                 good material for the cost-effective bioproduction of
                 PG, which is a potential candidate for anti-NO and
                 anti-Alzheimer drugs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Esteban:2021:FRF,
  author =       "Maria Angeles Esteban and Bernardo Baldisserotto and
                 Eric Hallerman",
  title =        "{{\booktitle{Fishes}}} Receives Its First Impact
                 Factor",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29",
  day =          "11",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030029",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/29",
  abstract =     "The aim of this work was to reuse a fish processing
                 waste, shrimp head powder (SHP), for the production of
                 prodigiosin (PG) via microbial technology and to assess
                 its potential bioactivities. PG was produced in a 12
                 L-bioreactor system, and the highest PG productivity of
                 6310 mg L \minus 1 was achieved when \bioname{Serratia
                 marcescens} CC17 was used for fermentation in a novel
                 designed medium (6.75 L) containing 1.5\% C/N source
                 (SHP/casein = 9/1), 0.02\% K 2 SO 4, ans 0.025\% Ca 3
                 (PO 4) 2, with initial pH 7.0, and fermentation was
                 performed at 28 \degree C for 8 h. The purified PG
                 showed moderate antioxidants, efficient anti-NO
                 (anti-nitric oxide), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
                 inhibitory activities. In a docking study, PG showed
                 better binding energy scores (\minus 12.3 kcal/mol) and
                 more interactions (6 linkages) with several prominent
                 amino acids in the biding sites on AChE that were
                 superior to those of Berberine chloride (\minus 10.8
                 kcal/mol and one linkage). Notably, this is the first
                 investigation using shrimp heads for the mass
                 bioproduction of PG with high productivity, and Ca 3
                 (PO 4) 2 salt was also newly found to significantly
                 enhance PG production by S. marcescens. This study also
                 provided available data on the anti-NO and anti-AChE
                 effects of PG, especially from the docking simulation
                 PG towards AChE that was described for the first time
                 in this study. The above results suggest that SHP is a
                 good material for the cost-effective bioproduction of
                 PG, which is a potential candidate for anti-NO and
                 anti-Alzheimer drugs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Fronte:2021:FRH,
  author =       "Baldassare Fronte and Rosario Licitra and Carlo
                 Bibbiani and Lucia Casini and Mahanama De Zoysa and
                 Vincenzo Miragliotta and Simona Sagona and Francesca
                 Coppola and Letizia Brogi and Francesca Abramo",
  title =        "Fishmeal Replacement with \bioname{Hermetia illucens}
                 Meal in Aquafeeds: Effects on Zebrafish Growth
                 Performances, Intestinal Morphometry, and Enzymology",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28",
  day =          "05",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030028",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/28",
  abstract =     "Fishmeal (FM) is still the most important protein
                 source in aquafeeds. However, due to the reduction of
                 wild fish stocks used for FM production, its
                 manufacturing it is now unsustainable. Insect meal
                 represents a valid alternative to FM, due to the low
                 carbon footprint of its production and its high
                 nutritional value. The aim of this study was to
                 investigate the potentials of replacing FM with black
                 soldier fly (\bioname{Hermetia illucens}) meal (HIM) in
                 aquafeeds, using zebrafish as the animal model. Four
                 diets were formulated with increasing HIM/FM
                 replacement rate (the control diet contained 20\% FM).
                 Mortality rates, growth performances, and feed
                 consumptions were measured, and fish intestine samples
                 were collected for histological and enzymatic analysis.
                 After 49 days, all groups almost tripled their initial
                 body weight (cumulative body weight gain ranged between
                 143.9 and 155.2 mg), and no statistically significant
                 differences among treatments were observed in relation
                 to growth performances and histological traits.
                 Contrarily, trypsin, alkaline phosphatases, and alpha
                 amylase--glucoamylase activities were significantly
                 reduced when the FM replacement rate was increased. In
                 conclusion, HIM may represent an alternative to FM,
                 since no adverse effects were observed when it was
                 included up to 20\% in the zebrafish diet, even when
                 replacing 100\% of the FM.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Kidd:2021:ESD,
  author =       "Jess A. Kidd and Monica Boudreau and Robert C. Bailey
                 and Michael R. van den Heuvel and Mark R. Servos and
                 Simon C. Courtenay",
  title =        "Evaluating the Sampling Design of a Long-Term
                 Community-Based Estuary Monitoring Program",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27",
  day =          "02",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030027",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/27",
  abstract =     "Community-based monitoring programs (CBMPs) are a
                 cost-effective option to collect the long-term data
                 required to effectively monitor estuaries. Data quality
                 concerns have caused some CBMP datasets, which could
                 fill knowledge gaps for aquatic ecosystems, to go
                 unused. The Community Aquatic Monitoring Program (CAMP)
                 is a CBMP that has collected littoral nekton assemblage
                 data from estuaries in the southern Gulf of St.
                 Lawrence since 2003. Concerns with the CAMP sampling
                 design (station placement and numbers) have prevented
                 decision-makers from using the data to inform estuary
                 health assessments. This study tested if CAMP's
                 sampling design that accommodates volunteer
                 participation provides similar information as a
                 scientific sampling approach. Six CAMP stations and six
                 stations selected using a stratified random design were
                 sampled at ten estuaries. A permutational-MANOVA
                 revealed nekton assemblages were generally not
                 significantly different between the two sampling
                 designs. The current six CAMP stations are sufficient
                 to detect the larger differences in species abundances
                 that may indicate differences in estuary condition. The
                 predicted increase in precision (2\%) with twelve
                 stations is not substantive enough to warrant an
                 increased sampling effort. CAMP's scientific utility is
                 not limited by station selection bias or numbers.
                 Furthermore, well-designed CBMPs can produce comparable
                 data to scientific studies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Rusco:2021:CMB,
  author =       "Giusy Rusco and Michele {Di Iorio} and Roberta
                 Iampietro and Alessandra Roncarati and Stefano Esposito
                 and Nicolaia Iaffaldano",
  title =        "Cryobank of {Mediterranean} Brown Trout Semen:
                 Evaluation of the Use of Frozen Semen up to Six Hours
                 Post-Collection",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26",
  day =          "02",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030026",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/26",
  abstract =     "The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of
                 different cold-storage time intervals between
                 collection and semen-freezing on both fresh and
                 cryopreserved semen motility parameters and the
                 post-thaw fertilizing ability of Mediterranean brown
                 trout semen. The ejaculates were split into six
                 aliquots and stored on ice from 1 to 6 h, until
                 freezing. Fresh and post-thaw sperm motility was
                 evaluated by a Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis system,
                 whilst the fertilizing ability was assessed by in vivo
                 trials. In fresh semen, at 3 h of storage, a
                 significant decrease of total motility, linear movement
                 (STR, LIN) and beat cross frequency (BCF) was recorded,
                 whilst the amplitude of lateral displacement of the
                 spermatozoon head (ALH) underwent a significant
                 increase. In frozen semen, no significant difference
                 was observed for all the motility parameters evaluated,
                 except for the total motility between 1 and 6 h of
                 storage and the duration of sperm movement between 1
                 and 5 h. Cold-storage time did not significantly affect
                 the percentage of live embryos following the use of
                 frozen semen. In conclusion, our results showed that,
                 if necessary, the Mediterranean brown trout semen can
                 be frozen even until 6 h post-collection without losing
                 its fertilizing ability.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Pires:2021:MTE,
  author =       "Luana da Costa Pires and Patricia Rodrigues and Quelen
                 Iane Garlet and Luisa Barichello Barbosa and Bibiana
                 Petri da Silveira and Guerino Bandeira Junior and
                 Lenise de Lima Silva and Amanda Gindri and Rodrigo
                 Coldebella and Cristiane Pedrazzi and Agueda Palmira
                 Castagna de Vargas and Bernardo Baldisserotto and Berta
                 Maria Heinzmann",
  title =        "\bioname{Maclura tinctoria} Extracts: In Vitro
                 Antibacterial Activity against \bioname{Aeromonas
                 hydrophila} and Sedative Effect in \bioname{Rhamdia
                 quelen}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25",
  day =          "27",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030025",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/25",
  abstract =     "Maclura tinctoria is a tree species native from Brazil
                 and rich in phenolic compounds. Since plant
                 antibacterial activity is highly associated with
                 phenolic compound concentration, we aim to evaluate the
                 in vitro antimicrobial activity of different extracts
                 against fish pathogenic bacteria. In addition, some
                 phenolic compounds have central depressant effects and
                 can be useful in aquaculture due to possible sedative
                 and/or anesthetic effects. Four M. tinctoria extracts
                 were extracted separately with ethanol; leaves (LE),
                 bark (BE), heartwood (HE), and the sapwood (SE). In
                 vitro antimicrobial activity was tested against
                 Aeromonas strains at concentrations of 6400 to 3.125
                 \mu g/mL. The sedative effect was evaluated for 24 h
                 with 30 and 100 mg/L concentrations. Chemical
                 composition was analyzed by HPLC-DAD-MS. The HE extract
                 had the best MIC (400 $ \mu $ g/mL) and MBC (800 $ \mu
                 $ g/mL) compared to the LE, BE, and SE extracts. LE
                 extract induced deep sedation and the BE, SE, and HE
                 extracts induced light sedation. Additionally, BE, SE,
                 and HE induced a normal behavior without side effects.
                 Polyphenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity and
                 sedative effects were identified mainly in HE. Thus, HE
                 extract is safe and can be used as a sedative for
                 silver catfish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Giovos:2021:ILB,
  author =       "Ioannis Giovos and Fabrizio Serena and Dimitra Katsada
                 and Athanasios Anastasiadis and Adi Barash and Charis
                 Charilaou and Jason M. Hall-Spencer and Fabio Crocetta
                 and Alexander Kaminas and Demetris Kletou and Mary
                 Maximiadi and Vasileios Minasidis and Dimitrios K.
                 Moutopoulos and Roxani Naasan Aga-Spyridopoulou and
                 Ioannis Thasitis and Periklis Kleitou",
  title =        "Integrating Literature, Biodiversity Databases, and
                 Citizen-Science to Reconstruct the Checklist of
                 Chondrichthyans in {Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean
                 Sea)}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "24",
  day =          "26",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030024",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/24",
  abstract =     "Chondrichthyans are apex predators influencing the
                 trophic web through a top-down process thus their
                 depletion will affect the remaining biota.
                 Notwithstanding that, research on chondrichthyans is
                 sparse or data-limited in several biogeographic areas
                 worldwide, including the Levantine Sea. We revise and
                 update the knowledge of chondrichthyans in Cyprus based
                 on a bibliographic review that gains information
                 retrieved from peer-reviewed and grey literature,
                 Global Biodiversity Information Facility (135 records
                 of at least 18 species) and the Ocean Biodiversity
                 Information System (65 records of at least14 species),
                 and the citizen science project Mediterranean
                 Elasmobranchs Citizen Observations (117 records per 23
                 species). Our updated checklist reports 60 species that
                 account for about 70\% of the Mediterranean
                 chondrichthyan biota. The list includes 15 more species
                 than the previous checklist and our study reports three
                 new species for Cyprus waters, namely the blackmouth
                 catshark \bioname{Dalatias licha}, the round fantail
                 stingray Taeniurops grabatus, and the sawback
                 angelshark Squatina aculeata. Our research highlights
                 the need for conservation measures and more studies
                 regarding the highly threatened blackchin guitarfish
                 Glaucostegus cemiculus and the devil ray
                 \bioname{Mobula mobular}, and stresses the importance
                 for training a new generation of observers to
                 strengthen the knowledge and conservation of
                 elasmobranchs in the region.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sorensen:2021:GCC,
  author =       "Solveig Lysfjord S{\o}rensen and Ateshm Ghirmay and
                 Yangyang Gong and Dalia Dahle and Ghana Vasanth and
                 Mette S{\o}rensen and Viswanath Kiron",
  title =        "Growth, Chemical Composition, Histology and
                 Antioxidant Genes of {Atlantic Salmon} (\bioname{Salmo
                 salar}) Fed Whole or Pre-Processed
                 \bioname{Nannochloropsis oceanica} and
                 \bioname{Tetraselmis} sp.",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "23",
  day =          "23",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030023",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/23",
  abstract =     "New sustainable feed ingredients are a necessity for
                 the salmon aquaculture industry. In this study, we
                 examined the effect of pre-extrusion processing of two
                 microalgae, Nannochloropsis oceanica and Tetraselmis
                 sp., on the growth, fatty acid content in the flesh and
                 health of Atlantic salmon. The fish were fed one of the
                 following five diets for nine weeks: (1) CO: a fish
                 meal-based control (basal) diet, (2) NU: a
                 Nannochloropsis diet, (3) NE: a pre-extruded
                 Nannochloropsis diet, (4) TU: a Tetraselmis diet, and
                 (5) TE: a pre-extruded Tetraselmis diet. The
                 algae-incorporated diets contained 30\% of the
                 respective microalgae. Our results showed that the best
                 growth performance was achieved by the CO diet,
                 followed by the NE diets. Feeding of unprocessed
                 Nannochloropsis and Tetraselmis resulted in a
                 significant reduction in enterocyte vacuolization
                 compared to the CO feeding. A significant effect of
                 processing was noted in the fillet fatty acid content,
                 the intestine and liver structure and the expression of
                 selected genes in the liver. The expression of
                 antioxidant genes in both the liver and intestine, and
                 the accumulation of different fatty acids in the fillet
                 and liver of the extruded algae-fed groups, warrants
                 further investigation. In conclusion, based on the
                 short-term study, 30\% inclusion of the microalgae
                 \bioname{Nannochloropsis oceanica} and Tetraselmis sp.
                 can be considered in Atlantic salmon feeds.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{He:2021:NRD,
  author =       "Qingsong He and Shuyang Ma and Qinwang Xing and
                 Wenchao Zhang and Haiqing Yu and Zhenjiang Ye",
  title =        "Nonstationary Responses of Demersal Fishes to
                 Environmental Variations in Temperate Waters of the
                 {Northwestern North Pacific} under a Changing Climate",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "22",
  day =          "22",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6030022",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/3/22",
  abstract =     "Although nonstationarity in marine ecosystems has
                 attracted great attention, the nonstationary responses
                 of demersal fishes to environmental variations induced
                 by the changing climate are still not well understood.
                 Here, we collected 21 time series of demersal fishes
                 from 1956 to 2015 to investigate the climate-induced
                 nonstationary responses in temperate waters of the
                 northwestern North Pacific (NWP). We showed that these
                 demersal fishes experienced state shifts in
                 approximately 1986/87, accompanied by abrupt warming
                 over this region. Moreover, the relationships between
                 demersal fishes and sea surface temperature (SST) were
                 found to change between the two identified eras (i.e.,
                 a weak relationship before 1986 and a strong negative
                 relationship after 1986), which may be primarily caused
                 by the alternating dominance of the East Asian winter
                 monsoon and mega-ENSO on SST in temperate waters of the
                 NWP. The identified climate-induced nonstationary
                 responses of demersal fishes to SST variability in this
                 study may provide implications for understanding
                 climate-induced biological dynamics, predicting
                 demersal fish fluctuations, coping with potential
                 ecological risks, and the sustainable exploitation of
                 fishery resources in the future climate. Note that the
                 impact of fishing on the demersal fishes in temperate
                 waters of the NWP was not assessed in this study due to
                 the lack of fishing effort data and therefore the
                 conclusions of our research should be approached with
                 caution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Abu-Alya:2021:EPS,
  author =       "Ibrahim S. Abu-Alya and Yousef M. Alharbi and Said I.
                 Fathalla and Ibrahim S. Zahran and Saad M. Shousha and
                 Hassan A. Abdel-Rahman",
  title =        "Effect of Partial Soybean Replacement by Shrimp
                 By-Products on the Productive and Economic Performances
                 in {African} Catfish (\bioname{Clarias lazera}) Diets",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "84",
  day =          "20",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040084",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/84",
  abstract =     "The present study was carried out to evaluate the
                 effects of partial replacement of soybean with shrimp
                 by-products (SBp) in African catfish (\bioname{Clarias
                 lazera}) diets on productive (growth, digestibility,
                 body composition, dressing yield, blood parameters,
                 immunity) and economic performances. Therefore, 750
                 fingerlings ($ \approx $20.0 g) were distributed into
                 five groups of 150 fingerlings/group with three
                 replicates (n = 50) per group. Group 1 was fed a basal
                 diet, while G2 and G3 were fed diets containing 25\%
                 SBp (autoclaved and acid-treated, respectively) as
                 soybean replacer for 12 weeks, while, in G4 and G5, SBp
                 level was 50\%. All growth and nutrient utilization
                 parameters (body weight, Wg, ADG, PER, FCR, and
                 digestibility), plasma proteins, and immunity
                 significantly increased in G4 and G5. Anemia screening
                 markers recorded insignificant differences between the
                 tested groups and control one, whereas lipid markers of
                 plasma and fish body decreased by autoclaved SBp and
                 increased by acid-treated SBp. The African catfish body
                 dry matter and crude protein percentages were enriched
                 by the addition of SBp. Replacing the soybean meal
                 decreases diet costs and diet costs/1 kg of weight
                 gain. In conclusion, replacing soybean with SBp
                 (especially 50\% acid-treated) positively influenced
                 productive and economic performances with friendly
                 effects to avoid the environmental pollution by these
                 wastes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Fu:2021:IEC,
  author =       "Lulu Fu and Qiudie Chi and Yongbo Bao and Hanhan Yao
                 and Zhihua Lin and Yinghui Dong",
  title =        "Identification and Expression Characterization of the
                 \gene{Smad3} Gene and {SNPs} Associated with Growth
                 Traits in the Hard Clam (\bioname{Meretrix meretrix})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "83",
  day =          "16",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040083",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/83",
  abstract =     "It has been demonstrated that the sekelsky mothers
                 against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (Smad3) plays an
                 important role in the growth and development of
                 vertebrates. However, little is known about the
                 association between the Smad3 gene and the growth
                 traits of mollusks. In this study, Smad3 from the hard
                 clam \bioname{Meretrix meretrix} (Mm-Smad3) was cloned,
                 characterized, and screened for growth-related single
                 nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in its exons. The
                 full-length cDNA of Mm-Smad3 was 1938 bp, encoding a
                 protein with 428 amino acid residues. The protein
                 sequence included an MH1 (27--135 aa) and MH2 domain
                 (233--404 aa). Promoter analysis showed that the
                 promoter sequence of Mm-Smad3 was 2548 bp, and the
                 binding sites of Pit-1a, Antp, Hb, and other
                 transcription factors are related to the growth and
                 development of hard clams. The phylogenetic tree was
                 divided into two major clusters, including mollusks and
                 vertebrate. The expression level of Mm-Smad3 was
                 predominantly detected in the mantle and foot, while
                 extremely less expression was observed in the digestive
                 gland. The low expression level of Mm-Smad3 was
                 detected at the stages of unfertilized mature eggs,
                 fertilized eggs, four-cell embryos, blastula,
                 gastrulae, trochophore, and D-shaped larvae, whereas an
                 opposite trend was observed regarding the highest
                 expression at the umbo larvae stage (p {$<$} 0.05). In
                 the mantle repair experiment, the time-course
                 expression profiles showed that compared to the
                 expression level at 0 h, Mm-Smad3 significantly
                 decreased at 6 h (p {$<$} 0.05) but increased at 12 and
                 48 h. Further, the association analysis identified 11
                 SNPs in the exons of Mm-Smad3, of which three loci
                 (c.597 C $>$ T, c.660 C $>$ T, c.792 A $>$ T) were
                 significantly related to the growth traits of clam (p
                 {$<$} 0.05). Overall, our findings indicated that
                 Mm-Smad3 is a growth-related gene and the detected SNP
                 sites provide growth-related markers for molecular
                 marker-assisted breeding of this species.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Jeong:2021:CGS,
  author =       "Min-A Jeong and Ye-Jin Jeong and Kwang-Il Kim",
  title =        "Complete Genome Sequences and Pathogenicity Analysis
                 of Two Red Sea Bream Iridoviruses Isolated from
                 Cultured Fish in {Korea}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "82",
  day =          "15",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040082",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/82",
  abstract =     "In Korea, red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV), especially
                 subtype II, has been the main causative agent of red
                 sea bream iridoviral disease since the 1990s. Herein,
                 we report two Korean RSIV isolates with different
                 subtypes based on the major capsid protein and
                 adenosine triphosphatase genes: 17SbTy (RSIV mixed
                 subtype I/II) from Japanese seabass
                 (\bioname{Lateolabrax japonicus}) and 17RbGs (RSIV
                 subtype II) from rock bream (\bioname{Oplegnathus
                 fasciatus}). The complete genome sequences of 17SbTy
                 and 17RbGs were 112,360 and 112,235 bp long,
                 respectively (115 and 114 open reading frames [ORFs],
                 respectively). Based on nucleotide sequence homology
                 with sequences of representative RSIVs, 69 of 115 ORFs
                 of 17SbTy were most closely related to subtype II
                 (98.48--100\% identity), and 46 were closely related to
                 subtype I (98.77--100\% identity). In comparison with
                 RSIVs, 17SbTy and 17RbGs carried two insertion/deletion
                 mutations (ORFs 014R and 102R on the basis of 17SbTy)
                 in regions encoding functional proteins (a DNA-binding
                 protein and a myristoylated membrane protein). Notably,
                 survival rates differed significantly between
                 17SbTy-infected and 17RbGs-infected rock breams,
                 indicating that the genomic characteristics and/or
                 adaptations to their respective original hosts might
                 influence pathogenicity. Thus, this study provides
                 complete genome sequences and insights into the
                 pathogenicity of two newly identified RSIV isolates
                 classified as a mixed subtype I/II and subtype II.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sanz-Ronda:2021:FUP,
  author =       "Francisco Javier Sanz-Ronda and Francisco Javier
                 Bravo-C{\'o}rdoba and Ana Garc{\'\i}a-Vega and Jorge
                 Valbuena-Castro and Andr{\'e}s Mart{\'\i}nez-de-Azagra
                 and Juan Francisco Fuentes-P{\'e}rez",
  title =        "Fish Upstream Passage through Gauging Stations:
                 Experiences with {Iberian} Barbel in Flat-{V} Weirs",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "81",
  day =          "14",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040081",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/81",
  abstract =     "The monitoring of river discharge is vital for the
                 correct management of water resources. Flat-V gauging
                 weirs are facilities used worldwide for measuring
                 discharge. These structures consist of a small weir
                 with a triangular cross-section and a flat ``V''-shaped
                 notch. Their extensive use is a consequence of their
                 utility in the measurement of both low and high flow
                 conditions. However, depending on their size, local
                 morphology and river discharge can act as full or
                 partial hydraulic barriers to fish migration. To
                 address this concern, the present work studies fish
                 passage performance over flat-V weirs considering their
                 hydraulic performance. For this, radio-tracking and
                 video-monitoring observations were combined with
                 computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models in two flat-V
                 weirs, using Iberian barbel (Luciobarbus bocagei) as
                 the target species. Results showed that fish passage is
                 conditioned by both hydraulic and behavioral processes,
                 providing evidence for scenarios in which flat-V weirs
                 may act as full or partial barriers to upstream
                 movements. For the studied flat-V weirs, a discharge
                 range of 0.27--8 m 3 /s, with a water drop difference
                 between upstream and downstream water levels lower than
                 0.7 m and a depth downstream of the weir of higher than
                 0.3 m can be considered an effective passage situation
                 for barbels. These findings are of interest for
                 quantifying flat-V weir impacts, for engineering
                 applications and for establishing managing or
                 retrofitting actions when required.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Hu:2021:RBE,
  author =       "Jinfei Hu and Ping Wang and Hailong Zhang",
  title =        "The Relationship between Environmental Factors and
                 Catch Abundance of Hairtail in the {East China Sea}
                 Using Empirical Dynamic Modeling",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "80",
  day =          "13",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040080",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/80",
  abstract =     "The East China Sea population of hairtail
                 (\bioname{Trichiurus lepturus}, also known as T.
                 japonicus) is a commercially important element of
                 Chinese fisheries. Hairtail has long been widely
                 exploited. Due to overfishing, however, its production
                 declined over the years. One of solutions to this
                 dilemma is to institute reasonable fishery policies.
                 Generally, skillful short-term and long-term prediction
                 of fish catch is a central tool for guiding the
                 development of fishery policy. Accurate predictions
                 require a comprehensive understanding of the
                 relationship between fluctuations in fish catch and
                 variability in both fishing effort and marine
                 environmental conditions. To investigate the combined
                 impact of fishing effort and marine environments on
                 hairtail catch and to develop models to predict
                 hairtail catch, we applied empirical dynamic modeling
                 (EDM) to data on East China Sea fisheries, including
                 hairtail catch, fishing effort, and marine
                 environmental factors. EDM is an equation-free approach
                 that enables the investigation of various complex
                 systems. We constructed all possible multivariate EDM
                 models to investigate the potential mechanisms
                 affecting hairtail catch. Our analysis demonstrates
                 that all key environmental factors (salinity, summer
                 monsoon, sea surface temperature, precipitation, and
                 power dissipation index of tropical cyclones) have an
                 impact on nutrient supply, which we suggest is the
                 central factor influencing hairtail catch. Finally, our
                 comparison of EDM models with parametric models
                 demonstrates that EDM models overwhelmingly outperform
                 parametric models in analysis of these complex
                 interactions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Shan:2021:CTA,
  author =       "Binbin Shan and Yan Liu and Changping Yang and Yuan Li
                 and Liangming Wang and Dianrong Sun",
  title =        "Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Female and Male
                 Fine-Patterned Puffer: Identification of Candidate
                 Genes Associated with Growth and Sex Differentiation",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "79",
  day =          "12",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040079",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/79",
  abstract =     "Sexual growth dimorphism is a common phenomenon in
                 teleost fish. However, the mechanism of this complex
                 phenomenon remains unclear. The fine-patterned puffer
                 (Takifugu poecilonotus; Temminck and Schlegel, 1850)
                 exhibits female-biased sexual size dimorphism similar
                 to other pufferfish. In this study, the transcriptomes
                 of female and male T. poecilonotus were sequenced,
                 285.95 million raw read pairs were generated from
                 sequence libraries. After identification and assembly,
                 a total of 149,814 nonredundant unigenes were obtained
                 with an N50 length of 3538 bp. Of these candidates,
                 122,719 unigenes (81.91\% of the total) were
                 successfully annotated with multiple public databases.
