%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.50",
%%%     date            = "08 June 2022",
%%%     time            = "07:01:29 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "sigmetrics.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "08697 120580 667108 6210474",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review;
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%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a BibTeX bibliography for ACM
%%%                        SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review,
%%%                        the newsletter of the ACM Special Interest
%%%                        Group for the computer/communication system
%%%                        performance community.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has a World Wide Web site at
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/sigmetrics/
%%%                            http://www.sigmetrics.org/
%%%
%%%                        with issue tables of contents at
%%%
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.50, the COMPLETE year coverage
%%%                        looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             1972 (   6)    1989 (  28)    2006 (  79)
%%%                             1973 (  13)    1990 (  59)    2007 ( 101)
%%%                             1974 (  27)    1991 (  49)    2008 ( 103)
%%%                             1975 (  12)    1992 (  52)    2009 (  87)
%%%                             1976 (  25)    1993 (  45)    2010 (  96)
%%%                             1977 (  13)    1994 (  39)    2011 ( 127)
%%%                             1978 (  34)    1995 (  50)    2012 ( 160)
%%%                             1979 (  38)    1996 (  30)    2013 ( 108)
%%%                             1980 (  48)    1997 (  38)    2014 ( 143)
%%%                             1981 (  91)    1998 (  56)    2015 ( 119)
%%%                             1982 (  50)    1999 (  61)    2016 (  97)
%%%                             1983 (   0)    2000 (  63)    2017 ( 128)
%%%                             1984 (  33)    2001 (  88)    2018 ( 160)
%%%                             1985 (  31)    2002 (  67)    2019 (  64)
%%%                             1986 (  34)    2003 (  35)    2020 (  69)
%%%                             1987 (  30)    2004 (  90)    2021 ( 111)
%%%                             1988 (  31)    2005 (  90)    2022 (  24)
%%%
%%%                             Article:       3232
%%%
%%%                             Total entries: 3232
%%%
%%%                        This bibliography was initially built from
%%%                        searches in the ACM Portal database.
%%%
%%%                        Spelling has been verified with the UNIX
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%%%                        exception dictionary stored in the companion
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%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen as
%%%                        name:year:abbrev, where name is the family
%%%                        name of the first author or editor, year is a
%%%                        4-digit number, and abbrev is a 3-letter
%%%                        condensation of important title words.
%%%                        Citation labels were automatically generated
%%%                        by software developed for the BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted in
%%%                        publication order, with the help of
%%%                        bibsort -byvolume''.  The bibsort utility
%%%                        is available from ftp.math.utah.edu in
%%%                        /pub/tex/bib.
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
University of Utah,
Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
155 S 1400 E RM 233,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
\path|beebe@acm.org|,
\path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}


%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-SIGMETRICS            = "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review"}


%%% ====================================================================

@String{pub-ACM                 = "ACM Press"}

%%%

@String{pub-ACM:adr             = "New York, NY 10036, USA"}


%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:

@Article{Keirstead:1972:STC,
author =       "Ralph E. Keirstead and Donn B. Parker",
title =        "Software testing and certification",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "1",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3--8",
month =        mar,
year =         "1972",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041596.1041597",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:42 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Society needs a continuous flow of upgradding products
and services which are responsive to needs, are
reliable, cost-effective and safe. When this does not
occur, excessive regulation and resulting stifled
technology and production results. Excesses in both
directions have occurred in other fields such as
medicine, the automobile industry, petro-chemicals,
motion pictures, building construction and
pharmaceuticals. Disasters based on poor design and
implementation in information processing have occurred
in ballot-counting systems, law enforcement systems,
billing systems, credit systems and dating services.
Business has been undersold and oversold and sometimes
reached the brink of ruin in its increasing reliance on
computer systems. The only answer is a balanced degree
of self-regulation. Such self-regulation for software
systems is presented here.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bell:1972:CME,
author =       "Thomas E. Bell",
title =        "Computer measurement and evaluation: artistry, or
science?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "1",
number =       "2",
pages =        "4--10",
month =        jun,
year =         "1972",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1113640.1113641",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Effort invested in computer measurement and evaluation
is clearly increasing, but the results of this
increasing investment may be unfortunate. The
undeniable value of the results and the enthusiasm of
participants may be leading to unrealizable
expectations. The present artistry needs to be
converted into a science for achieving a solid future;
the most fruitful direction may be the synthesis of
individual, empirical discoveries combined with testing
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Palme:1972:BGM,
author =       "Jacob Palme",
title =        "Beware of the {Gibson} mix",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "1",
number =       "2",
pages =        "10--11",
month =        jun,
year =         "1972",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1113640.1113642",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Evaluation of computer systems is sometimes made using
a so-called Gibson mix. This is a list of common
machine instructions with weights depending on how
often they are supposed to occur in typical programs.
By using these weights to estimate the mean instruction
execution time, the speed' of a computer system is
supposed to be measured.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Johnson:1972:SST,
author =       "Robert R. Johnson",
title =        "Some steps toward an information system performance
theory",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "1",
number =       "3",
pages =        "4--15",
month =        sep,
year =         "1972",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041599.1041600",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A means for representing information handling systems
at the problem, program, and computer level is
presented. This means, Petri Nets, coupled with
classical information theory, provides quantitative
measures of system capacity and thruput as well
measures of the work done.' Concepts of
information-capacity and of information-work are
derived from these probabilistically labeled Petri Nets
based on analogies to thermodynamics. Thruput is
the possible significance of these concepts, their
relationship to classical thermodynamics, and the
directions of continuing thought stimulated by these
concepts.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kernighan:1972:CAO,
author =       "B. W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger and D. J. Plauger",
title =        "On comparing apples and oranges, or, my machine is
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "1",
number =       "3",
pages =        "16--20",
month =        sep,
year =         "1972",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041599.1041601",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In a recent comparison test, six computer
manufacturers were asked to code a particular program
loop to run as quickly as possible on their machine.
Presumably conclusions about the merits of the machines
were to be drawn from the resulting code. We have
reduced the number of Instructions for the loop by an
average of one instruction per machine, a 15\%
decrease. It appears that conclusions might more
appropriately be drawn about manufacturers' software.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lynch:1972:DDA,
author =       "W. C. Lynch",
title =        "Do disk arms move?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "1",
number =       "4",
pages =        "3--16",
month =        dec,
year =         "1972",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041603.1041604",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:54 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Measurement of the lengths of disk arm movements in a
2314 disk storage facility of an IBM 360/67 operating
under the Michigan Terminal System yielded the
unexpected data that the arms need not move in 63\% of
the accesses and need move for an average of only 30ms.
in the remaining 37\% of the cases. A description and
analysis of a possible mechanism of action is
presented. The predictions of this model do not
disagree with the measured data.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

title =        "Language level, a missing concept in information
theory",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "1",
pages =        "7--9",
month =        mar,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041606.1041607",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:57 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "According to Information Theory, [Cf Leon Brillouin,
Science and Information Theory, Academic Press, N. Y.
1956, pp. 292-3], the information content of a table of
numbers does not depend upon how difficult it was to
obtain the entries in the table, but only upon whether
or not we know how, or how precisely we know how, to
reconstruct the entire table or any parts of it.
Consequently, from present Information Theory, since we
know in advance' how a table of since is constructed,
such a table contains absolutely no information. For a
person who does not know in advance' how to construct
a table of sines, however, the table would indeed
contain Information.' This ambiguity apparently
contradicts the basic statement [Leon Brillouin, op.
cit., page 10] that Information is an absolute
quantity which has the same numerical value for any
observer,' a contradiction which remains even when we
accept Brillouin's next statement that The human value
of the information, on the other hand, would
necessarily be a relative quantity, and would have
different values for different observers, according to
the possibility of their understanding it and using it
later.'",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

title =        "An experimental determination of the purity' of a
trivial algorithm",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "1",
pages =        "10--15",
month =        mar,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041606.1041608",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:57 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Recent work in an area which might be designated as
Software Physics [1,2,3,4,5,6] has suggested that the
basic structure of algorithms may offer an interesting
field for experimental research. Such an experiment is
reported here. In an earlier paper [2], it was
suggested that a Second Law' might be stated as:'The
internal quality, LV, of a pure algorithm is
independent of the language in which it is
expressed.'",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Denning:1973:RSC,
author =       "Peter J. Denning",
title =        "Review of {Statistical Computer Performance
Evaluation' by Walter Frieberger; Academic Press
(1972)}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "1",
pages =        "16--22",
month =        mar,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041606.1041611",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:57 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This book is the proceedings of a conference held at
Brown University on November 22-23, 1971. The editors
state that only papers dealing with real data in a
reasonably sophisticated manner were accepted for the
conference. Papers dealing simply with the collection
of data, or with queueing-theoretic models, were
excluded. The papers are grouped into seven sections
corresponding to the seven sessions at the conference;
at the end of each section is a brief statement by the
one or two discussants of that session's papers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Svobodova:1973:CSN,
author =       "Liba Svobodova",
title =        "Communications: Some notes on the {Computer Synectics}
hardware monitor sum",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "1",
pages =        "23--25",
month =        mar,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041606.1041609",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:49:57 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The longer I have been working with the hardware
monitor SUM, a device designed and manufactured by the
Computer Synectics, the less I have been pleased.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ishida:1973:JSU,
author =       "Haruhisa Ishida and Nobumasa Takahashi",
title =        "Job statistics at a 2000-user university computer
center",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "2",
pages =        "2--13",
month =        jun,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1113644.1113645",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:06 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The Computer Centre at the University of Tokyo is one
of 7 large university centers serving researchers
throughout Japan; it processes 120,000 jobs annually
submitted by 2,000 academic users in various research
institutions. A brief comparison of the 7 centers and
the breakdown of users are shown. To clarify the job
characteristics of these users, account data of all
jobs in an entire year were analyzed and the results
are presented. They are shown in terms of the
distribution of CPU time, numbers of input cards/output
pages/output cards, program size, job end conditions
and turnaround time etc. A special on-line card punch
is mentioned which punches holes in the 13th row to
separate output card decks. It was found that, when the
CPU speed was increased 8 times after replacement under
the same operating system, the average job size was
increased 4 times. Hence only twice as many jobs could
be processed. The results of analysis have been used
for systems performance evaluation (for example, the
CPU busy-rate was found to be 69\%), improvement and
for an input job model used in planning for the next
system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Rice:1973:AMC,
author =       "Don R. Rice",
title =        "An analytical model for computer system performance
evaluation",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "2",
pages =        "14--30",
month =        jun,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1113644.1113646",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:06 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes an analytical model of a computer
system useful in the evaluation of system performance.
The model is described in detail while the mathematics
are minimized. Emphasis is placed on the utility of the
model rather than the underlying theory and a number of
illustrative examples are included.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kolence:1973:SE,
author =       "Kenneth W. Kolence",
title =        "The software empiricist",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "2",
pages =        "31--36",
month =        jun,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1113644.1113647",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:06 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The advent of software and hardware monitoring
technology has presented us with a flood of data,
without bringing commensurate understanding by which to
interpret it. Thus, the most important problem before
us in the field of computer measurement is to discover
the relationships between the variables we measure and
the overall system properties of interest.
Particularly, we wish to be able to predict system
behavior and performance from a knowledge of the values
of factors under our control. In this way, not only
will we understand the meanings of these variables, but
we shall learn how to design our systems to perform as
we wish them to. The latter is a prime goal of software
engineering, the former the rational of what has been
called software physics. In this section of the Review
we are and shall be interested in the empirical
development of such an understanding, and the
experimental aspects of computer measurement. Our
intent is to assist in the building of a solid body of
knowledge by providing a publication vehicle for
empirical and experimental data. That is, we have
little interest in publishing theory, which can
normally be done elsewhere. Our goal is to publish
experimental data to support or refute theory, and
empirical data from which theory builders may take
their inspiration.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kolence:1973:SUP,
author =       "Kenneth W. Kolence and Philip J. Kiviat",
title =        "Software unit profiles \& {Kiviat} figures",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "3",
pages =        "2--12",
month =        sep,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041613.1041614",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:12 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In the June, 1973 issue of the {\em Performance
Evaluation Review}, the concept of using circular
graphs (called Kiviat graphs by Kolence) to present
system performance data was introduced in the column
to report on some recent work in using such graphs to
present system and program profiles in a strikingly
visual way of potential use to all practitioners of
computer measurement. In discussing this data, we find
it necessary to comment on the meaning of the variables
used for such profiles in a way which also should be of
interest to practitioners.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Denning:1973:WOA,
author =       "Peter J. Denning",
title =        "Why our approach to performance evaluation is
{SDRAWKCAB}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "3",
pages =        "13--16",
month =        sep,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041613.1041615",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:12 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "What does SDRAWKCAB mean? Some of you already know;
some I have told; some have guessed. But many do not
know. Those who do know, know it would be contrary to
the theme of SDRAWKCAB to tell you immediately what it
means, although it certainly would make things much
easier if I told you now.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Beck:1973:CSL,
author =       "Norman Beck and Gordon Ashby",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "3",
pages =        "17--20",
month =        sep,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041613.1041616",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:12 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to report some data
programs. The data was collected on a PDP-10, using
prologue generated for FORTRAN complied programs, by
the addition of one UUO (a programmed operation similar
to an SVC on IBM 360/370), and several cells in the
monitor used as counters. The data covers the number of
This data is broken down between programs that were
eventually executed. It is further classified according
to periods of heavy use for program development and
periods of heavy production use.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kolence:1973:SEE,
author =       "Ken Kolence",
title =        "The software empiricist experimental disciplines \&
computer measurements",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "3",
pages =        "21--23",
month =        sep,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041613.1041617",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:12 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The introduction and use of the capability for
quantitative measurements into the field of computer
science must inexorably lead to the development and use
of experimental approaches and techniques to discover,
understand, and verify relationships between the
observables of what is today loosely called computer
performance. The reason for this column appearing as a
regular feature in PER is to assist in the process of
bridging the gap in both directions between the
practitioners and theorists of the field. In the first
column in this series, we introduced the concepts of
empiricism and the initial discoveries of invariances
of values as foundations of this new aspect of computer
science. With this issue, we shall begin to investigate
the requirements and methodologies by which this
approach can be applied to the common benefit of both
the practical and theoretical orientations. When a
particular topic can be demonstrated with actual data
or equivalent means, it will be the topic of a separate
article.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hughes:1973:UHM,
author =       "James Hughes and David Cronshaw",
title =        "On using a hardware monitor as an intelligent
peripheral",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "4",
pages =        "3--19",
month =        dec,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1113650.1113651",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:20 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Conventionally, hardware monitoring has been performed
using manually controlled off-line devices. It is
suggested that a hardware monitor incorporating program
control and acting as an intelligent peripheral device
would realize greater utility and wider application.
The development and application of such a device is
described; a combination of the merits of both software
and hardware monitoring techniques is claimed for it.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Svobodova:1973:MCS,
author =       "Liba Svobodova",
title =        "Measuring computer system utilization with a hardware
and a hybrid monitor",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "2",
number =       "4",
pages =        "20--34",
month =        dec,
year =         "1973",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1113650.1113652",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:20 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Computer system utilization is generally measured in
terms of the utilization of individual system
components and the overlap of activities of two or more
system components. This type of data can be used to
construct a system performance profile [BONN 69, COCI
71, SUM 70]. Utilization of a system component is
obtained as the ratio (unit busy time)/(total elapsed
time). If a particular unit performs more than one type
of operation, the unit busy time may be further divided
into portions corresponding to different activities and
an activity profile can be constructed for each such
unit. For a storage unit, information about utilization
of different portions of storage might be desirable in
addition to utilization of this unit as a whole. A
space utilization profile Can be developed in this
case. To cover both cases, the term unit utilization
profile is used.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Wortman:1974:NHR,
author =       "David B. Wortman",
title =        "A note on high resolution timing",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3--9",
month =        mar,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041619.1041620",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:24 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The ability to accurately time the execution of
sequences of machine instructions is an important tool
in the tuning and evaluation of computer hardware and
software. The complexity of modern hardware and
software systems often makes accurate timing
information difficult to obtain [1]. This note
describes an experimental comparison of timing
information provided by a large multiprogramming
operating system (OS/360 MVT) with timing information
derived directly from a high resolution hardware clock.
The hardware clock was found to be a superior source of
timing information.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Snyder:1974:QSA,
author =       "Rowan Snyder",
title =        "A quantitative study of the addition of extended core
storage",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "1",
pages =        "10--33",
month =        mar,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041619.1041621",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:24 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In evaluating computer systems it is necessary to
identify the prime determinants of system performance,
and to quantify a performance metric. The purpose of
this paper is to present a quantitative study of the
effects of a significant hardware reconfiguration on
some measures of system performance, and thereby
demonstrate the effectiveness of Kiviat graphs in
performance analysis.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Merrill:1974:TCA,
author =       "H. E. Barry Merrill",
title =        "A technique for comparative analysis of {Kiviat}
graphs",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "1",
pages =        "34--39",
month =        mar,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041619.1041622",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:24 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The article in September, 1973 Performance Evaluation
Review demonstrated again the utility of the Kiviat
Graph as a visual display of system profiles. A simple
extension of the concept of the Kiviat Graph permits a
realistic (though not necessarily linear) comparison of
two Kiviat graphs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Peterson:1974:CSH,
author =       "Thomas G. Peterson",
title =        "A comparison of software and hardware monitors",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "2",
pages =        "2--5",
month =        jun,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041687.1041688",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Tests were performed to compare the accuracy of two
computer system monitors. Specifically, results from a
hardware monitor were compared with results from a
software monitor. Some of the subreports produced by
the software monitor were quite accurate; other
subreports were not quite so accurate, but they were
consistent from run to run. In view of these test
results, it appears that the software monitor can be
used to measure the effects of changes made in a system
tuning project.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Syms:1974:BCT,
author =       "Gordon H. Syms",
title =        "Benchmarked comparison of terminal support systems for
{IBM 360} computers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "2",
pages =        "6--34",
month =        jun,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041687.1041689",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A set of terminal scripts and benchmarks were derived
for comparing the performance of time sharing and batch
computer operating systems. Some of the problems
encountered in designing valid benchmarks for comparing
computer operating systems under both terminal and
batch loads are discussed. The results of comparing
TSS/360, CP/67 and MTS time sharing systems for the IBM
360/67 over a wide range of load conditions are
presented. The results of comparing TSS, MTS and OS/MVT
under batch loads are also presented. The tests were
conducted with Simplex and Dual processor
configurations with 256K bytes to 768K bytes of main
memory. The conclusions were quite surprising in that
CP/67 running on a minimal system performed
competitively with TSS/360 on a much larger dual
processor system. With equal configurations CP/67 out
performed TSS/360 by a wide margin. Furthermore, MTS
providing both batch and terminal support produced
performance that was 5 percent to 25 percent better
than the split configuration with CP/67 providing the
terminal support and OS/MVT providing the batch
processing support. Serious performance degradation of
experienced and a simple solution is suggested to
as to render the performance less than that of a
sequential job processor system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Morris:1974:KGC,
author =       "Michael F. Morris",
title =        "{Kiviat} graphs: conventions and figures of merit'",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "3",
pages =        "2--8",
month =        oct,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041691.1041692",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:36 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Once in a very great while an idea comes along that
quickly captures many imaginations. The circular
graphic technique proposed nearly two years ago by Phil
Kiviat, our illustrious Chairman, and very
appropriately named Kiviat Graphs' by our erst-while
(and sorely missed) Software Empiricist,' Ken Kolence,
is one of these ideas.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lujanac:1974:NSB,
author =       "Paul L. Lujanac",
title =        "A note on {Syms}' benchmarked comparison",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "3",
pages =        "9--10",
month =        oct,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041691.1041693",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:36 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "If the load factor is expressed linearly as a fraction
of the capacity of a terminal-oriented system, we
assume that response times increase more or less
exponentially with an increase in load factor. Syms'
load factor is nonlinear, and, in fact, was designed to
make the terminal response times approximately a
linear function of the load factors.'",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Graham:1974:MPB,
author =       "G. Scott Graham and Peter J. Denning",
title =        "Multiprogramming and program behavior",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "1--8",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809367",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Dynamic multiprogramming memory management strategies
are classified and compared using extant test data.
Conclusions about program behavior are then drawn.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Brandwain:1974:MPV,
author =       "A. Brandwain and J. Buzen and E. Gelenbe and D.
Potier",
title =        "A model of performance for virtual memory systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "9--9",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007773.809368",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Queueing network models are well suited for analyzing
certain resource allocation problems associated with
operating system design. An example of such a problem
is the selection of the level of multiprogramming in
virtual memory systems. If the number of programs
actively competing for main memory is allowed to reach
too high a value, trashing will occur and performance
will be seriously degraded. On the other hand,
performance may also suffer if the level of
multiprogramming drops too low since system resources
can become seriously under utilized in this case. Thus
it is important for virtual memory systems to maintain
optimal or near optimal levels of multiprogramming at
all times. This paper presents an analytic model of
computer system behavior which can be used to study
multiprogramming optimization in virtual memory
systems. The model, which explicitly represents the
numerous interactions which occur as the level of
multiprogramming varies, is used to numerically
generate performance curves for representative sets of
parameters. A simplified model consisting of a CPU and
a single backing store device is then used to derive an
approximate expression for the optimal level of
multiprogramming. The simplified model is also used to
examine the transient behavior of such systems. The
mathematical model we present is based on some
simplifying assumptions; in particular all programs
executing in the system are supposed to be
statistically identical. In this respect the model we
present must be considered to be a theoretical
explanation of a phenomenon (thrashing) observed in
certain operating systems rather than an exact
representation of reality. Certain assumptions of the
mathematical model are relaxed in a simulation model
where distribution functions of service times at the
secondary memory and input-output devices are
arbitrary; by comparison with the theoretical results
we see that CPU utilization and throughput are not very
sensitive to the specific forms of these distributions
and that the usual exponential assumptions yield quite
satisfactory results. The simulation model is also
programmed to contain overhead. Again we observe that
the mathematical model's predictions are in fair
agreement with the useful CPU utilization predicted by
the simulation experiments.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
xxnote =       "Check: author may be Brandwajn??",
}

@Article{Henderson:1974:OCW,
author =       "Greg Henderson and Juan Rodriguez-Rosell",
title =        "The optimal choice of window sizes for working set
dispatching",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "10--33",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809369",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The concept of varying window size in a working set
dispatcher to control working set size and number of
page faults is examined. A space-time cost equation is
developed and used to compare fixed window size to
variable window size for different types of secondary
storage based on the simulated execution of real
programs. A general approach is indicated for studying
the relative merit of the two dispatching algorithms
and their interaction with different hardware
configurations.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Dispatching; Optimal control; Resource allocation;
Supervisory systems; Time-sharing systems; Working
set",
}

@Article{Denning:1974:CLP,
author =       "Peter J. Denning",
title =        "Comments on a linear paging model",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "34--48",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809370",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The linear approximation relating mean time between
page transfers between levels of memory, as reported by
Saltzer for Multics, is examined. It is tentatively
concluded that this approximation is untenable for main
memory, especially under working set policies; and that
the linearity of the data for the drum reflects the
behavior of the Multics scheduler for background jobs,
not the behavior of programs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Brice:1974:FCR,
author =       "Richard S. Brice and J. C. Browne",
title =        "Feedback coupled resource allocation policies in the
multiprogramming-multiprocessor computer system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "49--53",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809371",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents model studies of some integrated
feedback-driven scheduling systems for a
multiprogrammed computer system. This abstract can
present only the conclusions of the studies and little
of the supporting data and detail. The basic format of
the analysis is to fix a size for the local buffers and
a total size for the collection buffers, to define a
set of algorithms for the determination of the data
removal quanta to the local buffers, the allocation of
space in the collection buffers, and the look-ahead
mechanism for input and then to evaluate the relative
merits of the various strategies by the resulting CPU
efficiency. Three feedback algorithms are studied as
examples in this work.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Halachmi:1974:CCT,
author =       "Baruch Halachmi and W. R. Franta",
title =        "A closed, cyclic, two-stage multiprogrammed system
model and its diffusion approximation solution",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "54--64",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007773.809372",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper attention is focused on closed
multiprogrammed computer type systems. In particular,
two-stage closed queueing systems are considered. The
first stage can be associated with the CPU (Central
Processing Unit) and the other with the I/O
(Input-Output) operations. For all the models
discussed. For the first model we consider the
{GI1/MS/N} system, which allows the service times of a
single CPU to obey any general probability
distribution, with finite variance, while the I/O
servers are taken to be exponential. The second model
is an extension of the first where the concept of
feedback is implemented in the CPU stage. This concept
plays an important role in computer environments where
the operating system includes the multiplexing or page
on demand property. The third model, the {MS1/MS2/N},
deals with multiprocessing computer systems where
possibly more than one CPU is available, but all
servers are assumed to be exponential. In the spirit of
the approximation to the GI/G/S open system, as a final
model, we construct the approximate solution to the
{GIS1/GIS2/N} closed system and discuss the
circumstances under which its use is advisable. Several
numerical examples for each of the models are given,
each accompanied by appropriate simulation results for
comparison. It is on the basis of these comparisons
that the quality of the suggested diffusion
approximations can be judged. The diffusion
approximating formulas should be regarded not only as a
numerical technique, but also as a simplifying
approach, by which deeper insight can be gained into
complicated queueing systems. Considerable work remains
to be done, using as a methodology the approach, given
here, and several possible extensions are presented.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Schwetman:1974:ATS,
author =       "H. D. Schwetman",
title =        "Analysis of a time-sharing subsystem (a preliminary
report)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "65--75",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809373",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The MESA subsystem provides a wide variety of services
to remotely located users of the computing facilities
of the Purdue University Computing Center. This paper
presents the preliminary steps of an in-depth study
into the behavior of MESA. The study uses a software
data-gathering facility to analyze the usage and
queueing aspects of this behavior and to provide values
for parameters used by two models of the subsystem.
These models, a network-of-queues model and a
simulation model, are designed to project subsystem
behavior in different operating environments. The paper
includes a number of tables and figures which highlight
the results, so far, of the study.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Reiser:1974:ASC,
author =       "M. Reiser and A. G. Konheim",
title =        "The analysis of storage constraints by a queueing
network model with blocking",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "76--81",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809374",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The finite capacity of storage has a significant
effect on the performance of a contemporary computer
system. Yet it is difficult to formulate this problem
and analyze it by existing queueing network models. We
present an analysis of an open queueing model with two
servers in series in which the second server has finite
storage capacity. This network is an exponential
service system; the arrival of requests into the system
is modeled by a Poisson process (of rate $\lambda$) and
service times in each stage are exponentially
distributed (with rates $\alpha$ and $\beta$
respectively). Requests are served in each stage
according to the order of their arrival. The principal
characteristic of the service in this network is
blocking; when $M$ requests are queued or in service in
the second stage, the server in the first stage is
blocked and ceases to offer service. Service resumes in
the first stage when the queue length in the second
stage falls to $M - 1$. Neuts [1] has studied two-stage
blocking networks (without feedback) under more general
statistical hypothesis than ours. Our goal is to
provide an algorithmic solution which may be more
accessible to engineers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Schatzoff:1974:SVT,
author =       "M. Schatzoff and C. C. Tillman",
title =        "Statistical validation of a trace-driven simulator",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "82--93",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809375",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A common problem encountered in computer system
simulation is that of validating that the simulator can
produce, with a reasonable degree of accuracy, the same
information that can be obtained from the modelled
system. This is basically a statistical problem because
there are usually limitations with respect to the
number of controlled tests which can be carried out,
and assessment of the fidelity of the model is a
function of the signal to noise ratio. That is, the
magnitude of error which can be tolerated depends upon
the size of the effect to be predicted. In this paper,
we describe by example how techniques of statistical
design and analysis of experiments have been used to
validate the modeling of the dispatching algorithm of a
time sharing system. The examples are based on a
detailed, trace-driven simulator of CP-67. They show
that identical factorial experiments involving
parameters of this algorithm, when carried out on both
the simulator and on the actual system, produced
statistically comparable effects.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ferrari:1974:GPS,
author =       "Domenico Ferrari and Mark Liu",
title =        "A general-purpose software measurement tool",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "94--105",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809376",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A software measurement tool designed for the users of
PRIME, an interactive system being developed, is
presented. The tool, called SMT, allows its user to
instrument a program, modify a pre-existing
instrumentation and specify how the collected data are
to be reduced by typing in a few simple commands. The
user can also write his own measurement routines, which
specify the actions to be taken at event detection
time, and submit them to the SMT; after checking their
correctness, the SMT deals with them as with its
built-in, standard measurement routines. The design
goals of a general-purpose tool like the SMT are
discussed, and the prototype version of the tool, which
has been implemented, is described from the two
distinct viewpoints of a user and of a measurement-tool
designer. An example of the application of the
prototype to a measurement problem is illustrated, the
reasons why not all of the design goals have been
achieved in the implementation of the prototype are
reviewed, and some of the foreseeable extensions of the
SMT are described.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Foley:1974:EDD,
author =       "James D. Foley and John W. McInroy",
title =        "An event-driven data collection and analysis facility
for a two-computer network",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "106--120",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809377",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper we describe an event-driven data
collection facility, and a general-purpose program to
perform a set of analyses on the collected data. There
are several features which distinguish this facility
from others. First, the system being monitored is a
network of loosely-coupled computers. Although there
are just two computers in the network, the facility
could be readily extended to larger networks. Second,
the main purpose of the facility is to monitor the
execution of interactive graphics application programs
whose processing and data are distributed between the
network's computers. Third, the data collector and
analyzer are readily extendible to treat new kinds of
data. This is accomplished by a data and event
independent collector, and a table-driven data
analyzer.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Batson:1974:MVM,
author =       "A. P. Batson and R. E. Brundage",
title =        "Measurements of the virtual memory demands of
{Algol-60} programs (Extended Abstract)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "121--126",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007773.809378",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Programming languages such as Algol-60 use block
structure to express the way in which the name space of
the current environment, in the contour model (1) sense
of that word, changes during program execution. This
dynamically-varying name space corresponds to the
virtual memory required by the process during its
execution on a computer system. The research to be
presented is an empirical study of the nature of the
memory demands made by a collection of Algol-60
programs during execution. The essential
characteristics of any such resource request are the
amount of memory requested, and the holding time for
which the resource is retained and these distributions
will be presented for several components of the virtual
memory required by the Algol programs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sebastian:1974:HHE,
author =       "Peter R. Sebastian",
title =        "{HEMI} ({Hybrid Events Monitoring Instrument})",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "127--139",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007773.809379",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "HEMI is an experimental instrumentation system being
developed for use with the CYBER 70 and 170 Series
computers in order to ascertain the extent to which an
integrated approach to instrumentation is economically
and technologically viable for performance measurement
and evaluation purposes. HEMI takes advantage of the
distributed CYBER computer architecture. This consists
of a pool of Peripheral Processors (PPs) --- (mainly
dedicated to I/O and system tasks) while the CPU
capabilities are reserved mostly for computation;
Central Memory constitutes the communications link.
HEMI uses one of the PPs as its major processor. A
hardware data acquisition front end is interfaced to
one of the I/O channels and driven by the PP. Hardware
probes sample events at suitable testpoints, while the
System tables and parameters), Status Registers, I/O
Channel Flags, etc. A data reduction package is used to
produce a variety of reports from the data collected. A
limited on-line data reduction and display capability
is also provided. This paper will describe the current
status of the project as well as anticipated
applications of HEMI.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Cox:1974:IAC,
author =       "Springer W. Cox",
title =        "Interpretive analysis of computer system performance",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "140--155",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007773.809380",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A typical performance evaluation consists of the
identification of resources, the definition of system
boundaries, the measurement of external and internal
performance variables, and finally the interpretation
of data and projection of system performance to
hypothetical environments. These projections may be
used to estimate the cost savings to be expected when
changes are made to the system. The fundamental
external performance measures such as response time and
thruput are intimately related, but may be defined
differently depending on how the system is defined.
They can be analyzed with respect to the internal
performance measures (such as activities, queue lengths
and busy times) by applying one or more interpretations
such as: absolute utilizations, normalized busy times,
system profiles, analysis of response, workload
relaxation, and resource consumption hyperplanes. These
models, which are generally free of assumptions
regarding interarrival and service time distributions,
can be adjusted to represent potential changes to the
system. Then the interpretations may be used to
evaluate the predicted external performance measures.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Noe:1974:DYC,
author =       "J. D. Noe and N. W. Runstein",
title =        "Develop your computer performance pattern",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "156--165",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007773.809381",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Is the load on your computer shifting? Did that change
to faster access disks really help? Would more core
memory increase throughput appreciably, or would it be
necessary to also increase central processor power?
These are three quite different kinds of questions; one
concerns detecting a long-term trend, another assessing
the effects of a system change, and a third estimating
effects of the decision to alter the configuration. Yet
all of these require knowledge of current and past
system performance, the type of knowledge that must be
the result of long-term performance monitoring. This is
not simple enough to be picked up overnight or in one
series of experiments, nor can it be assessed by
watching one or two parameters over a long period. One
must have a thorough understanding of the pattern of
performance by knowing the mean values of a number of
measures and knowing something about the variations
from these means. This paper hardly needs to recommend
that computer managers establish an understanding of
performance pattern; they already are very conscious of
the need. What it does is recount development of a
method of doing so for the CDC 6400 at the University
of Washington and of the selection of Kiviat Graphs''
as a means to present data in a synoptic form. The
remainder of this paper will give a brief account of
the authors' experience in designing a measurement
system for the CDC 6400 at the University of Washington
Computer Center. This will include comments on the
approach to deciding what to measure and display for
the synoptic view of the system, as well as how to
provide more detailed data for backup. Examples of the
use of Kiviat Graphs [4] to show the effects of load
shift and of a system configuration change are
included, and the effect of a change of operating
system will be noted.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Brotherton:1974:CCC,
author =       "D. E. Brotherton",
title =        "The computer capacity curve --- a prerequisite for
computer performance evaluation and improvement",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "166--179",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809382",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Measurements of themselves have tended to concentrate
on specific computer configuration components (e.g.,
problem program optimization, operating system
optimization, etc.) rather than at the total computer
configuration level. As a consequence, since these
components can have a high degree of interaction, the
requirement currently exists for a workable
configuration performance concept which will reflect
the configuration performance change that is the
resultant of single or multiple component change. It is
the author's opinion that such a concept will provide
management and measurement specialists a planning and
analysis tool that can be well Used in evaluating the
costs. It is to this configuration performance concept
that this paper is addressed, and the concept by my
choosing is named The Computer Capacity Curve.''",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Erikson:1974:VCU,
author =       "Warren J. Erikson",
title =        "The value of {CPU} utilization as a criterion for
computer system usage",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "180--187",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007773.809383",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "It is generally agreed that a computer system's CPU
utilization means little by itself, but there has been
only a limited amount of research to determine the
value of CPU utilization when used with other
performance measures. This paper focuses on
time-sharing systems (or similar systems such as some
remote batch systems) as viewed by someone who wants to
minimize the mean cost per job run on the system. The
paper considers cost per job to include both the
computer cost (as allocated among all the jobs run on
the system) and the user cost (where user cost is the
time spent waiting for a response from the system
multiplied by the user's wage rate). Given this
approach, cost per job is a function of some constants
(user wage rate, computer system cost, and mean
processing time per job) and only one variable (CPU
utilization). The model thus developed can be used to
determine the optimum CPU utilization for any system.
It can also be used to determine the value of different
tuning efforts.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

author =       "M. Badel and E. Gelenbe and J. Leroudier and D. Potier
and J. Lenfant",
title =        "Adaptive optimization of the performance of a virtual
memory computer",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "188--188",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007773.809384",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "It is known that the regulation of the degree of
multiprogramming is perhaps one of the most important
factors determining the overall performance of a
virtual memory computer. In this paper we present an
approach which differs some what from the approaches
usually taken to regulate the degree of
multiprogramming, which are mainly derived from the
working-set principles. We design a controller which
will regulate the system in order to optimize a given
performance measure. The controller is applied to a
system where the critical resource is primary memory,
and we are only concerned with systems where
ineffective regulation leads to the phenomenon known as
thrashing due to extensive paging activity. In the
first section, the dynamics of the system we wish to
regulate are investigated using an analytical model.
The system consists of a set of terminals and of a
resource loop (CPU, secondary memory device, file disk)
shared by the users. Using classical assumptions about
program behavior (e.g., life-time function), the
throughput of the RL is obtained as a function of the
degree of multiprogramming $n$ (number of users sharing
the resources at a given instant of time) and of the
system parameters. This result provides a greater
insight of the plant'' we wish to control. The
mathematical results are validated and extended with
data from simulation experiments using a more detailed
model (overheads and non-exponential assumption). In
the next section, a criterion called dilatation''
based on the utilization of the different resources is
defined. From the analytical and simulation results of
the first section, it can be shown that there exists a
value no of the degree of multiprogramming which
maximizes this criterion. The regulation of $n$ to no
is achieved by controlling the access of the users to
the RL. The value of no is estimated in real-time
through a continuous estimation of the two first
moments of the criterion. Using these estimations, the
decision of introducing or not a new user in the RL is
taken whenever a user leaves a terminal or departs from
the RL. Extensive simulation experiments were
conducted, where the implementation of the different
functions of the controller have been thoroughly
simulated. They have shown that the control scheme
leaves to an improvement of the system performance in
mean response time and resource utilization, and,
overall, adapts in real-time the degree of
multiprogramming to the characteristics of the users
(the adaptation is performed in 4 sec. or so for a unit
variation of the optimal degree of multiprogramming). A
discussion of practical application of results ends the
paper.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kimbleton:1974:BCS,
author =       "Stephen R. Kimbleton",
title =        "Batch computer scheduling: {A} heuristically motivated
approach",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "189--198",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809385",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Efficient scheduling of jobs for computer systems is a
problem of continuing concern. The applicability of
scheduling methodology described in the operations
research literature is severely restricted by the
dimensionality of job characteristics, the number of
distinct resource types comprising a computer system,
the non-deterministic nature of the system due to both
interprocess interaction and contention, and the
existence of a multitude of constraints effecting job
initiation times, job completion times, and job
interactions. In view of the large number of issues
which must be considered in job scheduling, a heuristic
approach seems appropriate. This paper describes an
initial implementation of such an approach based upon a
fast, analytically driven, performance prediction
tool.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sharp:1974:APD,
author =       "Joseph C. Sharp and James N. Roberts",
title =        "An adaptive policy driven scheduler",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "3",
number =       "4",
pages =        "199--208",
month =        dec,
year =         "1974",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800277.809386",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:50:41 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The theory of policy driven schedulers (Ref. [1]) is
extended to cover cases in which the scheduling
parameters are allowed to adapt dynamically as the
system's job load varies. The system under
consideration offers batch, time sharing and limited
real time services. Data from simulated and live loads
are presented to evaluate both the static and the
adaptive schedulers. A policy driven scheduler makes
its decisions with respect to a set of policy
functions, fi(t). Each of the policy functions
corresponds to a different type of user and specifies
the amount of computing resources that the system will
try to give a user in that group within a given total
amount of elapsed time. It is found that the policy
functions must be set conservatively in order to avoid
response problems during periods of heavy load, but
that during more lightly loaded periods the
conservative settings result in widely disparate rates
of service to similar jobs. One solution is to vary the
policy functions as the job load changes. A dynamic
algorithm is presented that maintains responsiveness
during heavy loads and provides fairly uniform service
rates at other times.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Merrill:1975:FCC,
author =       "H. W. Barry Merrill",
title =        "Further comments on comparative evaluation of {Kiviat}
graphs",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1--10",
month =        jan,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041695.1041696",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:18 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Mike Morris has presented an excellent discussion in
these pages (1) of the use of Kiviat Graphs for
Computer Performance Evaluation, referencing another
fine article (2) which proposed a technique for
analytic comparisons (rankings) of these Graphs. Morris
also proposes that these techniques may be very useful
in describing system performance, and suggests a
different method for calculation of Figures of Merit'
of Kiviat Graphs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Stevens:1975:NFM,
author =       "Barry A. Stevens",
title =        "A note on figure of merit",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "1",
pages =        "11--19",
month =        jan,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041695.1041697",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:18 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Since Merrill proposed a Figure of Merit (FOM) for use
in interpretation of the Kiviat Graph (KG), the FOM has
found its way into at least one computer program to
plot those graphs, and has been the subject of further
discussion and amplification and has had alternate
computation methods proposed and rebutted.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bell:1975:MCP,
author =       "Thomas E. Bell",
title =        "Managing computer performance with control limits",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "1",
pages =        "21--28",
month =        jan,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041695.1041698",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:18 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Dr. Bell received his doctorate in Operations
Management from the University of California at Los
Angeles in 1968. He immediately joined the Rand
Corporation as a Member of the Technical Staff in its
Computer Science Department and undertook research in
the simulation and perfomance improvement of computing
systems. During this research he participated in the
definition of the Extendable Computer System Simulator,
the development of a methodology for computer
performance improvement, and analysis of large,
multi-machine computer installations. He also analyzed
requirements for future command-and-control systems and
for logistic systems, in order to determine required
system functions and hardware size. He left Rand in
early 1974 to join the Software Research and Technology
Staff of TRW Systems Group where he is currently
developing improved techniques to specify the
requirements of computer software systems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Browne:1975:AMP,
author =       "J. C. Browne",
title =        "An analysis of measurement procedures for computer
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "1",
pages =        "29--32",
month =        jan,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041695.1041699",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:18 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper purports to be a partial record of the
by SIGMETRICS at the 1974 ACM National Conference in
San Diego. All of the material covered in the talk is
not included here primarily because it appears in other
contexts or in the presentations of other speakers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Terplan:1975:COR,
author =       "Kornel Terplan",
title =        "Cost-optimal reliability of data processing systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "2",
pages =        "1--12",
month =        apr,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041701.1041702",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:24 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "With the advent of third generation computing systems,
the increase in complexity and power has reached a
degree which exceeds the human ability to understand,
to analyze, to predict, and to optimize system
performance and reliability. The only method that can
help is measurement. In defining measurement purposes,
one has to define which measurable quantities in the
system are significant and which may be ignored. But,
at the present time, we do not know in general what is
relevant in the measurements. For the sake of clarity,
it is useful to define several levels of measurement
organizational level --- computer center level-
computing system level --- job level --- computer
subsystem level.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Landwehr:1975:USM,
author =       "Carl E. Landwehr",
title =        "Usage statistics for {MTS}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "2",
pages =        "13--23",
month =        apr,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041701.1041703",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:24 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The following report is presented in response to
Professor Browne's request for case studies of
performance measurement projects; this study takes a
macroscopic view of a large-scale time sharing and
batch processing installation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Reddy:1975:EEM,
author =       "Y. V. Reddy",
title =        "Experimental evaluation of a multiprogrammed computer
system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "2",
pages =        "24--32",
month =        apr,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041701.1041704",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:24 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper reports on the design and analysis of a
statistical experiment conducted on a live' job stream
to determine the effect of segment size used for
storage allocation on the system performance.
Performance measures selected are turnaround time,
total cost and CPU utilization. The experiment consists
of one factor, the segment size, at five levels.
Uncontrolled factors such as EXCP's (number of I/O
starts) and core usage are included as covariates in
the analysis of variance. This experiment is part of a
continuing activity of Measurement, Evaluation and
Simulation. It is designed to provide data for
improving performance incrementally. The results of the
experiment provided an optimal segment size for the
given classing/scheduling algorithm and core-layout.
Design objectives and details of the analysis are also
presented.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bhandarkar:1975:PAM,
author =       "Dileep P. Bhandarkar",
title =        "A practical application of memory interference
models",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "2",
pages =        "33--39",
month =        apr,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041701.1041705",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:24 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper briefly describes an approximate Markov
chain model for memory interference in a multiprocessor
system like C.mmp. The modeling assumptions explain the
level of abstraction at which the analysis is carried
out. Some empirical measurements are presented to
determine the model parameters for C.mmp. The analytic
results obtained from the model are compared with some
measured and simulation results.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bahr:1975:NFM,
author =       "Dieter Bahr",
title =        "A note on figures of merit",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "3",
pages =        "1--3",
month =        jul,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041707.1041708",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:31 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "There are different ways to compute figures of merit
(FOM). You may use Morris' [1] or Merrill's method [2]
or create any new one. But, in my opinion, that does
not answer the question whether these numbers are
nonsense or not.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Boehm:1975:ICP,
author =       "B. W. Boehm and T. E. Bell",
title =        "Issues in computer performance evaluation: some
consensus, some divergence",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "3",
pages =        "4--39",
month =        jul,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041707.1041709",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:31 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper summarizes the results of an ACM/NBS
Workshop on Computer Performance Evaluation. Computer
Performance Evaluation (CPE) was selected as the
subject of an ACM/NBS Workshop because of the
significant leverage CPE activities can have on
computer usage. This paper describes a number of
conclusions abstracted from the discussions as well as
presenting recommendations formally adopted by the
participants. While several of these conclusions
indicate that improvements are needed in performance
analysis tools, another suggests that improved
application of CPE could be achieved by better
documentation of analysis approaches. More integration
of data collection and modeling are considered
necessary for the performance analysis field to develop
its full potential. Participants noted that the common
emphasis on data collection or modeling, to the
exclusion of considering objectives, often seriously
degrades the value of performance analyses; the only
savings that really count from a performance analysis
are the ones that appear on the bottom line of the
balance sheet.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Barber:1975:BC,
author =       "Eric Ole Barber and Arne Asphjell and Arve Dispen",
title =        "Benchmark construction",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "4",
pages =        "3--14",
month =        oct,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041711.1041712",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:35 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A partially automated method of generating benchmarks
for comparison of EXEC 8 with other systems has been
developed as one step in preparation for choosing a new
computer at the University of Trondheim.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Marrevee:1975:MPP,
author =       "J. P. Marrev{\'e}e",
title =        "Measurements of the {Philips P1400} multiprogramming
system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "4",
number =       "4",
pages =        "15--45",
month =        oct,
year =         "1975",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041711.1041713",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:35 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A number of performance measurements have been made on
a Philips P1000 computer under its Multiprogramming
System (MPS) in a business applications environment.
All measurements were collected by software monitoring
programs which were developed with the following
objectives in mind: general applicability; minimum
overhead; and, as much as possible, independence of
Monitor releases.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Wright:1976:AET,
author =       "Linda S. Wright and William A. Burnette",
title =        "An approach to evaluating time sharing systems:
{MH-TSS} a case study",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1",
pages =        "8--28",
month =        jan,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041715.1041716",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The authors conducted a benchmark measurement of the
Murray Hill Time Sharing System (MH-TSS) running on a
Honeywell 6000. The object of the test was to duplicate
the load normally present on the Murray Hill production
system, and measure the system's behavior before and
after a major software release and a major hardware
improvement. Five different load levels, from 30 to 90
users, were measured for each configuration. This paper
discusses the methods used in the design of the
experiment and in the analysis and interpretation of
the results. Several measurement tools were used in
this test. The event trace collection facility of
MH-TSS was used for the benchmark measurement and for
the design and fine tuning of a scrint representing the
normal load at Murray Hill. A commercially available
H6000-specific terminal simulator was used to feed
these scripts to the system. The batch background
system was loaded by a stream of synthetic jobs,
matched in resource usage characteristics to a set of
jobs chosen at random from the job stream of the
production system. The event trace data gathered at
various load levels under the three software and
hardware configurations were analyzed using two
techniques employing a state transition representation
of program behavior and system response. The result was
a set of data which documents the expected performance
improvements for the new software and hardware being
installed at Murray Hill, and which suggests the
expected growth potential for MH-TSS.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "event trace; monitoring; operating systems; queuing
networks; response time; state transition models",
}