                 The comparison analysis revealed 10,385 unigenes (2034
                 in females and 8351 in males) were differentially
                 expressed between different sexes of T. poecilonotus.
                 Then, we identified many candidate growth- and
                 sex-related genes, including Dmrt1, Sox3, Spatas, Prl /
                 Prlr, fabps, Ghr, and Igf1r. In addition to these
                 well-known genes, Fabp 4 was identified for the first
                 time in fish. Furthermore, 68,281 simple sequence
                 repeats (SSRs) loci were screened and identified in the
                 transcriptome sequence of T. poecilonotus. The results
                 of our study could provide valuable information on
                 growth- and sex-associated genes and facilitate further
                 exploration of the molecular mechanism of sexual growth
                 dimorphism.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Nousias:2021:GVP,
  author =       "Orestis Nousias and Konstantinos Tzokas and Leonidas
                 Papaharisis and Katerina Ekonomaki and Dimitrios
                 Chatziplis and Costas Batargias and Costas S.
                 Tsigenopoulos",
  title =        "Genetic Variability, Population Structure, and
                 Relatedness Analysis of Meagre Stocks as an Informative
                 Basis for New Breeding Schemes",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "78",
  day =          "10",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040078",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/78",
  abstract =     "This study evaluates the genetic diversity of
                 different meagre broodstocks sampled in Greece. A
                 multiplex of twelve microsatellite markers was used to
                 genotype 946 fish from eleven stocks and batches used
                 for broodstock selection, and the genetic data was used
                 to calculate genetic population parameters as well as
                 to investigate the genetic differentiation between
                 stocks. The results from a relatedness analysis were
                 used as the guiding lines for a fine-tuned and overall
                 evaluation of the genetic distance between stocks, and
                 the choice of candidate breeders from some of them. The
                 approach implemented in this study uses
                 well-established population genetics methods to
                 evaluate the selection of breeder candidates in
                 aquaculture commercial conditions utilizing a
                 descriptive genetic data set based on microsatellite
                 analyses, and to outline an efficient methodology for
                 establishing the basis of new breeding schemes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Mao:2021:MCN,
  author =       "Zhuangwen Mao and Shengwei Luo and Dafang Zhao and
                 Xiang Zhou and Zilong Zhang and Yangbo Xiao and
                 Shenping Cao and Yonghua Zhou and Shaojun Liu and
                 Jianzhou Tang and Zhen Liu",
  title =        "Molecular Characterization and Nutrition Regulation of
                 the Neutral Amino Acid Transporter {ASCT2} in Triploid
                 Crucian Carp",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "77",
  day =          "09",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040077",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/77",
  abstract =     "AlaSerCys Transporter 2 (ASCT2), encoded by the SLC1A5
                 gene, plays an important role in the absorption of
                 glutamine. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence
                 of ASCT2 was cloned from triploid crucian carp. It
                 encodes 539 amino acid residues and a stop codon.
                 Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences of
                 the ASCT2 ORF region in cyprinid fishes shared high
                 sequence homology. Comparing the abundance of ASCT2 in
                 different tissues, we found its expression level in
                 muscle was significantly higher than that in intestine
                 (p {$<$} 0.05). In addition, the expression levels of
                 ASCT2 also appeared different in diurnal variation.
                 Then we found the addition of 2.5\% glutamate in a
                 feeding diet significantly increased the expression
                 levels of ASCT2 in intestine and muscle (p {$<$} 0.05).
                 However, in glutamine experiments, the muscle showed
                 the highest expression level of ASCT2 when fish were
                 fed the diet containing 3.0\% glutamine (p {$<$} 0.05).
                 In vitro, ASCT2 was sensitive to glutamine and its
                 expression level appeared down-regulated when the
                 addition of glutamine was added to 0.1 mg/mL. Finally,
                 we found that the diet with 29\% protein level
                 significantly increased the expression level of ASCT2
                 in intestine (p {$<$} 0.05). Nevertheless, different
                 protein sources (fish meal and soybean meal) had no
                 significant effect on the expression levels of ASCT2 in
                 intestine and muscle (p $>$ 0.05). These results
                 provided data for the study of ASCT2 in triploid
                 crucian carp regulated by feeding nutrition, which had
                 a potential application in improving feed formulation
                 in aquaculture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Nathanailides:2021:PPS,
  author =       "Cosmas Nathanailides and Markos Kolygas and
                 Konstantina Choremi and Theodoros Mavraganis and
                 Evangelia Gouva and Kosmas Vidalis and Fotini
                 Athanassopoulou",
  title =        "Probiotics Have the Potential to Significantly
                 Mitigate the Environmental Impact of Freshwater Fish
                 Farms",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "76",
  day =          "08",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040076",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/76",
  abstract =     "Probiotics for freshwater fish farming can be
                 administered as single or multiple mixtures. The
                 expected benefits of probiotics include disease
                 prophylaxis, improved growth, and feed conversion
                 parameters, such as the feed conversion rate (FCR) and
                 specific growth rate (SGR). In the current work, we
                 review the impact of probiotics on freshwater finfish
                 aquaculture. Data were gathered from articles published
                 during the last decade that examined the effects of
                 probiotics on fish growth, FCR, and water quality in
                 freshwater fishponds/tanks. While the expected benefits
                 of probiotics are significant, the reviewed data
                 indicate a range in the level of effects, with an
                 average reduction in ammonia of 50.7\%, SGR increase of
                 17.1\%, and FCR decrease of 10.7\%. Despite the
                 variability in the reported benefits, probiotics appear
                 to offer a practical solution for sustainable
                 freshwater aquaculture. Disease prophylaxis with
                 probiotics can reduce the need for antibiotics and
                 maintain gut health and feed conversion. Considering
                 that fish feed and waste are two significant parameters
                 of the aquaculture ecological footprint, it can be
                 argued that probiotics can contribute to reducing the
                 environmental impact of aquaculture. In this direction,
                 it would be beneficial if more researchers incorporated
                 water quality parameters in future aquaculture research
                 and protocols to minimize aquaculture's environmental
                 impact.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ciepiela:2021:BIB,
  author =       "Lindsy R. Ciepiela and Ryan M. Fitzpatrick and Samuel
                 T. Lewis and Yoichiro Kanno",
  title =        "Behavioral Interactions between a Native and an
                 Invasive Fish Species in a Thermally Heterogeneous
                 Experimental Chamber",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "75",
  day =          "07",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040075",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/75",
  abstract =     "Mechanisms of the displacement of native fish by
                 nonnative fish can include agonistic behaviors that
                 push native fish species out of their preferred
                 habitat, including their thermal optima. To examine
                 these interactions, we built an experimental thermal
                 preference chamber to evaluate: (1) the thermal
                 preference of native, glacial relict northern redbelly
                 dace \bioname{Chrosomus eos}; (2) if the thermal
                 preference and movement changed in the presence of the
                 invasive western mosquitofish \bioname{Gambusia
                 affinis}; and (3) the direction of agonistic
                 interactions. We hypothesized that G. affinis would
                 express agonistic behavior toward C. eos, because G.
                 affinis is widely recognized as an aggressive invader.
                 Given the temperature range of the experimental
                 chamber, i.e., 20--30 {$^\circ $}C, C. eos selected an
                 average of 24.3 {$^\circ $}C as its thermal preference.
                 After G. affinis ' introduction, the thermal preference
                 of C. eos increased by 1.7 {$^\circ $}C and the
                 movement, given by distance (cm) travelled, increased
                 by 21\%. Contrary to our prediction, more agonistic
                 interactions were observed in C. eos toward G. affinis.
                 These results indicate that agonistic behavior of G.
                 affinis toward native fish species may be species- and
                 condition-specific, and may not always be the primary
                 mechanism of native species' displacement. Biological
                 invasions are a global issue and altered thermal
                 regimes are expected to continue. This study provided
                 the novel approach using of a thermally heterogeneous
                 thermal chamber to examine thermal preferences and
                 aggressive interactions between a native and an
                 invasive species. Future research should examine other
                 life history traits that may be conveying the
                 competitive advantage to G. affinis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Shal:2021:DFA,
  author =       "Ahmed Mohamed {El Shal} and Faisal Mohamed {El Sheikh}
                 and Atef Mohamed Elsbaay",
  title =        "Design and Fabrication of an Automatic Fish Feeder
                 Prototype Suits Tilapia Tanks",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "74",
  day =          "06",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040074",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/74",
  abstract =     "The conventional methods of supplying feed to tilapia
                 tanks are ineffective. It is better to find new a
                 automatic feeder saving pellets from crushing and
                 cohesion without hitting pellets during feeding at a
                 predetermined interval of time and an accurate amount
                 of food with a larger surface area covered by pellets.
                 Developing-country fish farmers use manual feeding to
                 be more cost-effective than with costly mechanized
                 feeding, so this research aimed to design and construct
                 an automatic fish feeder prototype to feed tilapia in a
                 recirculation aquaculture system's tank. The
                 performance of the prototype was studied after it was
                 designed and installed. The dispensed feed operated by
                 a DC motor located underneath the pellet hopper and the
                 feed material was discharged into the tank through a
                 gate in the bottom of the feeder. Three pellet sizes,
                 three rotation speeds, and three feeder heights from
                 the water's surface were used to test the automatic
                 feeder's efficiency. The results showed that the
                 optimal speed for the automatic feeder was 14 rpm with
                 a height of 70 cm, resulting in a distribution width of
                 26.6 cm and a high automatic feeder efficiency of
                 99.9\%. Furthermore, the feeder used very little
                 electricity and saved time, cost, labor, energy, and
                 pellets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Thomson:2021:HGS,
  author =       "Damian P. Thomson and Anna K. Cresswell and
                 Christopher Doropoulos and Michael D. E. Haywood and
                 Melanie Orr and Andrew S. Hoey",
  title =        "Hidden Giants: the Story of \bioname{Bolbometopon
                 muricatum} at {Ningaloo Reef}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "73",
  day =          "06",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040073",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/73",
  abstract =     "\bioname{Bolbometopon muricatum} (bumphead parrotfish,
                 Valenciennes, 1839) is a conspicuous, iconic and
                 ecologically important coral reef fish species. B.
                 muricatum plays an important role in the bioerosion of
                 the reef framework and as a result has been described
                 as both an ecosystem engineer and keystone species.
                 Despite the complete absence of B. muricatum from 32
                 years of scientific surveys across the Ningaloo Reef
                 World Heritage Area, we recorded a total of 155
                 individuals of B. muricatum across 63.2 ha of reef
                 crest surveys, equating to mean density of 2.38 ind/ha.
                 Our observations represent the first record of this
                 iconic species in scientific surveys at Ningaloo and in
                 combination with qualitative observations of B.
                 muricatum by expert witnesses, indicate B. muricatum is
                 likely to have been present in ecologically relevant
                 densities since 2006. The densities of B. muricatum
                 observed at northern Ningaloo in 2021 suggest this
                 species is removing an estimated 13.42 tonnes/ha or
                 1.34 kg/m 2 of calcium carbonate per year, which is
                 broadly comparable with estimates of total parrotfish
                 bioerosion across many reefs in the central Indian and
                 Pacific Oceans. Although not currently afforded
                 elevated conservation status within management plans,
                 B. muricatum possess many life-history characteristics
                 that make them vulnerable to overfishing and may
                 justify consideration for increased protection within
                 the world heritage listed Ningaloo Reef Marine Park.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Castaneda-Chavez:2021:CMN,
  author =       "Mar{\'\i}a del Refugio Casta{\~n}eda-Ch{\'a}vez and
                 Fabiola Lango-Reynoso and Gabycarmen
                 Navarrete-Rodr{\'\i}guez and Armando Toyokazu
                 Wakida-Kusunoki",
  title =        "Concentration of Metals in Native and Invasive Species
                 of Fish in the Fluvial-Lagoon-Deltaic System of the
                 {Palizada River, Campeche}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "72",
  day =          "03",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040072",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/72",
  abstract =     "Aquatic organisms, such as fish, are important
                 indicators of the bioavailability of metals in coastal
                 environments, demonstrating the capacity of different
                 species to bioaccumulate these metallic elements. The
                 fluvial-lagoon system of the Palizada River is an
                 important ecosystem for its terrestrial and aquatic
                 biological diversity where fishing is an important
                 productive activity in this system. The objective of
                 this research was to evaluate the concentration of Pb
                 and Cd in the muscle tissue of native and invasive fish
                 species in this area. For this, the digestion of fish
                 muscle samples was carried out with a CEM MARS 5
                 Digestion Microwave System, while the quantification of
                 metals was performed with an atomic absorption
                 equipment. All analysis muscle samples from native and
                 invasive fish showed Pb and Cd in their content. By
                 sampling site there was a statistically significant
                 difference (p {$<$} 0.05), with a maximum Pb
                 concentration of 7.760 $ \mu $ g g {-1} at the LLAR
                 site (Laguna Larga). In terms of species, the maximum
                 Cd concentration was obtained in the \bioname{Cyprinus
                 carpio} with 6.630 {\pm} 0.127 and in Pterygoplichthus
                 pardalis with 6.547 {\pm} 0.873 $ \mu $ g g {-1} (dry
                 weight). The presence of metals such as Pb and Cd in
                 muscle tissue of native and invasive fish species
                 represents an important bioindicator of environmental
                 exposure in the study area and a potential risk to
                 public health, as these species are commonly
                 consumed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Espinola-Novelo:2021:STV,
  author =       "Juan F. Esp{\'\i}nola-Novelo and Marcelo E. Oliva",
  title =        "Spatial and Temporal Variability of Parasite
                 Communities: Implications for Fish Stock
                 Identification",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "71",
  day =          "03",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040071",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/71",
  abstract =     "The spatial and temporal variability of parasite
                 communities have received little attention when used as
                 biological tags for identifying fish stocks. This study
                 evaluated the potential spatial and temporal
                 variability of the parasite communities affecting three
                 marine fish species collected between 1993 and 2017. To
                 avoid the potential effect of host age in parasite
                 communities, individuals of similar ages were selected:
                 1123 \bioname{Engraulis ringens} (12--24 months old),
                 1904 \bioname{Trachurus murphyi} (24--36 months old),
                 and 630 \bioname{Merluccius gayi} (36--48 months old).
                 Most taxa show differences in the prevalence at the
                 spatial and temporal scales, but the prevalence of some
                 larval endoparasites remains constant at the temporal
                 scale. At the spatial scale, an analysis of similarity
                 (ANOSIM) showed differences in the parasite communities
                 of three species; a canonical analysis of principal
                 coordinates (CAP) showed low values of correct
                 allocations (CA; {\SGMLasymp}50\%) and values of
                 allocation due to chance (AdC) were lower than the CA.
                 At the temporal scale, an ANOSIM showed differences
                 between the three species. A CAP showed low values of
                 CA ({\SGMLasymp}50--60\%) and the AdC was always lower
                 than CA. Samples at the spatial scale were well
                 allocated to their localities or nearby localities,
                 suggesting a spatial stability. Samples from different
                 years were not well discriminated, suggesting temporal
                 variability. Therefore, in studies regarding parasites
                 as a tool for stock identification, temporal
                 variability must be taken into account.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Mukherjee:2021:EPG,
  author =       "Subham Mukherjee and Old{\v{r}}ich Barto{\v{s}} and
                 Kamila Zde{\v{n}}kov{\'a} and Petr Han{\'a}k and Petra
                 Hork{\'a} and Zuzana Musilova",
  title =        "Evolution of the Parvalbumin Genes in Teleost Fishes
                 after the Whole-Genome Duplication",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "70",
  day =          "01",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040070",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/70",
  abstract =     "Parvalbumin is considered a major fish allergen. Here,
                 we report the molecular evolution of the parvalbumin
                 genes in bony fishes based on 19 whole genomes and 70
                 transcriptomes. We found unexpectedly high parvalbumin
                 diversity in teleosts; three main gene types
                 (pvalb-{\alpha}, pvalb-{\beta}1, and pvalb-{\beta}2,
                 including oncomodulins) originated at the onset of
                 vertebrates. Teleosts have further multiplied the
                 parvalbumin gene repertoire up to nine ancestral
                 copies---two copies of pvalb-{\alpha}, two copies of
                 pvalb-{\beta}1, and five copies of pvalb-{\beta}2. This
                 gene diversity is a result of teleost-specific
                 whole-genome duplication. Two conserved parvalbumin
                 genomic clusters carry pvalb-{\beta}1 and {\beta}2
                 copies, whereas pvalb-{\alpha} genes are located
                 separately in different linkage groups. Further, we
                 investigated parvalbumin gene expression in 17 tissues
                 of the common carp (\bioname{Cyprinus carpio}), a
                 species with 21 parvalbumin genes in its genome. Two
                 pvalb-{\alpha} and eight pvalb-{\beta}2 copies are
                 highly expressed in the muscle, while two alternative
                 pvalb-{\alpha} copies show expression in the brain and
                 the testes, and pvalb-{\beta}1 is dominant in the
                 retina and the kidney. The recent pairs of muscular
                 pvalb-{\beta}2 genes show differential expression in
                 this species. We provide robust genomic evidence of the
                 complex evolution of the parvalbumin genes in fishes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sorensen:2021:IBC,
  author =       "Peter W. Sorensen",
  title =        "Introduction to the Biology and Control of Invasive
                 Fishes and a Special Issue on This Topic",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "69",
  day =          "30",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040069",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/69",
  abstract =     "Across the globe, dozens of species of invasive fish
                 are now found in fresh as well as marine waters, where
                 they alter habitats, compete with native fish for food,
                 and prey on native fishes, exerting both indirect and
                 direct effects on ecosystems and economies. While
                 efforts to understand and control these species are
                 growing, most are still in their infancy; however, a
                 few examples stand out. This special issue is comprised
                 of 11 notable articles on freshwater invasive fish and
                 is the first to address this topic. This introductory
                 article serves as an introduction to these articles
                 which focus on 5 topics on invasive freshwater fish:
                 (1) the damage they cause (one article); (2) techniques
                 to ascertain their presence (one article); (3)
                 techniques to restrict their movement (one article);
                 (4) strategies to control them (three articles); and
                 (5) lessons learned from ongoing management efforts
                 (five articles). This introduction notes that
                 successful management efforts share a few approaches:
                 (1) they develop and use a deep understanding of local
                 species and their abundance as well as distribution;
                 (2) they focus on reducing reproductive success; (3)
                 they use multiple complimentary control strategies; and
                 (4) they use a long-term approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Martin:2021:CPT,
  author =       "Miriam Martin and Stephen Smith and Michael Kleinhenz
                 and Geraldine Magnin and Zhoumeng Lin and David Kuhn
                 and Shawnee Montgomery and Johann Coetzee",
  title =        "Comparative Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Concentrations
                 of Flunixin Meglumine and Meloxicam in Tilapia
                 ({Oreochromis} spp.)",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "68",
  day =          "25",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040068",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/68",
  abstract =     "Evidence of pain perception in fish is well
                 established, but analgesic use in aquaculture is
                 limited. The objective was to investigate the
                 comparative pharmacokinetics of flunixin administered
                 intramuscularly (IM) and meloxicam administered IM or
                 orally (PO) in tilapia. Two hundred and seventy fish
                 were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: flunixin
                 meglumine IM (2.2 mg/kg); meloxicam IM (1 mg/kg); or
                 meloxicam PO (1 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples were
                 collected from 6 fish per treatment at 14 time points
                 for 10 days. Drug concentrations were determined using
                 ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with
                 mass spectroscopy. Plasma concentration versus time
                 data were analyzed with a non-compartmental approach
                 using a commercially available software. Flunixin
                 reached a mean maximum concentration (C max) of 4826.7
                 ng/mL at 0.5 h, had a terminal half-life (T 1 / 2) of
                 7.34 h, and an area under the concentration--time curve
                 extrapolated to infinity (AUC INF\_obs) of 25,261.62
                 h{\cdot}ng/mL. Meloxicam IM had a T 1 / 2 of 9.4 h
                 after reaching a C max of 11.3 ng/mL at 2 h, with an
                 AUC INF\_obs of 150.31 h{\cdot}ng/mL. Meloxicam PO had
                 a T 1 / 2 of 1.9 h after reaching a C max of 72.2 ng/mL
                 at 2 h, with an AUC INF\_obs of 400.83 h{\cdot}ng/mL.
                 Tissue concentrations of both drugs were undetectable
                 by 9 h. Flunixin reached a sufficient plasma
                 concentration to potentially have an analgesic effect,
                 while meloxicam, when administered at the given dosage,
                 likely would not.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Fitzpatrick:2021:UID,
  author =       "Ryan M. Fitzpatrick and Dana L. Winkelman and Brett M.
                 Johnson",
  title =        "Using Isotopic Data to Evaluate \bioname{Esox lucius}
                 ({Linnaeus}, 1758) Natal Origins in a Hydrologically
                 Complex River Basin",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "67",
  day =          "22",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040067",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/67",
  abstract =     "Otolith microchemistry has emerged as a powerful
                 technique with which to identify the natal origins of
                 fishes, but it relies on differences in underlying
                 geology that may occur over large spatial scales. An
                 examination of how small a spatial scale on which this
                 technique can be implemented, especially in water
                 bodies that share a large proportion of their flow,
                 would be useful for guiding aquatic invasive species
                 control efforts. We examined trace isotopic signatures
                 in northern pike (\bioname{Esox lucius}) otoliths to
                 estimate their provenance between two reservoirs in the
                 Upper Yampa River Basin, Colorado, USA. This is a
                 challenging study area as these reservoirs are only
                 11-rkm apart on the same river and thus share a high
                 proportion of their inflow. We found that three
                 isotopes (86 Sr, 137 Ba, and 55 Mn) were useful in
                 discriminating between these reservoirs, but their
                 signatures varied annually, and the values overlapped.
                 Strontium isotope ratios (87 Sr/ 86 Sr) were different
                 between sites and relatively stable across three years,
                 which made them an ideal marker for determining
                 northern pike provenance. Our study demonstrates the
                 usefulness of otolith microchemistry for natal origin
                 determination within the same river over a relatively
                 small spatial scale when there are geologic differences
                 between sites, especially geologic differences
                 underlying tributaries between sites.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Wang:2021:EDT,
  author =       "Bin Wang and Guoxin Ma and Yong Liu and Yafei Wang and
                 Xiaoxue Du and Qiang Shi and Hanping Mao",
  title =        "Effects of Different Temperatures on the
                 Antibacterial, Immune and Growth Performance of Crucian
                 Carp Epidermal Mucus",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "66",
  day =          "22",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040066",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/66",
  abstract =     "Fish is one of the important sources of energy and
                 protein, and proper water temperature is key to
                 successful fish breeding. The authors of this study
                 evaluated crucian carp growth, mucus antibacterial
                 properties, and immune indicators at 17, 21, 24, 27,
                 and 31 \degree C. The results indicated that in the
                 range of 17--31 \degree C, the resistance of epidermal
                 mucus to \bioname{Vibrio harveyi} decreased with
                 temperature rising. At 24 and 27 \degree C, the
                 activities of lysozyme and catalase significantly
                 increased; alkaline phosphatase activity, superoxide
                 dismutase activity, and total protein concentration
                 first increased and then decreased with rising
                 temperature; the highest values were observed at 24
                 \degree C, with increases of 56.55\%, 26.64\%, and
                 44.52\%, respectively, compared to those under the 17
                 \degree C treatment. When the treatment reached 27
                 \degree C, the temperature had an effect on the growth
                 and antibacterial properties of crucian carp, and the
                 activities of alkaline phosphatase and superoxide
                 dismutase were significantly reduced. At temperatures
                 of 17--24 \degree C, the survival rate of crucian carp
                 could reach more than 93\%, and at the temperature of
                 24 \degree C, the specific growth rate reached the
                 highest value of 43.29\%. Therefore, the most favorable
                 temperature for the long-term breeding of crucian carp
                 was found to be 24 \degree C. This study provides a
                 favorable experimental basis for the establishment of
                 intelligent aquaculture systems and the setting of
                 water environment parameters.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lin:2021:FRF,
  author =       "Bin Lin and Kailin Jiang and Zhiqi Xu and Feiyi Li and
                 Jiao Li and Chaoli Mou and Xinyao Gong and Xuliang
                 Duan",
  title =        "Feasibility Research on Fish Pose Estimation Based on
                 Rotating Box Object Detection",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "65",
  day =          "19",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040065",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/65",
  abstract =     "A video-based method to quantify animal posture
                 movement is a powerful way to analyze animal behavior.