@Article{Calcagni:1976:SRK,
author =       "John M. Calcagni",
title =        "Shape in ranking {Kiviat} graphs",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1",
pages =        "35--37",
month =        jan,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041715.1041717",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to address the topic of
ranking or comparing Kiviat Graphs. Several articles
have appeared on the subject. For background
information the reader is directed to the original
article by Philip Kiviat and Kenneth Kolence (1) and to
the articles on ranking by Barry Merrill (2, 4) and
Michael Morris. The main emphasis here will be on
showing how automatic inclusion of axis-value
normalizations and hence of pattern normalization can
be achieved. It is hoped that this will be one way of
making the ranking of Kiviat Graphs more meaningful and
hence more useful. Pattern recognition is, after all,
one of the main reasons for using the Kiviat Graph
technique.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Eisenfeld:1976:IRH,
author =       "J. Eisenfeld and David R. Barker and David J.
Mishelvich",
title =        "Iconic representation of the human face with computer
graphics",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1",
pages =        "38--39",
month =        jan,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041715.1041718",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "There are many applications for the iconic
representation of the human face. The program discussed
here was designed to describe the face by means of
particular, could be used to indicate changes resulting
from oral surgery. The computer generated faces are
drawn using a program modified by the authors which was
produced and kindly given to us by Mr Robert Jacob and
Dr William H. Huggins of the Johns Hopkins University.
Their program was based on that developed by Dr Herman
Chernoff (1) of Stanford University. The program was
originally designed for the presentation of
multivariate statistical data and was modified by Jacob
and Huggins for use in iconic communication. As a
result of our modifications, the mouth, nose, and
facial outline are presented more realistically, the
data input is interactive and quicker, especially when
only a few input variables are more directly related to
facial components to facilitate accuracy in drawing.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Nutt:1976:TCS,
author =       "Gary J. Nutt",
title =        "Tutorial: computer system monitors",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1",
pages =        "41--51",
month =        jan,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041715.1041719",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The most important questions to be answered before
attempting to monitor a machine are {\em what\/} to
measure and {\em why\/} the measurement should be
taken. There is no general answer to these questions,
although a comprehensive set of considerations has been
discussed elsewhere. The following example indicates
some of the considerations involved. Suppose one is
interested in tuning a medium scale system which
utilizes virtual memory to support a batch
multiprogramming strategy. The nature of the job load
is a major factor in determining system performance;
the mix may be monopolized by I/O-bound jobs which use
very little processor time. In this case, the
bottleneck might be the mass storage system or the
peripheral devices. Resource utilization of the
peripheral devices may indicate bottlenecks at that
point; high mass storage utilization may not be
attributable only to the I/O operations, but may be
significantly influenced by the virtual memory
replacement policy. Processor utilization in this
system is also an insufficient measure for most
purposes, since the overhead time for spooling,
multiprogramming, and virtual memory may be unknown. A
more useful measurement for operating system policy
studies would quantify processor utilization for the
user as well as for each function of interest in the
operating system. From this example, one can see that
the variety of evaluation objectives and computer
systems causes the determination of what and why to be
largely a heuristic problem.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Cotton:1976:SFP,
author =       "Ira W. Cotton",
title =        "Some fundamentals of price theory for computer
services",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1c",
pages =        "1--12",
month =        mar,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041715.1041716",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:47 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The authors conducted a benchmark measurement of the
Murray Hill Time Sharing System (MH-TSS) running on a
Honeywell 6000. The object of the test was to duplicate
the load normally present on the Murray Hill production
system, and measure the system's behavior before and
after a major software release and a major hardware
improvement. Five different load levels, from 30 to 90
users, were measured for each configuration. This paper
discusses the methods used in the design of the
experiment and in the analysis and interpretation of
the results. Several measurement tools were used in
this test. The event trace collection facility of
MH-TSS was used for the benchmark measurement and for
the design and fine tuning of a scrint representing the
normal load at Murray Hill. A commercially available
H6000-specific terminal simulator was used to feed
these scripts to the system. The batch background
system was loaded by a stream of synthetic jobs,
matched in resource usage characteristics to a set of
jobs chosen at random from the job stream of the
production system. The event trace data gathered at
various load levels under the three software and
hardware configurations were analyzed using two
techniques employing a state transition representation
of program behavior and system response. The result was
a set of data which documents the expected performance
improvements for the new software and hardware being
installed at Murray Hill, and which suggests the
expected growth potential for MH-TSS.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "event trace; monitoring; operating systems; queuing
networks; response time; state transition models",
}

@Article{Giammo:1976:DCP,
author =       "Thomas Giammo",
title =        "Deficiencies in computer pricing structure theory",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1c",
pages =        "13--21",
month =        mar,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041715.1041717",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:47 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to address the topic of
ranking or comparing Kiviat Graphs. Several articles
have appeared on the subject. For background
information the reader is directed to the original
article by Philip Kiviat and Kenneth Kolence (1) and to
the articles on ranking by Barry Merrill (2, 4) and
Michael Morris. The main emphasis here will be on
showing how automatic inclusion of axis-value
normalizations and hence of pattern normalization can
be achieved. It is hoped that this will be one way of
making the ranking of Kiviat Graphs more meaningful and
hence more useful. Pattern recognition is, after all,
one of the main reasons for using the Kiviat Graph
technique.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kimbleton:1976:CPD,
author =       "Stephen R. Kimbleton",
title =        "Considerations in pricing distributed computing",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1c",
pages =        "22--30",
month =        mar,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041715.1041718",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:47 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "There are many applications for the iconic
representation of the human face. The program discussed
here was designed to describe the face by means of
particular, could be used to indicate changes resulting
from oral surgery. The computer generated faces are
drawn using a program modified by the authors which was
produced and kindly given to us by Mr Robert Jacob and
Dr William H. Huggins of the Johns Hopkins University.
Their program was based on that developed by Dr Herman
Chernoff (1) of Stanford University. The program was
originally designed for the presentation of
multivariate statistical data and was modified by Jacob
and Huggins for use in iconic communication. As a
result of our modifications, the mouth, nose, and
facial outline are presented more realistically, the
data input is interactive and quicker, especially when
only a few input variables are more directly related to
facial components to facilitate accuracy in drawing.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kiviat:1976:BRG,
author =       "Philip J. Kiviat",
title =        "A brief review of the {GAO} task group's
recommendations on management guidelines for pricing
computer services in the federal government",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1c",
pages =        "71--83",
month =        mar,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041715.1041719",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:47 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The most important questions to be answered before
attempting to monitor a machine are {\em what\/} to
measure and {\em why\/} the measurement should be
taken. There is no general answer to these questions,
although a comprehensive set of considerations has been
discussed elsewhere. The following example indicates
some of the considerations involved. Suppose one is
interested in tuning a medium scale system which
utilizes virtual memory to support a batch
multiprogramming strategy. The nature of the job load
is a major factor in determining system performance;
the mix may be monopolized by I/O-bound jobs which use
very little processor time. In this case, the
bottleneck might be the mass storage system or the
peripheral devices. Resource utilization of the
peripheral devices may indicate bottlenecks at that
point; high mass storage utilization may not be
attributable only to the I/O operations, but may be
significantly influenced by the virtual memory
replacement policy. Processor utilization in this
system is also an insufficient measure for most
purposes, since the overhead time for spooling,
multiprogramming, and virtual memory may be unknown. A
more useful measurement for operating system policy
studies would quantify processor utilization for the
user as well as for each function of interest in the
operating system. From this example, one can see that
the variety of evaluation objectives and computer
systems causes the determination of what and why to be
largely a heuristic problem.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Morris:1976:PIP,
author =       "Michael F. Morris",
title =        "Problems in implementing and processing computer
charging schemes",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1c",
pages =        "84--88",
month =        mar,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041739.1041744",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:47 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "It is important to point out at the beginning of this
presentation that we have strayed quite far from the
titled topic of our workshop --- Pricing Computer
Services.' This makes my task much easier because I'm
not at all sure what service' we get from computers
and pricing' is seldom related in any economic sense
with the cost of production. Here we have really been
discussing Charging for Computer Resource Usage.' I
will stay with the topic as we've been discussing it
rather than with the topic as I thought it should be.
To make to distinction clear between pricing services
and charging for resource usage I will relate a very
simple story from a recent newspaper.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Luderer:1976:CPM,
author =       "Gottfried W. R. Luderer",
title =        "Charging problems in mixed time-sharing\slash batch
systems: cross subsidization and invariant work units",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1c",
pages =        "89--93",
month =        mar,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041739.1041745",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:47 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper discusses two topics related to charging
for computing services in mixed timesharing/batch
systems. The first one is the problem of cross
subsidization between time-sharing and batch service. A
method is proposed which helps to avoid this
phenomenon. The second topic deals with the question of
helping the user to divide his work between
time-sharing and batch service based on charging
information. Basically, the approach is to define a
service-invariant computing work unit, which is priced
differently according to grade of service. Time-sharing
and batch are considered to be different grades of
service. The cost impact of moving work between
services can thus be more easily estimated. A method
for calculating grade-of-service factors from cost and
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Oatey:1976:STM,
author =       "David J. Oatey",
title =        "{SIGMETRICS} technical meeting on pricing computer
services",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1c",
pages =        "94--102",
month =        mar,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041739.1041746",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:47 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This presentation will show how one large installation
actually does pricing of several on-line systems. This
is a pricing in practice' example with the resultant
procedures, measures, and pricing determined by the
blending of several practical, political, and
theoretical influences.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gutsche:1976:UE,
author =       "Richard H. Gutsche",
title =        "User experience",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1c",
pages =        "103--107",
month =        mar,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041739.1041747",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:47 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Security Pacific is the tenth largest bank in the
United States, operating 500 banking locations in the
State of California. Our Electronic Data Processing
Department serves the entire system from its Glendale
Operations Center and a satellite center in Hayward.
The Hayward location serves as an input/output center
for our Northern California banking offices. Data
Transmission provides for centralization of all
accounting functions.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:PC,
author =       "Anonymous",
title =        "Participant's choice",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "1c",
pages =        "108--122",
month =        mar,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041739.1041748",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:47 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "During these two sessions, chaired by Richard Gutsche
of Security Pacific National Bank, a panel of experts
addressed specific pricing problems the participants
and attendees felt were important. The preliminary
questions that the panelists addressed included:
$\bullet$ What should be included in an overhead charge
and why? $\bullet$ Should a computer center be
price-competitive with an outside market?$\bullet$
Funding a computer center --- real or funny
money?$\bullet$ What is an appropriate charging
philosophy for a paging environment?",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Luderer:1976:DCR,
author =       "Gottfried W. R. Luderer",
title =        "Defining a computer resource unit",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "2",
pages =        "5--10",
month =        apr,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041721.1041722",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A method for the construction of a resource component
charging formula for computer service in a
multiprogramming system is defined. Charges are
proportional to relative resource costs, to fractional
resource use with regard to total expected resource
usage, and the intent is to recover cost without profit
or loss. Further, a method is presented that simplifies
the treatment of overhead or unallocatable resource
costs. An aggregate Computer Resource Unit' is
defined, which attempts to characterize workload in a
system-invariant way. Experiences with this concept and
its limitations are discussed. Recommendations for
those planning to introduce a similar concept are
given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "computer charging; overhead allocation; virtual time;
}

@Article{Roehr:1976:PIT,
author =       "K. Roehr and K. Niebel",
title =        "Proposal for instruction time objectives",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "2",
pages =        "11--18",
month =        apr,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041721.1041723",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The designer of an instruction processing unit is
generally faced with the problem to implement a machine
able to execute a given instruction set within given
timing and cost constraints. A very common method to
state instruction timing constraints is by means of an
average instruction time",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Collins:1976:PIC,
author =       "John P. Collins",
title =        "Performance improvement of the {CP-V} loader through
use of the {ADAM} hardware monitor",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "2",
pages =        "63--67",
month =        apr,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041721.1041724",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The ADAM hardware monitor can be used to localize and
identify several types of performance-impairing
behavior in user programs. This paper presents a case
study for such an improvement carried out on the CP-V
overlay loader. Through measurement of the execution
behavior and the subsequent analysis of the resulting
data, problems of three basic types were identified: 1.
The presence of inefficiently coded routines in areas
of high execution intensity; 2. The use of overly
general routines along heavily-used program paths; and
3. The use of inefficient algorithms for processing the
large amounts of data with which the loader deals. The
subsequent redesign and recoding of the problem areas
have resulted in a significant performance improvement:
the time required to load a program has been reduced by
a factor of between two and ten, dependent upon the
nature of the program and the loader options
specified.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Brandwajn:1976:SLI,
author =       "A. Brandwajn",
title =        "Simulation of the load of an interactive system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "2",
pages =        "69--92",
month =        apr,
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041721.1041725",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We describe a simulator of interactive users designed
for the resource sharing system ESOPE. We stress the
guide-lines of the design as well as the problems of
interface with the operating system, of measurements,
and of perturbations caused by the simulator in the
statistics gathered. We show two examples of an
application of the simulator to the design of a
resource-sharing system, viz., to an analysis of load
regulation policies, and to an evaluation of the
improvement in system performance one may expect from
implementing shared translators. Finally, we use the
load simulator to validate a mathematical model. The
latter is developed by step-wise refinement, using
measured values of model parameters, till a good
agreement between the performance indices computed from
our model and those measured in a real system under
simulated load, is obtained. It is observed that, for
most of the performance measures considered, a simple
model matches fairly well the real world'.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Coppens:1976:QER,
author =       "G. W. J. Coppens and M. P. F. M. van Dongen and J. P.
C. Kleijnen",
title =        "Quantile estimation in regenerative simulation: a case
study",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "3",
pages =        "5--15",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041727.1041728",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:59 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We model key-punching in a computer center as a
queuing simulation with 2 servers (typists) and 3
priority classes (small, medium, large jobs). The 90\%
quantile of queuing time is estimated for different
borderlines between the 3 job classes. Confidence
intervals for the quantiles are based on the
regenerative properties of the simulation, as derived
by Iglehart (1974). They utilize the asymptotic
normality of the estimated quantile, and a rather
complicated expression for its variance. Numerical
results are given for the quantiles (and averages) of
the queuing times in each job class, for several
borderlines between the 3 job classes. The effects of
simulation runlength on the confidence intervals were
also examined. The effects of varying job-class
borderlines were tentatively modeled by a regression
model.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Estell:1976:HFRa,
author =       "Robert G. Estell",
title =        "How fast is real-time'?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "3",
pages =        "16--18",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041727.1041729",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:59 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A single bench mark test was compiled and run on the
AN/UYK-7 computer, and on a number of commercial
computers, in order to measure the relative throughput
of the UYK-7, which is the Navy's large scale real-time
computer. The results indicate the speeds and
accuracies of each host; however, general conclusions
can be drawn only with some risk.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Mills:1976:SMC,
author =       "Philip M. Mills",
title =        "A simple model for cost considerations in a batch
multiprocessor environment",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "3",
pages =        "19--27",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041727.1041730",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:51:59 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes a simple model which provides a
procedure for estimating the effect of additional
hardware on run time. The additional hardware may be
additional processors, more powerful processors, an
increase in memory size or additional memory modules.
Run time is related to cost effectiveness. A measure of
memory interference in the form of effective processing
power is determined for multiprocessors and used in the
formulation of run time. The overall procedure allows
the user to compare different multiprocessor hardware
configurations on a cost effective basis.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Buchanan:1976:IBM,
author =       "Irene Buchanan and David A. Duce",
title =        "An interactive benchmark for a multi-user minicomputer
system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "4",
pages =        "5--17",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041732.1041733",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:04 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The work that forms the basis for this paper was
undertaken as part of an exercise to purchase two
multi-user minicomputer systems to be developed as
interactive facilities for grant holders supported by
the Engineering Board of the United Kingdom Science
Research Council.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Estell:1976:HFRb,
author =       "Robert G. Estell",
title =        "How fast is real-time'?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "4",
pages =        "18--20",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041732.1041734",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:04 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A single bench mark test was compiled and run on the
AN/UYK-7 computer, and on a number of commercial
computers, in order to measure the relative throughput
of the UYK-7, which is the Navy's large scale real-time
computer. The results indicate the speeds and
accuracies of each host; however, general conclusions
can be drawn only with some risk.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Rafii:1976:SPR,
author =       "Abbas Rafii",
title =        "Study of the performance of {RPS}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "4",
pages =        "21--38",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041732.1041735",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:04 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact
of RPS (Rotational Position Sensing) on the response
time and utilization of multiple spindle disk drives
with a shared channel. Simulation models are used to
compare the effectiveness of the RPS scheme with the
systems without RPS capability. Analytical models for
the number of RPS rotation misses and the utilization
of the channel at the saturation point are given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Price:1976:CQN,
author =       "Thomas G. Price",
title =        "A comparison of queuing network models and
measurements of a multiprogrammed computer system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "4",
pages =        "39--62",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041732.1041736",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:04 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Although there has been a substantial amount of work
on analytical models of computer systems, there has
been little experimental validation of the models. This
paper investigates the accuracy of the models by
comparing the results calculated using analytical
models with measurements of an actual system. Models
with and without overlapped seeks are compared. Also,
we show how a model can be used to help interpret
measurements of a real system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "analytical models; performance measurement and
evaluation; queuing networks",
}

@Article{Buzen:1976:TTT,
author =       "J. P. Buzen",
title =        "Tuning: tools and techniques",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "5",
number =       "4",
pages =        "63--81",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1976",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041732.1041737",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:04 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Tuning is basically a two stage process: the first
stage consists of detecting performance problems within
a system, and the second stage consists of changing the
system to correct these problems. Measurement tools
such as hardware monitors, software monitors and
accounting packages are typically used in the first
stage, and tools such as optimizers, simulators and
balancers are sometimes used in the second stage.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Spiegel:1977:WSA,
author =       "Mitchell G. Spiegel",
title =        "Workshop summary: Applications of queuing models to
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "1",
pages =        "13--33",
month =        "Winter",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1044829.1044830",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:12 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A workshop was held on the Applications of Queuing
Models to ADP System Performance Prediction on 7-8
March 1977 at the National Technical Information
Service in Springfield, VA. Topics were divided into
four general areas: (1) Application of Queuing Models
to Feasibility and Sizing Studies, (2) Application of
Queuing Models to System Design and Performance
Management, (3) Queuing Model Validation and (4) New
Queuing Model Implementations. Mr Philip J. Kiviat,
Chairman, SIGMETRICS, made the welcoming remarks. As
Workshop Chairman, I provided a historical overview of
queuing model use which traced the development of the
application of queuing models to ADP system performance
prediction through the 20th century, while setting the
stage for each speaker's talk.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hellerman:1977:TWF,
author =       "L. Hellerman",
title =        "A table of work formulae with derivations and
applications",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "1",
pages =        "35--54",
month =        "Winter",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1044829.1044831",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:12 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Formulae for the work of certain common simple
computational steps are derived. The evaluation is in
terms of an information theoretic measure. The results
are then applied to evaluate the work of multiplication
and division, and the work of the IBM S/370 branch and
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Allen:1977:NES,
author =       "R. C. Allen and S. R. Clark",
title =        "A note on an empirical study of paging on an {IBM
370\slash 145}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "1",
pages =        "55--62",
month =        "Winter",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1044829.1044832",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:12 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A summary is presented of the paging activity observed
for various programs executing on a System/370 model
145 using OS/VSI (Release 2.0). Paging activity was
measured by periodic sampling of the queues involved in
real storage page management and by inspection of page
traffic counters maintained by the operating system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Morrison:1977:ASC,
author =       "Robert L. Morrison",
title =        "Abstracts from the 1977 {SIGMETRICS\slash CMG VIII}
conference",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "2",
pages =        "3--21",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041750.1041751",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:18 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lazos:1977:FDW,
author =       "Constantine Lazos",
computer system and its simulation",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "3",
pages =        "5--14",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041753.1041754",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:19 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Consideration is given to a possible functional
into the resource utilisation of the linked system
achieved by simulation using a modified and re-entrant
single processor simulator. Results suggest that the
proposed distribution realises a high utilisation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "compilation; disc channel traffic; hardware
utilisation; in process; I/O buffers; linked computer
system; multiprocessing; out process; simulation; trace
}

@Article{Scheer:1977:COM,
author =       "A.-W. Scheer",
title =        "Combination of an optimization model for hardware
selection with data determination methods",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "3",
pages =        "15--26",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041753.1041755",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:19 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The selection of an EDP configuration often fixes a
firm to a single manufacturer for a long time and the
capabilities of the chosen computer will continually
influence the firm's organization. Only few approaches
exist to give assistance to the investors by developing
useful decision models based on the investment theory
/11, 12/. The hardware selection methods /4, 13/ used
up to now, like benchmark tests, don't meet these
demands. In this paper an investment model based on
mathematical programming is developed which considers
the aspects of investment for hardware selection.
Nevertheless, the present methods stay valid because
their output can be used as delta input for the
optimization model. Therefore, a concept is proposed
which combines these methods with an optimization
model.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Berinato:1977:AMT,
author =       "Terence Berinato",
title =        "An analytical model of a teleprocessing system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "3",
pages =        "27--32",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041753.1041756",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:19 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A queuing model has been developed to study the
performance and capacity of a casualty insurance
teleprocessing system. This paper presents the salient
features of the system itself, relates those features
to basic queuing theory algorithms, outlines the basic
model construction, and discusses the validation
results.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Chanson:1977:SSA,
author =       "Samuel T. Chanson and Craig D. Bishop",
title =        "A simulation study of adaptive scheduling policies in
interactive computer systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "3",
pages =        "33--39",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041753.1041757",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:19 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Recently, some work has been done in the area of
dynamically adaptive scheduling in operating systems
conditions so as to maximize performance) [4],[5],
[10], [11]. However, most studies deal with
batch-oriented systems only. The University of British
Columbia operates an IBM 370/168 running under MTS
(Michigan Terminal System) which is principally used
interactively. It has been known for some time that the
system is Input/Output bound. The main goal of this
work is to determine to what extent adaptive control,
particularly as related to processor scheduling, can
improve performance in a system similar to U. B. C.'s.
Simulation is used throughout the study and because of
this, the simulator and the workload are described in
some detail. The target machine is a somewhat
simplified version of the U.B.C. System.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ziegler:1977:DST,
author =       "Kurt Ziegler",
title =        "A data sharing tutorial",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "4",
pages =        "3--7",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041759.1041760",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:26 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This tutorial is intended to acquaint the reader with
the issues of DATA SHARING and to develop an
understanding for the implications of such facilities
in the topic of integrity, performance, and recovery.
Some future concerns are also discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Scott:1977:PDP,
author =       "Shirley E. Scott",
title =        "Pricing {D.P.} products: a timesharing
implementation",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "4",
pages =        "8--12",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041759.1041761",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:26 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Periodically, vending Data Processing organizations
are faced with the task of establishing service rates
for a resources provided to Customers. Sigmetrics'
Technical Meeting on Pricing Computer Services
(November, 1975) is a good indicator of the amount and
variety of interest the topic generates. The
proceedings from that meeting were a key source of
reference for the formulation and implementation of a
pricing strategy and automated model in one of Xerox's
timesharing data centers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sarzotti:1977:TTS,
author =       "Alain Sarzotti",
title =        "Transactional terminal system on micro-processor: a
method for identifying \& modeling overall
performance",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "4",
pages =        "13--22",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041759.1041762",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:26 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A typical banking, financial and administrative system
involves specific characteristics: a large number of
devices around a processor, with several different
kinds of work stations (displays, keyboards, printers,
using local or remote files), versatile operating
facilities on displays for untrained administrative
words, spotting errors, generating operational messages
\ldots{}), and working with several sets of typical
functions (savings operations, cheque accounting, fund
transfer, deposits, withdrawals, and mainly data
entry).In this case it was mandatory to approach the
system performance evaluation study by first building
and observing a typical workload model in the forecast
operating environment. Measurement steps were then
scheduled from outside to inside operating procedures
to get analysis from the user's point of view (a bank
teller's operations, for example).Then, overall
performance results were derived by direct measurement,
which established relationships between throughput,
response time, processor overhead, and space and time
parameters related to system behavior. That was done by
progressively increasing the number of terminals and
exercising the workload on two levels of technical and
functional saturation. Simultaneously, a simulation
model used the same description of the workload, and
after validation with the preceding direct measurement
results, was used to extend the previous relationships
on various systems. (The full range of Erlang
distribution parameters is assumed with unknown
servers; the trace-driven method was not possible.)The
final results are shown in tables and charts which
exhibit system boundaries, providing useful guidelines
for designing network stations and performing workload
forecasting.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bazewicz:1977:UMP,
author =       "Mieczyslaw Bazewicz and Adam Peterseil",
title =        "Use of modelling in performance evaluation of computer
systems: a case of installations in the {Technical
University of Wroclaw}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "4",
pages =        "22--26",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041759.1041763",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:26 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "There is a number of models of user behaviour applied
in modelling studies on computer system performance
predictions. The models in most cases can be called
resources-demands models', where users are only
considered as resources consumers. Some authors build
more sophisticated models --- concerning user
psychological features. The paper discusses some of the
users' models and their applicability in modelling and
design of operating systems for computers. Some
examples being the result of the research carried in
the Technical University of Wroclaw, concerning complex
users' model and performance evaluation of operating
systems by simulation are presented.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Orchard:1977:NMC,
author =       "R. A. Orchard",
title =        "A new methodology for computer system data gathering",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "6",
number =       "4",
pages =        "27--41",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1977",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041759.1041764",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:26 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Many computer system monitoring, data gathering, and
reduction efforts ignore unbiased sampling techniques.
The approaches generally taken are expensive and can
make no scientifically based statement about the
accuracy of the data gathered or consequent data
reduction. The approach outlined in this paper attempts
to correct these inadequacies by using the theory of
random sampling. Several new techniques are introduced
for obtaining optimal error bounds for estimates of
computer system quantities obtained from random
samples. A point of view is taken (boolean variable
random sampling) which makes it unnecessary to have any
a priori knowledge of the population parameters of the
phenomena being sampled. It is expected that the
techniques introduced will significantly reduce
monitoring overhead for computer systems while
increasing the quality of the data gathered.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "boolean random sampling; computer system monitoring;
data gathering",
}

@Article{Underwood:1978:HPE,
author =       "Mark A. Underwood",
title =        "Human performance evaluation in the use of federal
computer systems: recommendations",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "6--14",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041766.1041767",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "There has been increased awareness in recent years of
the high cost of non-hardware items in the Federal ADP
budget in contrast with decreasing costs for much of
the hardware. More attention is being given to software
development costs, systems design practices, automatic
program testing, and the like. Particular commercial
and military systems effectiveness and life cycle costs
now take into consideration such factors as part of the
planning process. It is suggested that not enough
attention has been given to measurement of human
performance variables as part of the systems
procurement and systems evaluation phases of Federal
incorporation of such measures along with conventional
hardware/software performance measurement.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "computer performance; federal systems evaluations;
human performance measurements; psychology of computer
systems usage",
}

@Article{Jain:1978:GSA,
author =       "Aridaman K. Jain",
title =        "A guideline to statistical approaches in computer
performance evaluation studies",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "18--32",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041766.1041768",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1978:PSQ,
author =       "Anonymous",
title =        "{Proceedings of the Software Quality and Assurance
Workshop}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "32--32",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041766.1041769",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Honig:1978:DPA,
author =       "Howard P. Honig",
title =        "Data path analysis: analyzing large {I/O}
environments",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "34--37",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041766.1041770",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "As data centers grow in complexity and size, vast
amounts of data (I/O) is transferred between
peripherals and CPU's. Data Path Analysis (DPA) is a
technique developed to report the utilization of CPU's,
channels, control units, and disks during data
transfer. Simply put, the technique analyzes data
paths.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sauer:1978:SRP,
author =       "C. H. Sauer and E. A. MacNair",
title =        "Simultaneous resource possession in queueing models of
computers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "41--52",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041766.1041771",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Neglect of simultaneous resource possession is a
significant problem with queueing network models of
computers. This is illustrated by examples of memory
contention and channel contention with position sensing
I/O devices. A class of extended queueing networks is
defined to allow representation of simultaneous
resource possession. Extended queueing network models
of memory contention and channel contention are given.
Solution techniques and numerical results for these
models are discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "channel contention; hierarchical decomposition; memory
contention; performance evaluation; queueing networks;
regenerative simulation; response time",
}

@Article{Pfau:1978:AQA,
author =       "Pamela R. Pfau",
title =        "Applied quality assurance methodology",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "1--8",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811092",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "What is the charter of a Quality Assurance (Q.A.)
department? What are the activities? How are they
undertaken? What is the impact of Quality Assurance
upon a software product? The structure and operating
philosophy of the department are explained in this
report as is the definition of the work cycle as
applied to a new release of a software product.
departments: product development, product maintenance,
publications, education, field support, product
management, marketing, product distribution and quality
assurance. While this is a description of the
activities of a company involved in developing and
marketing software products, the concepts apply to
techniques and practices which would also be beneficial
to any data processing department that develops
in-house application software.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bersoff:1978:SCM,
author =       "Edward H. Bersoff and Vilas D. Henderson and Stan G.
Siegel",
title =        "Software Configuration Management",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "9--17",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811093",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
that managers should apply to software development. Why
is such discipline needed? Quite simply because the
software industry has traditionally behaved in an
undisciplined manner --- doing its own thing. The
products that the industry has turned out have
typically Contained other than what was expected
(usually less, rather than more); Been delivered much
later than scheduled; Cost more than anticipated; Been
poorly documented; and If you have been involved in any
of the situations quoted above, then this paper may be
of some help. In short, if you are now, or intend to
be, a software seller or buyer, then you should benefit
from an understanding of Software Configuration
Management. Lest you think that you are not now, or
ever will be, a software seller or buyer --- keep in
mind that the recent technology explosion in electronic
component miniaturization has placed the era of
personalized computing at hand. In that context, nearly
everyone may be considered a potential seller or buyer
of software. This paper is about the discipline called
Software Configuration Management (SCM). The objective
of SCM is to assist the software seller in achieving
product integrity and to assist the software buyer in
obtaining a product that has integrity.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Glass:1978:CFL,
author =       "Robert L. Glass",
title =        "Computing failure: {A} learning experience",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "18--19",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007775.811094",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Computing people can learn from failure as well as
success. Most professional papers deal only with the
latter \ldots{} yet it is well known that some of our
most lasting learning experiences are based on failure.
This paper is a lighthearted, anecdotal discussion of a
computing failure, with an underlying message that
sharing the sometimes embarrassing truths about What
Goes Wrong In Our Field is at least as illuminating as
more serious discussions about Things That Look
Promising. There are some necessary defense mechanisms
to be dealt with in discussing failure. People who have
failed in general do not want the world to know about
it. Perhaps even more so, companies which have failed
also do not want the world to know about it. As a
result, the content of this paper is fictionalized to
some extent. That is, company names and people names
are creations of the author, and there are
corresponding distortions in some story details.
However, the computing meat of the paper, the basis for
the failure learning experience, is untouched.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Woodmancy:1978:SQI,
author =       "Donald A. Woodmancy",
title =        "A Software Quality Improvement Program",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "20--26",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007775.811095",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In late 1976, the NCR Corporation undertook a large
scale Quality Improvement Program for a major set of
systems software. That software set included some 103
separate products totaling 1.3 million source lines. It
included several operating systems, several compilers,
peripheral software, data utilities and
telecommunications handlers. This paper will describe
that effort and its results. The research and planning
that were done to define the program will be described.
The means by which the program was implemented will be
discussed in detail. Finally, some results of the
program will be identified.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Fujii:1978:CSA,
author =       "Marilyn S. Fujii",
title =        "A comparison of software assurance methods",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "27--32",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811096",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Several methods are currently employed by software
developers to improve software quality. This paper
explores the application of three of these methods:
quality assurance, acceptance testing, and independent
verification and validation. At first glance these
methods appear to overlap, but a closer evaluation
reveals that each has a distinct objective and an
established set of procedures. The purpose of this
paper is to clarify the role of each of these methods
by examining their scope, organization, and
implementation in the software development process.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sukert:1978:EMA,
author =       "Alan N. Sukert and Amrit L. Goel",
title =        "Error modelling applications in software quality
assurance",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "33--38",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007775.811097",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents the results of a two-phased
experiment conducted by Rome Air Development Center and
Syracuse University to demonstrate the potential
applicability of software error prediction models in
performing formalized qualification testing of a
software package. First, decisions based upon the
predictions of three software error prediction models
will be compared with actual program decisions for a
large command and control software development project.
Classical and Bayesian demonstration tests are used to
make accept/reject decisions about the software system.
Finally, the results of the two phases will be compared
and some conclusions drawn as to the potential use of
these predictive techniques to software quality
assurance.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Duran:1978:TMP,
author =       "Joe W. Duran and John J. Wiorkowski",
title =        "Toward models for probabilistic program correctness",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "39--44",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007775.811098",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Program testing remains the major way in which program
designers convince themselves of the validity of their
programs. Software reliability measures based on
hardware reliability concepts have been proposed, but
adequate models of software reliability have not yet
been developed. Investigators have recently studied
formal program testing concepts, with promising
results, but have not seriously considered quantitative
measures of the degree of correctness'' of a program.
We present models for determining, via testing, such
probabilistic measures of program correctness as the
probability that a program will run correctly on
randomly chosen input data, confidence intervals on the
number of errors remaining in a program, and the
probability that the program has been completely
tested. We also introduce a procedure for enhancing
correctness estimates by quantifying the error reducing
performance of the methods used to develop and debug a
program.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Yin:1978:EUM,
author =       "B. H. Yin and J. W. Winchester",
title =        "The establishment and use of measures to evaluate the
quality of software designs",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "45--52",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811099",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "It has been recognized that success in producing
designs that realize reliable software, even using
Structured Design, is intimately dependent on the
experience level of the designer. The gap in this
methodology is the absence of easily applied
quantitative measures of quality that ease the
dependence of reliable systems on the rare availability
of expert designers. Several metrics have been devised
which, when applied to design structure charts, can
pinpoint sections of a design that may cause problems
during coding, debugging, integration, and
modification. These metrics can help provide an
independent, unbiased evaluation of design quality.
These metrics have been validated against program error
data of two recently completed software projects at
Hughes. The results indicate that the metrics can
provide a predictive measure of program errors
experienced during program development. Guidelines for
interpreting the design metric values are summarized
and a brief description of an interactive structure
chart graphics system to simplify metric value
calculation is presented.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Pierce:1978:RTT,
author =       "Robert A. Pierce",
title =        "A Requirements Tracing Tool",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "53--60",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800283.811100",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A software development aid termed the Requirements
Tracing Tool is described. Though originally designed
to facilitate requirements analysis and thus simplify
system verification and validation, it has also proven
useful as an aid for coping with changing software
requirements and estimating their consequent cost and
schedule impacts. This tool provides system analysts
with a mechanism for automated construction,
an integrated file containing all types and levels of
system requirements. This tool was used during the
development of a large Navy undersea acoustic sensor
system. It is presently being used to support the
Cruise Missile Mission Planning Project. An outline
version of this tool is under development.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Davis:1978:RLP,
author =       "Alan M. Davis and Walter J. Rataj",
title =        "Requirements language processing for the effective
testing of real-time systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "61--66",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811101",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "GTE Laboratories is currently developing a trio of
software tools which automate the feature testing of
real-time systems by generating test plans directly
from requirements specifications. Use of the first of
these tools, the Requirements Language Processor (RLP),
guarantees that the requirements are complete,
consistent, non-ambiguous, and non-redundant. It
generates a model of an extended finite-state machine
which is used by the second tool, the Test Plan
Generator, to generate test plans which thoroughly test
the software for conformity to the requirements. These
test plans are supplied to the third tool, the
Automatic Test Executor, for actual testing. The RLP is
the subject of this paper. The primary goal of the RLP
is to provide the ability to specify the features of a
target real-time system in a vocabulary familiar to an
application-oriented individual and in a manner
suitable for test plan generation. The RLP produces a
document which can be easily understood by non-computer
personnel. It is expected that this document will
function as a key part of the contract'' between a
real-time system supplier and a customer. This document
must also serve as a springboard for the software
designers during their development of the actual
product. In addition to the requirements document, the
RLP also produces an augmented state transition table
which describes a finite state machine whose external
behavior is identical to the target real-time system as
defined by the specified requirements.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Peters:1978:RSR,
author =       "Lawrence Peters",
title =        "Relating software requirements and design",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "67--71",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811102",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Software development is a process which has evolved
into a number of phases. Although the names of the
phases and some of their characteristics differ from
contractor to contractor and customer to customer, the
functional similarities among sets of phases cannot be
ignored. The basic software development scenario
depicted by these phases starts with problem
identification and definition, requirements
specification, design, code, test, and installation and
maintenance. Although some smearing'' of one phase
activity into other(s) may occur, this represents the
basic flow. However, it is just that smearing which
occurs between requirements and design that we wish to
explore here. Identifying or defining problems and
solving problems are viewed by many to be separate,
distinguishable activities. They are complementary in
that one identifies what must be done (requirements)
while the other depicts how it will be done (design).
But software designers complain bitterly that
requirements are poorly defined while customers and
analysts often complain that the design is not
responsive to the problem(s) as they perceive it.
Somehow software designers end up discovering
previously unknown requirements and end up solving a
problem which is foreign to the customer. Is there a
workable mechanism to reduce this difficulty?",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Stavely:1978:DFU,
author =       "Allan M. Stavely",
title =        "Design feedback and its use in software design aid
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "72--78",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800283.811103",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "It is argued that software system designers would
benefit greatly from feedback about the consequences of
a proposed design if this feedback could be obtained
early in the development process. A taxonomy of
possible types of feedback and other design aids is
presented, and the capabilities of several existing
design aid systems are described relative to this
taxonomy.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Yoder:1978:NSC,
author =       "Cornelia M. Yoder and Marilyn L. Schrag",
title =        "{Nassi--Shneiderman} charts an alternative to
flowcharts for design",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "79--86",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007775.811104",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In recent years structured programming has emerged as
an advanced programming technology. During this time,
many tools have been developed for facilitating the
programmer's use of structured programming. One of
these tools, the Structured Flowcharts developed by I.
Nassi and B. Shneiderman in 1972, is proving its value
in both the design phase and the coding phase of
program development. Several programming groups in
System Products Division, Endicott, New York, have used
the Nassi--Shneiderman charts as replacements for
conventional flowcharts in structuring programs. The
charts have been used extensively on some projects for
structured walk-throughs, design reviews, and
education. This paper describes the Nassi--Shneiderman
charts and provides explanations of their use in
programming, in development process control, in
walk-throughs, and in testing. It includes an analysis
of the value of Nassi--Shneiderman charts compared to
other design and documentation methods such as
pseudo-code, HIPO charts, prose, and flowcharts, as
well as the authors' experiences in using the
Nassi--Shneiderman charts. The paper is intended for a
general data processing audience and although no
special knowledge is required, familiarity with
structured programming concepts would be helpful. The
reader should gain insight into the use of
Nassi--Shneiderman charts as part of the total
development process.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Benson:1978:SQA,
author =       "J. P. Benson and S. H. Saib",
title =        "A software quality assurance experiment",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "87--91",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800283.811105",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An experiment was performed to evaluate the ability of
executable assertions to detect programming errors in a
real time program. Errors selected from the categories
of computational errors, data handling errors, and
logical errors were inserted in the program. Assertions
were then written which detected these errors. While
computational errors were easily detected, data
handling and logical errors were more difficult to
locate. New types of assertions will be required to
protect against these errors.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Assertions; Error categories",
}