                 Both humans and fish can judge the physiological state
                 through the skeleton framework. However, it is
                 challenging for farmers to judge the breeding state in
                 the complex underwater environment. Therefore, images
                 can be transmitted by the underwater camera and
                 monitored by a computer vision model. However, it lacks
                 datasets in artificial intelligence and is unable to
                 train deep neural networks. The main contributions of
                 this paper include: (1) the world's first fish posture
                 database is established. 10 key points of each fish are
                 manually marked. The fish flock images were taken in
                 the experimental tank and 1000 single fish images were
                 separated from the fish flock. (2) A two-stage attitude
                 estimation model is used to detect fish key points. The
                 evaluation of the algorithm performance indicates the
                 precision of detection reaches 90.61\%, F1-score
                 reaches 90\%, and Fps also reaches 23.26. We made a
                 preliminary exploration on the pose estimation of fish
                 and provided a feasible idea for fish pose
                 estimation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ruiz-Jarabo:2021:SPR,
  author =       "Ignacio Ruiz-Jarabo and Miriam Fern{\'a}ndez-Castro
                 and Ismael Jerez-Cepa and Cristina
                 Barrag{\'a}n-M{\'e}ndez and Montse P{\'e}rez and
                 Evaristo P{\'e}rez and Juan Gil and Jes{\'u}s Canoura
                 and Carlos Farias and Juan Miguel Mancera and Ignacio
                 Sobrino",
  title =        "Survival and Physiological Recovery after Capture by
                 Hookline: the Case Study of the Blackspot Seabream
                 (\bioname{Pagellus bogaraveo})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "64",
  day =          "17",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040064",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/64",
  abstract =     "Evaluating the survival of discarded species is
                 gaining momentum after the new European Common
                 Fisheries Policy (Article 15 of the European Regulation
                 No. 1380/2013). This regulation introduced a discard
                 ban, with an exemption for those species with
                 demonstrated high survival rates after their capture
                 and release. Candidate species should be evaluated for
                 each fishing gear and geographical area. In this study,
                 we assessed not only survival, but also physiological
                 recovery rates of blackspot seabream (\bioname{Pagellus
                 bogaraveo}) below commercial size captured with a
                 hookline called `` voracera '' in the Strait of
                 Gibraltar (SW Atlantic waters of Europe). Experiments
                 onboard a commercial fishing vessel were paralleled
                 with studies in controlled ground-based facilities,
                 where the capture process was mimicked, and
                 physiological recovery markers were described. Our
                 results confirmed that hookline capture induced acute
                 stress responses in the target species, such as changes
                 in plasma cortisol, lactate, glucose, and osmolality.
                 However, 90.6\% of the blackspot seabreams below
                 commercial size captured with this fishing gear managed
                 to survive, and evidenced physiological recovery
                 responses 5 h after capture, with complete homeostatic
                 recovery occurring within the first 24 h. Based on this
                 study, the European Commission approved an exemption
                 from the discard (EU Commission Delegated Regulation
                 6794/2018). Thus, the robust methodology described
                 herein can be an important tool to mitigate the problem
                 of discards in Europe.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Safari:2021:ESC,
  author =       "Omid Safari and Mehrdad Sarkheil and Davar Shahsavani
                 and Marina Paolucci",
  title =        "Effects of Single or Combined Administration of
                 Dietary Synbiotic and Sodium Propionate on Humoral
                 Immunity and Oxidative Defense, Digestive Enzymes and
                 Growth Performances of {African} Cichlid
                 (\bioname{Labidochromis lividus}) Challenged with
                 \bioname{Aeromonas hydrophila}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "63",
  day =          "15",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040063",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/63",
  abstract =     "The aim of the present study was to investigate the
                 potential effects of dietary synbiotic (SYN)
                 (Pediococcus acidilactici + Galactooligosaccharides; 10
                 g kg \minus 1), sodium propionate (SP; 5, 10 and 20 g
                 kg \minus 1) and a combination of SYN + SP on the
                 growth performance, humoral immunity, antioxidant
                 responses and disease resistance against
                 \bioname{Aeromonas hydrophila} of African cichlid
                 (Labidochromis lividus) fingerlings (0.52 \pm 0.05 g)
                 in a feeding trial lasting 63 days. A completely
                 randomized design was run with eight treatments,
                 including 0 (control) and supplemented diets containing
                 SYN + SP (e.g., 10 + 5, 10 + 10, 10 + 20, 0 + 5, 0 +
                 10, 0 + 20 and 10 + 10). The lowest feed conversion
                 ratio value was observed in fish fed the 5 g kg \minus
                 1 -SP and 10 g kg \minus 1 -SYN (p {$<$} 0.05). The
                 highest values of protein efficiency ratio and protein
                 productive value were recorded in fish fed the 10 g kg
                 \minus 1 -SYN (p {$<$} 0.05). Fish fed the 10 g kg
                 \minus 1 -SYN diet had the highest activities of
                 immunity (lysozyme, immunoglobulin) and antioxidant
                 responses (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide
                 dismutase) (p {$<$} 0.05). After 28 days
                 post-challenge, the highest survival rate (57\%) was
                 recorded in the diet containing 10 g kg \minus 1 SYN
                 and 5 g kg \minus 1 SP. The results indicated that the
                 single administration of SYN or combined with SP,
                 especially at the level of 5 g kg \minus 1 of diet,
                 enhanced the survival and growth performances, humoral
                 immune response, antioxidant and digestive enzymes of
                 African cichlid.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Chen:2021:SCP,
  author =       "Huiqin Chen and Baoliang Bi and Lingfu Kong and Hua
                 Rong and Yanhua Su and Qing Hu",
  title =        "Seasonal Changes in Plasma Hormones, Sex-Related Genes
                 Transcription in Brain, Liver and Ovary during Gonadal
                 Development in Female Rainbow Trout
                 (\bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "62",
  day =          "12",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040062",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/62",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this study was to investigate the
                 periodic seasonal changes in endocrine activity and
                 gonadal development of female rainbow trout
                 (\bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss}) in a high-altitude
                 cold-water environment. The fish were sampled monthly
                 from January to November and the levels of plasma
                 hormones (estradiol (E 2), cortisol and thyroid
                 hormones (TH S)) and vitellogenin (VTG) were measured
                 by ELISA. Moreover, the transcriptions of sex-related
                 genes in the ovary, brain, and liver were detected by
                 qRT-PCR. The results showed a seasonal fluctuation of
                 plasma hormones and VTG together with the development
                 of the ovary, which reached a peak from August to
                 October. Similarly, the transcription of hypothalamic
                 gonadotropin-releasing hormone-2 (cgnrh-2),
                 hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors
                 (gnrhr) and follicle-stimulating hormone (fsh) in the
                 brain varied from January to September, but the highest
                 level was detected in September to November. In
                 addition, the transcription of sex-related genes
                 located in the ovary and liver increased significantly
                 during August to October, accompanied by a continuous
                 increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and a
                 decrease in the hepatosomatic index (HSI). Therefore,
                 plasma hormones and sex-related genes regulate the
                 development and maturation of O. mykiss oocytes with
                 the change in seasons and peaked in November. The
                 results of this study provide a reference for improving
                 the efficiency of the artificial reproduction of
                 \bioname{O. mykiss}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Garcia-Marquez:2021:ATA,
  author =       "Jorge Garc{\'\i}a-M{\'a}rquez and Andre Barany and
                 {\'A}lvaro Broz Ruiz and Benjam{\'\i}n Costas and
                 Salvador Arijo and Juan Miguel Mancera",
  title =        "Antimicrobial and Toxic Activity of Citronella
                 Essential Oil (\bioname{Cymbopogon nardus}), and Its
                 Effect on the Growth and Metabolism of Gilthead
                 Seabream (\bioname{Sparus aurata} {L.})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "61",
  day =          "12",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040061",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/61",
  abstract =     "Aquaculture procedures usually induce stress that
                 affects the physiological status of fish. For this
                 reason, the inclusion of additives in fish feeds to
                 palliate stress might be a good alternative. This study
                 aimed to assess the antimicrobial activity of
                 citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) essential oil (CEO)
                 against bacterial pathogens and to determine its
                 dietary impact on the growth performance of
                 \bioname{Sparus aurata}. In vitro tests confirmed that
                 CEO possesses antimicrobial activity against several
                 fish-specific pathogens. For the in vivo tests, three
                 experimental groups were fed for 60 days with different
                 concentrations of CEO: CTRL (0 mL kg \minus 1 fish
                 feed); CEO1 (1 mL kg \minus 1 fish feed); and CEO2 (2
                 mL kg \minus 1 fish feed). At the end of the
                 experiment, the physiological status was characterized.
                 Subsequently, the specimens of the CTRL and CEO2 groups
                 were subjected to a challenge with an injection of Poly
                 I:C for immune stimulation. Although S. aurata
                 individuals tolerated CEO inclusion without
                 compromising growth performance, it significantly
                 reduced glycogen in the CEO2 group, concomitant to an
                 increment of total peripheral leucocytes. Moreover,
                 different hematological profiles' responsive patterns
                 against an inflammatory stimulus were observed. In
                 conclusion, our results suggest that the use of CEO as
                 a fish feed additive can prevent bacterial outbreaks
                 and improve potential in vivo disease resistance in S.
                 aurata without negatively affecting growth.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Castillo-Vargasmachuca:2021:SDS,
  author =       "Sergio G. Castillo-Vargasmachuca and Eugenio Alberto
                 Arag{\'o}n-Noriega and Guillermo
                 Rodr{\'\i}guez-Dom{\'\i}nguez and Leonardo
                 Mart{\'\i}nez-C{\'a}rdenas and Eulalio
                 Ar{\'a}mbul-Mu{\~n}oz and {\'A}lvaro J. Burgos Arcos",
  title =        "The Standard Deviation Structure as a New Approach to
                 Growth Analysis in Weight and Length Data of Farmed
                 \bioname{Lutjanus guttatus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "60",
  day =          "12",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040060",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/60",
  abstract =     "In the present study, size-at-age data (length and
                 weight) of marine cage-reared spotted rose snapper
                 \bioname{Lutjanus guttatus} were analyzed under four
                 different variance assumptions (observed, constant,
                 depensatory, and compensatory variances) to analyze the
                 robustness of selecting the right standard deviation
                 structure to parametrize the von Bertalanffy, Logistic,
                 and Gompertz models. The selection of the best model
                 and variance criteria was obtained based on the
                 Bayesian information criterion (BIC). According to the
                 BIC results, the observed variance in the present study
                 was the best way to parametrize the three
                 abovementioned growth models, and the Gompertz model
                 best represented the length and weight growth curves.
                 Based on these results, using the observed error
                 structure to calculate the growth parameters in
                 multi-model inference analyses is recommended.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Thach:2021:TEO,
  author =       "Keo Sa Rate Thach and Hong Tu Vo and Ji-Yong Lee",
  title =        "Technical Efficiency and Output Losses in Shrimp
                 Farming: a Case in {Mekong Delta, Vietnam}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "59",
  day =          "11",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040059",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/59",
  abstract =     "The conversion from black tiger shrimp farming and
                 crop farming to white leg shrimp production is
                 widespread in Vietnam's Mekong Delta provinces.
                 However, this conversion trend also contains many risks
                 related to the technical aspects of the production
                 process. The study mainly aims to estimate the
                 technical efficiency of white leg shrimp farming. It
                 also compares the technical efficiency of white leg
                 shrimp farming between the traditional group that
                 historically has cultivated white leg shrimp and the
                 group that recently converted from black tiger shrimp
                 and crops to white leg shrimp, in order to evaluate the
                 efficiency and adaptability of shrimp farming. Primary
                 data were collected by directly interviewing 99 farmers
                 in traditional areas and 101 farmers in recently
                 converted areas in the study sites and analyzed by
                 using the stochastic frontier method. The calculated
                 technical efficiency was around 72.9 percent,
                 suggesting that farmers could increase their output
                 level by about 27.1\%, given constant inputs. There was
                 no difference in the technical efficiency of the two
                 groups, indicating that the converted farms have
                 sufficient adaptability when switching to white leg
                 shrimp farming. The output loss in farmers' production
                 is still very high, with an average loss of 1973
                 kg/hectare.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Shen:2021:EFD,
  author =       "Fengyuan Shen and Zonghang Zhang and Yiqiu Fu and Zhen
                 Zhang and Xin Sun and Jianyu Dong and Xiayang Ding and
                 Muyan Chen and Xiumei Zhang",
  title =        "Effects of Food Deprivation Duration on the Behavior
                 and Metabolism of Black Rockfish (\bioname{Sebastes
                 schlegelii})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "58",
  day =          "06",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040058",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/58",
  abstract =     "Fish often undergo food shortages in nature,
                 especially for juveniles that are relatively vulnerable
                 in most aspects. Therefore, the effects of food
                 deprivation on fish behavior and physiology are worth
                 exploring. Here, we investigated the behavioral and
                 metabolic adaptations of the juvenile black rockfish
                 \bioname{Sebastes schlegelii} to different durations of
                 food deprivation. In this study, three treatments were
                 set: control group, short-term food deprivation (STFD)
                 group, and long-term food deprivation (LTFD) group. The
                 rearing lasted for six weeks. During this period,
                 videos were recorded three times per week to assess the
                 locomotor activity and aggression. After this, the
                 fishes' boldness, neophobia, and aggressiveness were
                 assessed using different behavioral assessment devices,
                 while the standard metabolic rate (SMR) was measured by
                 flow-type respirometry. In general, the values of the
                 four indicators (swimming time, the number of turns,
                 movement number, and attack number) for the STFD group
                 were significantly higher than those for the control
                 and LTFD group during the same period of rearing. In a
                 subsequent personality assessment, the STFD group was
                 observed to be significantly bolder in an assessment
                 measuring boldness than the control and LTFD group
                 (indicated by time in the circle, swimming time, number
                 of times through the circle, and frequency in the
                 circle). The LTFD group was observed to be more
                 exploratory in the assessment of neophobia (indicated
                 by duration in the exploratory area, distance from
                 novelty item, and frequency of stay in the exploratory
                 area). Indeed, the LTFD group was observed to be
                 significantly less aggressive in the assessment of
                 aggressiveness than the control and STFD group
                 (indicated by attack number, attack range frequency,
                 first attack, and winner). SMR was noted to be
                 significantly higher in the STFD group than in the
                 control and LTFD group. In conclusion, this study
                 firstly reported the effects of food deprivation
                 duration on the personalities of black rockfish, as
                 well as the behavioral and physiological mechanisms.
                 Thus, we hope to provide insights into the work of
                 stock enhancement.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Yang:2021:IIR,
  author =       "Yanping Yang and Fengjiao Ma and Juanjuan Dong and
                 Lianxing Li and Ping Ren and Yuning Zhang and Yatao Wu
                 and Yinping Wang and Kai Liu and Fang Zhang",
  title =        "The Innate Immune Response to Infection by
                 \bioname{Polyascus gregaria} in the Male {Chinese}
                 Mitten Crab (\bioname{Eriocheir sinensis}), Revealed by
                 Proteomic Analysis",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "57",
  day =          "04",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040057",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/57",
  abstract =     "The Chinese mitten crab (\bioname{Eriocheir sinensis})
                 is a representative catadromous invertebrate of the
                 Yangtze River and a commercial species widely
                 cultivated in China. Both cultivated and wild crabs
                 suffer from a variety of parasites and pathogens, which
                 can result in catastrophic economic losses in
                 aquaculture revenue. Polyascus gregaria, a parasitic
                 barnacle with a highly derived morphology, is
                 specialized in invading these crabs. This study
                 examines the immunological mechanism in E. sinensis
                 infected with P. gregaria. Tandem mass tags (TMT), a
                 specialized method of mass-spectrometry, was used to
                 analyze the infection by P. gregaria resistance at the
                 protein level. In the hepatopancreas of infected crabs,
                 598 proteins differentially expressed relating to
                 physiological change, of which, 352 were upregulated
                 and 246 were downregulated. Based on this differential
                 protein expression, 104 GO terms and 13 KEGG pathways
                 were significantly enriched. Differentially expressed
                 proteins, such as ATG, cathepsin, serpin, iron-related
                 protein, Rab family, integrin, and lectin, are
                 associated with the lysosome GO term and the
                 autophagy-animal KEGG pathways, both of which likely
                 relate to the immune response to the parasitic P.
                 gregaria infection. These results show the benefit of
                 taking a detailed, protein-level approach to
                 understanding the innate immune response of aquatic
                 invertebrates to macroparasite infection.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Pradhan:2021:CCC,
  author =       "Pravata Kumar Pradhan and Dev Kumar Verma and Shrish
                 Chandra Yadav and Atul Krishna Dev and Thangaraj Raja
                 Swaminathan and Anutosh Paria and Rajendran Kooloth
                 Valappil and Neeraj Sood",
  title =        "Carps, \bioname{Catla catla}, \bioname{Cirrhinus
                 mrigala} and \bioname{Hypophthalmichthys molitrix} Are
                 Resistant to Experimental Infection with Tilapia Lake
                 Virus ({TiLV})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "56",
  day =          "01",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040056",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/56",
  abstract =     "\bioname{Tilapia tilapinevirus}, also known as tilapia
                 lake virus (TiLV), is an emerging fish virus that
                 primarily affects tilapines. However, the virus has
                 also been detected in a few non-tilapines. As tilapia
                 is generally farmed in polyculture systems along with
                 carps in South Asian countries, there is a likelihood
                 that TiLV-infected tilapia can transmit the virus to
                 the co-cultured species. In view of the above, the
                 susceptibility of three carp species, namely catla
                 (\bioname{Catla catla}), mrigal (\bioname{Cirrhinus
                 mrigala}) and silver carp (\bioname{Hypophthalmichthys
                 molitrix}) was evaluated vis-{\`a}-vis tilapia,
                 following experimental infection with TiLV. No clinical
                 signs and histopathological alterations could be
                 observed in carps. RT-qPCR revealed that TiLV copy
                 numbers in liver and brain of all the three carps were
                 almost negligible and did not show any increase with
                 time, suggesting that the virus did not replicate in
                 liver and brain, the target organs of TiLV. Further,
                 TiLV could not be isolated from pooled liver and brain
                 tissues of carps using permissive CFF cell line. On the
                 contrary, in tilapia, typical clinical signs and
                 histopathological lesions were observed and there was
                 significant increase in TiLV copy number up to 6 days
                 post-injection. Furthermore, the virus was successfully
                 isolated from pooled liver and brain tissue of infected
                 tilapia. From the above findings, it could be concluded
                 that C. catla, C. mrigala and H. molitrix are resistant
                 to TiLV infection and unlikely to be carriers for this
                 virus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Li:2021:FPW,
  author =       "Junyi Li and Hao Du and Jinming Wu and Hui Zhang and
                 Li Shen and Qiwei Wei",
  title =        "Foundation and Prospects of Wild Population
                 Reconstruction of Acipenser dabryanus",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "55",
  day =          "30",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2021",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes6040055",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:27 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/6/4/55",
  abstract =     "Acipenser dabryanus is an endemic fish inhabiting the
                 upper reaches of the Yangtze River in China. It is
                 classified as a first-class nationally protected animal
                 in China and is listed in the International Union for
                 Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Critically
                 Endangered Species (CR). Recently, there has been a
                 decrease in natural reproduction of A. dabryanus, and
                 the wild population is almost extinct. This paper
                 summarizes the changes observed in the natural
                 population of A. dabryanus and the factors leading to
                 its endangerment. Based on the process of artificial
                 propagation and achievement of relevant protection
                 goals, this paper presents the concept and technical
                 framework for reconstruction of the wild population of
                 A. dabryanus. In addition, by comprehensively reviewing
                 the research findings and existing problems in the
                 resource protection and monitoring of A. dabryanus in
                 recent years, we assessed the possibility of wild
                 population reconstruction and resource restoration for
                 A. dabryanus. Reconstruction and restoration measures
                 for the wild population of A. dabryanus are proposed,
                 with the aim of providing a scientific basis for the
                 reconstruction of the natural population and the
                 improvement and restoration of critical habitat of this
                 species. Furthermore, it is hoped that this paper will
                 serve as a reference for the protection and restoration
                 of other endangered fishes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Kim:2022:CBF,
  author =       "Jae Goo Kim and Su Hwan Kim and Jong Young Park and
                 Su-Hyang Yoo",
  title =        "Correlation between Feeding Behaviors and Retinal
                 Photoreceptor Cells of Largemouth Bass,
                 \bioname{Micropterus salmoides}, in {Korea}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "25",
  day =          "19",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010025",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/25",
  abstract =     "The largemouth bass (\bioname{Micropterus salmoides}),
                 a food resource in Korea, is a highly voracious
                 predator, designated as an invasive species. It is both
                 diurnal and nocturnal, with high adaptability and
                 reproducibility. Since the predation characteristics
                 are associated with sensitive dynamic visual acuity, we
                 examined the ocular structure of the largemouth bass to
                 investigate the association between photoreceptor cells
                 and feeding behavior. Furthermore, the comparison of
                 the prey-tracking ability of M. salmoides with that of
                 other predatory fish (Coreoperca herzi and
                 \bioname{Lepomis macrochirus}) with similar ecological
                 characteristics revealed the structure and arrangement
                 of photoreceptor cells, typical of a predatory fish in
                 M. salmoides. The double and single cone cells in the
                 retina were present in the regular mosaic patterns of
                 the quadrilateral units, with four double cone cells
                 surrounding a single cone cell. The photoreceptor
                 cells, i.e., the rod, single, and double cone cells of
                 M. salmoides, were smaller (2.3 {\pm} 0.2, 3.82 {\pm}
                 0.2, and 7.5 {\pm} 0.2 {\mu}m, respectively) than those
                 of other species (3.1 {\pm} 0.24, 6.6 {\pm} 0.5, and
                 11.3 {\pm} 0.4 {\mu}m in diameter, respectively, in C.
                 herzi). A smaller diameter of cone cells allows for a
                 high-density arrangement of visual cells, possibly
                 affecting the dynamic visual acuity for prey
                 tracking.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zhang:2022:ICD,
  author =       "Dunhua Zhang and Miles D. Lange and Craig A. Shoemaker
                 and Benjamin H. Beck",
  title =        "Identification and Characterization of Differentially
                 Expressed {IgM} Transcripts of Channel Catfish
                 Vaccinated with Antigens of Virulent \bioname{Aeromonas
                 hydrophila}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "24",
  day =          "19",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010024",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/24",
  abstract =     "Channel catfish (\bioname{Ictalurus punctatus}) is the
                 top species produced in US aquaculture and motile
                 Aeromonas septicemia, caused by virulent
                 \bioname{Aeromonas hydrophila} (vAh), is one of the
                 most severe diseases that afflict catfish farms.
                 Previously, vaccination of fish with extracellular
                 proteins (ECP) of vAh was shown to produce a robust
                 antibody-mediated immune response against vAh
                 infection. In this study, we analyzed IgM transcripts
                 that were differentially expressed in the head kidney
                 and liver of ECP-immunized and mock-immunized (control)
                 fish with emphasis on a variable domain of heavy chain.
                 Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that immunized fish
                 produced significantly more IgM transcripts than
                 control fish. Full-length IgM heavy chain cDNA was
                 cloned, which encoded typical IgM peptide, including
                 signal peptide, variable domain (VH), constant domain
                 (CH), and carboxyl terminal peptide. Great sequence
                 diversity was revealed in a VH segment, with the third
                 complementarity diversity region (CDR3) being most
                 variable. Using germline VH gene grouping method,
                 variants (clones) of VH characterized in this study
                 belonged to nine VH families. The most unique variants
                 (approximately 49\%) were found in the VH2 family.
                 Vaccinated fish apparently had more unique variants
                 than in the control fish. There were 62\% and 79\% of
                 unique variants in the head kidney and liver of
                 vaccinated fish, respectively, while 44\% and 27\%
                 unique variants in the head kidney and liver of control
                 fish, respectively. Among the unique variants in VH2
                 family, approximately 87\% of them were found in
                 vaccinated fish. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of
                 semi-purified IgM protein confirmed that matured IgM
                 protein was as variable as IgM transcripts identified
                 in this study, with isoelectric points crossing from 6
                 to 10. Results of this study provided insight into the
                 molecular and genetic basis of antibody diversity and
                 enriched our knowledge of the complex interplay between
                 antigens and antibodies in Ictalurid catfish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Wang:2022:OMD,
  author =       "Gongpei Wang and Qindong Tang and Zhi Chen and Dingli
                 Guo and Lei Zhou and Han Lai and Guifeng Li",
  title =        "Otolith Microchemistry and Demographic History Provide
                 New Insight into the Migratory Behavior and
                 Heterogeneous Genetic Divergence of \bioname{Coilia
                 grayii} in the {Pearl River}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "23",
  day =          "17",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010023",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/23",
  abstract =     "Coilia grayii is the anadromous form of anchovy that
                 is distributed in the East and South China Seas. It is
                 a common fish species in the estuarine area of the
                 Pearl River. Nevertheless, freshwater populations
                 appear upstream in the Pearl River, but the migratory
                 pathway has been mostly impeded by dam construction.