@Article{Bauer:1978:AGE,
author =       "Jonathan Bauer and Susan Faasse and Alan Finger and
William Goodhue",
title =        "The automatic generation and execution of function
test plans for electronic switching systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "92--100",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811106",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A three phase functional testing methodology is
described for use in the development cycle of
electronic switching systems. The methodology centers
on a directed graph model of the system and provides
for the checking of system requirements, the generation
of functional tests and the automatic execution of
these tests.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Martin:1978:SAT,
author =       "K. A. Martin",
title =        "Software acceptance testing that goes beyond the
book",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "101--105",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800283.811107",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The design of software acceptance tests is as
important to meeting contract goals as is the design of
algorithms. This statement is particularly significant
on fixed price contracts with tight schedules. An
extreme instance of the demand placed on acceptance
testing can be found in software projects wherein the
only rigorous testing that required the Computer
Program Configuration Item (CPCI) to exercise its
repertoire of load and store instructions was the
Formal Qualification Test (FQT). This paper is about
such a project, the lessons learned from it, and
provides an effective test approach for fixed price
contracts. A word or two about the project is
appropriate to establish the context that underscores
the impact of the above assertion. Initially 30K (core
words), 16-bit program instructions were to be
developed within one year using a Varian 73 computer
with 32K words of memory for a Command and Control
application under a fixed price contract. A set of a
priori conditions existed that tended to convey the
impression that the inherent risks of this endeavor
were reasonable. They were the facts'' that: Of the
30K (core words) to be written, 30\% of this code
already existed and would be used. Contractor standards
would be allowed for documentation with limited use of
Military Specifications No formal Design Reviews or
audits would accompany the deliverable CPCI. Existent
executive software would suffice. A competent and
enthusiastic team was committed to the effort.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Drasch:1978:ITP,
author =       "Frederick J. Drasch and Richard A. Bowen",
title =        "{IDBUG}: {A} tool for program development",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "106--110",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811108",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The construction of a reliable computer program
requires, in part, a means of verification of its
component parts prior to their integration into the
overall system. The verification process may consist of
building a test harness to exercise or exhaustively
test a procedure. This technique is known as dynamic
testing. In practice, the application of dynamic
testing requires the coding of a special harness for
each procedure. This consumes valuable programming
time, as much as 50\% of the total effort (FAIR78). It
is also restrictive because the test harness cannot be
easily modified to test aspects of a program which it
was not originally designed to test. We have built a
facility called IDBUG that reduces the programming
effort required to employ dynamic testing by automating
the construction of the test harness. Additionally, it
provides an interactive test environment which permits
more flexible testing. This paper describes IDBUG and
discusses our experience in its application to
maintenance tasks in a commercial environment. Nyone of
the ideas put forth here will be especially novel;
dynamic testing as a software testing tool has been in
use for some time. What we hope to do is illustrate the
beneficial aspects of a particular application of
dynamic testing. It is argued that testing should play
a more limited role in assuring the reliability of
software in light of techniques such as structured
coding, top-down design, proof of correctness, etc.
(McG075). While it is true that eventually the art of
computer programming'' will become the science of
producing correct programs'', we believe that more
emphasis must be placed on interim solutions to aid in
the construction of reliable software. We present IDBUG
as such a solution.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Stickney:1978:AGT,
author =       "M. E. Stickney",
title =        "An application of graph theory to software test data
selection",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "111--115",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811109",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Graph theory is playing an increasingly important role
in the design, analysis, and testing of computer
programs. It's importance is derived from the fact that
flow of control and flow of data for any program can be
expressed in terms of directed graphs. From the graph
representing the flow of control, called the program
graph, many others can be derived that either partially
or completely preserve the program control structure.
One derived graph known as a cyclomatic tree is of
particular value in program testing. It is so named
because the number of leaves of the tree is equal to
the cyclomatic number of the program graph. A thorough
treatment of cyclomatic numbers is provided in [3]. A
program called the Complexity/Path Analyzer (CPA) has
been developed that builds and utilizes a program
cyclomatic tree to provide test planning information,
automatically place software counters called probes as
discussed in [9] and [10] in a program, and provide
selected parameters such as program length and program
graph cyclomatic number. The paper discusses the
features and derivation of cyclomatic trees as well as
their value and application to testing and test data
generation. A cyclomatic tree provides a test planner
with information useful for planning program tests. In
particular, it furnishes test data selection criteria
for developing tests that are minimally thorough as
defined by Huang in [9]. A test data selection
criterion will be defined as minimally thorough if any
complete test with respect to the criterion is at least
minimally thorough. The term complete is used as
defined by Goodenhough and Gerhart in [13]. A test is
defined to be a non empty sequence of test cases. Each
test case consists of an element selected from the
input domain of the program being tested. The paper
discusses the merits of one particular technique
selected to achieve a minimally thorough test data
selection criteria. Part of the technique is automated
by the CPA program.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Fischer:1978:SQA,
author =       "Kurt F. Fischer",
title =        "Software quality assurance tools: {Recent} experience
and future requirements",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "116--121",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007775.811110",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The objective of software quality assurance (QA) is to
assure sufficient planning, reporting, and control to
affect the development of software products which meet
their contractual requirements. To implement this
objective, eight QA functions can be identified: 1.
Initial quality planning 2. Development of software
standards and procedures 3. Development of quality
assurance tools 4. Conduct of audits and reviews 5.
Inspection and surveillance of formal tests 6.
Configuration verifications 7. Management of the
discrepancy reporting system 8. Retention of QA records
The purpose of this paper is to document experiences
gained in the use of selected QA tools that perform
some of the above functions, to discuss lessons
learned, and to suggest future needs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Glasser:1978:ESC,
author =       "Alan L. Glasser",
title =        "The evolution of a {Source Code Control System}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "122--125",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811111",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The Source Code Control System (SCCS) is a system for
controlling changes to files of text (typically, the
source code and documentation of software systems). It
is an integral part of a software development and
maintenance system known as the Programmer's Workbench
(PWB). SCCS has itself undergone considerable change.
There have been nine major versions of SCCS. This paper
describes the facilities provided by SCCS, and the
design changes that were made to SCCS in order to
provide a useful and flexible environment in which to
conduct the programming process.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Josephs:1978:MCB,
author =       "William H. Josephs",
title =        "A mini-computer based library control system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "126--132",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811112",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "One of the major problems encountered in any large
scale programming project is the control of the
software. Invariably, such large programs are divided
into many smaller elements since these are easier to
code, test and document. However, such a division adds
new complexity to the task of Configuration Management
since the many source modules, data base elements, JCL
(Job Control Language) and DATA files must be
controlled with the goal of maximizing program
integrity and minimizing the chances of procedural
errors. Furthermore, whenever any program is released
either for field test or for final production, an
entire change control procedure must be implemented in
order to trace, install, debug and verify fixes or
extensions to the original program. These maintenance
activities can account for up to 80 percent of the
entire programming cost in a large, multi-year project.
The library control program (SYSM) presented here was
developed to aid in these processes. It has facilities
for capturing all elements of a program (commonly
called baselining), editing any element or group of
elements that have been baselined to build an updated
version of the program, adding and/or deleting elements
of a program, and listing the current contents of a
given element or elements. SYSM is written mainly in
FORTRAN, and runs on a Hewlett--Packard HP-21MX computer
with two tape drives, the vendor supplied RTE-II or
RTE-III operating system, and at least 16K of user
available core. It can be used to control code targeted
for either the HP21MX itself, or, using the optional
HP/LSI-11 link program, code targeted for a Digital
Equipment Corp. LSI-11 system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Cavano:1978:FMS,
author =       "Joseph P. Cavano and James A. McCall",
title =        "A framework for the measurement of software quality",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "133--139",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007775.811113",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Research in software metrics incorporated in a
framework established for software quality measurement
can potentially provide significant benefits to
software quality assurance programs. The research
described has been conducted by General Electric
Company for the Air Force Systems Command Rome Air
Development Center. The problems encountered defining
software quality and the approach taken to establish a
framework for the measurement of software quality are
described in this paper.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Cobb:1978:MSU,
author =       "Gary W. Cobb",
title =        "A measurement of structure for unstructured
programming languages",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "140--147",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811114",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Software Science is a field of Natural Science which
deals with the development of measurements which reveal
properties of software programs. These measurements are
qualified as to their degree of correlation to human
beings being able to construct or understand a subject
program. Maurice Halstead has pioneered much of the
theories in this field ((5) through (10)), which
applies statistical and psychological testing
techniques to the evaluation of the measurements. The
basic inputs to the Halstead predictors are easily
measured: the number of distinct operators and
operands, and the number of occurrences of the
operators and operands. Due to the statistical nature
of the measurements, there can be erroneous results
when applying them to small sample spaces. However, the
predictors are very adequate when applied to large
samples, that is, large software systems. In an
excellent review article by Fitzsimmons and Love (4),
it is pointed out that several of the estimators
defined by Halstead assumed that the subject programs
were well-structured, and inaccuracy in the predictors
can result if they are applied to unpolished'
programs. In fact, Halstead qualified six classes of
impurities in code which can cause the length predictor
to be inaccurate. The definition of volume for
software, another predictor introduced in Halstead's
book, is related to the level of the specification of
the program. An algorithm which is written in assembly
language will have a greater volume than the same
algorithm written in Pascal, due to the richness of the
semantic constructs that are available in the
higher-level languages. Hence, this predictor is
language dependent.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bowen:1978:CAS,
author =       "John B. Bowen",
title =        "Are current approaches sufficient for measuring
software quality?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "148--155",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811115",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Numerous software quality studies have been performed
over the past three years-mostly sponsored by the Rome
Air Development Center. It is proposed by the author
that more emphasis should be placed on devising and
validating quantitative metrics that are indicative of
the quality of software when it is being designed and
coded. Such measures could be applied effectively, as
relative guidelines without formal validation. However
for such measures to be predictive of the quality of
the delivered software, they must be validated with
actual operational error data or data gathered in a
simulated operational environment. This paper includes
a review of proposed metrics from the literature a
report of a Hughes intramodule metric study, and
recommendations for refining proposed software quality
assurance criteria.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lockett:1978:UPM,
author =       "Joann Lockett",
title =        "Using performance metrics in system design",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "156--159",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1007775.811116",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Complexities of system design are great and often lead
designers to be inward looking in their analyses.
Knowledge from various fields can be of benefit in
designing systems [1]. Management accountants can
describe economic effects of delays in closing
schedules, psychologist can provide significant
insights into the behavioral characteristics of users
to complex command syntax, computer performance
analysts can provide alternatives to describe and to
measure responsiveness of systems. Even in the case of
an innovative system design, the designer can employ
such approaches to identify incipient problems and
create alternatives with increased cost effectiveness.
This paper describes how performance metrics can be
used effectively to support system design.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Southworth:1978:RM,
author =       "Richard N. Southworth",
title =        "Responding to {MIL-S-52779}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "160--164",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811117",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The art and science of computer software development
is still changing considerably from year to year, and
therefore lacks the established control mechanisms of
hardware production programs. Also, because most
software is produced in a one-time development program
it does not lend itself to the established discrepancy
detection and correction techniques used in hardware
production programs. Consequently, the software QA
program must provide the methodology to detect a
deficiency the first time it occurs and effect
corrective action. MIL-S-52779: Software Quality
Assurance Program Requirements,'' has provided a much
needed impetus for software development contractors to
develop software QA techniques. But much remains to be
done. As the state of the art advances MIL-S-52779
should be revised accordingly. In this paper the author
responds to the present form of the specification,
suggests some revisions and additions and briefly
discusses a set of QA procedures that should be
responsive (fully compliant) with MIL-S-52779.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Tighe:1978:VPS,
author =       "Michael F. Tighe",
title =        "The value of a proper software quality assurance
methodology",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "165--172",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800283.811118",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes the experiences of a project
development team during an attempt to ensure the
quality of a new software product. This product was
created by a team of software engineers at Digital
Equipment Corporation, a mainframe manufacturer. As a
result, the definition of to ensure the quality of a
software product'' meant minimizing the maintenance
costs of the new product. Ease of maintenance and a low
bug rate after release to the customer were very
important goals from the beginning of the project. This
paper compares the degree of application and resultant
effects of several software quality assurance
methodologies upon different parts of the final
product. Many of the product's subsystems were created
using all of the discussed methodologies rigorously.
Some subsystems were created with little or no use of
the methodologies. Other subsystems used a mixture. The
observed quality of the various subsystems when related
to the methodology used to create them provides
insights into the interactions between the
methodologies. These observations also supply
additional experience to reinforce established beliefs
concerning the value of quality assurance
methodologies.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Belford:1978:QEE,
author =       "Peter Chase Belford and Carlo Broglio",
title =        "A quantitative evaluation of the effectiveness of
quality assurance as experienced on a large-scale
software development effort",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "173--180",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811119",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The purpose of quality assurance on software projects
is to achieve high quality products on schedule, within
cost, and in compliance with contract requirements.
However, historically, the effectiveness of these
activities on software projects has not been
quantitatively demonstrable because of a lack of data
collected on the project combined with a lack of
insight into the operational reliability of the system.
Quality assurance is a collection of activities on a
contractual deliverable whose purpose is to impart a
degree of confidence that the deliverable will conform
to the customer's concept of what was procured. Under
these conditions, quality assurance must be performed
with respect to a documented baseline of the concept.
This baseline can address the need in the form of
requirement statements; the conceptual approach to be
followed in the form of a functional specification; or
the design to be implemented in the form of a design
specification. Further, these baselines are
hierarchical in the sense that when quality assurance
is applied to a level it is implicitly applied to all
lower levels; e.g., if the need is to be satisfied, the
conceptual approach must be satisfied. Effective
quality assurance programs impart a high degree of
confidence to the customer without significant impacts
on schedule or cost. Historically, this effectiveness
has not been quantitatively demonstrable because of a
lack of data collected on the project combined with a
lack of insight into the operational reliability of the
system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kacik:1978:ESQ,
author =       "Paul J. Kacik",
title =        "An example of software quality assurance techniques
used in a successful large scale software development",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "7",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "181--186",
month =        nov,
year =         "1978",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/953579.811120",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:52:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Development of the software package for the Combat
Grande Air Defense System was considered by the Hughes
Aircraft Company to be highly successful in that a
reliable system was produced that met customer
requirements and was completed within time and budget
allocations --- a feat not often attained in large
scale software developments. Much of the success can be
attributed to the software quality assurance (QA)
techniques used. Some of these QA techniques are listed
in Table 1 along with the phases in which they were
used. This paper describes these QA techniques in some
detail, as well as those aspects of the system and
software development program that permitted these
techniques to be used effectively. Background
information is presented first which describes the
system, software, organization and software
configuration management. This is followed by a
description of the three major phases of software
development. The overall results are then presented,
followed by recommended improvements and conclusions.
Many of the QA techniques listed in Table 1 were used
in several phases of software development. However, a
particular technique is discussed only in the phase in
which it was most extensively used.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kreutzer:1979:CSM,
author =       "Wolfgang Kreutzer",
title =        "Computer system modelling and simulation",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "9--35",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041853.1041854",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "To evaluate the suitability and limitations of
software for computer systems modelling, a basic
comprehension of the structure of such tools must be
provided. A brief discussion of conceptual requirements
for the description of discrete models, and computer
system models in particular, is followed by a survey of
commercially available computer simulation packages.
Special and general purpose discrete event simulation
and general purpose programming languages are also
analysed for their suitability for this class of
applications. The survey closes with some
recommendations and guidelines for selection and
application of computer system simulation tools. To aid
the analyst contemplating a computer system modelling
project, a brief list of relevant addresses and
annotated references is also included.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Turner:1979:ISM,
author =       "Rollins Turner",
title =        "An investigation of several mathematical models of
queueing systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "36--44",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041853.1041855",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A number of simple mathematical models were used to
predict average response time of a timesharing system.
The target system was a very simple trace driven
simulation model, but the workloads were trace files
obtained from a real system in normal operation. As
such, the workloads were characterized by very high
coefficients of variation in resource demands and think
times. Mathematical models of the system included
independent arrival models (M/M/1 and M/G/1, closed
network models) admitting product from solutions, and a
more general Markov model. Only the final model
produced reasonable accuracy. A number of experiments
were performed, in an effort to determine what
properties of the system being modeled were responsible
for the failure of all the simple mathematical models.
The large variance in CPU time and the fact that the
system was a closed network were found to be critical
factors, and appeared to be the major causes for
failure of models that do not take them into account.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sauer:1979:CIQ,
author =       "Charles H. Sauer",
title =        "Confidence intervals for queueing simulations of
computer systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "45--55",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041853.1041856",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Simulation models of computer systems may be
formulated as queueing networks. Several methods for
confidence interval estimation for queueing simulations
are discussed. Empirical studies of these methods are
presented.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kleijnen:1979:NCS,
author =       "Jack P. C. Kleijnen",
title =        "A note on computer system data gathering",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "56--56",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041853.1041857",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Recently Orchard (1977) proposed a statistical
technique for data collection in computer systems. A
main idea was the use of random sampling, as opposed to
traditional fixed periodic sampling. He further
proceeded to derive confidence intervals for the
resulting estimator. He also proposed the use of binary
(Boolean) variables, e.g., $q_{it} = 1$ (or $0$) if at
sampling time $t$ the $i$th slot' of a queue is
occupied (or empty respectively).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Rajaraman:1979:PPV,
author =       "M. K. Rajaraman",
title =        "Performance prediction of a virtual machine",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "57--62",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041853.1041858",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Modeling and simulation of computer systems have two
main objectives. First, to evaluate the performance of
a given configuration of a machine and second, to
derive a mechanism for prediction of performance when
configuration parameters change. This paper addresses
the second issue and reports the result of a recent
investigation of a Virtual Memory Computer. The results
indicate which variables or combination of variables
have significant effect on the performance and which do
not.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Jain:1979:GSA,
author =       "Aridaman K. Jain",
title =        "A guideline to statistical approaches in computer
performance evaluation studies",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "63--77",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041853.1041859",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Schwartz:1979:DCC,
author =       "E. Schwartz",
title =        "Development of credible computer system simulation
models",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "78--95",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041853.1041860",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The Problems encountered during a simulation effort
are influenced by the objectives of the simulation.
Verification and validation of the simulation model are
two such problems which affect the credibility (and
usability) of the model. A simulation methodology for
Program Design Analysis is described. The goal of this
simulation application is to test a design before it is
implemented. Techniques are described which enhance the
credibility of simulation models. The relationship
between Program Design Analysis and the reliability of
the system being developed is explored.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Clark:1979:CPE,
author =       "Jon D. Clark and Thomas J. Reynolds and Michael J.
Intille",
title =        "Computer performance evaluation: an empirical
approach",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "97--101",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041853.1041861",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Computer performance evaluation can be delineated into
the areas of selection, projection and monitoring. The
tuning of existing systems for efficient performance
may be viewed as a special case of the projection
activity involving modeling, statistics collection and
analysis. Mosts tools available today are expensive to
use and overly complicated. This paper presents the
comparison of two, relatively simple and
cost-effective, statistical techniques for performance
evaluation: regression and canonical analysis. In
addition, the results of the suggested and implemented
computer configuration modification is reported.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "canonical analysis; computer performance evaluation;
multi-processor; regression analysis",
}

@Article{Willis:1979:TSW,
author =       "Ron Willis",
title =        "Techniques in simulation which enhance software
reliability",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "1--2",
pages =        "102--115",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041853.1041862",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A simplified simulation study of an actual software
development effort is presented. A model is developed
and exercised through various stages of modifications
to an originally unreliable soft ware design until
viable software design results. Techniques in model
development, simulation, analysis, and language
capability which lead to enhanced software reliability
are discussed. Uniquenesses in the approach presented
are contrasted to simulation methods which lack this
capability.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Blake:1979:TSM,
author =       "Russ Blake",
title =        "{Tailor}: {A} simple model that works",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "1--11",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805444",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Tailor is an atomic model of the Tandem/16
multiple-computer system. Atomic modeling is based on
operational analysis and general considerations from
queueing theory. Measurements of system atoms define
the underlying components of processor usage. The
workload is described to the model through a separate
set of measurable parameters that comprise the workload
atoms. Simple formulae from operational analysis are
then applied to predict the amount of equipment
necessary to support the projected application.
Tailor's accuracy was tested under two very different
workloads. For both a large backend database
application and a program development system, Tailor
was able to predict the equipment needed to handle the
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Strecker:1979:ACP,
author =       "William D. Strecker",
title =        "An analysis of central processor-input-output
processor contention",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "27--40",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805445",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Most computer systems have separate central (CPU) and
input-output (IOP) processors to permit simultaneous
computation and input-output (I/O). It is conventional
in such systems to avoid any loss of I/O data by
granting the IOP priority over the CPU for memory
service. Although this priority discipline is simple to
implement it may result in a maximum degradation of CPU
performance. In this discussion an analysis of the IOP
priority discipline is given together with an analysis
of other priority disciplines which require the
buffering of IOP requests and results are given showing
that only a small amount of buffering is required to
produce a noticeable improvement in CPU performance.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Contention; CPU; Input-output; I/O interference;
Memory system; Priority discipline; Processor",
}

@Article{Wiecek:1979:PST,
author =       "Cheryl A. Wiecek and Simon C. {Steely, Jr.}",
title =        "Performance simulation as a tool in central processing
unit design",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "41--47",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805446",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Performance analysis has always been considered
important in computer design work. The area of central
processing unit (CPU) design is no exception, where the
successful development of performance evaluation tools
provides valuable information in the analysis of design
tradeoffs. Increasing integration of hardware is
producing more complicated processor modules which add
to the number of alternatives and decisions to be made
in the design process. It is important that these
modules work together as a balanced unit with no hidden
bottlenecks. This paper describes a project to develop
performance simulation as an analysis tool in CPU
design. The methodology is first detailed as a three
part process in which a performance simulation program
is realized that executes an instruction trace using
command file directions. Discussion follows on the
software implemented, applications of this tool in CPU
design, and future goals.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bennett:1979:SDS,
author =       "David A. Bennett and Christopher A. Landauer",
title =        "Simulation of a distributed system for performance
modelling",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "49--56",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805447",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A distributed system of cooperating minicomputers is
simulated by AIMER (Automatic Integration of Multiple
Element Radars) to model and analyze the behavior of a
radar tracking system. Simulation is applied in the
AIMER project in an attempt to model a network of
minicomputers to discover a maximally flexible network
architecture. Because building the tracking system out
of real hardware would not result in a flexible enough
testbed system, the proposed configuration is
represented by a software emulation. The instruction
sets of the individual processors are emulated in order
to allow separation of the measurement facilities from
the execution of the system. The emulation is supported
by a Nano-data QM-1 micro and nano-programmable host.
Extensive performance monitoring hooks have been built
into the emulation system which allow small performance
perturbations to become visible. The tracking network
is controlled by a combination firmware operating
system and a special emulated virtual control machine.
The tracking algorithms run on virtual machines whose
instruction sets and computational throughput can be
parameterized when the model is generated, or
dynamically by an operator during a run. The radar and
ground truth environments for the tracking system are
simulated with logic resident in one of the emulated
machines, allowing these functions to be monitored as
accurately as the tracking algorithms. The use of this
simulation technique has resulted in an extremely
flexible testbed for the development of distributed
radar tracking system models. The testbed itself can be
quickly tailored to other application problems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lazowska:1979:BTA,
author =       "Edward D. Lazowska",
title =        "The benchmarking, tuning and analytic modeling of
{VAX\slash VMS}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "57--64",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805448",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes a recent experience in
benchmarking, tuning and modelling Digital Equipment
Corporation's VMS executive running on their VAX-11/780
computer. Although we emphasize modelling here, the
three aspects are closely interrelated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Marshall:1979:AMW,
author =       "William T. Marshall and C. Thomas Nute",
title =        "Analytic modelling of working set like'' replacement
algorithms",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "65--72",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805449",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Although a large amount of theoretical work has been
performed in the analysis of the pure working set
replacement algorithm, little has been done applying
these results to the approximations that have been
implemented. This paper presents a general technique
for the analysis of these implementations by analytic
methods. Extensive simulations are reported which
validate the analytic model and show significant
simplifications that can be made with little loss of
accuracy. The problem of choosing memory policy
parameter values is examined and related in a simple
way to the choice of a working set window size.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Briggs:1979:EBM,
author =       "Fay{\'e} A. Briggs",
title =        "Effects of buffered memory requests in multiprocessor
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "73--81",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805450",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A simulation model is developed and used to study the
effect of buffering of memory requests on the
performance of multiprocessor systems. A multiprocessor
system is generalized as a parallel-pipelined processor
of order $(s,p)$, which consists of $p$ parallel
processors each of which is a pipelined processor with
$s$ degrees of multiprogramming, there can be up to
$s*p$ memory requests in each instruction cycle. The
memory, which consists of $N (= 2^n)$ identical memory
modules, is organized such that there are $\ell (= 2^i)$ lines and $m (= 2^{n-i})$ identical memory
modules, where each module is characterized by the
$a$ and $c$ time units respectively. Too large an
$\ell$ is undesirable in a multiprocessor system
because of the cost of the processor-memory
interconnection network. Hence, we will show how
effective buffering can be used to reduce the system
cost while effectively maintaining a high level of
performance.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Raffi:1979:ECB,
author =       "Abbas Raffi",
title =        "Effects of channel blocking on the performance of
shared disk pack in a multi-computer system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "83--87",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805451",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In a multi-computer environment where several
computers share packs of disk drives, the architecture
of the disk controller can have significant effect on
the throughput of the disk pack. In a simple
disk in the pack at a time, and effectively block other
channels from accessing other disks in the pack. A
desirable alternative is to be able to access different
disks of the same pack simultaneously from different
channels. Motivated by the presence of a mixed hardware
in an installation to support both configurations, an
attempt is made to model each system and produce
analytical and simulation results to compare their
relative performances. It is predicted that under the
prevalent conditions in the installation, a complete
switchover to either system should not give rise to
significant performance change.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Zahorjan:1979:ESM,
author =       "John Zahorjan",
title =        "An exact solution method for the general class of
closed separable queueing networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "107--112",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805452",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper we present a convolution algorithm for
the full class of closed, separable queueing networks.
In particular, the algorithm represents an alternative
method to those already known for the solution of
networks with class changes, and is the first efficient
algorithm to deal with Lam-type networks [11]. As an
application of the algorithm, we study a simple
queueing network with disk I/O devices connected to a
single CPU through a single channel. The algorithm is
then used to develop a simple, accurate approximation
for the blocking of disk devices that takes place when
a customer using a disk is waiting for or in service at
the channel.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kienzle:1979:SAQ,
author =       "Martin G. Kienzle and K. C. Sevcik",
title =        "Survey of analytic queueing network models of computer
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "113--129",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805453",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A number of case studies involving the use of queueing
network models to investigate actual computer systems
are surveyed. After suggesting a framework by which
case studies can be classified, we contrast various
parameter estimation methods for specifying model
parameters based on measurement data. A tabular summary
indicates the relationships among nineteen case
studies.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Landry:1979:SEP,
author =       "Steve P. Landry and Bruce D. Shriver",
title =        "A simulation environment for performing dataflow
research",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "131--139",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805454",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Dataflow languages and processors are currently being
extensively studied because of their respective ability
to specify and execute programs which exhibit a high
degree of parallel and/or asynchronous activity [12,
7]. This paper describes a comprehensive simulation
environment that allows for the execution and
monitoring of dataflow programs. One overall objective
of this facility was to meet the needs of researchers
in such diverse areas as computer architecture,
algorithm analysis, and language design and
implementation. Another objective was to accommodate
the semantics of several of the contending abstract
dataflow models [2, 4]. Additionally, it was desired to
enhance the abstract dataflow models which the
simulator would support. These objectives, combined
with the desired debugging and metering requirements,
directed the design of the overall system. A brief
introduction to dataflow and its related terminology is
given to assist the reader. A companion paper [6]
describes an augmentation to the basic simulation
facility presented here that allows for the execution
of dataflow programs on processors having finite
resources.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Langan:1979:SED,
author =       "David D. Langan and Bruce D. Shriver",
title =        "Simulated execution of dataflow programs on processors
having finite resources",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "141--149",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805455",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Dataflow languages and processors are currently being
extensively studied because they provide for the
specification and realization of processes exhibiting a
high degree of parallel and/or asynchronous activity
[12, 8]. Several researchers have developed simulators
for specific candidate dataflow architectures in which
there are essentially an infinite number of resources
available to the nost machine [9, 1]. This is done to
study the degree of parallelism which is achievable
with a given version of an algorithm. However, it is an
equally important (and neglected) area to study the
behavior of programs executing in candidate computer
systems having a finite amount of resources. This paper
presents results which have been obtained from such
modeling. It is shown that in such a system certain
critical nodes'' must be given priority of execution
when competing with other nodes for the same resources
in order to achieve the maximum system throughput. It
is suggested that the abstract dataflow model be
modified to accommodate such situations. Various design
trade-offs associated with the implementation of the
simulator are discussed along with a description of
available features. A companion paper [6] describes the
general dataflow simulation facility which provided the
basis of this work.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Unger:1979:OSI,
author =       "Brian W. Unger and James R. Parker",
title =        "An operating system implementation and simulation
language {(OASIS)}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "151--161",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805456",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An approach to the implementation and simulation of
system software for multicomputer architectures is
described. OASIS, a variant of the SIMULA 67 language,
provides tools for both hardware modelling and system
software development. The latter includes an extensible
module type with flexible intermodule access control.
Hardware is characterized at the processor/memory level
so that system software resource control and allocation
policies can be implemented at a functional level.
Concurrent module execution by multiple processors,
with or without shared memory, can be simulated
directly. The OASIS modules in such a simulation can
closely parallel the structure of actual system
software. Thus, once a design is shown viable by
simulation, the implementation of actual software can
be a simple translation of OASIS modules. A brief
overview of OASIS features is presented followed by a
simple example.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sanguinetti:1979:TIS,
author =       "John Sanguinetti",
title =        "A technique for integrating simulation and system
design",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "163--172",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805457",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A technique for simulating incomplete systems is given
which allows performance prediction during system
design. This technique, called integrated simulation,
allows the system design to itself be a simulation
model, thus avoiding the overhead of maintaining a
separate, valid simulation model for the system. The
paper presents integrated simulation in the framework
of a system modeling language called the Program
Process Modeling Language, PPML. This language provides
a means for describing systems of concurrent processes
in both abstract and explicit terms, thus lending
itself well to a top-down design method. In the design
process, any PPML representation of the system can be
simulated directly, from the most abstract design to
the completely elaborated system. Simulation of the
completely elaborated system is, in fact, simply the
system in execution. The paper defines PPML and
describes the techniques required to simulate PPML
systems given various underlying machines. It concludes
with a discussion of the limitations of the integrated
simulation method.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Razouk:1979:EMS,
author =       "Rami R. Razouk and Mary Vernon and Gerald Estrin",
title =        "Evaluation methods in {SARA} --- the graph model
simulator",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "189--206",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805458",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The supported methodology evolving in the SARA (System
ARchitects' Apprentice) system creates a design
frame-work on which increasingly powerful analytical
tools are to be grafted. Control flow analyses and
program verification tools have shown promise. However,
in the realm of the complex systems which interest us
there is a great deal of research and development to be
done before we can count on the use of such powerful
tools. We must always be prepared to resort to
experiments for evaluation of proposed designs. This
paper describes a fundamental SARA tool, the graph
model simulator. During top-down refinement of a
design, the simulator is used to test consistency
between the levels of abstraction. During composition,
known building blocks are linked together and the
composite graph model is tested relative to the lowest
top-down model. Design of test environments is
integrated with the multilevel design process. The SARA
methodology is exemplified through design of a higher
level building block to do a simple FFT.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Yu:1979:MSD,
author =       "Stone H. Yu and Tadao Murata",
title =        "Modeling and simulating data flow computations at
machine language level",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "207--213",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805459",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper is concerned with the data flow
organization of computers and programs, which exhibits
a good deal of inherent concurrencies in a computation
by imposing no superfluous precedence constraints. In
view of the popularity of parallel and distributed
processing, this organization can be expected to play
an increasingly prominent role in the design and
development of computer systems. A schematic diagram
called DF-graphs, suitable for modeling data flow
computations at the machine language level, is
introduced. To facilitate the storage of DF-graphs in
computers, matrix equations which fully describe their
structure and their dynamic behaviors are developed as
an alternate representation. Also demonstrated is the
feasibility of simulating the execution of computations
specified by DF-graphs on a network of conventional
mini- and microprocessors.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Mattheyses:1979:MSA,
author =       "R. M. Mattheyses and S. E. Conry",
title =        "Models for specification and analysis of parallel
computing systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "215--224",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805460",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The problem of designing a properly functioning
parallel hardware or software system is considerably
more difficult than that of designing a similar
sequential system. In this paper we formulate criteria
which a design methodology for parallel systems should
satisfy and explore the use of various models as the
basis for such a design tool.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gertner:1979:PEC,
author =       "Ilya Gertner",
title =        "Performance evaluation of communicating processes",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "241--248",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805461",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper concerns the performance evaluation of an
operating system based on communicating processes.
Processes communicate via messages and there is no
shared data. Execution of a program is abstracted as a
sequence of events to denote significant computational
steps. A finite state machine model of computation is
used for the specifications of abstract computational
properties and, thereafter, for the selective analysis
of measurement data. A set of conventions is developed
to characterize the performance of communicating
processes. A hierarchical layering technique is used to
concisely describe the characteristics of large
systems. A performance monitoring system was
implemented and applied to the analysis of RIG, a
message-based operating system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Spooner:1979:BIS,
author =       "Christopher R. Spooner",
title =        "Benchmarking interactive systems: {Producing} the
software",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "249--257",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800188.805462",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The author has recently developed a new methodology of
benchmarking, which is being applied to a procurement
in which (a) a single integrated interactive
application is to span a distributed configuration of
computing hardware, (b) the configuration is unknown
when the benchmark is being developed, and (c) the
application software will be written after the
benchmark has been run. The buyer prepares a simulation
model of the intended application in the form of
programs that will run on the hardware being
benchmarked. Each competing vendor is expected to tune
the performance of this model to the hardware
configuration that he has proposed, so he will require
several versions of the model. This presents the buyer
with a formidable software-production problem, which is
further complicated by a requirement for extreme
flexibility and reliability. The paper addresses the
software-production problem and describes its solution.
The solution was to develop an automated
code-production system based on two principal design
features. First, the model and its translator are both
written in the same language; secondly, the common
language is selected on the basis of readability and
extensibility. The paper examines why this approach to
the code-production problem was successful. Though the
code-production system was developed to support a
particular benchmarking approach, it should also be
useful in other modeling situations. Indeed it might be
of interest in any field where readability,
reliability, ease of maintenance, and economy of
programming effort are considered important.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Dujmovic:1979:CCP,
author =       "Jozo J. Dujmovi{\'c}",
title =        "Criteria for computer performance analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "259--267",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805463",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Computer evaluation, comparison, and selection is
essentially a decision process. The decision making is
based on a number of worth indicators, including
various computer performance indicators. The
performance indicators are obtained through the
computer performance measurement procedure.
Consequently, this procedure should be completely
conditioned by the decision process. This paper
investigates various aspects of computer performance
measurement and evaluation procedure within the context
of computer evaluation, comparison and selection
process based on the Logic Scoring of Preference
method. The set of elementary criteria for performance
evaluation is proposed and the corresponding set of
performance indicators is defined. The necessary
performance measurements are based on the standardized
set of synthetic benchmark programs and include three
separate measurements: monoprogramming performance
measurement, multiprogramming performance measurement,
and multiprogramming efficiency measurement. Using the
proposed elementary criteria, the measured performance
indicators can be transformed into elementary
preferences and aggregated with other non-performance
elementary preferences obtained through the evaluation
process. The applicability of presented elementary
criteria is illustrated by numerical examples.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
xxauthor =     "Jozo J. Dujomovi{\'c}",
}

@Article{Dyal:1979:SBS,
author =       "James O. Dyal and William {DeWald, Jr.}",
title =        "Small business system performance analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "269--275",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805464",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents results from the performance
simulation study of a small business-oriented computer
system. The system, SPERRY UNIVAC BC/7-700, is
commercially available in the configuration modeled and
in other higher performance models. All BC/7 systems
modeled are supported with highly interactive
applications software systems. The model is
parameterized to select one or more workstations and
one or more cartridge disks. File allocations are by
cylinder. Seek times are computed by remembering the
position of each movable arm. References are randomized
within each file, but the sequence in which files are
accessed is controlled by the application logic, in
conjunction with the number of line items/order. Most
event times are not constant, but the result of drawing
randomly against empirical distributions with specified
mean and standard deviation. For this study, the system
simulated is composed of a single work-station running
the highly interactive on-line version of a
sophisticated order entry application package.
Principal performance measures are system throughput
and response time, including operator action times. It
is found that, in the single workstation environment,
performance is very cost effective in this highly
competitive part of the information system market.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Huff:1979:SCR,
author =       "Robert W. Huff",
title =        "System characterization of a {Retail Business
System}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "277--284",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805465",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The complexities of Retail Business Systems today
require a thorough understanding of how functional
requirements impact desired system performance. It is
no longer feasible to discretely test and evaluate
individual system components without considering their
inter-relationship. The techniques described in this
presentation will define the method of system
characterization of products prior to customer
delivery. Three techniques are utilized to characterize
system performance --- simulation, stimulation, and
performance measurement. Simulation involves writing a
mathematical model which is enhanced from a product
feasibility model to a system configuration tool as a
result of stimulation and measurement activities.
Stimulation consists of using emulators to load the
system component under test as if the actual system is
inter-connected. The emulators are programmed to
produce a processing volume which can exceed the peak
benchmark of the potential user. Performance
measurement is accomplished during the stimulation
activity using hardware/ software probes to monitor
specific system parameters. These monitors provide
vital information to determine total system capacity
and the expected system performance for a given
configuration. The information derived from system
characterization is invaluable in providing the
customer with a realistic expectation of system
capability to perform its present functions and in
projecting future growth potential.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Stroebel:1979:FPA,
author =       "Gary Stroebel",
title =        "Field performance aids for {IBM GSD} systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "3",
pages =        "285--291",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1013608.805466",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A series of field performance aids have been developed
to assist IBM Systems Engineers evaluate the
performance of System/3, System/34, and System/38
configurations. Use of those aids is appropriate at
proposal time, for preinstallation design, for tuning,
and for upgrade studies. This paper overviews some of
the key features of these aids as they pertain to the
performance models.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Clark:1979:FAP,
author =       "Jon D. Clark",
title =        "A feature analysis of performance evaluation texts",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "4",
pages =        "9--11",
month =        dec,
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041865",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Computer performance analysis, whether it be for
design, selection or improvement, has a large body of
literature to draw upon. It is surprising, however,
that few texts exist on the subject. The purpose of
this paper is to provide a feature analysis of the four
major texts suitable for professional and academic
purposes.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "computer performance evaluation; computer system
selection",
}

@Article{Dowdy:1979:SWT,
author =       "Lawrence W. Dowdy",
title =        "Synopsis of workshop on the theory and application of
analytical models to {ADP} system performance
prediction",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "4",
pages =        "13--17",
month =        dec,
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041866",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A workshop on the theory and application of analytical
models to ADP system performance prediction was held on
March 12-13, 1979, at the University of Maryland. The
final agenda of the workshop is included as an
appendix. Six sessions were conducted: (1) theoretical
advances, (2) operational analysis, (3) effectiveness
of analytical modeling techniques, (4) validation, (5)
case studies and applications, and (6) modeling tools.
A summary of each session is presented below. A list of
references is provided for more detailed information.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Petrella:1979:SWS,
author =       "Arthur Petrella and Harold Farrey",
title =        "Simulating working sets under {MVS}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "4",
pages =        "24--36",
month =        dec,
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041867",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The concept of a working-set' of a program running in
a virtual memory environment is now so familiar that
many of us fail to realize just how little we really
know about what it is, what it means, and what can be
done to make such knowledge actually useful. This
follows, perhaps, from the abstract and apparently
intangible facade that tends to obscure the meaning of
working set. What we cannot measure often ranks high in
curiosity value, but ranks low in pragmatic utility.
Where we have measures, as in the page-seconds of
SMF/MVS, the situation becomes even more curious: here
a single number purports to tell us something about the
working set of a program, and maybe something about the
working sets of other concurrent programs, but not very
much about either. This paper describes a case in which
the concept of the elusive working set has been
encountered in practice, has been intensively analyzed,
and finally, has been confronted in its own realm. It
has been trapped, wrapped, and, at last, forced to
reveal itself for what it really is. It is not a
number! Yet it can be measured. And what it is,
together with its measures, turns out to be something
not only high in curiosity value, but also something
very useful as a means to predict the page faulting
behavior of a program running in a relatively complex
multiprogrammed environment. The information presented
here relates to experience gained during the conversion
of a discrete event simulation model to a hybrid model
which employs analytical techniques to forecast the
duration of steady-state' intervals between mix-change
events in the simulation of a network-scheduled job
stream processing on a 370/168-3AP under MVS. The
specific encounter' with the concept of working sets
came about when an analytical treatment of program
paging was incorporated into the model. As a result of
considerable luck, ingenuity, and brute-force
empiricism, the model won. Several examples of
empirically derived characteristic working set
functions, together with typical model results, are
supported with a discussion of relevant modeling
techniques and areas of application.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Pierson:1979:PEM,
author =       "Daniel L. Pierson",
title =        "Performance evaluation of a minicomputer-based data
collection system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "4",
pages =        "37--44",
month =        dec,
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041868",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper discussed the problems encountered and
techniques used in conducting the performance
evaluation of a multi-processor on-line manpower data
collection system. The two main problems were: (1) a
total lack of available software tools, and (2) many
commonly used hardware monitor measures (e.g., CPU
busy, disk seek in progress) were either meaningless or
not available. The main technique used to circumvent
these problems was detailed analysis of one-word
resolution memory maps. Some additional data collection
techniques were (1) time-stamped channel measurements
used to derive some system component utilization
characteristics and (2) manual stopwatch timings used
to identify the system's terminal response times.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Artis:1979:CPM,
author =       "H. Pat Artis",
title =        "Capacity planning for {MVS} computer systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "4",
pages =        "45--62",
month =        dec,
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041869",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The current status of an implementation of a
methodology relating load, capacity and service for IBM
MVS computer systems is presented. This methodology
encompasses systems whose workloads include batch, time
sharing and transaction processing. The implementation
and analysis, automatic benchmarking, and exhaust point
forecasting.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Rajaraman:1979:PVM,
author =       "M. K. Rajaraman",
title =        "Performance of a virtual memory: some experimental
results",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "8",
number =       "4",
pages =        "63--68",
month =        dec,
year =         "1979",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041870",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:32 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper reports the results of simulation
experiment of a model of a virtual memory computer. The
model consists of three major subsystems: Program
Behavior, Memory Allocation and Secondary Storage. By
adapting existing models of these subsystems an overall
model for the computer operation is developed and its
performance is tested for various design alternatives.
The results are reported for different paging devices,
levels of multiprogramming, job mixes, memory
allocation scheme, page service scheduling and page
replacement rate.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Denning:1980:WWS,
author =       "Peter J. Denning",
title =        "What's a working set?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "6--10",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041872.1041873",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "I am writing about the paper by A. Petrella and H.
Farrey, of IBM, SIMULATING WORKING SETS UNDER MVS,
reprinted in the SIGMETRICS Newsletter, Issue (8, 4),
winter 1979-80. The paper is an amalgam of very good
modeling work and misinformation about the working set
concept. I will summarize the important contributions
and give a short essay about working sets.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Petrella:1980:SWS,
author =       "Arthur Petrella and Harold Farrey",
title =        "Simulating working sets under {MVS}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "11--23",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041872.1041874",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The concept of a working-set' of a program running in
a virtual memory environment is now so familiar that
many of us fail to realize just how little we really
know about what it is, what it means, and what can be
done to make such knowledge actually useful. This
follows, perhaps, from the abstract and apparently
intangible facade that tends to obscure the meaning of
working set. What we cannot measure of ten ranks high
in curiosity value, but ranks low in pragmatic utility.
Where we have measures, as in the page-seconds of
SMF/MVS, the situation becomes even more curious: here
a single number purports to tell us something about the
working set of a program, and maybe something about the
working sets of other concurrent programs, but not very
much about either. This paper describes a case in which
the concept of the elusive working set has been
encountered in practice, has been intensively analyzed,
and finally, has been confronted in its own realm. It
has been trapped, wrapped, and, at last, forced to
reveal it self for what it really is. It is not a
number! Yet it can be measured. And what it is,
together with its measures, turns out to be something
not only high in curiosity value, but also something
very useful as a means to predict the page faulting
behavior of a program running in a relatively complex
multiprogrammed environment. The information presented
here relates to experience gained during the conversion
of a discrete event simulation model to a hybrid model
which employs analytical techniques to forecast the
duration of steady-state' intervals between mix-change
events in the simulation of a network-scheduled job
stream processing on a 370/168-3AP under MVS. The
specific encounter' with the concept of working sets
came about when an analytical treatment of program
paging was incorporated into the model. As a result of
considerable luck, ingenuity, and brute-force
empiricism, the model won. Several examples of
empirically derived characteristic working set
functions, together with typical model results, are
supported with a discussion of relevant modeling
techniques and areas of application.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Spiegel:1980:MEP,
author =       "Mitchell G. Spiegel",
title =        "Measuring and evaluating performance",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "33--34",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041872.1041875",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The subject of system performance measurement and
evaluation has undergone as many generations of changes
as the systems themselves. The problem of what to
measure and evaluate is complicated by the fact that
computing and communications, having become technically
similar (digital), will undergo further fusion. Because
the technologies are merging, a comparison of their
respective origins is instructive. Communications and
computing do not share a common history. Communications
performance evaluation began as a turn-of-the-century
issue. Important performance attributes of voice
communications systems were accessability and
reliability. The general public and communications
system analysts always viewed the voice communications
systems as a bundled service, with little emphasis on
the characteristics of its individual components.
Performance was engineered' into communications
systems for given workload capacity levels (traffic). A
reliable service offering evolved over two decades
(1920's and 1930's) and was expanded to include data as
well as voice communications. The voice network used
primarily analog transmission techniques, because voice
traffic grew far more rapidly than data. Pulse code
modulation (PCM) techniques, employing digital
transmission, reversed the trend of analog circuitry.
In the future, communications transmission, switching,
and integrated services networks (voice, data,
facsimile, picture) will be implemented exclusively
with digital techniques.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Dixon:1980:PMI,
author =       "P. J. Dixon",
title =        "Planning {MIS} investment and expense levels",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "35--37",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041872.1041876",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Asking for capital for data processing and
telecommunications equipment in not exactly popular
with most Boards of Directors in most companies.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Moran:1980:CPV,
author =       "Thomas S. Moran",
title =        "Capacity planning: the volume'",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "38--40",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041872.1041877",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Some comments on past, present, and future measures of
volume as it affects planning for computer systems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{DeMarco:1980:BLB,
author =       "Tom DeMarco",
title =        "Breaking the language barrier",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "41--45",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041872.1041878",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The systems analyst and the user are not independent
entities; each depends on the other. When communication
problems get in their way, however, the relationship
can turn adversary. The real problem in most system or
program development efforts may be that English, left
to itself, is too subtle, too open to personal
interpretation, to be appropriate in the structured
world of DP.Tom DeMarco shows how to impose limits on
our native language so analysts, designers, programmers
and users can safely use it to define what they are
trying to develop. This week he starts by giving some
hints on that most basic of DP jobs, setting up the
system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Giles:1980:CSM,
author =       "Howard L. Giles",
title =        "Communications systems management",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "46--51",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041872.1041879",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "As data processing systems have grown from primarily
batch-oriented applications to today's fairly extensive
on-line systems, the management system required to
control these resources has changed. This system
evolution is forcing management to focus their
attention on controlling the distribution of
information to various users performing many diverse
applications. Communications Systems Management is the
process used to manage and control the distribution of
information in an on-line system for maximum
performance and productivity. It consists of those
techniques and tools needed to operate, maintain,
repair, install and plan for the continuous operation
of a communications-oriented information system. The
following pages describe the management functions
needed to ensure that on-line system operation will be
successful.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Erlandson:1980:SEM,
author =       "Robert F. Erlandson",
title =        "System evaluation methodologies: combined
multidimensional scaling and ordering techniques",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "52--58",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041872.1041880",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "It is a difficult task to evaluate existing
large-scale systems; it is even more difficult to
evaluate alternative designs for future systems. Yet,
such decisions are necessary because of the long
development and implementation times involved.
telecommunications, power, health-care delivery,
transportation, etc. These systems change slowly
because additions or modifications are costly and must
mesh with the existing elements, hence, great care must
be given to the establishment of long-term goals and
the evaluation of alternative future system designs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Pearson:1980:MCU,
author =       "Sammy W. Pearson and James E. Bailey",
title =        "Measurement of computer user satisfaction",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "59--68",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041872.1041881",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:40 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents the development and evaluation of
a questionnaire designed to quantitatively measure
scoring, and interpretation of the questionnaire are
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Chandy:1980:CAP,
author =       "K. Mani Chandy and Charles H. Sauer",
title =        "Computational algorithms for product form queueing
networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "1--1",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806144",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In the last two decades there has been special
interest in queueing networks with a product form
solution. These have been widely used as models of
computer systems and communication networks. Two new
computational algorithms for product form networks are
presented. A comprehensive treatment of these
algorithms and the two important existing algorithms,
convolution and mean value analysis, is given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Performance evaluation; Product form; Queueing
networks",
}