                 Behavioral differences and constrained habitat within
                 tributaries are suspected of promoting genetic
                 divergence in these populations. In this study, we
                 investigated the migratory behavior and genetic
                 divergence of six populations of C. grayii fragmented
                 by dams based on the otolith strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca)
                 ratio, mitochondrial DNA, and microsatellite
                 genotyping. All populations were in freshwater with low
                 Sr/Ca ratios, except the estuarine population (Humen
                 population) hatched in brackish water. Reduced
                 nucleotide diversity corresponding to distance was
                 observed. Populations from distant hydrological regions
                 exhibited a decline in genetic diversity and a
                 significant difference with the remaining populations
                 after fitting the isolation by distance model. Pairwise
                 fixation indices confirmed these results and moderate
                 and significant differentiation was found between
                 Hengxian site and downstream sites. Furthermore,
                 STRUCTURE analyses revealed that all separated
                 populations exhibited an admixed phylogenetic pattern
                 except for individuals from the Hengxian locality. The
                 upstream sites showed significantly increased
                 resistance to gene flow from the estuarine population
                 because of isolation by the dam. The results of the
                 neutrality test and Bayesian skyline plots demonstrated
                 complex demography---individuals' experienced
                 historical expansion and partial upper-dam populations
                 had recently undergone a colonization, forming a new
                 genetic structure. Accordingly, this study demonstrates
                 differences in the migration pattern and genetic
                 differentiation of C. grayii as a consequence of
                 demographic history and current processes (habitat
                 fragmentation and colonization).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Seibel:2022:MAE,
  author =       "Henrike Seibel and Elvis Chikwati and Carsten Schulz
                 and Alexander Rebl",
  title =        "A Multidisciplinary Approach Evaluating Soybean
                 Meal-Induced Enteritis in Rainbow Trout
                 \bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "22",
  day =          "14",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010022",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/22",
  abstract =     "This study evaluated a diverse range of markers of
                 feeding stress to obtain a more precise assessment of
                 the welfare of rainbow trout in relation to inadequate
                 husbandry conditions. A feeding stress model based on
                 dietary soybean meal was employed to identify suitable
                 minimally invasive ``classical'' stress markers,
                 together with molecular signatures. In a 56-day feeding
                 experiment, rainbow trout were fed diets containing
                 different levels of soybean meal. The impact of these
                 different soybean meal diets on rainbow trout was
                 assessed by water quality analyses, clinical health
                 observations, classic growth and performance
                 parameters, gut histopathology, blood-parameter
                 measurements and multigene-expression profiling in RNA
                 from whole blood. Soybean meal-induced enteritis was
                 manifested phenotypically by an inflammatory reaction
                 in the posterior section of the intestine and by
                 diarrhoea in some trout. These inflammatory changes
                 were associated with decreased supranuclear
                 vacuolation. The haematocrit values and the levels of
                 plasma cortisol and circulating lymphocytes in the
                 blood were increased in trout that had consumed high
                 amounts of SBM. Notably, the increased haematocrit
                 depended significantly on the bodyweight of the
                 individual trout. The transcript levels of certain
                 genes (e.g., MAP3K1, LYG, NOD1, STAT1 and HSP90AB)
                 emerged as potentially useful indicators in the blood
                 of rainbow trout providing valuable information about
                 inadequate nutrition. The expression-profiling findings
                 provide a basis for improved, minimally invasive
                 monitoring of feeding regimens in trout farming and may
                 stimulate the development of practical detection
                 devices for innovative aquaculture operations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sikora:2022:DLH,
  author =       "Logan W. Sikora and Joseph T. Mrnak and Rebecca
                 Henningsen and Justin A. VanDeHey and Greg G. Sass",
  title =        "Demographic and Life History Characteristics of Black
                 Bullheads \bioname{Ameiurus melas} in a North Temperate
                 {USA} Lake",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "21",
  day =          "14",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010021",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/21",
  abstract =     "Black bullheads \bioname{Ameiurus melas} are an
                 environmentally tolerant omnivorous fish species that
                 are found throughout much of North America and parts of
                 Europe. Despite their prevalence, black bullheads are
                 an infrequently studied species making their biology,
                 ecology, and life history poorly understood. Although
                 limited information has been published on black
                 bullheads, evidence suggests that bullheads can
                 dominate the fish biomass and have profound influences
                 on the fish community in some north temperate USA
                 lakes. The goal of our study was to provide additional
                 information on black bullhead population demographics,
                 growth rates, life history characteristics, and
                 seasonal diet preferences in a northern Wisconsin lake.
                 Using common fish collection gears (fyke netting,
                 electrofishing), fish aging protocols, fecundity
                 assessments, and diet indices, our results suggested
                 that black bullheads exhibited relatively fast growth
                 rates, early ages at maturity, moderate fecundity, and
                 a diverse omnivorous diet. Due to these demographic and
                 life history characteristics, black bullheads have the
                 potential to dominate fish community biomass in their
                 native and introduced range. Results from our study may
                 inform the management of black bullhead as native and
                 invasive species.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Li:2022:ERT,
  author =       "Yutong Li and Jiaojiao Kong and Jianyue Ji",
  title =        "Environmental Regulation, Technological Innovation and
                 Development of Marine Fisheries---Evidence from Ten
                 Coastal Regions in {China}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "20",
  day =          "14",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010020",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/20",
  abstract =     "This study aims to examine the relationship between
                 environmental regulation, technological innovation and
                 the development of China's marine fisheries. We make a
                 theoretical overview of the relationship between
                 environmental regulation, technological innovation and
                 the development of marine fisheries. Using data from 10
                 coastal regions of China, we calculate the
                 comprehensive development level of China's marine
                 fisheries in each region from 2009 to 2018 through the
                 entropy method. Then, we use a double logit model to
                 analyze the effects of environmental regulation and
                 technological innovation on the development level of
                 China's marine fisheries, and further test the
                 mediating effect of technological innovation. The
                 results show that environmental regulations have a
                 ``U-shaped'' effect on the development of China's
                 marine fisheries. Moreover, technological innovation is
                 crucial in promoting the development of China's marine
                 fisheries. Further, we identify the mediating role of
                 technological innovation, that is, environmental
                 regulation affects the development of China's marine
                 fisheries by influencing technological innovation.
                 These findings offer theoretical support for the
                 development of China's marine fisheries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ivanauskas:2022:MAC,
  author =       "Edgaras Ivanauskas and Andrius Skersonas and Vaidotas
                 Andra{\v{s}}{\=u}nas and Soukaina Elyaagoubi and
                 Art{\=u}ras Razinkovas-Baziukas",
  title =        "Mapping and Assessing Commercial Fisheries Services in
                 the {Lithuanian} Part of the {Curonian Lagoon}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19",
  day =          "14",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010019",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/19",
  abstract =     "The spatial distribution of biomass of main commercial
                 fish species was mapped to estimate the supply of a
                 provisioning fishery service in the Curonian lagoon.
                 Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was used as a proxy to
                 estimate the efficiency of commercial fishing and,
                 subsequently, the potential biomass of fishes. The
                 relationship between distinctive characteristics of the
                 fishing areas and corresponding commercial catches and
                 CPUE was analyzed using multivariate analysis. The
                 total catch values and CPUE used in the analyses were
                 derived from the official commercial fishery records.
                 RDE analysis was used to assess the variation of both
                 catch and CPUE of commercial fish species, while the
                 percentages of bottom sediment type coverage, average
                 depth, annual salinity, and water residence time in
                 each of the fishing squares were used as explanatory
                 variables. This distance e-based redundancy analysis
                 allowed for the use of non-Euclidean dissimilarity
                 indices. Fisheries data spatial distribution map
                 indicated the lack of coherence between the spatial
                 patterns of commercial catches and CPUE distribution in
                 the northern part of the lagoon. Highest CPUE values
                 were estimated in the central-eastern part of the
                 lagoon as compared to the western part of the lagoon
                 where CPUE values were substantially lower. Both total
                 catch and CPUE appeared not to be related to the type
                 of bottom habitats statistically while being spatially
                 correlated in-between. However, the impact of salinity
                 and water residence time calculated using the 3D
                 hydraulic circulation model on the distribution of both
                 CPUE and commercial catches was statistically
                 significant.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Xu:2022:EDE,
  author =       "Yan Xu and Yiqun Li and Mingyang Xue and Zidong Xiao
                 and Yuding Fan and Lingbing Zeng and Yong Zhou",
  title =        "Effects of Dietary \bioname{Enterococcus faecalis}
                 {YFI-G720} on the Growth, Immunity, Serum Biochemical,
                 Intestinal Morphology, Intestinal Microbiota, and
                 Disease Resistance of Crucian Carp (\bioname{Carassius
                 auratus})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "18",
  day =          "12",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010018",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/18",
  abstract =     "Diseases of crucian carp (\bioname{Carassius auratus})
                 are closely related to intestinal parameters.
                 Enterococcus faecalis has strong colonization ability
                 in the intestinal tract, and produces natural
                 antibiotics, bacteriocin, and other bacteriostatic
                 substances, which can effectively inhibit some
                 pathogenic bacteria and improve the intestinal
                 microenvironment. This study aimed to assess the
                 effects of E. faecalis YFI-G720 which was isolated from
                 the intestinal of crucian carp on the growth, immunity,
                 intestinal health, and disease resistance of crucian
                 carp. Fish (48.16 {\pm} 0.55 g) were fed four diets,
                 commercial diet or diet containing E. faecalis at 10 5
                 CFU/g (EF1), 10 6 CFU/g (EF2), or 10 7 CFU/g (EF3) for
                 28 days. The results showed that supplementation of E.
                 faecalis significantly improved the weight gain ratio
                 (WGR) and the specific growth rate (SGR) compared with
                 control group (p {$<$} 0.05). Intestinal mucosal
                 epithelial cells in EF2 were intact and normal, but
                 there was obvious vacuolation in CG. Compared with CG,
                 serum C3 and IgM in EF2 were significantly increased at
                 the end of the experiment (p {$<$} 0.05), and serum
                 alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in all
                 experimental groups (p {$<$} 0.05). Among studied
                 immune-related genes, expression was detected by qPCR,
                 C3, IgM, and IL-1{\beta}were upregulated in all
                 experimental groups to varying degrees from 14 days,
                 with highest expression in EF2 at 28 days. Intestinal
                 microbiota structure analyzed through high-throughput
                 sequencing, and the results showed that the relative
                 abundance of Aeromonas and Acinetobacter decreased
                 while Cetobacterium increased in all experimental
                 groups, with the greatest changes in EF2. Challenge
                 tests showed that fish fed E. faecalis were more
                 resistant to \bioname{Aeromonas veronii} (p {$<$}
                 0.05). In conclusion, dietary E. faecalis YFI-G720 at
                 10 6 CFU/g can improve the health status, immune
                 parameters, intestinal microbiota composition, and
                 disease resistance of crucian carp.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Li:2022:DRD,
  author =       "Xiaomeng Li and Yuanzhen Tan and Zheng Zhang and
                 Yupeng Huang and Pengfei Mu and Zhengwei Cui and Xinhua
                 Chen",
  title =        "Development of Recombinant Dihydrolipoamide
                 Dehydrogenase Subunit Vaccine against \bioname{Vibrio}
                 Infection in Large Yellow Croaker",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "17",
  day =          "11",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010017",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/17",
  abstract =     "Large yellow croaker (\bioname{Larimichthys crocea}),
                 an economically important marine fish in China, has
                 suffered from serious vibriosis, which has resulted in
                 great economic losses for the large yellow croaker
                 industry. Vaccination has been considered to be a safe
                 and effective method to prevent and control vibriosis.
                 However, due to the complex diversity and serotypes of
                 the Vibrio genus, the progress of Vibrio vaccine
                 development is still slow. In this study, we prepared
                 recombinant Vibrio dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase
                 (rDLD) protein and investigated its potential as a
                 candidate to be a subunit vaccine against Vibrio. The
                 lysozyme activity and the rDLD-specific antibody level
                 in sera of large yellow croakers immunized with rDLD
                 were significantly higher than those in the control
                 group, and the transcript levels of proinflammatory
                 cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1{\beta}), MHC
                 II{\alpha}/{\beta}, CD40, CD8{\alpha}, IL-4/13A, and
                 IL-4/13B were significantly up-regulated in the spleen
                 and head kidney of large yellow croakers immunized with
                 rDLD, suggesting that rDLD could induce both specific
                 and nonspecific immune responses in this species. In
                 addition, rDLD protein increased the survival rate of
                 large yellow croakers against \bioname{Vibrio
                 alginolyticus} and \bioname{Vibrio parahaemolyticus},
                 with the relative percent of survival (RPS) being
                 74.5\% and 66.9\%, respectively. These results will
                 facilitate the development of a potential subunit
                 vaccine against Vibrio in large yellow croaker
                 aquaculture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{laCruz:2022:LDT,
  author =       "Simrith E. Cordova-de la Cruz and Marta F. Riesco and
                 Gil Mart{\'\i}nez-Bautista and Daniel Calzada-Ruiz and
                 Talhia Mart{\'\i}nez-Burguete and Emyr S.
                 Pe{\~n}a-Mar{\'\i}n and Carlos Alfonso
                 {\'A}lvarez-Gonzalez and Ignacio Fern{\'a}ndez",
  title =        "Larval Development in Tropical Gar
                 (\bioname{Atractosteus tropicus}) Is Dependent on the
                 Embryonic Thermal Regime: Ecological Implications under
                 a Climate Change Context",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "16",
  day =          "11",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010016",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/16",
  abstract =     "In ectotherm species, environmental temperature plays
                 a key role in development, growth, and survival. Thus,
                 determining how temperature affects fish populations is
                 of utmost importance to accurately predict the risk of
                 climate change over fisheries and aquaculture, critical
                 to warrant nutrition and food security in the coming
                 years. Here, the potential effects of abnormal thermal
                 regimes (24, 28 and 32 {$^\circ $}C; TR24, TR28, and
                 TR32, respectively) exclusively applied during
                 embryogenesis in tropical gar (\bioname{Atractosteus
                 tropicus}) has been explored to decipher the potential
                 consequences on hatching and growth from fertilization
                 to 16 days post-fertilization (dpf), while effects on
                 skeletal development and body morphology were explored
                 at fertilization and 16 dpf. Egg incubation at higher
                 temperatures induced an early hatching and mouth
                 opening. A higher hatching rate was obtained in eggs
                 incubated at 28 {$^\circ $}C when compared to those at
                 24 {$^\circ $}C. No differences were found in fish
                 survival at 16 dpf, with values ranging from 84.89 to
                 88.86\%, but increased wet body weight and standard
                 length were found in larvae from TR24 and TR32 groups.
                 Thermal regime during embryogenesis also altered the
                 rate at which the skeletal development occurs. Larvae
                 from the TR32 group showed an advanced skeletal
                 development, with a higher development of cartilaginous
                 structures at hatching but reduced at 16 dpf when
                 compared with the TR24 and TR28 groups. Furthermore,
                 this advanced skeletal development seemed to determine
                 the fish body morphology. Based on biometric measures,
                 a principal component analysis showed how along
                 development, larvae from each thermal regime were
                 clustered together, but with each population remaining
                 clearly separated from each other. The current study
                 shows how changes in temperature may induce
                 craniofacial and morphological alterations in fish
                 during early stages and contribute to understanding the
                 possible effects of global warming in early development
                 of fish and its ecological implications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Miura:2022:ESD,
  author =       "Takeshi Miura and Munenori Nishikawa and Yuki Otsu and
                 Muhammad Fariz Zahir Ali and Atsushi Hashizume and
                 Chiemi Miura",
  title =        "The Effects of Silkworm-Derived Polysaccharide
                 (Silkrose) on Ectoparasitic Infestations in Yellowtail
                 (\bioname{Seriola quinqueradiata}) and White Trevally
                 (\bioname{Pseudocaranx dentex})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14",
  day =          "09",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010014",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/14",
  abstract =     "The effect of silkworm-derived polysaccharide silkrose
                 on fish ectoparasites was investigated. When juvenile
                 yellowtail (\bioname{Seriola quinqueradiata}) fed diets
                 containing silkrose were artificially infected with
                 \bioname{Benedenia seriolae}, a fish ectoparasite, the
                 numbers of parasitized B. seriolae were significantly
                 lower compared to that in fish in the control group
                 without silkrose treatment. Furthermore, when juvenile
                 yellowtails were severely infected with B. seriolae, no
                 mortality was observed in the silkrose-treated group,
                 compared to more than 60\% in the control group. In
                 field studies carried out at a fish farm with
                 yellowtail and white trevally (\bioname{Pseudocaranx
                 dentex}), oral treatment with silkrose significantly
                 reduced B. seriolae parasitism in yellowtail and
                 Caligus longipedis and Neobenedenia girellae parasitism
                 in white trevally. Silkrose treatment also reduced
                 blood levels of cortisol, a stress hormone in both
                 species. The changes in gene expression in the
                 epidermis of yellowtail by silkrose treatment were also
                 investigated, showing that the expression of various
                 genes, including factors involved in immunity, stress
                 response, and wound healing, was changed by the
                 treatment. These findings indicate that
                 silkworm-derived silkrose effectively prevents
                 infection by external parasites in yellowtail and white
                 trevally.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Urias-Sotomayor:2022:SRA,
  author =       "Ricardo Ur{\'\i}as-Sotomayor and Guillermo
                 Rodr{\'\i}guez-Dom{\'\i}nguez and Jos{\'e} Ad{\'a}n
                 F{\'e}lix-Ortiz and Gilberto G. Ortega-Liz{\'a}rraga
                 and Horacio A. Mu{\~n}oz-Rub{\'\i} and Eugenio Alberto
                 Arag{\'o}n-Noriega",
  title =        "Stock Reduction Analysis of Bigeye Croaker
                 Micropogonias megalops in the {Upper Gulf of
                 California, Mexico}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15",
  day =          "08",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010015",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/15",
  abstract =     "A stock reduction analysis (SRA) of bigeye croaker
                 Micropogonias megalops was performed based on
                 commercial catch data. SRA solutions were restricted to
                 a 2011 bigeye croaker stock biomass estimate of 14,412
                 t. The viable solution indicated a reduction in stock
                 of 73.6\% from 1983 to 2020 with an initial biomass of
                 22,186 t. In addition, a possible effect of
                 hyperstability of the stock was evaluated by applying
                 different versions of the Cobb--Douglas catch function.
                 The most probable function based on a multi-model
                 selection procedure was the one wherein the catch does
                 not depend on biomass and is directly proportional to
                 the applied fishing effort of small boats ($ \approx $7
                 m) and vessels ($ \approx $24 m). This situation
                 suggests that in a free access regime, fishing can
                 deplete the resource until it collapses, without
                 observing a significant reduction in its catches until
                 the event is very close.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Pan:2022:CFP,
  author =       "Weicong Pan and Soottawat Benjakul and Chiara
                 Sanmartin and Alessandra Guidi and Xiaoguo Ying and
                 Lukai Ma and Xudong Weng and Jin Yu and Shanggui Deng",
  title =        "Characterization of the Flavor Profile of Bigeye Tuna
                 Slices Treated by Cold Plasma Using {E-Nose} and
                 {GC-IMS}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13",
  day =          "08",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010013",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/13",
  abstract =     "To avoid heat, treatment induces numerous
                 physicochemical changes under severe conditions in the
                 tuna, cold plasma (CP), as a non-thermal technology,
                 possess objective potential on tuna processing. The
                 effect of cold plasma on the volatile flavor compounds
                 of bigeye tuna (\bioname{Thunnus obesus}) sashimi has
                 been evaluated using electronic nose (E-nose) and gas
                 chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS).
                 GC--IMS results revealed a total of 33 volatile
                 compounds in tuna slices. The effect of CP treatment on
                 tuna flavor was not significant, furthermore CP could
                 protect volatile freshness compounds such as 1-hexanol.
                 Principal component analysis (PCA) of the E-nose and
                 GC--IMS results could effectively differentiate the
                 effect of storage to tuna sashimi. There was a high
                 correlation between the E-nose and GC--IMS results,
                 providing a theoretical basis for establishing the
                 flavor fingerprint of tuna sashimi.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Sarais:2022:EIR,
  author =       "Fabio Sarais and Ruth Montero and Sven Ostermann and
                 Alexander Rebl and Bernd K{\"o}llner and Tom
                 Goldammer",
  title =        "The Early Immune Response of Lymphoid and Myeloid
                 Head-Kidney Cells of Rainbow Trout
                 (\bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss}) Stimulated with
                 \bioname{Aeromonas salmonicida}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "12",
  day =          "07",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010012",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/12",
  abstract =     "The teleost head kidney is a highly relevant immune
                 organ, and myeloid cells play a major role in this
                 organ's innate and adaptive immune responses. Because
                 of their complexity, the early phases of the innate
                 immune reaction of fish against bacteria are still
                 poorly understood. In this study, na{\"\i}ve rainbow
                 trout were stimulated with inactivated \bioname{A.
                 salmonicida} and sampled at 12 h, 24 h and 7 d
                 poststimulation. Cells from the head kidney were
                 magnetically sorted with a monoclonal antibody mAB21 to
                 obtain one (MAb21-positive) fraction enriched with
                 myeloid cells and one (MAb21-negative) fraction
                 enriched with lymphocytes and thrombocytes. The gene
                 expression pattern of the resulting cell subpopulations
                 was analysed using a panel of 43 immune-related genes.
                 The results show an overall downregulation of the
                 complement pathway and cytokine production at the
                 considered time points. Some of the selected genes may
                 be considered as parameters for diagnosing bacterial
                 furunculosis of rainbow trout.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Xue:2022:MME,
  author =       "Junren Xue and Tao Jiang and Xiubao Chen and Hongbo
                 Liu and Jian Yang",
  title =        "Multi-Mineral Element Profiles in Genuine and
                 {``Bathing''} Cultured {Chinese} Mitten Crabs
                 (\bioname{Eriocheir sinensis}) in {Yangcheng Lake,
                 China}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11",
  day =          "07",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010011",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/11",
  abstract =     "The authentication of high-quality fishery products
                 originating from specific geographical regions is
                 urgently needed worldwide. Chinese mitten crabs
                 (\bioname{Eriocheir sinensis}), originating from
                 Yangcheng Lake, are prime counterfeiting targets for
                 the same reasons. Foreign crabs that are cultured
                 briefly in the lake, known as ``bathed'' crabs, are
                 illegally marketed as natives, negatively impacting the
                 product quality. To establish a method for
                 distinguishing ``bathed'' and genuine crabs, in this
                 paper we conduct a comparative investigation by an
                 Agilent 7500ce ICP-MS on multi-mineral element
                 profiling of the third pereiopod from genuine and one
                 month deliberately ``bathing'' cultured crabs. The
                 profiles of 11 elements were significantly different
                 between the genuine and foreign crabs before and after
                 bathing. The discriminant analysis reached 100\%
                 accuracy to separate the genuine and ``bathed'' crabs
                 into different groups. Bathing culture was unable to
                 converge element profiles between the genuine and
                 foreign crabs. The biogeochemical profiles can be
                 effective for distinguishing ``bathed'' crabs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Guo:2022:DST,
  author =       "Jingya Guo and Yongming Li and Yaping Wang and Boyong
                 Chen and Yingxin Hu and Yasheng Musha and Xiaoyun He
                 and Tao Tong and Kunlun Huang",
  title =        "A 90-Day Subchronic Toxicity Study of Consumption of
                 {GH}-Transgenic Triploid Carp in {Wistar} Rats",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "10",
  day =          "05",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010010",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/10",
  abstract =     "Genetic modification (GM) offers an alternative
                 strategy to conventional animal breeding. The present
                 study was carried out to investigate the potential
                 health effects of the consumption of growth
                 hormone-transgenic triploid carp (GH-ttc) through a
                 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Wistar rats (n
                 = 10/sex/group) were given formulated diets containing
                 GH-ttc or non-GM carp at an incorporated rate of 2.5\%,
                 5\%, or 10\% (w / w) for 90 days. An additional control
                 group of rats (n = 10/sex/group) was fed a basic rodent
                 diet. During the 90-day study, clinical observation,
                 ophthalmic examination, body weight, and food intake
                 were evaluated. At the end of the study, rats were
                 killed, and the hematology, serum chemistry, urine
                 test, necropsy, and histopathology were assessed.
                 Compared with the non-GM carp and the basic control
                 groups, no biologically significant differences were
                 observed on clinical signs of toxicity, body weights,
                 food intake, hematology, serum chemistry, urinalysis,
                 organ weight, and histopathology on selected organs for
                 the GH-ttc group. The results of this 90-day subchronic
                 feeding study indicated that, at the dose level used in
                 this study, consumption of GH-ttc showed no subchronic
                 toxicity to Wistar rats.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Andrasunas:2022:AFM,
  author =       "Vaidotas Andra{\v{s}}{\=u}nas and Edgaras Ivanauskas
                 and Arvydas {\v{S}}vag{\v{z}}dys and Art{\=u}ras
                 Razinkovas-Baziukas",
  title =        "Assessment of Four Major Fish Species Stocks in the
                 {Lithuanian} and {Russian} Parts of {Curonian Lagoon
                 (SE Baltic Sea)} Using {CMSY} Method",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "9",
  day =          "03",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010009",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/9",
  abstract =     "Fisheries in the Curonian Lagoon (1584 km 2 coastal
                 lagoon in South-East Baltic) can be classified as
                 artisanal, small-scale, multi-species, and multi-gear.
                 Such types of fisheries are characterised as data-poor
                 and require appropriate investigation methods. We used
                 CMSY (version CMSY\_2019\_9f. R) to assess maximum
                 sustainable yield (MSY) and related indicators for
                 freshwater bream, roach, pike-perch, and European
                 perch. A decline in pike-perch and roach was
                 identified, while the stocks of freshwater bream and
                 European perch were sustained. As the CMSY model does
                 not consider the impact of environmental factors, the
                 decline in roach stock may be attributed to the
                 increase in salinity rather than to overfishing. In the
                 case of freshwater bream and pike-perch, the method
                 cannot consider the increase of the percentage of
                 small-sized fishes in catches due to the allowance of
                 low-selectivity gears in the fishery. Additionally, in
                 the case of the pike-perch, the model does not take
                 into account the interannual fluctuations in the
                 stock-recruitment system. The assessment of the
                 European perch stock can be considered to be good.
                 However, the accuracy of CMSY is limited, and it should
                 be used for fisheries management only in combination
                 with other methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Bosi:2022:MCM,
  author =       "Giampaolo Bosi and Paolo Merella and Barbara J.
                 Maynard and Bahram Sayyaf Dezfuli",
  title =        "Microscopic Characterization of the Mucous Cells and
                 Their Mucin Secretions in the Alimentary Canal of the
                 Blackmouth Catshark \bioname{Galeus melastomus}
                 ({Chondrichthyes: Elasmobranchii})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8",
  day =          "01",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010008",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/8",
  abstract =     "Sharks belong to the most primitive group of jawed
                 vertebrates and have some special structural and
                 functional features such as a cartilaginous skeleton, a
                 spiral intestinal valve, and a rectal gland for
                 osmoregulation. In January 2020, ten specimens of
                 \bioname{Galeus melastomus}, the Blackmouth catshark,
                 were collected from the Gulf of Asinara (North
                 Sardinia, Italy) and the entire alimentary canal was
                 studied using histochemical reactions to characterize
                 the mucous cell types. In the alimentary canal of G.
                 melastomus, mucous cells mainly secrete a mixture of
                 acidic and neutral mucins. Of the acidic mucins, only
                 the carboxylated type was present in mucous cells of
                 the stomach, while the sulfated type predominated in
                 the esophagus and the intestines. The use of lectins
                 revealed a distribution of sugar residues in mucins
                 related to cellular activities of the different regions
                 of the catshark alimentary canal. The current study is
                 the first report to characterize the intestinal mucous
                 cells of G. melastomus and to provide quantitative data
                 on their different populations in the alimentary
                 canal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Shertzer:2022:MDS,
  author =       "Kyle W. Shertzer and Erik H. Williams and Skyler R.
                 Sagarese",
  title =        "Modeling Discards in Stock Assessments: Red Grouper
                 \bioname{Epinephelus morio} in the {U.S. Gulf of
                 Mexico}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7",
  day =          "28",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010007",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/7",
  abstract =     "To be as accurate as possible, stock assessments
                 should account for discard mortality in fisheries if it
                 occurs. Three common approaches to modeling discards in
                 assessments are to lump dead discards with landings,
                 treat dead discards as their own fleet, or link them
                 conversely with landings through use of a retention
                 function. The first approach (lumping) implicitly
                 assumes that the selectivity of landings applies also
                 to discards. In many cases, that assumption is false,
                 for example, if discards comprise smaller fish than do
                 landings. The latter two approaches avoid the
                 assumption by modeling discards explicitly with their
                 own selectivity pattern. Here, we examine these
                 approaches to modeling discards. Using a simulation
                 study, we demonstrate that the two approaches to
                 modeling discards explicitly can provide identical
                 results under both static and time-varying conditions.
                 Then, using a stock assessment case study of red
                 grouper \bioname{Epinephelus morio} in the U.S. Gulf of
                 Mexico, we demonstrate that in practice the approaches
                 to modeling discards can provide different outcomes,
                 with implications for the resultant management advice.
                 We conclude by comparing and contrasting the different
                 approaches, calling for more research to elucidate
                 which approach is most suitable under various sources
                 of error typically encountered in discard data.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ghosh:2022:FEA,
  author =       "Sampat Ghosh and Victor Benno Meyer-Rochow and Chuleui
                 Jung",
  title =        "Farming the Edible Aquatic Snail \bioname{Pomacea
                 canaliculata} as a Mini-Livestock",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6",
  day =          "28",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010006",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/6",
  abstract =     "In the present paper, we describe the farming system
                 of Pomacea canaliculata, an edible freshwater snail, as
                 it is practiced by a farmer as mini-livestock in the
                 vicinity of Andong in Korea. We visited the snail farm
                 several times in the summer and winter of the year and
                 conducted interviews with the farm manager using a
                 semi-structured questionnaire. The farm is housed in
                 polythene tunnels and uses a tank pen of trench type
                 made up of propylene and measuring 1 m $ \times $ 2 m $
                 \times $ 0.5 m (length $ \times $ width $ \times $
                 height) in size. A regulated inflow of fresh water and
                 outflow of used water was installed, with water level
                 not exceeding 5 to 7 cm. As feed of snails, commercial
                 fish feed is generally provided. The life cycle of the
                 P. canaliculata might differ in captivity under the
                 controlled environmental conditions than that of an
                 individual in the wild environment. The farming system
                 of snails, particularly P. canaliculata, does not
                 involve high labor-intensive, high capital investment
                 and also does not require high through-put cutting edge
                 technology. In addition to providing nutrient-dense
                 snail meat, establishing a snailery could therefore
                 augment the economic condition of farmers in the poorer
                 regions of the world and encourage sustainability and
                 biodiversity conservation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lian:2022:GWC,
  author =       "Jiaying Lian and Liyuan Lv and Hanhan Yao and Zhihua
                 Lin and Yinghui Dong",
  title =        "Genome-Wide Characterization and Analysis of
                 Expression of the Histone Gene Family in Razor Clam,
                 \bioname{Sinonovacula constricta}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5",
  day =          "25",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010005",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/5",
  abstract =     "The Chinese razor clam (\bioname{Sinonovacula
                 constricta}), a bivalve species widely distributed in
                 estuaries and mudflats, is often exposed to extreme
                 environmental and microbial stresses. Histones are
                 fundamental components of chromatin and play an
                 important role in innate immunity, as demonstrated by
                 its antimicrobial activities in clams. However, little
                 attention has been paid to histones in bivalves. To
                 fill this gap, we investigated the genomic
                 distribution, structural characteristics, conserved
                 motifs, and phylogenetic relationships of histones in
                 S. constricta. A total of 114 histone genes were
                 detected in the S. constricta genome, which were
                 divided into 25 types in phylogenetic analysis. Among
                 them, partial histones exhibited a tissue-dependent
                 expression pattern, indicating that they may be
                 involved in sustaining the homeostasis of
                 organs/tissues in adult S. constricta. Furthermore,
                 mRNA expression of certain histones changed
                 significantly in S. constricta when infected with
                 \bioname{Vibrio parahaemolyticus}, suggesting that
                 histones play a role in the immune defense of S.
                 constricta. All together, this study on histone genes
                 in S. constricta not only greatly expands our knowledge
                 of histone function in the clam, but also histone
                 evolution in molluscs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Martinez-Antequera:2022:SSH,
  author =       "Francisca P. Mart{\'\i}nez-Antequera and Isabel
                 Barranco-{\'A}vila and Juan A. Martos-Sitcha and
                 Francisco J. Moyano",
  title =        "Solid-State Hydrolysis ({SSH}) Improves the
                 Nutritional Value of Plant Ingredients in the Diet of
                 \bioname{Mugil cephalus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4",
  day =          "25",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010004",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/4",
  abstract =     "The possibility of improving the nutritional quality
                 of plant byproducts (brewers' spent grain and rice
                 bran) through an enzyme treatment was tested in a
                 formulated feed for grey mullet (\bioname{Mugil
                 cephalus}). The enzyme treatment was carried out by
                 Solid-State Hydrolysis (SSH) using a commercial
                 preparation including carbohydrases and phytase. A feed
                 prepared without the treatment and a commercial feed
                 for carp were used as controls. In a preliminary
                 short-term trial carried out at laboratory facilities,
                 fish receiving the enzyme-treated feed showed
                 significant improvement in both FCR and SGR when
                 compared to those obtained with the untreated diet,
                 although both experimental diets presented worse values
                 than those obtained with the commercial feed. Different
                 metabolic indicators including higher values of muscle
                 glycogen and plasmatic triglycerides supported the
                 positive effect of the enzyme treatment on the
                 nutritional condition of the fish over those fed on the
                 diet containing non-treated ingredients. Results of
                 growth and feed efficiency that were obtained in a
                 second long-term trial developed for 148 days under
                 real production conditions evidenced the equivalence
                 among the experimental and commercial diets and
                 confirmed that enzyme pretreatment of plant ingredients
                 by SSH may be a useful procedure to improve the
                 nutritive value of high fiber plant byproducts when
                 included in practical diets for this species and others
                 with similar nutritional features.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Baloch:2022:CSC,
  author =       "Ali Asghar Baloch and Ehdaa Eltayeb Eltigani
                 Abdelsalam and Veronika Pia{\v{c}}kov{\'a}",
  title =        "Cytokines Studied in Carp (\bioname{Cyprinus carpio}
                 {L.}) in Response to Important Diseases",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3",
  day =          "24",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010003",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/3",
  abstract =     "Cytokines belong to the most widely studied group of
                 intracellular molecules involved in the function of the
                 immune system. Their secretion is induced by various
                 infectious stimuli. Cytokine release by host cells has
                 been extensively used as a powerful tool for studying
                 immune reactions in the early stages of viral and
                 bacterial infections. Recently, research attention has
                 shifted to the investigation of cytokine responses
                 using mRNA expression, an essential mechanism related
                 to pathogenic and nonpathogenic-immune stimulants in
                 fish. This review represents the current knowledge of
                 cytokine responses to infectious diseases in the common
                 carp (\bioname{Cyprinus carpio} {L.}). Given the
                 paucity of literature on cytokine responses to many
                 infections in carp, only select viral diseases, such as
                 koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), spring viremia of carp
                 (SVC), and carp edema virus disease (CEVD), are
                 discussed. \bioname{Aeromonas hydrophila} is one of the
                 most studied bacterial pathogens associated with
                 cytokine responses in common carp. Therefore, the
                 cytokine-based immunoreactivity raised by this specific
                 bacterial pathogen is also highlighted in this
                 review.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Miqueleiz:2022:CSG,
  author =       "Imanol Miqueleiz and Rafael Miranda and Arturo Hugo
                 Ari{\~n}o and Elena Ojea",
  title =        "Conservation-Status Gaps for Marine Top-Fished
                 Commercial Species",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2",
  day =          "23",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010002",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/2",
  abstract =     "Biodiversity loss is a global problem, accelerated by
                 human-induced pressures. In the marine realm, one of
                 the major threats to species conservation, together
                 with climate change, is overfishing. In this context,
                 having information on the conservation status of target
                 commercial marine fish species becomes crucial for
                 assuring safe standards. We put together fisheries
                 statistics from the FAO, the IUCN Red List, FishBase,
                 and RAM Legacy databases to understand to what extent
                 top commercial species' conservation status has been
                 assessed. Levels of assessment for top-fished species
                 were higher than those for general commercial or highly
                 commercial species, but almost half of the species have
                 outdated assessments. We found no relation between IUCN
                 Red List traits and FishBase Vulnerability Index,
                 depreciating the latter value as a guidance for
                 extinction threat. The RAM database suggests good
                 management of more-threatened species in recent
                 decades, but more data are required to assess whether
                 the trend has reverted in recent years. Outdated IUCN
                 Red List assessments can benefit from reputed stock
                 assessments for new reassessments. The future of IUCN
                 Red List evaluations for commercial fish species relies
                 on integrating new parameters from fisheries sources
                 and improved collaboration with fisheries stakeholders
                 and managers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Jia:2022:FDM,
  author =       "Hui Jia and Hui Zhang and Weiwei Xian",
  title =        "Fish Diversity Monitored by Environmental {DNA} in the
                 {Yangtze River} Mainstream",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1",
  day =          "22",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7010001",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 22 12:17:28 MST 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/1/1",
  abstract =     "Surveys and assessments based on environmental DNA are
                 not only efficient and time-saving, but also cause less
                 harm to monitoring targets. Environmental DNA has
                 become a common tool for the assessment and monitoring
                 of aquatic organisms. In this study, we investigated
                 fish resources in the Yangtze River mainstream using
                 environmental DNA, and the variations in fish during
                 two seasons (spring and autumn) were compared. The
                 results showed that 13 species were identified in
                 spring, and nine species of fish were identified in
                 autumn. The fish with higher eDNA detection were
                 Sinibotia superciliaris, \bioname{Tachysurus
                 fulvidraco}, \bioname{Cyprinus carpio},
                 Ctenopharyngodon Idella, \bioname{Monopterus albus},
                 Acanthogobius hasta, Saurogobio dabryi,
                 \bioname{Oncorhynchus mykiss}, \bioname{Mugil
                 cephalus}, Odontamblyopus rubicundus. Seasonal
                 variation between spring and autumn was not
                 significant, and the environmental factors had
                 different effects on fish assemblages during the two
                 seasons. Our study used the eDNA technique to monitor
                 the composition of fish in the spring and autumn in the
                 Yangtze River mainstream, providing a new technology
                 for the long-term management and protection of fishery
                 resources in the region. Of course, problems such as
                 pollution and insufficient databases are the current
                 shortcomings of environmental DNA, which will be the
                 focus of our future research and study.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ferri:2022:AGU,
  author =       "Josipa Ferri and An{\dbar}ela Brzica",
  title =        "Age, Growth, and Utility of Otolith Morphometrics as
                 Predictors of Age in the {European} Barracuda,
                 \bioname{Sphyraena sphyraena} ({Sphyraenidae}):
                 Preliminary Data",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "68",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020068",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/68",
  abstract =     "Age and growth of the European barracuda, Sphyraena
                 sphyraena, were determined by examining sagittal
                 otoliths belonging to fish sampled in the eastern
                 Adriatic Sea, as the northernmost region of the
                 Mediterranean. A total of 113 specimens (59 females, 53
                 males, and one individual of indeterminate sex),
                 ranging from 23.4 to 42.5 cm in total length, were
                 analyzed. The maximum observed age was 5 years for both
                 females and males, and this barracuda population was
                 dominated by 3 year old fish. Growth was described by
                 the von Bertalanffy growth curve (L {\infty} = 55.58
                 cm, K = 0.12 year {$-$1}, t 0 = {$-$4}.29 year, R 2 =
                 0.580), and the growth performance index ({\Phi}') was
                 2.57. Otolith length, width, and mass were measured,
                 and the utility of these morphometrics as predictors of
                 age in S. sphyraena was evaluated. The results showed
                 that counting otolith annuli produced a better
                 estimation of age than proposed linear models based on
                 relationships between observed fish age and otolith
                 morphometrics. In comparison with age and growth data
                 available in the literature for S. sphyraena, our
                 results from the Adriatic Sea provide more insights
                 into the life-history traits of this species and can be
                 used in the future effective management and
                 conservation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{DiPaola:2022:SZE,
  author =       "Davide {Di Paola} and Carmelo Iaria and Giovanni
                 Lanteri and Marika Cordaro and Rosalia Crupi and
                 Rosalba Siracusa and Ramona D'Amico and Roberta Fusco
                 and Daniela Impellizzeri and Salvatore Cuzzocrea and
                 Nunziacarla Span{\`o} and Enrico Gugliandolo and
                 Alessio Filippo Peritore",
  title =        "Sensitivity of Zebrafish Embryogenesis to Risk of
                 Fotemustine Exposure",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "67",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020067",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/67",
  abstract =     "Several anthropogenic products in wastewater are
                 considered a threat to the aquatic environment. In
                 addition to common industrial pollutants, levels of
                 pharmaceuticals have been increasingly found in the
                 environment in recent years, which may present a strong
                 risk to the aquatic species that live there. The
                 constant consumption of biologically active chemicals
                 for human health has been matched by an increase in the
                 leaking of these compounds in natural habitats over the
                 last two decades. This study is aimed at evaluating the
                 developmental toxicity of fotemustine in the ecological
                 environment. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to doses of
                 25, 50 and 100 $ \mu $ g/mL from 4 h post-fertilization
                 to 120 h. This study confirms that fotemustine exposure
                 at 50 and 100 $ \mu $ g/mL affects the survival and
                 hatching rate, morphology score and body length.
                 Additionally, it significantly disturbs the antioxidant
                 defense system and increases ROS in zebrafish larvae.
                 From the molecular point of view, fotemustine exposure
                 strongly induces apoptosis, endoplasmic reticulum
                 stress (ERS) and the Wnt signaling pathway.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zhu:2022:PSA,
  author =       "Yahua Zhu and Tao Jiang and Xiubao Chen and Hongbo Liu
                 and Quinton Phelps and Jian Yang",
  title =        "A Pilot Study Assessing a Concentration of 100 {mg/L}
                 Alizarin Complexone ({ALC}) to Mark Calcified
                 Structures in \bioname{Hypophthalmichthys molitrix}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "66",
  day =          "16",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020066",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/66",
  abstract =     "The effectiveness of chemical compounds for marking
                 hard tissues in juvenile silver carp
                 (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is not well known. We
                 analyzed the use of alizarin complexone (ALC) as a
                 fluorescent marker to mark the various hard structures
                 of juvenile silver carp. Experimental fish ($ \approx
                 $2 months old) were randomly assigned to either control
                 or marking groups, which were immersed in 0 or 100 mg/L
                 ALC solutions, respectively, for 2 days. The otoliths,
                 fin rays, and scales of the fish were then sampled,
                 visualized using fluorescence microscopy, and evaluated
                 after 10 days. The ALC treatment was effective for
                 marking certain hard structures and the marking color
                 was affected by the light source. There were no obvious
                 differences in the marking efficiency of rays from
                 pectoral, dorsal, ventral, anal, and caudal fins, but
                 the lapilli and lateral line scales were marked most
                 effectively from the sampled otolith and scale types,
                 respectively. Our findings indicate that ALC immersion
                 and fin ray and scale sampling can be used for the
                 effective marking and non-lethal evaluation of hard
                 structures in juvenile silver carp.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Su:2022:CAI,
  author =       "Xin Su and Da Ji and Junjie Yao and Yuanlong Zou and
                 Mengzhi Yan",
  title =        "Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Characteristics of
                 Largemouth Bass (\bioname{Micropterus salmoides}) and
                 Intestinal Flora with Different Growth Rates",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "65",
  day =          "15",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020065",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/65",
  abstract =     "To explore the causes of different growth rates among
                 juvenile populations of largemouth bass, in the present
                 study, a batch of largemouth bass juveniles reared
                 under the same conditions were divided into a
                 fast-growing group and a slow-growing group. We used
                 histological, enzymatic and molecular biology methods
                 to analyze and determine their histomorphological
                 changes, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal
                 floral composition. The fast-growing group had a
                 significantly (p {\leq} 0.01) greater intestinal fold
                 height and muscle thickness than the slow-growing
                 group. Lipase activity was significantly (p {\leq}
                 0.01) higher in the fast-growing group than in the
                 slow-growing group. Intestinal microbial analysis
                 showed that the relative abundance of Actinobacteria
                 and Halomonas in the fast-growing group was higher than
                 that in the slow-growing group. This research shows
                 that the differentiation of growth rates in juvenile
                 largemouth bass populations is closely related to
                 intestinal fold status, lipase activity, and intestinal
                 flora.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zhang:2022:SDR,
  author =       "Zhicong Zhang and Fengyu Ji and Shouwen Jiang and
                 Zhichao Wu and Qianghua Xu",
  title =        "Scale Development-Related Genes Identified by
                 Transcriptome Analysis",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "64",
  day =          "12",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020064",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/64",
  abstract =     "Scales, as key structures of fish skin, play an
                 important role in physiological function. The study of
                 fish scale development mechanisms provides a basis for
                 exploring the molecular-level developmental differences
                 between scaled and non-scaled fishes. In this study,
                 alizarin red staining was used to divide the different
                 stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) scale development.
                 Four developmental stages, namely stage I ($ \approx
                 $17 dpf, scales have not started to grow), stage II ($
                 \approx $33 dpf, the point at which scales start to
                 grow), stage III ($ \approx $41 dpf, the period in
                 which the scales almost cover the whole body), and
                 stage IV ($ \approx $3 mpf, scales cover the whole
                 body), were determined and used for subsequent
                 transcriptome analysis. WGCNA (weighted correlation
                 network analysis) and DEG (differentially expressed
                 gene) analysis were used for screening the key genes.
                 Based on the comparison between stage II and stage I,
                 54 hub-genes were identified by WGCNA analysis. Key
                 genes including the Scpp family (Scpp7, Scpp6, Scpp5,
                 and Scpp8), the Fgf family (Fgfr1b and Fgfr3), Tcf7,
                 Wnt10b, Runx2b, and Il2rb were identified by DEG
                 analysis, which indicated that these genes played
                 important roles in the key nodes of scale development
                 signal pathways. Combined with this analysis, the
                 TGF-{\beta}, Wnt/{\beta}-catenin, and FGF signaling
                 pathways were suggested to be the most important signal
                 pathways for scales starting to grow. This study laid a
                 foundation for exploring the scale development
                 mechanism of other fishes. The scale development
                 candidate genes identified in the current study will
                 facilitate functional gene identifications in the
                 future.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Vaz:2022:EIM,
  author =       "Mariana Vaz and Damiana Pires and Pedro Pires and
                 Marco Sim{\~o}es and Ana Pombo and Paulo Santos and
                 Beatriz do Carmo and Ricardo Passos and Janina Z. Costa
                 and Kim D. Thompson and Teresa Baptista",
  title =        "Early Immune Modulation in {European} Seabass
                 (\bioname{Dicentrarchus labrax}) Juveniles in Response
                 to \bioname{Betanodavirus} Infection",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "63",
  day =          "11",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020063",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/63",
  abstract =     "The early host--pathogen interaction between European
                 seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and Betanodavirus was
                 examined by using juvenile fish infected
                 intramuscularly with RGNNV (red-spotted grouper nervous
                 necrosis virus). The time course selected for sampling
                 (0--144 h post-infection (hpi)) covered the early
                 stages of infection, with hematological, antioxidant
                 and immunological responses examined. Early activation
                 of the host's immune system was seen in the first few
                 hours post-infection (6 to 9 hpi), as evidenced by an
                 increase in tnf{\alpha}, cd28 and c3 expression in the
                 head kidney of infected fish. Most hematological
                 parameters that were examined showed significant
                 differences between sampling times, including
                 differences in the number of thrombocytes and various
                 leukocyte populations. The plasma lysozyme
                 concentration decreased significantly over the course
                 of the trial, and most antioxidant parameters examined
                 in the liver showed significant differences over the
                 infection period. At 144 hpi, peak expression of
                 tnf{\alpha} and il-1{\beta} coincided with the
                 appearance of disease symptoms, peak levels of virus in
                 the brain and high levels of fish mortality. The
                 results of the study show the importance of analyzing
                 the early interactions between European seabass and
                 Betanodavirus to establish early indicators of
                 infection to prevent more severe outcomes of the
                 infection from occurring.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Tanaka:2022:BCO,
  author =       "Teruyoshi Tanaka and Tomoki Honryo and Yoshifumi
                 Sawada and Daniel Margulies and Vernon Scholey and
                 Jeanne Wexler and Maria Stein and Amal Biswas and Kenji
                 Takii",
  title =        "Biochemical Changes Occurring in Yellowfin Tuna Eggs
                 during Embryonic Development",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "62",
  day =          "11",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020062",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/62",
  abstract =     "Changes in nutritional constituents and enzyme
                 activities were clarified in yellowfin tuna (YFT,
                 Thunnus albacares) eggs during embryonic development,
                 from eggs immediately after fertilization to hatching.
                 The protein levels in the eggs gradually increased with
                 development until the completion of hatching. In
                 contrast, the triglyceride (TG) and free amino acid
                 (FAA) levels in the eggs gradually declined with
                 embryonic development until hatching was complete,
                 although the energy composition of the FAAs was lower
                 than that of the TGs throughout embryonic development.
                 These results indicate that endogenous TGs are
                 preferentially expended as an energy source during
                 embryonic development. Overall, changes in the
                 activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine
                 aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and alkaline
                 phosphatase showed similar patterns throughout
                 development. First, the enzyme levels diminished; then,
                 they remained at constant, low levels just before
                 hatching, when they rapidly increased. This rapid
                 increase was consistent with the protein content,
                 suggesting that organ differentiation and
                 functionalization were promoted during this period.
                 These results will contribute to the establishment of
                 mass-seeding production of YFT.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Fang:2022:CAB,
  author =       "Di-An Fang and Kai Liu and Dong-Po Xu and Yin-Ping
                 Wang and Pao Xu",
  title =        "Comparative Analysis of Blood Transcriptome in the
                 {Yangtze} Finless Porpoise (\bioname{Neophocaena
                 asiaeorientalis})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "61",
  day =          "10",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020061",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/61",
  abstract =     "The Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena
                 asiaeorientalis) is the sole freshwater subspecies of
                 Neophocaena phocaenoides, and there is a lack of data
                 on its transcriptome. In this study, we applied RNA-seq
                 technology to assemble, de novo, a transcriptome and
                 analyzed differential expressed genes (DEGs). About 6
                 Gb of clean data was generated for the Yangtze finless
                 porpoise blood (n = 6) through de novo sequencing. In
                 total, 151,211 unigenes were generated and a total of
                 119,039 of these unigenes (78.72\%) were functionally
                 annotated when searched for within the NCBI Nr,
                 SwissProt, GO, COG, and KEGG databases. Diverse and
                 extensive expressed gene catalogs were sampled for the
                 Yangtze finless porpoise. DESeq2 was used to analyze
                 the differential expression genes (DEGs) obtained from
                 the assembled transcriptome. The results indicated that
                 DEGs have close relationships with the Yangtze finless
                 porpoise's development, evolution and adaptation.