@Article{Gordon:1980:ICP,
author =       "Karen D. Gordon and Lawrence W. Dowdy",
title =        "The impact of certain parameter estimation errors in
queueing network models",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "3--9",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806145",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The effect that parameter estimation errors have on
performance in closed product form queueing networks is
investigated. In particular, the effects of errors in
the relative utilization estimates of the servers are
analyzed. It is shown that in single class load
independent networks, the resulting errors in
throughput and utilizations are of approximately the
same percentage as the errors in the relative
utilization estimates. This result does not hold in
networks with load dependent servers or multiple
customer classes. The percentage errors in mean queue
length depend upon the degree of multiprogramming in
the network. Errors in mean queue lengths can become
unbounded as the degree of multiprogramming becomes
unbounded. Implications of these results to computer
system modeling are discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Blake:1980:XIM,
author =       "Russ Blake",
title =        "{XRAY}: {Instrumentation} for multiple computers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "11--25",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806146",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "XRAY presents a global view of the performance of
hardware and software components on multiple,
distributed computers. The set of components chosen for
measurement can be changed at any time throughout a
network of systems, and can be selected to minimize
data collection time and measurement space. In the
course of normal activities the operating system
executes firmware which increments counters for the
measured components. Periodically, the counters are
recorded in an ordinary file by a process in each
processor. An analysis program permits browsing through
components and plotting counters in real time. Analysis
focuses on detecting the distributed sources of
excessive activity.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hughes:1980:DDA,
author =       "James H. Hughes",
title =        "{DIAMOND} a digital analyzer and monitoring device",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "27--34",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806147",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes the design and application of a
special purpose computer system. It was developed as an
internal tool by a computer manufacturer, and has been
used in solving a variety of measurement problems
encountered in computer performance evaluation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bashioum:1980:BIS,
author =       "Douglas L. Bashioum",
title =        "Benchmarking interactive systems: {Calibrating} the
model",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "35--41",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806148",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A methodology for benchmarking dedicated, interactive
systems has been developed at The MITRE Corporation.
This methodology uses a synthetic program model of the
application which runs on the proposed
hardware/operating system configurations and is driven
by a statistically derived load. System performance is
measured by analyzing the synthetic transaction
response times. The methodology yields assurances to a
buyer that the benchmarked system has at least an a
priori defined amount of computer power available for
applications-oriented software. This paper examines the
methodology and the problems that were encountered and
solutions which have been used in calibrating a
benchmark model for a specific application. The
benchmark was designed to model a large interactive
information processing application on a procurement
requiring loosely-coupled (no shared memory)
multicomputer systems. The model consists of a set of
interacting synthetic program cells, each composed of
several abstractly defined components. The model is
maintained in a very high level language that is
automatically translated into a standard High Order
Language (typically FORTRAN or COBOL) for delivery to
the competing vendors. These delivered model cells
contain automatically generated size and time filler
code that calibrate'' the cells to consume the
appropriate CPU time and memory space as defined by the
abstract size units after accounting for each vendor's
hardware and proposed system design.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Benchmark; Calibration; Computer performance
measurement; Distributed processing; Interactive
systems; Modeling; Real-time; Simulation; Synthetic
programs",
}

@Article{Lehmann:1980:PEP,
author =       "Axel Lehmann",
title =        "Performance evaluation and prediction of storage
hierarchies",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "43--54",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1009375.806149",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper proposes a modelling methodology combining
simulation and analysis for computer performance
evaluation and prediction. The methodology is based on
a special workload model that is suitable for the
generation and description of dynamic program
behaviour. A description of this workload model is
given in section 2. The applicability of this concept
with respect to the design of new storage systems, as
well as the improvement or comparison of existing
systems, will be described by investigation of the
efficiency of small cache memories in section 3.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Alanko:1980:MER,
author =       "Timo O. Alanko and Ilkka J. Haikala and Petri H.
Kutvonen",
title =        "Methodology and empirical results of program behaviour
measurements",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "55--66",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806150",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Program behaviour characteristics were examined using
data gathered from real program executions. Experiments
were performed in a segmented virtual memory with a
working set policy; the analyzing costs were kept low
using an efficient data reduction method. Empirical
results were obtained concerning the influence of the
window size on program behaviour characteristics, the
accuracy of some average working set size
approximations and the sensitivity of program behaviour
to the program's input data. These results show that
some commonly used assumptions concerning program
behaviour are inaccurate. Also there seem to exist
ill-behaving'' programs, the behaviour of which does
not correspond well with results obtained earlier. The
effects of real-time delays during program execution
were considered using a new simple method. As an
additional experiment, segmenting and paging were
compared using various performance statistics; the
results seem to favour segmenting.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kumar:1980:PRB,
author =       "Gopa Kumar and C. Thomas Nute",
title =        "Program restructuring for block structured languages",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "67--79",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806151",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Prior studies of program restructuring to increase the
degree of locality of a program in a paged virtual
memory system were restricted to statically allocated
codes only. This work develops a restructuring
methodology for block structured languages like Algol,
with dynamic memory allocation. We subsequently
restructure and analyze different classes of programs
using this methodology and study the performance gains
realized with different restructuring heuristics.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Vantilborgh:1980:NCD,
author =       "Hendrik T. Vantilborgh and Richard L. Garner and
Edward D. Lazowska",
title =        "Near-complete decomposability of queueing networks
with clusters of strongly interacting servers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "81--92",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1009375.806152",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The near-complete decomposability of queueing network
models of computer systems is generally supported by
very large differences in the service rates of the
servers. In this paper we show how such models may
still be nearly completely decomposable if on the one
hand these large differences can no longer be
realistically assumed (as is the case, for example, in
computer networks) but if on the other hand clusters of
strongly interacting servers exist. Our results may be
viewed as a bridge between the approaches to the
approximate analysis of queueing networks advanced by
Courtois and by Chandy, Herzog and Woo, since we show
circumstances under which the former approach leads to
exactly the same method of analysis as the latter. In
contrast to the Chandy, Herzog and Woo theorem,
however, the theory of near-complete decomposability
does not rely on the beneficent properties of queueing
networks exhibiting product form solutions. Thus our
results may point the way towards the theoretically
sound application of simple and intuitively appealing
approximate analysis techniques to non-product-form
networks.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Brandwajn:1980:FRE,
author =       "Alexandre Brandwajn",
title =        "Further results on equivalence and decomposition in
queueing network models",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "93--104",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806153",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper addresses three aspects related to the
notion of exact equivalence in queueing models. In many
cases the parameters of a system equivalent to a given
model involve only a small subset of conditional
probabilities of the state of the original model given
the equivalent one. It is shown that meaningful bounds
may be obtained for the conditional probabilities of
interest with little computational effort. Such bounds
are useful in assessing processing capacities as well
as the accuracy of approximate solutions. As a second
point it is shown that the notion of exact equivalence
may be easily extended to networks with non-exponential
servers. This is done for both the methods of
supplementary variables and for the embedded Markov
chain technique. Qualitative analysis of approximation
methods is also discussed. Finally, numerical methods
based on the notion of exact equivalence, i.e.
operating on conditional probabilities, are
considered.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Stewart:1980:ECF,
author =       "William J. Stewart and Gerald A. Zeiszler",
title =        "On the existence of composite flow equivalent
{Markovian} servers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "105--116",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1009375.806154",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Queueing networks have been used to model a large
variety of complex systems. However, once a realistic
model has been constructed it has generally been
necessary to distort and modify it so that an analytic
solution could be obtained. Unfortunately, the analytic
solution often has little relation to the original
queueing system and consequently often produces
solutions with poor accuracy. We begin with a brief
introduction to the concepts of decomposition and
aggregation. Application of these and other approximate
methods to the analysis of computer systems are
discussed by Chandy and Sauer [CHAN78].",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Marie:1980:CEP,
author =       "Raymond Marie",
title =        "Calculating equilibrium probabilities for {$\lambda(n) / C_k / 1 / N$} queues",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "117--125",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806155",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Equilibrium state distributions are determined for
queues with load-dependent Poisson arrivals and service
time distributions representable by Cox's generalized
method of stages. The solution is obtained by
identifying a birth-death process that has the same
equilibrium state distribution as the original queue.
Special cases of two-stage (C2) and Erlang-k (Ek)
service processes permit particularly efficient
algorithms for calculating the load-dependent service
rates of the birth-death process corresponding to the
original queue. Knowing the parameters of the
birth-death process, the equilibrium state
probabilities can be calculated straight-forwardly.
This technique is particularly useful when subsystems
are reduced to flow-equivalent servers representing the
complementary network.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Wagner:1980:HCS,
author =       "Robert A. Wagner and Kishor S. Trivedi",
title =        "Hardware configuration selection through discretizing
a continuous variable solution",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "127--142",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806156",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper extends a previous model for computer
system configuration planning developed by the authors.
The problem is to optimally select the CPU speed, the
device capacities, and file assignments so as to
maximize throughput subject to a fixed cost constraint.
We advocate solving this essentially discrete problem
in continuous variables followed by an appropriate
discretization. The discretization error thus committed
is analyzed in detail.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bard:1980:MSD,
author =       "Yonathan Bard",
title =        "A model of shared {DASD} and multipathing",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "143--143",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806157",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents a model of an I/O subsystem in
which devices can be accessed from multiple CPUs and/or
via alternative channel and control unit paths. The
model estimates access response times, given access
rates for all CPU-device combinations. The systems
treated are those having the IBM System/370
architecture, with each path consisting of a CPU,
channel, control unit, head of string, and device with
rotational position sensing. The path selected for an
access at seek initiation time remains in effect for
the entire channel program. The computation proceeds in
three stages: First, the feasibility of the prescribed
access rates is determined by solving a linear
programming problem. Second, the splitting of access
rates among the available paths is determined so as to
satisfy the following principle: The probability of
selecting a given path is proportional to the
probability that the path is free. This condition leads
to a set of nonlinear equations, which can be solved by
means of the Newton--Raphson method. Third, the RPS hit
probability, i.e. the probability that the path is free
when the device is ready to transmit, is computed in
the following manner: From the point of view of the
selected path, the system may be viewed as being in one
of 25 possible states. There are twelve different
subsets of states whose aggregate probabilities can be
computed from the (by now) known flow rates over the
various paths. The maximum entropy principle is used to
calculate the unknown state probabilities, with the
known aggregate probabilities acting as constraints.
The required RPS hit probability can be computed easily
once the state probabilities have been determined.
Explicit formulas are given for all these quantities.
Empirically derived formulas are used to compute the
RPS miss probability on subsequent revolutions, given
the probability on the first revolution. The model is
validated against a simulator, showing excellent
agreement for systems with path utilizations up to 50
percent. The model is also validated against
measurements from a real three-CPU system with 31
shared devices. In this validation, the I/O subsystem
model acts as a common submodel to three copies of a
system model, one for each CPU. Estimated end-user
transaction response times show excellent agreement
with the live measurements.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lo:1980:CCP,
author =       "T. L. Lo",
title =        "Computer capacity planning using queueing network
models",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "145--152",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806158",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents several computer capacity planning
case studies using a modeling tool, BEST/1, derived
from the theory of queueing networks. All performance
predictions were evaluated based on the selected
service levels such as response times and throughputs.
approach are also briefly discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kurinckx:1980:OVC,
author =       "A. Kurinckx and G. Pujolle",
title =        "Overallocation in a virtual circuit computer network",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "153--158",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806159",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper, we study the end-to-end control through
virtual circuits in a computer network built following
the X.25 Recommendations. We develop a mathematical
model to obtain the maximum overallocation of node
buffers, in order for the probability of overflow not
to exceed a given value.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

author =       "Richard A. Upton and Satish K. Tripathi",
title =        "Analysis of design alternatives for a packet switched
{I/O} system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "159--171",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806160",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes an application of analytical
modeling to the design and evaluation of a general
purpose, packet-switched image processing system that
will soon enter an implementation phase. A bottom-up
modeling approach is used to evaluate such design
issues as optimal packet size, optimal channel access
method(s), and required number of processors and disks.
Based on the characteristics of various hardware
components and the predicted workload, specific design
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Balkovich:1980:PDS,
author =       "Edward E. Balkovich and Colin Whitby-Strevens",
title =        "On the performance of decentralized software",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "173--180",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806161",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Distribution of computing to achieve goals such as
enhanced reliability depend on the use of decentralized
software. Decentralization typically replaces a
sequential process by a system of small, concurrent
processes that interact frequently. The implementation
of processes and their interactions represents a cost
incurred as a result of decentralization. Performance
measurements are reported in this paper for
decentralized software written in a programming
language for distributed computer systems. These
performance measurements confirm that low-cost
implementations of concurrency are possible, but
indicate that decentralized software makes heavy use of
run-time functions managing concurrency. An initial
model comparing the performance of a specific
decentralized software structure to its centralized
counterpart indicates that these implementation costs
are generally offset by the performance improvements
that are due to the parallelism inherent in the
decentralized structure. The research facilities for
continued study of decentralized software performance
are described in the summary.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Concurrent software; Decentralized control;
Decentralized software; Distributed computer systems;
Performance measurement and evaluation",
}