                 Further, we found that genes involved in cetacean TAG
                 synthesis might directly explain the molecular basis of
                 cetacean blubber thickening. These transcriptome data
                 will assist in understanding molecular mechanisms of
                 Yangtze finless porpoise adaptation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ma:2022:CEP,
  author =       "Qian Ma and Jiehua Kuang and Gang Chen and Jiandong
                 Zhang and Jiansheng Huang and Feifan Mao and Qiling
                 Zhou",
  title =        "Cloning and Expression Profiling of the Gene
                 \gene{vasa} during First Annual Gonadal Development of
                 Cobia (\bioname{Rachycentron canadum})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "60",
  day =          "10",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020060",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/60",
  abstract =     "The vasa gene is essential for germ cell development
                 and gametogenesis both in vertebrates and in
                 invertebrates. In the present study, vasa (Rcvasa) cDNA
                 was cloned from cobia (Rachycentron canadum) using the
                 RACE amplification method. We found that the
                 full-length cDNA sequence of Rcvasa comprises 2571 bp,
                 containing a 5{\prime}-UTR of 145 bp, a 3{\prime}-UTR
                 of 341 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2085 bp,
                 encoding a protein of 694 aa. The deduced amino acid
                 sequence contains 8 conserved motifs of the DEAD-box
                 protein family, 7 RGG repeats, and 10 RG repeats in the
                 N-terminal region. Comparisons of the deduced amino
                 acid sequence with those of other teleosts revealed the
                 highest percentage identity (86.0\%) with Seriola
                 quinqueradiata. By using semiquantitative RT-PCR,
                 Rcvasa appeared to be specifically expressed in the
                 testis and ovary, among 13 tissues analyzed. In
                 addition, annual changes in Rcvasa expression levels
                 were examined in the gonads by quantitative real-time
                 PCR (qRT-PCR). The expression of Rcvasa in the testis
                 first increased significantly at 120 dph (stage
                 II--III), then stabilized as the testis developed from
                 185 dph (stage III) to 360 dph (stage V). During the
                 development of the ovary (stage I to II), the
                 expression of Rcvasa first increased and reached the
                 highest level at 210 dph (stage II), then decreased.
                 Furthermore, the results of chromogenic in situ
                 hybridization (CISH) revealed that Rcvasa mRNA was
                 mainly expressed in germ cells and barely detected in
                 somatic cells. In the testis, Rcvasa mRNA signal was
                 concentrated in the periphery of spermatogonia, primary
                 spermatocytes, and secondary spermatocytes and was
                 significantly weaker in spermatids and spermatozoa. In
                 the ovary, Rcvasa mRNA signal was uniformly distributed
                 in the perinuclear cytoplasm and was intense in early
                 primary oocytes (stage I and II). These findings could
                 provide a reference for understanding the regulatory
                 mechanisms of vasa expression during the development of
                 germ cells in cobia.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Basto-Silva:2022:EDP,
  author =       "Catarina Basto-Silva and Irene Garc{\'\i}a-Meil{\'a}n
                 and Ana Couto and Cl{\'a}udia R. Serra and Paula Enes
                 and Aires Oliva-Teles and Encarnaci{\'o}n Capilla and
                 In{\^e}s Guerreiro",
  title =        "Effect of Dietary Plant Feedstuffs and Protein\slash
                 Carbohydrate Ratio on Gilthead Seabream
                 (\bioname{Sparus aurata}) Gut Health and
                 Functionality",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "59",
  day =          "07",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020059",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/59",
  abstract =     "This study investigated, for the first time, the
                 integrated effects of dietary protein source and
                 protein/carbohydrate (P/CH) ratio on gilthead seabream
                 gut histomorphology, microbiota composition, digestive
                 enzymes activity, and immunological and oxidative
                 stress-related gene expressions. Four isolipidic diets:
                 two fishmeal-based (FM) and two plant feedstuff
                 (PF)-based diets, with P/CH ratios of 50/10 or 40/20
                 each (FM-P50/CH10; FM-P40/CH20; PF-P50/CH10;
                 PF-P40/CH20), were tested. PF-based diets lead to more
                 histomorphological alterations than FM-based diets.
                 P/CH ratio had no relevant effect on gut
                 histomorphology. Gut mucosa of fish fed PF-based diets
                 presented a higher number of operational taxonomic
                 units, and richness and diversity indices, while the
                 P/CH ratio did not affect those parameters. The
                 {\alpha}-amylase activity was lower in fish fed with
                 PF-based diets and in fish fed the P40/CH20 diets.
                 Regarding the immune-related genes, only
                 cyclooxygenase-2 was affected, being higher in fish fed
                 the P50/CH10 diets than the P40/CH20 diets. Fish fed
                 the FM-based diets presented higher expression of
                 glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, while
                 fish fed the P50/CH10 diet had higher expression of
                 superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, PF-based diets can
                 compromise gut absorptive and digestive metabolism, but
                 decreasing the dietary P/CH ratio had little effect on
                 the parameters measured.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lipej:2022:AAI,
  author =       "Lovrenc Lipej and Marcelo Kova{\v{c}}i{\'c} and Jakov
                 Dul{\v{c}}i{\'c}",
  title =        "An Analysis of {Adriatic} Ichthyofauna---Ecology,
                 Zoogeography, and Conservation Status",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "58",
  day =          "04",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020058",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/58",
  abstract =     "The paper presents an analysis of biogeographic and
                 habitat distribution patterns, and the conservation
                 status data of Adriatic fishes, based on the last
                 published checklist and evidence-based critical
                 analyses of species presence. The total number of
                 species recorded in the Adriatic is 449. The Adriatic
                 has 58.8\% of Mediterranean species richness, 76.1\% of
                 its families, and 87.8\% of its orders. Among species
                 discovered in the Adriatic after 2010, twelve species
                 were attributed to biological invasion, mostly Atlantic
                 immigrants or alien species, and ten species were
                 attributed to improved research on the native
                 ichthyofauna of the Adriatic area. About 58\% of
                 species are native species of Atlanto-Mediterranean
                 origin, 21\% are native species of wider global
                 occurrence, 15\% are Mediterranean or Mediterranean and
                 Black Sea endemics and 5\% originated outside
                 Mediterranean Sea. The majority of species inhabit the
                 benthic environment (71.9\%), while others occur in the
                 pelagic environment (20.7\%) or are euryhaline (7.3\%).
                 The benthic littoral species are the most numerous
                 Adriatic fishes, representing 40\% of all species
                 richness, whereas pelagic fishes are mainly eurybathic
                 or epipelagic; only 3.6\% of species are deep pelagic
                 species. A Red Book of marine fishes of the Adriatic
                 Sea is urgently needed to assess their conservation
                 status, covering the entire Adriatic Sea and reviewing
                 all fish species to assess their conservation status.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Gao:2022:GMF,
  author =       "Minghui Gao and Zhiqiang Wu and Liangliang Huang and
                 Xichang Tan and Mingsi Li and Haibo Huang",
  title =        "Growth and Microstructural Features in Otoliths of
                 Larval and Juvenile \bioname{Sinogastromyzon wui} ({F.
                 Balitoridae, River Loaches}) of the {Upper Pearl River,
                 China}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "57",
  day =          "01",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020057",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/57",
  abstract =     "Otolith growth and microstructural features of fish
                 are essential to the understanding of the early fish
                 lifecycle. This paper assesses the features of otoliths
                 from laboratory-reared larval and juvenile
                 Sinogastromyzon wui (S. wui, 0 to 25 days
                 post-hatching) that were obtained as eggs from the
                 Shilong Reach of Xijiang River between April and August
                 2021. We observed the development of the three pairs of
                 otoliths (lapilli, sagittae, and asterisci) and
                 compared the shape changes and growth of the lapilli
                 and sagittae, as well as the timing and deposition rate
                 of increments of the lapilli. The lapilli and the
                 sagittae were visible on hatching, whereas the
                 asterisci were present at four days post-hatching
                 (dph). The shape of the sagitta changed more obviously
                 than that of the lapillus, and a strong correlation was
                 observed between sagitta shape changes and fish
                 ontogenesis. The otolith shape greatly modulated during
                 the post-flexion larval stage (Post-FLS), it
                 corresponded with the formation period of individual
                 fins. Analysis of the microstructural features
                 indicated that lapilli were the optimal otolith for age
                 determination and increment deposition rate
                 confirmation. Using regression analysis of the known
                 age and the number of lapillus daily increments, we
                 demonstrated that the lapillus developmental increments
                 were deposited daily, and the first increment formed at
                 two days post-hatching. Our conclusions support
                 employing the lapillus increment deposition rate and
                 the time of the first daily increments in the
                 determination of the age of wild larval and juvenile S.
                 wui.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zemah-Shamir:2022:SRB,
  author =       "Ziv Zemah-Shamir and Shiri Zemah-Shamir and Aviad
                 Scheinin and Dan Tchernov and Teddy Lazebnik and Gideon
                 Gal",
  title =        "A Systematic Review of the Behavioural Changes and
                 Physiological Adjustments of Elasmobranchs and
                 Teleost's to Ocean Acidification with a Focus on
                 Sharks",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "56",
  day =          "28",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020056",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/56",
  abstract =     "In recent years, much attention has been focused on
                 the impact of climate change, particularly via ocean
                 acidification (OA), on marine organisms. Studying the
                 impact of OA on long-living organisms, such as sharks,
                 is especially challenging. When the ocean waters absorb
                 anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO 2), slow-growing shark
                 species with long generation times may be subjected to
                 stress, leading to a decrease in functionality. Our
                 goal was to examine the behavioral and physiological
                 responses of sharks to OA and the possible impacts on
                 their fitness and resilience. We conducted a systematic
                 review in line with PRISMA-Analyses, of previously
                 reported scientific experiments. We found that most
                 studies used CO 2 partial pressures (pCO 2) that
                 reflect representative concentration pathways for the
                 year 2100 (e.g., pH $ \approx $7.8, pCO 2 $ \approx
                 $1000 {\mu}atm). Since there is a considerable
                 knowledge gap on the effect of OA on sharks, we
                 utilized existing data on bony fish to synthesize the
                 available knowledge. Given the similarities between the
                 behaviors and physiology of these two superclasses' to
                 changes in CO 2 and pH levels, there is merit in
                 including the available information on bony fish as
                 well. Several studies indicated a decrease in shark
                 fitness in relation to increased OA and CO 2 levels.
                 However, the decrease was species-specific and
                 influenced by the intensity of the change in
                 atmospheric CO 2 concentration and other anthropogenic
                 and environmental factors (e.g., fishing, temperature).
                 Most studies involved only limited exposure to future
                 environmental conditions and were conducted on benthic
                 shark species studied in the laboratory rather than on
                 apex predator species. While knowledge gaps exist, and
                 more research is required, we conclude that
                 anthropogenic factors are likely contributing to shark
                 species' vulnerability worldwide. However, the impact
                 of OA on the long-term stability of shark populations
                 is not unequivocal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lobel:2022:DEB,
  author =       "Lisa Kerr Lobel and Phillip S. Lobel",
  title =        "Damselfish Embryos as a Bioindicator for Military
                 Contamination on Coral Reefs at {Johnston Atoll,
                 Pacific Ocean}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "55",
  day =          "26",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020055",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/55",
  abstract =     "This study investigated the association between
                 sediment contamination, PCB accumulation in adult
                 nesting males and the occurrence of embryonic
                 abnormalities in the damselfish, Abudefduf sordidus,
                 from two sites with high PCB contamination and three
                 ``reference'' sites (contaminants very low or not
                 measurable) within Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific
                 Ocean. Developmental abnormalities were assessed in
                 damselfish embryos collected in the field during four
                 natural spawning seasons (1996, 1998, 1999, and 2001).
                 Laboratory incubations of abnormal embryos demonstrated
                 that the observed abnormalities were lethal. PCBs were
                 measured in fish collected in three years. Mean
                 whole-body concentrations of total PCBs ranged from
                 364.6 to 138,032.5 ng/g lipid. A significant
                 residue--effect relationship was found between total
                 PCB concentration and embryo abnormalities. The
                 occurrence of embryo abnormalities was positively
                 related to fish PCB concentration (other contaminants
                 were also evaluated including metals and dioxins). This
                 study demonstrates the utility of using damselfish
                 embryos as a bioindicator tool for monitoring coral
                 reefs. It also provides baseline-monitoring criteria
                 and evaluates sediment quality benchmarks used for
                 ecological risk assessments on coral reefs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Xu:2022:ERD,
  author =       "Qian Xu and Zheng Yang and Siyu Chen and Wenjuan Zhu
                 and Siyuan Xiao and Jing Liu and Hongquan Wang and
                 Shile Lan",
  title =        "Effects of Replacing Dietary Fish Meal by Soybean Meal
                 Co-Fermented Using \bioname{Bacillus subtilis} and
                 \bioname{Enterococcus faecium} on Serum Antioxidant
                 Indices and Gut Microbiota of Crucian Carp
                 \bioname{Carassius auratus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "54",
  day =          "25",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020054",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  note =         "See correction \cite{Xu:2023:CXA}.",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/54",
  abstract =     "Fermented soybean meal (FSM) is an important feed
                 material that can replace fish meal to solve the
                 shortage of animal protein. To improve the utilization
                 of FSM, we optimized the co-fermentation conditions of
                 soybean meal using Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus
                 faecium and studied the effects of replacing fish meal
                 with different proportions of FSM on serum antioxidant
                 indices and gut microbiota (GM) composition of crucian
                 carp (Carassius auratus). Our results showed that the
                 co-fermentation of soybean meal was the most effective
                 when the ratio of B. subtilis X-2 and E. faecium X-4
                 was 2:3, glucose addition was 4.5\%, KH 2 PO 4 addition
                 was 0.15\%, MgSO 4 {\cdot}7H 2 O addition was 0.1\%,
                 anhydrous sodium acetate addition was 0.4\%,
                 fermentation time was 120 h, and the solid--water ratio
                 was 1:1. Replacing 40\% fish meal with FSM in the feed
                 significantly improved the serum T-AOC, POD, and IgM
                 levels in C. auratus. Although there were significant
                 differences in the midgut and hindgut microbiota
                 structures of C. auratus, the addition of FSM to the
                 feed did not cause significant differences in the GM
                 structure, whether in the midgut or hindgut. Therefore,
                 40\% FSM is the most suitable substitute for fish meal
                 in the feed of C. auratus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Blanco:2022:ARE,
  author =       "Miguel Blanco and Lydia Bares and Marcos Ferasso",
  title =        "Analysis of Regional Efficiency in the Use of the
                 {European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (FEMP)} in the
                 {Eurozone} Countries",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "53",
  day =          "22",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7020053",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 17 11:56:42 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/2/53",
  abstract =     "The European Union (EU) launched the Common Fisheries
                 Policy (CFP) in the 1970s. Currently, a large part of
                 the CFP has been financed with the European Maritime
                 and Fisheries Fund (FEMP). This research aims to
                 determine whether there is a high degree of homogeneity
                 in the levels of efficiency achieved by the fishing
                 projects financed by European Funds for the period 2014
                 to 2020. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)
                 methodology was adopted. The main results showed that
                 there is a high degree of heterogeneity in the level of
                 efficiency achieved by European countries during the
                 analyzed period. Moreover, despite the fact that
                 regional efficiency has been increasing during the
                 years under study, territorial disparities persist over
                 time. This research provides a contribution for
                 policymakers targeting better use of the FEMP funds for
                 the upcoming funding package 2021--2027.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Peixoto:2022:TFF,
  author =       "Ualerson I. Peixoto and Adauto S. Mello-Filho and
                 Bianca Bentes and Victoria J. Isaac",
  title =        "Trawl Fishing Fleet Operations Used to Illustrate the
                 Life Cycle of the Southern Brown Shrimp: Insights to
                 Management and Sustainable Fisheries",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "141",
  day =          "17",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030141",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/141",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this study was to better understand the
                 life cycle of brown shrimp along the Amazon Continental
                 Shelf by using spatial and temporal trawl fleet
                 activities. A total of 208,121 specimens and 1281
                 trawls were studied throughout the course of 13 years
                 of shrimp size composition. To investigate differences
                 in length composition between fishing grounds, months,
                 and depth, a PERMANOVA analysis was employed. A
                 geographic information system was developed for
                 environmental characterisation and spatiotemporal trawl
                 fleet distribution. Our findings show that the
                 industrial trawl shrimp fleet has a close relationship
                 with shrimp biological characteristics, following
                 shrimp migration patterns in different months,
                 locations, and depths during different stages of their
                 life cycle, and that this fleet acts on two-yearly
                 cohorts. The management measures of limiting effort
                 (number of vessels) appear enough to avoid
                 overcapitalisation, but the closed period and a
                 proposed no-take fishing zone appear insufficient for
                 what was originally proposed. Ecosystem-based
                 management strategies should be addressed immediately
                 because they would be far more effective than
                 traditional fishery-based management measures in
                 promoting sustainable fishing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Tran:2022:CFW,
  author =       "Thi Ngoc Tran and Chien Thang Doan and Van Bon Nguyen
                 and Anh Dzung Nguyen and San-Lang Wang",
  title =        "Conversion of Fishery Waste to Proteases by
                 \bioname{Streptomyces speibonae} and Their Application
                 in Antioxidant Preparation",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "140",
  day =          "14",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030140",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/140",
  abstract =     "Proteinaceous wastes from the fishery process are an
                 abundant renewable resource for the recovery of a
                 variety of high-value products. This work attempted to
                 utilize several proteinaceous wastes to produce
                 proteases using the Streptomyces speibonae TKU048
                 strain. Among different possible carbon and nitrogen
                 sources, the protease productive activity of S.
                 speibonae TKU048 was optimal on 1\% tuna head powder.
                 Further, the casein/gelatin/tuna head powder zymography
                 of the crude enzyme revealed the presence of
                 three/nine/six proteases, respectively. The
                 crude-enzyme cocktail of S. speibonae TKU048 exhibited
                 the best proteolytic activity at 70 {$^\circ $}C and pH
                 = 5.8. Sodium dodecyl sulfate strongly enhanced the
                 proteolytic activity of the cocktail, whereas FeCl 3,
                 CuSO 4, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid could
                 completely inhibit the enzyme activity. Additionally,
                 the crude-enzyme cocktail of S. speibonae TKU048 could
                 efficiently enhance the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl
                 and
                 2,2{\prime}-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic
                 acid) radical scavenging activities of all tested
                 proteinaceous materials including the head, viscera,
                 and meat of tuna fish; the head, viscera, and meat of
                 tilapia fish; the head, meat, and shell of shrimp;
                 squid pen; crab shell; and soybean. Taken together, S.
                 speibonae TKU048 revealed potential in the reclamation
                 of proteinaceous wastes for protease production and
                 antioxidant preparation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zhang:2022:MCH,
  author =       "Jianlu Zhang and Jiqin Huang and Cheng Fang and
                 Wanchun Li and Hu Zhao and Fei Kong and Han Zhang and
                 Hongxing Zhang and Qijun Wang",
  title =        "Molecular Cloning of Heat Shock Protein 60 ({Sp
                 HSP60}) from \bioname{Schizothorax prenanti} and the
                 Gene Expressions of Four {Sp HSPs} during
                 Lipopolysaccharide ({LPS}) Infection",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "139",
  day =          "13",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030139",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/139",
  abstract =     "Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a key role in
                 anti-stress and immune processes and are associated
                 with autoimmune diseases. In order to explore the
                 immunological role of HSPs from Schizothorax prenanti
                 (S. prenanti), Sp HSP60 was cloned for the first time
                 in this study, and the gene expressions of Sp HSP27, Sp
                 HSP60, Sp HSP70 and Sp HSP90 in the hepatopancreas,
                 head kidney, hindgut and spleen were analyzed by
                 quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) after treatment with
                 lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The open reading frame of the
                 Sp HSP60 gene (GenBank accession number ON245159) is
                 1728 bp. It encodes a protein of 575 amino acids. Its
                 C-terminus is a highly conserved and repeated glycine
                 sequence, which is an important cofactor in ATP
                 binding. Compared with the control group, most of the
                 Sp HSPs were significantly upregulated in the tissues
                 examined at 12 or 24 h after LPS challenge. The most
                 abundant expression of Sp HSP70 was found in the head
                 kidney at 24 h after LPS injection, followed by Sp
                 HSP27 in the spleen at 24 h; both of these Sp HSPs
                 displayed strong expression under the LPS stresses,
                 about 20--70 fold more than that of Sp HSP60 and Sp
                 HSP90. The temporal expression patterns of the four Sp
                 HSP genes were different in the four tissues examined.
                 Taken together, the results suggest that Sp HSP27, Sp
                 HSP60, Sp HSP70 and Sp HSP90 participate in innate
                 immunity stimulated by LPS, and the response intensity
                 of the Sp HSPs was organ-specific, indicating they
                 could provide early warning information against
                 bacterial infection. The findings in our study will
                 contribute to better understanding the biological
                 processes and important roles of Sp HSPs involved in
                 defending against pathogenic bacterial challenge.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Jin:2022:PAE,
  author =       "Jiali Jin and Zhipeng Chu and Rui Ruan and Wei Liu and
                 Xihua Chen and Chuangju Li",
  title =        "Phosphorus Absorption and Excretion in Hybrid Sturgeon
                 (\bioname{Huso dauricus} [female] {X}
                 \bioname{Acipenser schrenckii} [male]) Intubated with
                 Different {Ca/P} Ratios",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "138",
  day =          "10",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030138",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/138",
  abstract =     "To study the effect of Ca/P ratio on the P and Ca
                 absorption and excretion in hybrid sturgeon (Huso
                 dauricus {\SGMLfemale} X Acipenser schrenckii
                 {\SGMLmale}), five groups of fish were intubated with
                 100 mg P{\cdot}kg {$-$1} BW with the Ca/P ratios of
                 0:1, 0.25:1, 0.5:1, 1:1, and 2:1. Plasma P
                 concentrations were significantly elevated at Ca/P
                 ratios below 2:1, and the highest value was obtained at
                 Ca/P ratio of 0.5:1. Plasma Ca content was
                 significantly increased at the highest Ca/P ratio.
                 Urine P excretion rate in the fish intubated with Ca/P
                 ratio of 0.5:1 was significantly higher than that of
                 the groups with Ca/P ratios of 0:1 and 2:1. The highest
                 urea excretion rates were observed at Ca/P ratio of
                 0.5:1 and 1:1. The total P excretion at 48 h post
                 intubation reached about 30 mg{\cdot}kg {$-$1} BW,
                 which was recorded for the group with Ca/P ratio of
                 0.5:1. The present study showed that P absorption
                 efficiency was improved in hybrid sturgeon at Ca/P
                 ratio of 0.5:1, indicating that P inclusion level in
                 sturgeon feed can be further optimized to reduce
                 dietary P input and lower the excessive undigested P
                 discharge into the rearing water.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Perez-Jimenez:2022:IFD,
  author =       "Graciela M. P{\'e}rez-Jim{\'e}nez and Emyr Saul
                 Pe{\~n}a-Mar{\'\i}n and Claudia I. Maytorena-Verdugo
                 and Cesar Antonio Sep{\'u}lveda-Quiroz and Luis Daniel
                 Jim{\'e}nez-Mart{\'\i}nez and Susana {De la
                 Rosa-Garc{\'\i}a} and Gloria Gertrudys Asencio-Alcudia
                 and Rafael Mart{\'\i}nez and Dariel Tovar-Ram{\'\i}rez
                 and Mario A. Galaviz and Talhia Mart{\'\i}nez-Burguete
                 and Carlos A. Alvarez-Gonz{\'a}lez and Carina Shianya
                 Alvarez-Villagomez",
  title =        "Incorporation of Fructooligosaccharides in Diets
                 Influence Growth Performance, Digestive Enzyme
                 Activity, and Expression of Intestinal Barrier Function
                 Genes in Tropical Gar (\bioname{Atractosteus tropicus})
                 Larvae",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "137",
  day =          "10",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030137",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/137",
  abstract =     "This study was conducted to investigate the effects of
                 dietary fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on the growth,
                 survival rate, digestive enzyms activity, and the
                 expression of intestinal barrier function genes in
                 tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus) larvae. A total of
                 960 larvae (0.030 {\pm} 0.006 g) were fed three diets
                 supplemented with increasing FOS concentrations (2.5,
                 5, and 7.5 g kg {$-$1}) and a control diet for 15 days.
                 Results revealed that a 7.5 g kg {$-$1} FOS
                 supplementation improved weight gain, specific growth
                 rate, and survival rate (p {$<$} 0.05). Furthermore, 5
                 g kg {$-$1} FOS supplementation increased alkaline
                 protease and amylase activities and induced an
                 upregulation of the claudin-17 gene expression (p {$<$}
                 0.05). Meanwhile, the inclusion of 7.5 g kg {$-$1} FOS
                 induced the upregulation of mucin 2 (muc-2), and the
                 tight junction genes zo-2 and claudin-3 (p {$<$} 0.05).
                 In addition, 2.5, 5, and 7.5 g kg {$-$1} FOS promoted
                 the downregulation of the claudin-15 gene expression (p
                 {$<$} 0.05). At the same time, FOS inclusion did not
                 increase the pro-inflammatory cytokine il-8 expression.
                 We can conclude that 7.5 g kg {$-$1} FOS
                 supplementation improves growth performance, survival
                 rate, and digestive capacity, and could contribute to
                 the reinforcement of the intestinal barrier function of
                 Tropical gar larvae.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Falsone:2022:ASD,
  author =       "Fabio Falsone and Vita Gancitano and Michele Luca
                 Geraci and Giacomo Sardo and Danilo Scannella and
                 Fabrizio Serena and Sergio Vitale and Fabio
                 Fiorentino",
  title =        "Assessing the Stock Dynamics of
                 \bioname{Elasmobranchii} off the \geoname{Southern
                 Coast of Sicily} by Using Trawl Survey Data",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "136",
  day =          "07",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030136",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/136",
  abstract =     "Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays), which have peculiar
                 and vulnerable life-history traits, are highly
                 threatened by fishing activities. Indeed, between 53\%
                 and 71\% of Mediterranean elasmobranch species are at
                 risk of extinction. In this context, using the
                 abundance MSY (AMSY) model, the present study provides
                 an assessment of 20 batoids and 16 shark species in the
                 Strait of Sicily, sampled during a bottom trawl survey
                 from 1995 to 2020. Overall, the outputs underline a
                 progressively improving condition for shark and ray
                 assemblages of both shelf and eurybathic zones. As for
                 slope-dwelling species, a horseshoe-shaped dynamic,
                 characterized by a progressive decrease in relative
                 harvesting pressure and an increase in relative biomass
                 followed by an increase in fishing pressure and
                 decrease in biomass, was detected. The dynamics of the
                 Elasmobranchii living in the Strait of Sicily appear to
                 be affected by changes in the fishing patterns of
                 trawlers, showing a shift from shallow water to bathyal
                 fishing grounds and targeting deep-water red shrimp. In
                 this context, it seems wise to limit the impact of
                 deep-water fisheries on Elasmobranchii by reducing
                 fishing efforts and implementing ad hoc management
                 measures aimed at safeguarding these vulnerable
                 species.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Moura:2022:RPS,
  author =       "Ana Moura and Ester Dias and Rodrigo L{\'o}pez and
                 Carlos Antunes",
  title =        "Regional Population Structure of the {European} Eel at
                 the Southern Limit of Its Distribution Revealed by
                 Otolith Shape Signature",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "135",
  day =          "07",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030135",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/135",
  abstract =     "Given the European eel population's marked decrease
                 since the 1980s, it has become urgent to collect
                 information describing its regional population
                 structure to improve management plans. The Minho River
                 (NW-Portugal, SW-Europe) is an important basin for the
                 eel at the southern limit of its distribution, but the
                 species is poorly described. Thus, we aimed to study
                 the structure of the European eel population in the
                 Minho River using otolith shape analysis, which has
                 proven to be effective in discriminating fish groups
                 experiencing different environmental conditions through
                 ontogeny. Our results showed complete discrimination
                 between the two main types of habitats studied
                 (tributaries and estuaries). Otoliths of eels from the
                 estuary were rectangular and elliptic, whereas in the
                 tributaries they presented a more round and circular
                 form. Eels collected in both habitats were mostly
                 yellow-stage eels with a similar age range, but the
                 eels from the tributaries showed smaller length-at-age
                 and lower body condition than those collected in the
                 estuary. Additionally, the sex ratio was skewed towards
                 males in the tributaries and females in the estuary.
                 This study reveals that there are at least two distinct
                 groups of eels in this basin, likely with different
                 development characteristics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Yi:2022:SAM,
  author =       "Hong Yi and Qinglu Bai and Ying Li and Honglei Zhan
                 and Yujia Liu and Bingnan Liu and Jihui Wang",
  title =        "Sporosarcina aquimarina {MS4} Regulates the Digestive
                 Enzyme Activities, Body Wall Nutrients, Gut Microbiota,
                 and Metabolites of \bioname{Apostichopus japonicus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "134",
  day =          "07",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030134",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/134",
  abstract =     "Sporosarcina aquimarina MS4 is a microecological
                 preparation for overwintering Apostichopus japonicus,
                 which has an immune regulation function, but its role
                 in the nutritional regulation of A. japonicus is not
                 clear. This study aimed to describe the effects of S.
                 aquimarina MS4 on the growth, digestion, and body wall
                 nutrition of A. japonicus through feeding experiments
                 and to discuss the potential mechanism of S. aquimarina
                 MS4 regulating gut function through the detection of
                 gut microbiota and metabolites. After 60 days of
                 culture, the growth performance of A. japonicus fed S.
                 aquimarina MS4 (10 8 cfu/g) significantly improved, and
                 the content of polysaccharide, leucine, phenylalanine,
                 lysine, and docosahexaenoic acid in the body wall
                 significantly increased. Gut microbiota analysis showed
                 that although Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia,
                 Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the predominant
                 phyla in all the sea cucumbers, Haloferula and
                 Rubritalea showed significant difference between the
                 group fed with or without S. aquimarina MS4.
                 Metabolomics analysis showed that differential
                 metabolites in the gut were mainly enriched in amino
                 acid metabolism and lipid metabolism. The association
                 analysis of differential metabolites and microbiota
                 showed that the production of some differential
                 metabolites was significantly related to differential
                 microorganisms, which improved the understanding of the
                 function of microorganisms and their roles in the gut
                 of A. japonicus. This study reveals the life activities
                 such as growth and metabolism of A. japonicus, and it
                 provides support for the functional study of the gut
                 microbiome of A. japonicus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Junior:2022:UCE,
  author =       "Guerino Bandeira Junior and Adriane Erbice Bianchini
                 and Carine de Freitas Souza and Sharine Nunes Descovi
                 and Liana da Silva Fernandes and Lenise de Lima Silva
                 and Juliana Felipetto Cargnelutti and Bernardo
                 Baldisserotto",
  title =        "The Use of Cinnamon Essential Oils in Aquaculture:
                 Antibacterial, Anesthetic, Growth-Promoting, and
                 Antioxidant Effects",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "133",
  day =          "06",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030133",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/133",
  abstract =     "Cinnamon essential oils (EOs) are widely known for
                 their pharmaceutical properties; however, studies
                 investigating the use of these EOs in aquaculture are
                 scarce. The aims of this study were to evaluate the
                 anesthetic effect of bathing silver catfish (Rhamdia
                 quelen) with Cinnamomum cassia EO (CCEO) and its
                 nanoemulsion (NCCEO); the growth-promoting and
                 antioxidant effects of dietary supplementation with
                 CCEO in silver catfish; and the in vitro antibacterial
                 effect of CCEO, NCCEO, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum EO
                 (CZEO) against bacteria isolated from diseased silver
                 catfish. The two cinnamon EOs showed promising
                 antibacterial activity, which was potentiated by the
                 nanoemulsion. CCEO showed satisfactory anesthetic
                 activity in silver catfish, and its nanoemulsion
                 intensified the sedative activity. Supplementation of
                 1.0 mL CCEO per kg of diet for 60 days increased
                 weight, length, and weight gain when compared to the
                 control group, evidencing the growth-promoting activity
                 of this EO. Dietary supplementation of CCEO for 30 and
                 60 days also showed an antioxidant effect, as it
                 decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive
                 species and increased the superoxide dismutase activity
                 in the liver of silver catfish. Therefore, cinnamon EOs
                 have a promising use in aquaculture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Durazzo:2022:NBC,
  author =       "Alessandra Durazzo and Gabriella {Di Lena} and Paolo
                 Gabrielli and Antonello Santini and Ginevra
                 Lombardi-Boccia and Massimo Lucarini",
  title =        "Nutrients and Bioactive Compounds in Seafood:
                 Quantitative Literature Research Analysis",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "132",
  day =          "05",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030132",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/132",
  abstract =     "This perspective presents current and updated advances
                 in research on nutrients and bioactive compounds in
                 seafood. It is based on a literature quantitative
                 research analysis approach. The main features of
                 seafood components are introduced. This perspective
                 aims at providing a current framework that relates
                 nutrients, bioactive compounds, and seafood in a novel
                 integrated and multidisciplinary manner, highlighting
                 the current knowledge, the main research lines, and
                 emerging strategies. The literature search was carried
                 out by means of the Scopus database, and 22,542
                 documents were retrieved in the period from 1932 to
                 2024. Particularly, from the perspective of nutrition
                 and health outputs, the main terms correlated with
                 research on the relationship between seafood and
                 nutritional and bioactive components, and the main
                 existing research lines focused on this topic, were
                 identified. The top recurring keywords were human/s,
                 female, diet, nutrition, fish, male, adult, food
                 intake.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Muringai:2022:SSA,
  author =       "Rodney Tatenda Muringai and Paramu Mafongoya and
                 Romano Trent Lottering",
  title =        "{Sub-Saharan Africa} Freshwater Fisheries under
                 Climate Change: a Review of Impacts, Adaptation, and
                 Mitigation Measures",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "131",
  day =          "02",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030131",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/131",
  abstract =     "Sub-Saharan Africa's freshwater fisheries contribute
                 significantly to the livelihoods and food security of
                 millions of people within the region. However,
                 freshwater fisheries are experiencing multiple
                 anthropogenic stressors such as overfishing, illegal
                 fishing, pollution, and climate change. There is a
                 substantial body of literature on the effects of
                 climate change on freshwater fisheries in Sub-Saharan
                 Africa. This study reviews the existing literature and
                 highlights the effects of climate change on freshwater
                 fisheries, the adaptation strategies of
                 fishery-dependent households in response to the
                 effects, and fisheries' management and mitigation
                 efforts in the face of climate change. The general
                 effects of climate change on freshwater environments
                 include warming water temperatures, increased
                 stratification, modified hydrological processes, and
                 increased pollutants. These effects adversely affect
                 the physiological processes of fish and the overall
                 wellbeing of fishery-dependent people. To cope with the
                 effects of fluctuating fishery resources due to climate
                 change, fishery-dependent people have adopted several
                 adaptation strategies including livelihood
                 diversification, changing their fishing gear,
                 increasing their fishing efforts, and targeting new
                 species. Several management attempts have been made to
                 enhance the sustainability of fishery resources, from
                 local to regional levels. This study recommends the
                 participation of the resource users in the formulation
                 of policies aimed at promoting climate change
                 adaptation and the resilience of freshwater fisheries
                 for sustainable development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Yu:2022:CGC,
  author =       "Hailuo Yu and Yi Liu and Tiaoyi Xiao and Hongquan Wang
                 and Baohong Xu",
  title =        "Cloning of Grass Carp Chemokine {XC} Receptor 1
                 ({XCR1}) Gene and Evaluation of Its Expression in
                 Various Organs after {GCRV} Infection",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "130",
  day =          "31",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030130",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/130",
  abstract =     "Interaction between the chemokine receptor XCR1 and
                 its ligand is closely related to the immune function in
                 animals; however, there are only a few reports on role
                 of XCR1 in the immune system of fish. We aimed to
                 analyze the expression of XCR1 in various organs or
                 tissues of grass carp before and after Grass Carp
                 Reovirus (GCRV) infection to better understand the
                 function of XCR1 in resistance to GCRV infection. We
                 cloned and sequenced the cDNA of grass carp XCR1 and
                 analyzed the molecular structure of XCR1 based its
                 amino acid sequence. Further, we analyzed the relative
                 expression levels of XCR1 in different organs or
                 tissues of male parent grass carp with GCRV resistance
                 (P1) and their first-generation offspring (F1) before
                 and after GCRV infection. Our results show that the
                 total length of cDNA of the grass carp XCR1 gene is
                 1659 bp and encodes 365 amino acids. XCR1 contains
                 seven conserved transmembrane helical domains. The
                 homologous tertiary structure of XCR1 is similar to its
                 homologs in other species. After artificial GCRV
                 infection, there were significant differences in the
                 expression of the grass carp XCR1 gene in different
                 tissues, at different time points, and between P1 and
                 F1 fish. These results will contribute to our
                 understanding of the role of XCR1 in fish immune
                 responses and contribute to the development of
                 GCRV-resistant grass carp.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zhang:2022:MFT,
  author =       "Haoran Zhang and Kun Li and Fayang Zhang and Jikui Wu
                 and Junling Zhang",
  title =        "The {miR-200} Family Targeting amh Affects the Gonadal
                 Development of {Japanese} Flounder",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "129",
  day =          "31",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030129",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/129",
  abstract =     "Four members of the miR-200 family in Japanese
                 flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) have sex-biased
                 expression patterns, but their target genes and how
                 they work in the development of the gonads are rarely
                 known. Anti-M{\"u}llerian hormone (AMH) can inhibit the
                 development of Muller's duct in female mammals and
                 regulate the formation of gametes after sexual
                 maturity. There is no Muller's duct in teleosts, but
                 the amh gene still exists. Knockout of amh results in
                 sex reversal from male to female. Therefore, it is
                 essential to explore the relationship between the
                 miR-200 family and amh to clarify what role miR-200
                 plays in the development of the gonads. In Japanese
                 flounder, the two binding sites for the miR-200 family
                 in the 3{\prime}UTR of amh were found through
                 bioinformatic prediction. Double luciferase and green
                 fluorescent protein reporter experiments demonstrated
                 amh to be directly targeted by miR-200a and miR-200b.
                 Moreover, miR-200a and miR-200b reduced the expression
                 of amh through site 1 rather than site 2. To explore
                 the regulatory role of miR-200a in gonadal development,
                 we further overexpressed miR-200a in the primary
                 Sertoli cells of the testis. With the overexpression of
                 miR-200a, the expression of amh decreased, while the
                 expression of the other two male sex-related genes,
                 dmrt1 (doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor
                 1) and gsdf (diagonal soma driven factor), increased
                 significantly. This result indicates that the miR-200
                 family regulates the gonadal differentiation and
                 development by targeting amh in Japanese flounder.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Liu:2022:TAJ,
  author =       "Hongbo Liu and Junren Xue and Jing Tang and Tao Jiang
                 and Xiubao Chen and Jian Yang",
  title =        "Taste Attributes of the {``June Hairy Crab''}
                 Juveniles of {Chinese} Mitten Crab (\bioname{Eriocheir
                 sinensis}) in {Yangcheng Lake, China}--- a Pilot
                 Study",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "128",
  day =          "31",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030128",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/128",
  abstract =     "This is the first report on the use of a taste sensing
                 system to quantitatively evaluate the taste attributes
                 of two groups of native ``June hairy crab'' juveniles
                 (commonly referred to as ``Liu-Yue-Huang'') of the
                 Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir Sinensis H. Milne
                 Edwards, 1853) from a net enclosure culture area in
                 Yangcheng Lake (lake culture) and aquaculture ponds
                 near the lake (pond culture). We showed that umami was
                 the predominant basic taste of steamed June hairy
                 crabs, followed by bitterness and astringency. The
                 intensity value of saltiness was aberrant and could not
                 be determined using this system. The average values of
                 aftertaste-U reached 8.7 and 10.7 in the male June
                 hairy crabs from the lake and pond cultures,
                 respectively, which was significantly higher than their
                 respective aftertaste-B and aftertaste-A values (p
                 {$<$} 0.01). Female crabs did not have aftertaste-B,
                 while their aftertaste-U was significantly higher than
                 aftertaste-A (p {$<$} 0.01). Although principal
                 component analysis and linear discriminant analysis
                 were not able to completely distinguish among crabs
                 from different cultures, they could robustly
                 distinguish between male and female crabs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Maytorena-Verdugo:2022:IMO,
  author =       "Claudia I. Maytorena-Verdugo and Emyr S.
                 Pe{\~n}a-Mar{\'\i}n and Carina S.
                 Alvarez-Villag{\'o}mez and Graciela M.
                 P{\'e}rez-Jim{\'e}nez and C{\'e}sar A.
                 Sep{\'u}lveda-Quiroz and Carlos A.
                 Alvarez-Gonz{\'a}lez",
  title =        "Inclusion of Mannan-Oligosaccharides in Diets for
                 Tropical Gar \bioname{Atractosteus tropicus} Larvae:
                 Effects on Growth, Digestive Enzymes, and Expression of
                 Intestinal Barrier Genes",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "127",
  day =          "31",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030127",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/127",
  abstract =     "Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) are non-digestible
                 carbohydrates, and their use in aquaculture as
                 prebiotics is well documented. The objective of this
                 work was to test whether MOS supplemented in the diet
                 of A. tropicus larvae (2, 4, and 6 g kg {$-$1})
                 influence growth parameters, the activity of digestive
                 enzymes, and the expression of genes related to the
                 intestinal barrier. The highest total length was
                 observed in larvae fed 6 g kg {$-$1} MOS compared to
                 control larvae. Trypsin activity increased with the
                 addition of MOS to the diets, but leucine
                 aminopeptidase activity only increased with 6 g kg
                 {$-$1} MOS. Lipase and {\alpha}-amylase activities
                 increased in larvae fed with 2 and 4 g kg {$-$1} MOS.
                 The expression of zo-2 was higher with the 6 g kg
                 {$-$1} MOS treatment. The cl-3 transcripts were lower
                 with 2 g kg {$-$1} MOS but higher with 6 g kg {$-$1}
                 MOS. All tested concentrations of MOS increased the
                 expression of muc-2. In this study, incorporating
                 mannan-oligosaccharides into the diet of A. tropicus
                 larvae had a positive effect, and the concentration of
                 6 g kg {$-$1} produced the best results. Therefore,
                 including this prebiotic in the diets for the culture
                 of A. tropicus larvae is suitable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Arechavala-Lopez:2022:SSR,
  author =       "Pablo Arechavala-Lopez and Samira Nu{\~n}ez-Velazquez
                 and Carlos Diaz-Gil and Guillermo Follana-Bern{\'a} and
                 Jo{\~a}o L. Saraiva",
  title =        "Suspended Structures Reduce Variability of Group
                 Risk-Taking Responses of \bioname{Dicentrarchus labrax}
                 Juvenile Reared in Tanks",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "126",
  day =          "31",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030126",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/126",
  abstract =     "Structural enrichment is considered a useful tool to
                 improve the welfare conditions of captive fish by
                 deliberately increasing the physical heterogeneity and
                 complexity of captivity environments. However, the
                 potential effects of structural enrichment on the
                 stress response at the group level and on social
                 interactions have not been well studied yet. In this
                 study, we demonstrate that suspended vertical
                 structures (U-shaped ropes) can reduce behavioural
                 variability among fish groups (tank level) of European
                 seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. Differences
                 in behavioural responses during group risk-taking tests
                 (e.g., number of passes per fish) between treatments
                 were detected, and these responses in seabass in
                 enriched captive conditions were more homogeneous among
                 tanks compared to fish from non-enriched tanks. These
                 results suggest a positive effect of the structural
                 enrichment on social stabilisation and response to
                 stressful events at the tank level in seabass. However,
                 further research is still needed to improve the
                 knowledge of the potential effects of structural
                 enrichment on fish welfare and aquaculture management,
                 considering different enrichment designs, intensities,
                 and strategies according to farming conditions,
                 biological needs, and preferences of the fish species
                 and life-stage reared in captivity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lee:2022:ITA,
  author =       "Chorong Lee and Hye Jin Jeon and Bum Keun Kim and
                 Seong-Kyoon Choi and Sumi Kim and Gwang Il Jang and Ji
                 Hyung Kim and Jee Eun Han",
  title =        "Infectivity and Transmissibility of Acute
                 Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease Associated
                 \bioname{Vibrio parahaemolyticus} in Frozen Shrimp
                 Archived at $ - 80^\circ ${C}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "125",
  day =          "30",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030125",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/125",
  abstract =     "Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) caused
                 by Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp AHPND) has been reported
                 in commodity shrimp, but the potential risk of its
                 global spread via frozen shrimp in the shrimp trade is
                 yet to be fully explored. We hypothesized that frozen
                 shrimp with AHPND could be a source of Vp AHPND
                 transmission; thus, the infectivity of frozen shrimp
                 with AHPND was evaluated using a shrimp bioassay. To
                 prepare infected frozen shrimp, 12 Penaeus vannamei
                 (average weight, 2 g) were exposed to Vp AHPND by
                 immersion in water with a Vp AHPND concentration of
                 1.55 $ \times $ 10 7 CFU mL {$-$1}; once dead, the
                 shrimp were stored at {$-$80} {$^\circ $}C for further
                 analysis. After two weeks, a PCR assay was used to
                 confirm AHPND positivity in frozen shrimp (n = 2), and
                 Vp AHPND was reisolated from the hepatopancreases of
                 these shrimp. For the infectivity test, 10 P. vannamei
                 (average weight, 4 g) were fed with the
                 hepatopancreases of Vp AHPND -infected frozen shrimp (n
                 = 10). After feeding, 70\% of the shrimp died within
                 118 h, and the presence of Vp AHPND was confirmed using
                 a PCR assay and histopathology examination; moreover,
                 Vp AHPND was successfully reisolated from the
                 hepatopancreases of the dead shrimp. We are the first
                 to evaluate the potential transmissibility of Vp AHPND
                 in frozen shrimp, and our results suggest that frozen
                 shrimp with AHPND are a potential source of disease
                 spreading between countries during international
                 trade.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Su:2022:LTC,
  author =       "Li Su and Youwei Xu and Yongsong Qiu and Mingshuai Sun
                 and Kui Zhang and Zuozhi Chen",
  title =        "Long-Term Change of a Fish-Based Index of Biotic
                 Integrity for a Semi-Enclosed Bay in the {Beibu Gulf}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "124",
  day =          "30",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030124",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/124",
  abstract =     "The Beibu Gulf in the northwestern South China Sea is
                 one of the world's most productive fishing grounds, yet
                 its biotic resources appear to be in rapid decline
                 because of overexploitation. Assessments of the health
                 status of the fisheries' resources in the gulf provide
                 a foundation for their conservation and management. As
                 fish accounted for 84\% to 97\% of the total catch in
                 the Beibu Gulf in the period 1962--2017, a Fish-based
                 Index of Biotic Integrity (F-IBI) was developed for the
                 Beibu Gulf, and data from otter trawl surveys during
                 the period 1962--2017 were used to measure variations
                 in the fish community. The assessment revealed a
                 generally downward trend in total fish catch density
                 (kg/km 2), catch density of 12 traditional commercial
                 demersal fish species, and percentage of
                 nektonic-feeding species, but an upward trend for the
                 percentage of fishes with a planktivorous or detritus
                 diet, percentage of pelagic species, and percentage of
                 the dominant species. The dominant species varied
                 greatly over the 50 year period and showed a tendency
                 towards small-sized species. The synthetic F-IBI
                 variable showed a downward trend and has indicated a
                 `fair' state since 1998. The decline in the F-IBI over
                 the last three decades suggests that anthropogenic
                 disturbances, especially overfishing, have had a
                 serious impact on the fish community of the Beibu Gulf.
                 The F-IBI is currently at risk of becoming `poor.'
                 Consequently, we suggest that rigid and enforceable
                 fishery management measures should be taken by both
                 China and Vietnam to prevent further deterioration of
                 the fisheries' resources in the gulf.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Shrimpton:2022:FNT,
  author =       "J. Mark Shrimpton and Paige W. Breault and Luc A.
                 Turcotte",
  title =        "Fidelity to {Natal} Tributary Streams by {Kokanee}
                 Following Introduction to a Large Oligotrophic
                 Reservoir",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "123",
  day =          "30",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030123",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/123",
  abstract =     "The WAC Bennett Dam was completed in 1968 and
                 impounded the Upper Peace River to form the Williston
                 Reservoir in north central British Columbia. In 1990,
                 an enhancement project was initiated to stock Columbia
                 River Kokanee (non-anadromous Sockeye Salmon;
                 Oncorhynchus nerka) from southeastern British Columbia
                 into tributary streams that drained into regions of the
                 reservoir that were accessible by anglers. The current
                 distribution of spawning Columbia-origin Kokanee in the
                 Williston Reservoir watershed, however, does not
                 reflect the locations where these fish were initially
                 stocked and suggests extensive straying. Whether or not
                 Kokanee will develop fidelity to specific spawning
                 locations is not known, but it is important information
                 to effectively manage these introduced fish. We used
                 otolith microchemistry to estimate fidelity to natal
                 streams by Columbia-origin Kokanee in the Williston
                 Reservoir. Otolith elemental signatures for the region
                 of the otolith that formed during the larval period and
                 characterized the natal redd environment showed
                 considerable variation among samples. Natal signatures
                 tended to cluster for each river but not for all
                 spawners, suggesting elemental signatures from other
                 rivers. Homing to one of the four natal streams we
                 examined was classified to be 73\% based on linear
                 discriminant analysis, although variation in the
                 elemental signatures within each group suggests that
                 homing by Kokanee to specific natal streams may be as
                 low as 55\%. Based on similarity of water elemental
                 signatures for tributaries within large rivers,
                 however, the proportion of fish that returned to their
                 general region was likely higher and estimated to be
                 approximately 83\%. The result of regional homing could
                 be reproductive isolation and adaptation to local
                 conditions. It is unclear, however, if the current
                 estimated level of straying will limit genetic
                 differentiation and prevent local adaptation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Podhorec:2022:EHT,
  author =       "Peter Podhorec and Jind{\v{r}}i{\v{s}}ka Knowles and
                 Jakub Vyslou{\v{z}}il and Sergii Boryshpolets and
                 Anatolii Sotnikov and Martina Holick{\'a} and Jan
                 Kou{\v{r}}il and Borys Dzyuba",
  title =        "The Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Selected Sperm
                 Quality Parameters and Sex Steroids in Tropical
                 Cyprinid Bala Shark \bioname{Balantiocheilos
                 melanopterus}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "122",
  day =          "30",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030122",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/122",
  abstract =     "Hormone treatments are routinely employed with bala
                 shark Balantiocheilos melanopterus male broodstock to
                 stimulate the production of high-quality sperm. In the
                 current trial, three spermiation-inducing treatments
                 were evaluated: 20 {\mu}g/kg body weight (BW)
                 recombinant hCG; 20 {\mu}g/kg BW [D-Ala 6, Pro 9, NEt]-
                 gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRHa) with 20 mg/kg BW
                 metoclopramide; and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)
                 (PLGA) microparticles with slow release of 10 {\mu}g/kg
                 BW GnRHa. A 0.9\% saline AS negative control was also
                 included. Administration of the GnRHa through the form
                 of slow release of PLGA microparticles 24 h after
                 treatment resulted in a significantly higher sperm
                 volume, motility percentage, and total sperm count
                 compared to the control. Injection of GnRHa with
                 metoclopramide induced sperm parameters that did not
                 differ from the control, with the exception of motility
                 percentage. The lowest potency to induce spermiation in
                 bala sharks was in the treatment with recombinant hCG.
                 Both PLGA microparticles and GnRHa with metoclopramide
                 significantly increased blood plasma concentrations of
                 testosterone and 11-ketotestosterone compared to the
                 control. The PLGA microparticle system with continuous
                 release of 10 {\mu}g/kg BW GnRHa was the most effective
                 treatment in inducing spermiation in bala sharks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Politikos:2022:DVO,
  author =       "Dimitris V. Politikos and Nikolaos Sykiniotis and
                 Georgios Petasis and Pavlos Dedousis and Alba
                 Ordo{\~n}ez and Rune Vab{\o} and Aikaterini
                 Anastasopoulou and Endre Moen and Chryssi Mytilineou
                 and Arnt-B{\o}rre Salberg and Archontia Chatzispyrou
                 and Ketil Malde",
  title =        "\pkg{DeepOtolith v1.0}: an Open-Source {AI} Platform
                 for Automating Fish Age Reading from Otolith or Scale
                 Images",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "121",
  day =          "29",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030121",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib;
                 https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/121",
  abstract =     "Every year, marine scientists around the world read
                 thousands of otolith or scale images to determine the
                 age structure of commercial fish stocks. This knowledge
                 is important for fisheries and conservation management.
                 However, the age-reading procedure is time-consuming
                 and costly to perform due to the specialized expertise
                 and labor needed to identify annual growth zones in
                 otoliths. Effective automated systems are needed to
                 increase throughput and reduce cost. DeepOtolith is an
                 open-source artificial intelligence (AI) platform that
                 addresses this issue by providing a web system with a
                 simple interface that automatically estimates fish age
                 by combining otolith images with convolutional neural
                 networks (CNNs), a class of deep neural networks that
                 has been a dominant method in computer vision tasks.
                 Users can upload otolith image data for selective fish
                 species, and the platform returns age estimates. The
                 estimates of multiple images can be exported to conduct
                 conclusions or further age-related research.
                 DeepOtolith currently contains classifiers/regressors
                 for three fish species; however, more species will be
                 included as related work on ageing will be tested and
                 published soon. Herein, the architecture and
                 functionality of the platform are presented. Current
                 limitations and future directions are also discussed.
                 Overall, DeepOtolith should be considered as the first
                 step towards building a community of marine ecologists,
                 machine learning experts, and stakeholders that will
                 collaborate to support the conservation of fishery
                 resources.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{DIglio:2022:BIA,
  author =       "Claudio D'Iglio and Marco Albano and Sergio Famulari
                 and Nunziacarla Span{\`o} and Paola Rinelli and Serena
                 Savoca and Gioele Capillo",
  title =        "Basic Intersexuality (Abnormal Hermaphroditism) in the
                 Blackmouth Catshark, \bioname{Galeus melastomus},
                 ({Rafinesque}, 1810), from the {Southern Tyrrhenian Sea
                 (Central Mediterranean Sea)}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "120",
  day =          "28",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030120",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/120",
  abstract =     "The present paper represents the first description of
                 abnormal hermaphroditism in Galeus melastomus
                 (Rafinesque, 1810). The black mouth cat shark specimen,
                 collected in summer from southern Tyrrhenian Sea at the
                 entrance of Salerno gulf, showed a basic intersexuality
                 characterized by the presence of male secondary and
                 female primary sexual characters. The reproductive
                 system has been described with an accurate
                 morphological analysis, also including a histological
                 assessment of oocytes. Results showed the presence of
                 only right clasper, not exceeding the pelvic fin in
                 length, with the absence of internal males' sexual
                 organs. Concerning the female primary characters, the
                 analysis of histological assessment showed the
                 structure of mature oocyte, confirming the maturity
                 stage of a mature female in active extruding stage, as
                 highlighted by the macroscopic morphological analysis.
                 Despite in many marine organisms' hermaphroditism is a
                 physiological condition showed by specimens during
                 their lifecycle, in Elasmobranchs this is considered an
                 abnormal condition, with some exceptions. The lack of
                 information on hermaphroditism in elasmobranchs form
                 the Mediterranean Sea requires an increase of
                 scientific community's attention, improving the
                 knowledge on the reproductive biology of this sensitive
                 taxon. This is essential to enhance the conservation of
                 elasmobranchs populations in the entire Mediterranean
                 basin.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Xue:2022:IIC,
  author =       "Mingyang Xue and Zidong Xiao and Yiqun Li and Nan
                 Jiang and Wenzhi Liu and Yan Meng and Yuding Fan and
                 Lingbing Zeng and Yong Zhou",
  title =        "Isolation, Identification and Characteristics of
                 \bioname{Aeromonas caviae} from Diseased Largemouth
                 Bass (\bioname{Micropterus salmoides})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "119",
  day =          "28",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030119",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/119",
  abstract =     "The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is one of
                 the most economically valuable fish species in China.
                 In this study, a bacterial pathogen was isolated from
                 the internal organs of diseased M. salmoides, and the
                 strain was named WH21406. This isolate was identified
                 as Aeromonas caviae on the basis of its morphology,
                 biochemical features and 16S rDNA phylogenetic
                 analysis. Four virulence genes related to
                 pathogenicity, namely, flagella (fla), elastase (ela),
                 haemolysin (hly) and aerolysin (aer), were detected in
                 this isolate. The median lethal dosage (LD50) of A.
                 caviae WH21406 for M. salmoides was calculated to be
                 3.46 $ \times $ 10 5 CFU mL {$-$1}. The
                 histopathological analysis showed obvious tissue damage
                 in the gill, liver, kidney, spleen and gut of the
                 diseased fish. The antibiotic susceptibility test
                 demonstrated that strain WH21406 was highly sensitive
                 to enrofloxacin, norfloxacin, streptomycin and
                 amikacin. The results of this study provide a
                 foundation for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment
                 of A. caviae infection in M. salmoides.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Li:2022:FCM,
  author =       "Yingcen Li and Yunliang Miao and Xufang Liang and Shan
                 He",
  title =        "Functional Characterization and Molecular Marker
                 Development of the Proenkephalin as Biomarker of Food
                 Addiction in Food Habit Domestication of {Mandarin}
                 Fish (\bioname{Siniperca chuatsi})",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "118",
  day =          "27",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030118",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/118",
  abstract =     "Proenkephalin (PENK), as the precursor of endogenous
                 opioid enkephalin (ENK), is widely present in the
                 nervous system and plays an important role in animal
                 food addiction and rewarding behavior. In our study, we
                 intend to study the functional characterization and
                 molecular marker development of the penk gene related
                 to food habit domestication of mandarin fish. We found
                 that the penk gene of mandarin fish had three types of
                 endogenous opioid peptide sequences. Compared with
                 other tissues, penk mRNA was highly expressed in the
                 whole brain. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of
                 lysine or methionine significantly increased the
                 expression of penk mRNA. The expression of penk mRNA in
                 the brain of mandarin fish that could be easily
                 domesticated from eating live prey fish to artificial
                 diets was significantly higher than those that could
                 not. After feeding with high-carbohydrate artificial
                 diets, the expression of penk mRNA showed no
                 significant difference between mandarin fish with
                 hypophagia and those that still ate normally. A total
                 of four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) loci
                 related to easy domestication toward eating artificial
                 diets were screened from the mandarin fish population.
                 Additionally, the TT genotype at one of the loci was
                 significantly correlated with the food habit
                 domestication of mandarin fish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Vallecillos:2022:DFM,
  author =       "Antonio Vallecillos and Emilio Mar{\'\i}a-Dolores and
                 Javier Villa and Francisco Miguel Rueda and Jos{\'e}
                 Carrillo and Guillermo Ramis and Mohamed Soula and Juan
                 Manuel Afonso and Eva Armero",
  title =        "Development of the First Microsatellite Multiplex
                 {PCR} Panel for Meagre (\bioname{Argyrosomus regius}),
                 a Commercial Aquaculture Species",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "117",
  day =          "24",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030117",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/117",
  abstract =     "In this study, a microsatellite-based multiplex PCR
                 panel for meagre (Argyrosomus regius) was developed as
                 a useful and single tool in parental assignment and
                 population studies. Twenty-one specific and
                 interspecific microsatellites from different
                 aquaculture species of meagre (Argyrosomus regius),
                 Japanese meagre (A. japonicus), red drum (Sciaenops
                 ocellatus) and yellow meagre (Acoupa weakfish) were
                 assessed for genetic variability, allelic range and
                 genotype reliability. Finally, a SuperMultiplex for
                 Argyrosomus regius (SMAr) was designed with only the
                 best eight microsatellite markers. The panel assessment
                 was performed using a batch of brood stock from one
                 company and a sample of 616 offspring. It was possible
                 to assign 95\% of the offspring to a single pair of
                 parents using the exclusion method. It is therefore
                 considered an easy procedure, and a powerful and
                 low-cost tool for parental assignment to support
                 companies' breeding programs and to exchange
                 information between research groups.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Ho:2022:CRO,
  author =       "Ching-Hsien Ho",
  title =        "Climate Risks and Opportunities of the Marine Fishery
                 Industry: a Case Study in {Taiwan}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "116",
  day =          "21",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030116",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/116",
  abstract =     "As climate change and extreme weather intensify,
                 forecasting natural environmental changes involves high
                 uncertainty and variation. Planned policy changes and
                 the ability of fisheries to withstand these changes and
                 impacts are major challenges in regard to addressing
                 future climate hazards in Taiwan. Taiwan's geographic
                 location is favourable for the marine fishery industry,
                 which is an important primary industry and a source of
                 animal protein for residents of Taiwan. Recently, both
                 long-term climate change and extreme climate hazards
                 have led to shocks in the marine fishery industry. The
                 resulting instability of the industry directly affects
                 the market supply of and demand for seafood. We conduct
                 a case study of a marine fishery industry in Taiwan
                 that incorporates social concern assessments of risk
                 perception and judgements of risk acceptance through
                 risk management processes. Furthermore, we incorporate
                 stakeholder participatory processes to reduce the gap
                 in awareness of adaptation and to increase the
                 opportunity to reach consensus and develop an
                 integrated risk management model that enables
                 decision-makers to better meet the needs of society.
                 These measures will enhance all parties' willingness to
                 adapt and help achieve the goal of public--private
                 collaboration in facing climate change challenges.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Tang:2022:TSA,
  author =       "Xuemei Tang and Shulun Jiang and Henglin Wang and
                 Yanfeng Zhou and Fei Peng and Xizhao Zhang and Yifan
                 Zhou and Shiyue Guo and Yang You",
  title =        "Transcriptome Sequencing Analysis Reveals Dynamic
                 Changes in Major Biological Functions during the Early
                 Development of Clearhead Icefish, \bioname{Protosalanx
                 chinensis}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "115",
  day =          "21",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030115",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/115",
  abstract =     "Early development, when many important developmental
                 events occur, is a critical period for fish. However,
                 research on the early development of clearhead icefish
                 is very limited, especially in molecular research. In
                 this study, we aimed to explore the dynamic changes in
                 the biological functions of five key periods in
                 clearhead icefish early development, namely the YL
                 (embryonic), PM (first day after hatching), KK (fourth
                 day after hatching), LC (seventh day after hatching),
                 and SL (tenth day after hatching) stages, through
                 transcriptome sequencing and different analysis
                 strategies. A trend expression analysis and an
                 enrichment analysis revealed that the expression
                 ofgenes encoding G protein-coupled receptors and their
                 ligands, i.e., prss1\_2\_3, pomc, npy, npb, sst, rln3,
                 crh, gh, and prl that are associated with digestion and
                 feeding regulation gradually increased during early
                 development. In addition, a weighted gene co-expression
                 network analysis (WGCNA) showed that eleven modules
                 were significantly associated with early development,
                 among which nine modules were significantly positively
                 correlated. Through the enrichment analysis and hub
                 gene identification results of these nine modules, it
                 was found that the pathways related to eye, bone, and
                 heart development were significantly enriched in the YL
                 stage, and the ccnd2, seh1l, kdm6a, arf4, and ankrd28
                 genes that are associated with cell proliferation and
                 differentiation played important roles in these
                 developmental processes; the pak3, dlx3, dgat2, and
                 tas1r1 genes that are associated with jaw and tooth
                 development, TG (triacylglycerol) synthesis, and umami
                 amino acid receptors were identified as hub genes for
                 the PM stage; the pathways associated with aerobic
                 metabolism and unsaturated fatty acid synthesis were
                 significantly enriched in the KK stage, with the foxk,
                 slc13a2\_3\_5, ndufa5, and lsc2 genes playing important
                 roles; the pathways related to visual perception were
                 significantly enriched in the LC stage; and the bile
                 acid biosynthetic and serine-type peptidase activity
                 pathways were significantly enriched in the SL stage.
                 These results provide a more detailed understanding of
                 the processes of early development of clearhead
                 icefish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Yang:2022:FVC,
  author =       "Tsung-Yu Yang and Hsing-Chun Lin and Wen-Hong Liu",
  title =        "The Fishery Value Chain Analysis in {Taiwan}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "114",
  day =          "16",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030114",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/114",
  abstract =     "Although the GDP of the fishery sector accounts for
                 less than 0.3\% of Taiwan's GDP, there are many
                 secondary and tertiary industries related to fisheries
                 that add great value to the country's economy.
                 Therefore, when analyzing and calculating the output
                 value and value added of the fishery sector, the
                 relevance of these upstream and downstream industries
                 should be considered jointly, and the value chain of
                 the fishery industry should be studied and analyzed in
                 order to truly present the value added created by
                 fishery. This study aims to do this by first analyzing
                 not only the primary fishery industry, but the value
                 chain of the fishery industry at different stages such
                 as fishery production, marine fishing, aquaculture,
                 fishery processing, retail and services, and supportive
                 systems. Then the value added of the whole fishery
                 value chain to Taiwan's GDP is estimated by using the
                 Leontief input--output model, from the perspective of
                 industry linkages and covering the period from 2011 to
                 2018. The empirical results suggest that the value
                 added created by fishery and related industries
                 accounted for 2.96\% of the GDP in 2011, which rose to
                 3.11\% in 2014, fell to 2.87\% in 2015, rose to 2.93\%
                 in 2017, and fell to 2.84\% in 2018. From 2011 to 2018,
                 the amount of value added created by fisheries and
                 related industries rose from NT$ 422.8 b i l l i o n t
                 o N T $ 520.9 billion. The primary fishery sector has
                 the largest contribution, followed by the fishery input
                 sector, and transportation and sale service sector, and
                 the fishery product processing sector has the lowest
                 contribution rate. The empirical results provide
                 important implications and references to the policy
                 makers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Nguyen:2022:UFP,
  author =       "Thi Hanh Nguyen and San-Lang Wang and Thi Huyen Nguyen
                 and Manh Dung Doan and Thi Ha Trang Tran and Van Anh
                 Ngo and Nhat Duoc Ho and Thi Ngoc Tran and Chien Thang
                 Doan and Van Chung Do and Anh Dzung Nguyen and Van Bon
                 Nguyen",
  title =        "Utilization of Fishery-Processing By-Product Squid
                 Pens for Scale-Up Production of Phenazines via
                 Microbial Conversion and Its Novel Potential
                 Antinematode Effect",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "113",
  day =          "15",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030113",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/113",
  abstract =     "Fishery by-products (FBPs) have been increasingly
                 investigated for the extraction and production of a
                 vast array of active molecules. The aim of this study
                 was to produce phenazine compounds from FBPs via
                 microbial fermentation and assess their novel
                 antinematode effect. Among various FBPs, squid pen
                 powder (SPP) was discovered as the most suitable
                 substrate for phenazine production by Pseudomonas
                 aeruginosa TUN03 fermentation. Various small-scale
                 experiments conducted in flasks for phenazine
                 production indicated that the most suitable was the
                 newly designed liquid medium which included 1\% SPP,
                 0.05\% MgSO 4, and 0.1\% Ca 3 (PO 4) 2 (initial pH 7).
                 Phenazines were further studied for scale-up
                 bioproduction in a 14 L bioreactor system resulting in
                 a high yield (22.73 {\SGMLmicro}g/mL) in a much shorter
                 cultivation time (12 h). In the fermented culture
                 broth, hemi-pyocyanin (HPC) was detected as a major
                 phenazine compound with an area percentage of 11.28\%
                 in the crude sample. In the bioactivity tests, crude
                 phenazines and HPC demonstrate novel potential
                 nematicidal activity against black pepper nematodes,
                 inhibiting both juveniles (J2) nematodes and egg
                 hatching. The results of this work suggest a novel use
                 of SPP for cost-effective bioproduction of HPC, a novel
                 potential nematodes inhibitor. Moreover, the
                 combination of MgSO 4 and Ca 3 (PO 4) 2 was also found
                 to be a novel salt composition that significantly
                 enhanced phenazine yield by P. aeruginosa fermentation
                 in this work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Zhu:2022:IOD,
  author =       "Yahua Zhu and Tao Jiang and Xiubao Chen and Hongbo Liu
                 and Quinton Phelps and Jian Yang",
  title =        "Inter-Otolith Differences in Strontium Markings: a
                 Case Study on the Juvenile Crucian Carp
                 \bioname{Carassius carassius} ({Linnaeus}, 1758)",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "112",
  day =          "15",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7030112",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 07:29:57 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/3/112",
  abstract =     "The release of hatchery-reared fish fry for restocking
                 is important for the enrichment of fishery resources;
                 however, the effective evaluation of the success rate
                 of marking such fish is challenging. We exposed
                 juvenile crucian carp (Carassius carassius) to a single
                 concentration of SrCl 2 {\cdot}6H 2 O for 5 d and
                 evaluated the efficiency of Sr marking of the fish
                 otoliths (sagittae, asterisci, and lapilli) using an
                 electron probe micro-analyzer. Sr marking signatures
                 formed a peak in all otolith types, with a marking
                 success rate of 100\%. The ratio of Sr to Ca in the
                 lapilli and sagittae was higher than that in the
                 asterisci. It took 2 d from the beginning of immersion
                 to the deposition of Sr on the lapilli and sagittae,
                 and the time delay for asterisci was 1 d. For the
                 lapilli and sagittae, it took 16 d to terminate Sr
                 marking and fully recover to the pre-marking Sr level,
                 whereas it was 12 d for the asterisci. The application
                 of the Sr dose had no effect on the survival or growth
                 of the carp. This study demonstrated that the lapilli
                 are the most suitable otolith type for Sr marking
                 observations in crucian carp and provides a theoretical
                 basis and technical support for carp restocking using
                 the Sr marking approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Guimaraes:2022:OAP,
  author =       "Mateus Cardoso Guimar{\~a}es and Isabel M. Cerezo and
                 Miguel Frederico Fernandez-Alarcon and Mariene Miyoko
                 Natori and Luciana Yuri Sato and Camila A. T. Kato and
                 Miguel Angel Mori{\~n}igo and Silvana Tapia-Paniagua
                 and Danielle de Carla Dias and Carlos Massatoshi
                 Ishikawa and Maria Jos{\'e} T. Ranzani-Paiva and Luara
                 Lucena Cassiano and Erna Elisabeth Bach and
                 Patr{\'\i}cia B. Clissa and Daniele P. Orefice and
                 Leonardo Tachibana",
  title =        "Oral Administration of Probiotics (\bioname{Bacillus
                 subtilis} and \bioname{Lactobacillus plantarum}) in
                 \geoname{Nile} Tilapia (\bioname{Oreochromis
                 niloticus}) Vaccinated and Challenged with
                 \bioname{Streptococcus agalactiae}",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "211",
  day =          "22",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7040211",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 27 12:39:12 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/4/211",
  abstract =     "Streptococcus agalactiae is an important bacterial
                 pathogen in intensive Nile tilapia production, causing
                 high mortality rates and great economic losses. This
                 work aimed to evaluate the Nile tilapia vaccination
                 against S. agalactiae and fed with ration containing
                 probiotic AQUA PHOTO {\reg} composed of Bacillus
                 subtilis and Lactobacillus plantarum, on the immune
                 response action and gut microbiota. The experimental
                 design was completely randomized with five treatments
                 (CON = control; ADJ = adjuvant; PRO = probiotic; VAC =
                 vaccine; PRO + VAC = probiotic + vaccine) and five
                 replicates. The vaccine (bacterin + adjuvant) was
                 injected after 21 days (21d) of probiotic feeding and
                 the vaccine was booster 14 days post-vaccination (35d).
                 After 14 days of the booster (49d), the fish were
                 challenged with S. agalactiae and observed for more
                 than 14 days, completing 63 days. The immunized group
                 showed a better survival rate (CON 40\%; ADJ 57\%; PRO
                 67\%; VAC 87\%; PRO + VAC 97\%). The treatments VAC and
                 PRO + VAC, after booster produced higher levels of IgM
                 antibodies compared with the control from the same
                 time. The combination of probiotic and vaccination
                 provided better protection against S. agalactiae
                 infection, directly affecting the gut microbiological
                 profile. These results indicated the contribution of
                 probiotic to the adaptive immune response through the
                 modulation of the intestinal microbiota, improving the
                 effect of the vaccination. In conclusion, AQUA PHOTO
                 {\reg}, composed of B. subtilis and L. plantarum,
                 orally administered to Nile tilapia vaccinated against
                 and challenged with S. agalactiae increases protection
                 from infection and modifies the intestinal microbiota
                 profile of the host, promoting the microbiota balance
                 and improving adaptive immune response.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Lokovsek:2022:IFE,
  author =       "Ana Lokov{\v{s}}ek and Martina Orlando-Bonaca and
                 Domen Trkov and Lovrenc Lipej",
  title =        "An Insight into the Feeding Ecology of
                 \bioname{Serranus scriba}, a Shallow Water Mesopredator
                 in the {Northern Adriatic Sea}, with a Non-Destructive
                 Method",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "210",
  day =          "20",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7040210",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 27 12:39:12 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/4/210",
  abstract =     "Serranus scriba is a common member of the coastal fish
                 community in the Adriatic Sea, but knowledge about its
                 feeding ecology is scarce. The aim of this paper is to
                 present new evidence about its food preferences and
                 feeding habits. An innovative non-destructive method of
                 fecal pellet analysis was used for this study. This
                 method does not require sacrificing specimens and the
                 fish can be released back into the sea alive after the
                 laboratory work. The results demonstrated that S.
                 scriba mainly preys on decapods, followed by
                 polychaetes, isopods, fish, mollusks and swarming
                 shrimps. The calculated index of trophic diversity
                 (ITD) value of 0.89 indicates that it is an
                 opportunistic feeder that feeds on a wide range of
                 different prey. According to the calculated trophic
                 level of 3.43, which is higher than that of other
                 members of the community, S. scriba is also an
                 important piscivorous predator. With age, S. scriba
                 undergoes an ontogenetic shift. The proportion of
                 crustaceans, gastropods and polychaetes decreases with
                 age and body size, while the proportion of fish
                 increases.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Garcia-Marquez:2022:FEA,
  author =       "Jorge Garc{\'\i}a-M{\'a}rquez and Isabel M. Cerezo and
                 F{\'e}lix L. Figueroa and Roberto Te{\'o}filo
                 Abdala-D{\'\i}az and Salvador Arijo",
  title =        "First Evaluation of Associated Gut Microbiota in Wild
                 Thick-Lipped Grey Mullets (\bioname{Chelon labrosus},
                 {Risso} 1827)",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "209",
  day =          "19",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7040209",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 27 12:39:12 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =          "https://www.mdpi.com/2410-3888/7/4/209",
  abstract =     "This study aimed to characterize the intestinal
                 microbiota of wild thick-lipped grey mullets (Chelon
                 labrosus) and explore its potential functionality on
                 the host. Intestinal contents of anterior and posterior
                 sections from wild fish were collected and DNA was
                 extracted. Subsequently, the V3--V4 regions of 16S rRNA
                 were sequenced using the Illumina technology and
                 results were analyzed by bioinformatics pipeline. The
                 functional profile of the microbial community was
                 analyzed using PICRUSt software. Shannon and Simpson
                 diversity indices were significantly higher in the
                 posterior section of wild specimens. The overall
                 taxonomic composition suggests a certain homogeneity in
                 the anterior section of the intestine and heterogeneity
                 in the posterior section. Due to this, no statistical
                 differences were detected at any level among both
                 intestinal sections. Predicted functions of intestinal
                 microbiota showed the most abundant were those related
                 to amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism,
                 energy metabolism, membrane transport, and cell
                 replication and repair. Furthermore, the analysis
                 revealed microbial functional genes related to the
                 elimination of environmental toxins.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  journal-URL =  "https://www.mdpi.com/journal/fishes",
}

@Article{Garcia-Fernandez:2022:UDG,
  author =       "Cristina Garc{\'\i}a-Fern{\'a}ndez and Rosario
                 Dom{\'\i}nguez-Petit and Fran Saborido-Rey",
  title =        "The Use of Daily Growth to Analyze Individual Spawning
                 Dynamics in an Asynchronous Population: The Case of the
                 {European} Hake from the Southern Stock",
  journal =      j-FISHES,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "208",
  day =          "18",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2022",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7040208",
  ISSN =         "2410-3888",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 27 12:39:12 MDT 2022",
  bibsource =    "https://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fishes.bib",
  URL =