@Article{Grit:1980:PMA,
author =       "Dale H. Grit and Rex L. Page",
title =        "Performance of a multiprocessor for applicative
programs",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "181--189",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806162",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Applicative programming languages provide
opportunities for parallel processing without requiring
the programmer to be concerned with explicit
synchronization of portions of the computation. We
present a computational model of a multiprocessor which
executes applicative programs, and we analyze the
expected performance of the model via simulation. As
the number of processors is doubled, elapsed execution
time is nearly halved, until system bottlenecks occur.
An alternative model is proposed which alleviates these
bottlenecks. The basis of the second model is an
interconnection switch which is characterized by
$\log(n)$ access time and $n \log(n)$ cost.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Dhas:1980:PEF,
author =       "C. Retna Dhas",
title =        "Performance evaluation of a feedback data flow
processor using simulation",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "191--197",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806163",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents a method to estimate the
performance of a feedback data flow processor using
software simulation. A brief over view of a data flow
language and a data flow processor along with the
conceptual view of a software simulator are described.
Numerical measurements of parallelism and resources
requirements are obtained by translating high level
language programs to data flow language and then
executing them on the simulator.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bryant:1980:HMG,
author =       "Raymond M. Bryant",
title =        "On homogeneity in {M\slash G\slash 1} queueing
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "199--208",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806164",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Operational analysis replaces certain classical
gueueing theory assumptions with the condition of
homogeneous service times.'' In this paper, we show
that the sample paths of an M/G/1 queueing system have
this property with non-zero probability if and only if
the service time distribution is exponential. We also
consider the relationship of the operational
performance measures S(n) and the mean service time.
This relationship is shown to depend on the form of the
service distribution. It follows that using operational
analysis to predict the performance of an M/G/1
queueing system when the mean service time is changed
will be most successful when the service time
distribution is exponential. Simulation evidence is
presented which supports this claim.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Coffman:1980:ORP,
author =       "E. G. {Coffman, Jr.} and Erol Gelenbe and Roger C.
Wood",
title =        "Optimal replication of parallel-read, sequential-write
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "209--216",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806165",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Frequently used computer elements that can be written
by at most one process at a time constitute important
bottlenecks in multiprocessor system operation,
particularly when such elements are accessible only
serially. Hardware devices, data files, system tables
and critical sections in general may be examples of
such elements. One common way to relieve this
congestion is to provide several copies of the element,
which can then be read (used) in parallel. However, the
requirement that writing (changing) remain sequential
means that writing times increase with the number of
copies provided. The optimization question in this
trade-off is the main concern of this paper. A
probability model of such a system is formulated with
the objective of obtaining read-rate capacities as a
provided. The above optimization problem is expressed
in terms of these results and then solved. In
particular, it is shown how to select the number of
copies that maximizes the read-rate capacity for given
system parameters. Two distinct operating regimes,
based on how interrupted read operations are restarted,
are analyzed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Shore:1980:LRO,
author =       "John E. Shore",
title =        "The lazy repairman and other models: {Performance}
collapse due to overhead in simple, single-server
queuing systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "217--224",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806166",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We consider two simple models of overhead in batch
computer systems and demand access communications
systems. The first, termed modified M/M/1/K, is an
exponential, single-server queuing system with finite
storage capacity, constant arrival rate, and
queue-length-dependent service time. We consider cases
in which the expected service time consists of a
constant plus a term that grows linearly or
logarithmically with the queue length. We show that the
performance of this system --- as characterized by the
expected number of customers in the system, the
expected time in the system, and the rate of missed
customers --- can collapse as the result of small
changes in the arrival rate, the overhead rate, or the
queue capacity. The system has the interesting property
that increasing the queue capacity can decrease
performance. In addition to equilibrium results, we
consider the dynamic behavior of the model. We show
that the system tends to operate in either of two
quasi-stable modes of operation --- one with low queue
lengths and one with high queue lengths. System
behavior is characterized by long periods of operation
in both modes with abrupt transitions between them. We
point out that the performance of a saturated system
may be improved by dynamic operating procedures that
return the system to the low mode. In the second model,
termed the lazy repairman, the single server has
two distinct states: the busy'' state and the
lazy'' state. Customers receive service only when the
server is in the busy state; overhead is modeled by
attributing time spent in the lazy state to overhead
functions. When the expected time spent in the lazy
state increases with the number of customers waiting
for service, the behavior of the lazy repairman model
is similar to the modified M/M/1/K, although the lazy
repairman model makes it easier to study in detail the
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lam:1980:RTD,
author =       "Simon S. Lam and A. Udaya Shankar",
title =        "Response time distributions for a multi-class queue
with feedback",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "225--234",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806167",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A single server queue with feedback and multiple
customer classes is analyzed. Arrival processes are
independent Poisson processes. Each round of service is
exponentially distributed. After receiving a round of
service, a customer may depart or rejoin the end of the
queue for more service. The number of rounds of service
required by a customer is a random variable with a
general distribution. Our main contribution is
characterization of response time distributions for the
customer classes. Our results generalize in some
respects previous analyses of processor-sharing models.
They also represent initial efforts to understand
response time behavior along paths with loops in local
balanced queueing networks.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Wang:1980:AIO,
author =       "Y. T. Wang",
title =        "Analysis of an intrinsic overload control for a class
of queueing systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "235--243",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806168",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We consider a priority queueing system which consists
of two queues sharing a processor and in which there is
delayed feedback. Such a model arises from systems
which employ a priority assignment scheme to achieve
overload control. An analytic expression for the
stationary probability of the queue lengths is derived.
An algorithm is proposed to compute the queue lengths
distribution. Some numerical results are illustrated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Smith:1980:ASD,
author =       "Connie Smith and J. C. Browne",
title =        "Aspects of software design analysis: {Concurrency} and
blocking",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "245--253",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1009375.806169",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper extends previous work on development of a
methodology for the prediction of the performance of
computer software systems from design level
specifications and continuing through implementation.
The effects of synchronized behavior, such as results
from data reservation in multi-thread executions of
data base systems, and competition for host system
resources are incorporated. The previous methodology
uses hierarchical graphs to represent the execution of
software on some host computer system (or on some
abstract machine). Performance metrics such as response
time were obtained from analysis of these graphs
assuming execution of a single copy on a dedicated
host. This paper discusses the mapping of these
execution graphs upon queueing network models of the
host computing environment to yield performance metric
estimates for more complex and realistic processing
environments.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Potier:1980:ALP,
author =       "D. Potier and Ph. Leblanc",
title =        "Analysis of locking policies in database management
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "255--255",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1009375.806170",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Quantitative analysis of locking mechanisms and of
their impact on the performance of transactionnal
systems have yet received relatively little attention.
Although numerous concurrency mechanisms have been
proposed and implemented, there is an obvious lack of
experimental as well as analytical studies of their
behaviour and their influence on system performance. We
present in this paper an analytical framework for the
performance analysis of locking mechanisms in
transactionnal systems based on hierarchical analytical
modelling. Three levels of modelling are considered: at
level 1, the different stages (lock request, execution,
blocking) transactions of through during their
life-time are described; the organization and
operations of the CPU and I/O resources are analysed at
level 2; transaction's behaviour during their lock
request phase is analysed at modelling level 3. This
hierarchical approach is applied to the analysis of a
physical locking scheme involving a static lock
acquisition policy. A simple probabilistic model of the
transaction behaviour is used to derived the
probability that a new transaction is granted the locks
it requests given the number of transactions already
active as a function of the granularity of the
database. On the other hand, the multiprogramming
effect due to the sharing of CPU and I/O resources by
transactions is analysed using the standard queueing
network approaches and the solution package QNAP. In a
final step, the results on the blocking probabilities
and the multiprogramming effect are used as input of a
global performance model of the transactionnal system.
Markovian analysis is used to solve this model and to
obtain the throughput of the system as a function of
the data base granularity and other parameters. The
results obtained provide a clear understanding of the
various factors which determine the global performance,
of their role and importance. They also raise many new
issues which can only be solved by further extensive
experimental and analytical studies and show that two
particular topics deserve special attention: the
modelling of transaction behaviour and the modelling of
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Coffman:1980:ONC,
author =       "E. G. {Coffman, Jr.} and E. Gelenbe and B. Plateau",
title =        "Optimization of the number of copies in a distribution
data base",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "257--263",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806171",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We consider the effect on system performance of the
distribution of a data base in the form of multiple
copies at distinct sites. The purpose of our analysis
is to determine the gain in READ throughput that can be
obtained in the presence of consistency preserving
algorithms that have to be implemented when UPDATE
operations are carried out on each copy. We show that
READ throughput diminishes if the number of copies
exceeds an optimal value. The theoretical model we
develop is applied to a system in which consistency is
preserved through the use of Ellis's ring algorithm.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ruschitzka:1980:RJC,
author =       "Manfred Ruschitzka",
title =        "The response of job classes with distinct policy
functions (Extended Abstract)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "265--265",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806172",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Policy function schedulers provide a flexible
framework for implementing a wide range of different
scheduling schemes. In such schedulers, the priority of
a job at any instant in time is defined by the
difference between the time it spent in the system and
an arbitrary function of its attained service time. The
latter is called the policy function and acts as the
functional parameter that specifies a particular
scheduling scheme. For instance, a constant policy
function specifies the first-come, first-serve
scheduling scheme. By changing the policy function, the
system behavior can be adjusted to better conform with
desired response characteristics. It is common to
express response characteristics in terms of a response
function, the average response time of a job
conditioned on its service requirement in equilibrium.
In this paper, we analyze processor-sharing M/G/1
systems in which the priorities of different classes of
jobs are determined by distinct policy functions.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kim:1980:PTO,
author =       "K. H. Kim and Mahmoud Naghibzadeh",
title =        "Prevention of task overruns in real-time
non-preemptive multiprogramming systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "267--276",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1009375.806173",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Real-time multiprogramming systems, in which a
hardware processor is dynamically assigned to run
multiple software processes each designed to control an
important device (user), are considered. Each software
process executes a task in response to a service
request repeatedly coming from the corresponding user.
and thus the design problem that we are concerned with
is to ensure that the service tasks requested can
always be executed within the associated deadlines,
i.e., no task overrun occurs. This problem was studied
by several investigators for the cases where preemptive
scheduling strategies are used. In contrast, very few
studies have been conducted for cases of non-preemptive
scheduling. In this paper we show that a non-preemptive
strategy, called relative urgency non-preemptive (RUNP)
strategy, is optimal in the sense that if a system runs
without a task overrun under any non-preemptive
strategy, it will also run without a task overrun under
the RUNP strategy. Then an efficient procedure used at
the design time for detecting the possibility of a task
overrun in a system using the RUNP strategy is
presented. The procedure is useful in designing
overrun-free real-time multiprogramming systems that
yield high processor utilizations. Some special types
of systems using the RUNP strategy for which even
simpler detection procedures are available are also
discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Non-preemptive scheduling; Real-time multiprogramming;
Relative urgency; Task overrun; Time critical process",
}

@Article{King:1980:NMI,
author =       "P. J. B. King and I. Mitrani",
title =        "Numerical methods for infinite {Markov} processes",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "277--282",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806174",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The estimation of steady state probability
distributions of discrete Markov processes with
infinite state spaces by numerical methods is
investigated. The aim is to find a method applicable to
a wide class of problems with a minimum of prior
analysis. A general method of numbering discrete states
in infinite domains is developed and used to map the
discrete state spaces of Markov processes into the
positive integers, for the purpose of applying standard
numerical techniques. A method based on a little used
theoretical result is proposed and is compared with two
other algorithms previously used for finite state space
Markov processes.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Fayolle:1980:SCT,
author =       "G. Fayolle and P. J. B. King and I. Mitrani",
title =        "The solution of certain two-dimensional {Markov}
models",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "283--289",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800199.806175",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:54:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A class of two-dimensional Birth-and-Death processes,
with applications in many modelling problems, is
defined and analysed in the steady-state. These are
processes whose instantaneous transition rates are
state-dependent in a restricted way. Generating
functions for the steady-state distribution are
obtained by solving a functional equation in two
variables. That solution method lends itself readily to
numerical implementation. Some aspects of the numerical
solution are discussed, using a particular model as an
example.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Clark:1980:EIE,
author =       "Jon D. Clark and Robert M. Golladay",
title =        "Empirical investigation of the effectiveness of
several computer performance evaluation tools",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "3",
pages =        "31--36",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041883.1041884",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:55:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A number of tools exist for computer selection
evaluation. The operational cost of applying these vary
considerably as does the precision of the performance
prediction. This paper compares the precision of
several commonly used methods in a single test case,
namely cycle time, instruction mix analysis and
benchmarking.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "benchmark; computer; cycle time; instruction mix;
performance evaluation",
}

@Article{Estell:1980:BW,
author =       "Robert G. Estell",
title =        "Benchmarks and watermarks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "3",
pages =        "39--44",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041883.1041885",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:55:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Historically, benchmark tests have been one of several
ways to size a computer system, and measure its
performance. Today, it is more important to test the
System Software than the machine hardware. (Thus the
term watermark' (as on bond paper) for software
tests.) Watermarks of software suffer the same
limitations and risks as benchmarks of hardware: e.a.,
they should be supplemented with simulations, models,
and other analysis and design tools of our trade.
Perhaps most significantly, watermarks, like
benchmarks, can be biased by their creators.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kleijnen:1980:SMM,
author =       "J. P. C. Kleijnen",
title =        "Scoring methods, multiple criteria, and utility
analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "3",
pages =        "45--56",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041883.1041886",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:55:53 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Scoring methods are popular in computer selection, and
try to combine different attributes into an overall
performance measure. Related is the multi-criteria
evaluation of computerized information systems. The
scoring method is criticized in the context of more
general utility models, popular in economics. Scoring
provides simplistic choice models, and should not be
used as predictive, causal models. Many references for
further study are included.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Denning:1980:TTI,
author =       "Peter J. Denning",
title =        "A tale of two islands: a fable",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "7--10",
month =        "Winter",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041888.1041889",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:55:57 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Once upon a time there were two islands. One was
called Stochasia. Its citizens were well cultured and
they had achieved high development in a system of
mathematics for random processes. The other island was
called Operatia. Its citizens were well cultured and
they had achieved high development in a system for
experimentation with nondeterminate phenomena. Both
civilizations were closed societies. Neither knew of
the other's existence, and it had been so since the
beginning of time. Neither would ever have known, had
it not been for the events I will describe shortly.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

title =        "{ADP} capacity planning: a case study",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "11--25",
month =        "Winter",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041888.1041890",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:55:57 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A case study of short-range ADP capacity planning is
presented and related to the process of long-range
planning. Short-range capacity planning is concerned
with identification of computer and communication
resources which will reach saturation levels in the
near future. The initial step in the short-range
planning process is to evaluate the performance of the
user's current system configuration and one or more
configuration enhancements with respect to their
effectiveness in supporting a projected workload.
Central to long-range planning is the evaluation of a
broader range of architectural alternatives, including
various distributed processing design. In both short
range and long range planning, system modeling is a
basic tool for evaluating alternatives. An analytic
network of queues model has been developed to reflect
both centralized and hierarchically distributed network
architectures. The application of the tool as part of
the short-range case study is described.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Marrevee:1980:HFF,
author =       "J. Marrev{\'e}e",
title =        "How friendly and fast is {FAST DUMP RESTORE}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "28--35",
month =        "Winter",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041888.1041891",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:55:57 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "FAST DUMP RESTORE, shortly named FDR, is a very well
known software package, delivered by the software house
Innovation Data Processing, and in some countries of
Europe commercially supported by Westinghouse. This
package is used in many computer centres using one of
IBM's big operating systems e.g. MVT or MVS. According
to Innovation's own remarks it became one of the most
successful software products in the world with about
3000 users, and since 1974 it is every year on the
DATAPRO HONOR ROLL. It should, among others, provide
superior performance on creation of dumps or restores
of disk packs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bernard:1980:SUM,
author =       "J. C. Bernard",
title =        "{T-scan}: the use of micro computers for response time
measurements",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "39--50",
month =        "Winter",
year =         "1980",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041888.1041892",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:55:57 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "All large computer centers are actually faced with a
major change in their workload. Most applications are
leaving batch operations for time sharing ease of use.
In fact, all kinds of computer work could be performed
through a console: development, maintenance, data base
query and update and even batch control and submit. A
second problem arises as end-user profile is no more
computer oriented. Users only look at the time the
system needs to answer their requests, and don't care
about the computer game. So performance analysts and
operations managers are supposed to achieve a certain
level of service which they are almost unable to
measure. We try in this paper to discuss some major
problems related to conversational computer operations.
We will present several drawbacks characterising the
currently existing solutions. A problem that lead us to
define simple operating principle for response time
measurements. This principle is implemented in a fully
automatic measurement tool named T-SC",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bell:1981:SLC,
author =       "Thomas E. Bell",
title =        "Structured life-cycle assumptions",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1--3",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807901",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "New programmers, some managers, and lots of users
don't understand the advantages of a structured
software life-cycle. However, only a single experience
with coding while designing will convince any incipient
software engineer that a controlled process is needed
from the time of system concept though the last
maintenance phase. Software Configuration Management
has become almost a religion, and EDP auditors have
even encountered a few systems that appear to have been
specified, then designed, then implemented, then
tested, and finally installed --- all before
maintenance and redefinition occurred. Perhaps the
millennium has finally arrived, and software people
will soon live in a controlled world with rational
practices. If you are tempted to believe the foregoing
prediction, read the latest issue of FORTUNE, the WALL
STREET JOURNAL, or COMMERCE BUSINESS DAILY and note a
few problems that may divert us from the path to
Nirvana. Data Processing supports commercial,
educational, industrial, and governmental activities
that are frequently (and repeatedly) redirected. Under
circumstances of a largely random environment with
thorough business planning a rarity, a critical support
activity can expect to be redirected frequently. New
ideas will be sliced into partly-completely DP
projects, and users analytical analyses'' will become
DP systems as if by magic.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Coughlin:1981:SDM,
author =       "Donald T. Coughlin",
title =        "System development methodology or system research
methodology?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "5--6",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807902",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A future data processing historian may someday point
systems began their adolescent growth period. We
entered the 1970s with few truly on-line business
systems, and many application designers did not fully
appreciate the capabilities and limitation of index
sequential file structures. Many of the larger
companies were busy writing their own tp monitors and
file handling systems, and it is very possible that
more professional hours were being devoted to the
development of control program software than to
applications software. The last decade did provide the
application programmer with new control program tools
such as data base management systems and on-line
terminal control software. It also generated a
continuing demand for computer performance software
specialists to tune application systems immediately
after initial implementation. These performance tuning
efforts often required substantial changes to the
application system --- not just program code but also
basic redesign. Therefore were these really system
development projects or were they system research
projects?",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Earle:1981:AAB,
author =       "Dennis M. Earle",
title =        "An alchemical approach to brokerage",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "7--8",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807903",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The essence of the commodities business is the ability
to react quickly to evolving market conditions.
Mocatta, a N.Y. based bullion dealer, is a firm which
uses its Data Processing to provide both front office
(trading) flexibility and back-office capacity to
handle large volume days. The business is characterized
by the constant trade-off of time against money.
Corporate philosophy is to spend money to react quickly
rather than to react slowly but perhaps at lower costs.
The life cycle of a system in this environment normally
begins with a marketing report reflecting a new market
niche which the firm can take advantage of. Data
Processing is involved almost from the inception of the
idea to provide an indication of what existing systems
can do for this new opportunity. Because of the nature
of the business, each new product offered is usually so
unique as to make it impossible for existing systems to
support a new product from a trading point of view.
Back-office applications are somewhat more common
across products, so existing systems can usually
provide some support. The key point is that all we
really know is that we want to market the new product.
Some idea of the time frame in which the product is to
be offered is also obtained. The exact workings of
defining the product and determining the parameters
under which it will be traded usually remain to be
worked out prior to the offering date. This therefore
means that we have, at the point of commitment, the
necessity for evolving data processing support in the
same time frame in which the definition is evolving
about what it is that we are to support.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Spiegel:1981:PAI,
author =       "Mitchell G. Spiegel",
title =        "Prototyping: {An} approach to information and
communication system design",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "9--19",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807904",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes prototyping, a state-of-the-art
methodology to assist a design team in making a through
definition and analysis of new requirements,
system and/or application specification,
implementation, and testing. Suggested prototype tools
and techniques are presented, and guidance is included
to aid a design team in obtaining accurate and timely
results. This paper is not intended to be a complete
text on design. It should be enhanced with a design
team's expertise, consultation from sources with design
experience, and reference to other design literature.
Prototyping is a process (the act, study, or skill) of
modeling an information-communication system
architecture in one or more levels of detail, using
descriptive models, abstract models, and working models
of the system and its component parts (synonym:
archetyping). This work was completed while the author
was working with prior employers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Jenkins:1981:APC,
author =       "C. Wesley Jenkins",
title =        "Application prototyping: {A} case study",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "21--27",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807905",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Accurate specification of user requirements for
interactive systems is especially difficult in an
environment where the demand for information is
intense, short-fused and largely unpredictable. The
Congressional Budget Office was created in 1975 by an
Act of Congress. Its primary mandate is to serve the
Budget and Appropriation committees of both the Senate
and the House of Representatives. The Act also defined
a Congressional Budget process specifying a calendar of
events and specific completion dates for major
activities. This placing of budgetary actions produces
a highly charged environment in which CBO must be able
to respond immediately to information needs with
information that is both accurate and consistent.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Cox:1981:SRT,
author =       "Patricia R. Cox",
title =        "Specification of a regression test for a mini computer
operating system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "29--32",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807906",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper I describe the practical problems of
designing a regression test set for an existing
mini-computer operating system. The ideal regression
test would test each function with all possible
combinations of the options for each variation of the
operating system. This is impractical if not impossible
so the alternative is to choose the individual cases
for maximum coverage. To do that the system is viewed
both functionally and structurally and cases are
selected for inclusion in the test set. The method of
selecting the tests is described along with the tools
that will be needed to measure the coverage and to
maintain the test set.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bryan:1981:ASC,
author =       "William Bryan and Stanley Siegel and Gary
Whiteleather",
title =        "An approach to software configuration control",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "33--47",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807907",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process by
which a system's life cycle and its associated life
cycle products are managed to ensure the quality and
integrity of the system. We call this process
configuration control. Although many of the ideas in
this paper are applicable to systems in general, the
focus of this paper is on configuration control of
systems with software content. It is becoming apparent
to many, in both government and private industry, that
the high cost of maintenance of existing computer
systems may be attributed to poor configuration control
early in the system's life cycle. For example, in an
article entitled A Corporate Road, Map for Systems
Development in the 80s, the following claim appears.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Fredrick:1981:PIS,
author =       "C. R. Fredrick",
title =        "Project implementation of {Software Configuration
Management}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "49--56",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807908",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Have you or one of your programmers said: The system
ran yesterday; I only changed one line.'' or I spent
my budget, but I'm not done.'' or I fixed that
problem yesterday, but it's back now.'' or I thought
it would be a nice feature for the operator, so I added
it to the program.'' or Why was this line of code
changed? Who did it and when?''? If these or other
similar statements are familiar, then Software
Configuration Management is a subject that should
interest you. Software Configuration Management (SCM)
is a management method that establishes a discipline
for the software development process and provides
visibility to that process. The step by step procedures
used by a large software organization to resolve some
of their development problems will be followed here.
The result of their efforts was the formulation of a
management method that significantly improved the
quality of their software products and reduced the
costs. It was learned later that other software
organizations had gone through similar processes and
arrived at similar results. This new tool is now known
as Software Configuration Management.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Berlack:1981:ISC,
author =       "H. Ronald Berlack",
title =        "Implementing software configuration control in the
structured programming environment",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "57--77",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807909",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The fundamental problems in the control of software
are explored. The elements of control as they relate to
communications is defined, and the implementation of
these elements in solving the fundamental problems and
achieving optimal control during a software development
life cycle, is explained. Control is defined as a
vehicle for communicating changes to established,
agreed-upon baseline points, made up of documents and
subsequent computer programs. By communicating change
to those involved or affected, and obtaining agreement
of the change, one achieves a degree of control that
does not inhibit software engineering innovation or
progress, but helps maintain the project's prime
objectives to deliver maintainable, error-free software
to the ultimate user.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gross:1981:PCV,
author =       "Peter Gross",
title =        "Producers and consumers views of software quality
(Panel Session)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "79--79",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807910",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "At this very ACM workshop/symposium indicates,
software quality is of great concern to both producers
and users of software. It should be obvious to those
who have attended the earlier sessions today and to
those who will attend the sessions tomorrow that
quality is something that cannot be tested into a
system or added to a system. It must be integral from
the start of the definition of the system's
requirements through each phase of analysis, design,
implementation, integration, testing, and installation.
Software quality implies an engineering type approach
to the development of software. It implies the use of a
disciplined development environment, and the use of
tools and techniques to provide assurances throughout
the software development process that both the software
and its baseline specifications are complete,
consistent, and traceable from one to another.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Henry:1981:RAT,
author =       "Sallie Henry and Dennis Kafura and Kathy Harris",
title =        "On the relationships among three software metrics",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "81--88",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807911",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Automatable metrics of software quality appear to have
numerous advantages in the design, construction and
maintenance of software systems. While numerous such
metrics have been defined, and several of them have
been validated on actual systems, significant work
remains to be done to establish the relationships among
these metrics. This paper reports the results of
correlation studies made among three complexity metrics
which were applied to the same software system. The
three complexity metrics used were Halstead's effort,
McCabe's cyclomatic complexity and Henry and Kafura's
information flow complexity. The common software system
was the UNIX operating system. The primary result of
this study is that Halstead's and McCabe's metrics are
highly correlated while the information flow metric
appears to be an independent measure of complexity.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Szulewski:1981:MSS,
author =       "Paul A. Szulewski and Mark H. Whitworth and Philip
Buchan and J. Barton DeWolf",
title =        "The measurement of software science parameters in
software designs",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "89--94",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807912",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Metrics of software quality have historically focused
on code quality despite the importance of early and
continuous quality evaluation in a software development
effort. While software science metrics have been used
to measure the psychological complexity of computer
programs as well as other quality related aspects of
algorithm construction, techniques to measure software
this paper, software design quality is emphasized. A
general formalism for expressing software designs is
presented, and a technique for identifying and counting
software science parameters in design media is
proposed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Basili:1981:ECS,
author =       "Victor R. Basili and Tsai-Yun Phillips",
title =        "Evaluating and comparing software metrics in the
software engineering laboratory",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "95--106",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807913",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "There has appeared in the literature a great number of
metrics that attempt to measure the effort or
complexity in developing and understanding software\1.
There have also been several attempts to independently
validate these measures on data from different
organizations gathered by different people\1. These
metrics have many purposes. They can be used to
evaluate the software development process or the
software product. They can be used to estimate the cost
and quality of the product. They can also be used
during development and evolution of the software to
monitor the stability and quality of the product. Among
the most popular metrics have been the software science
metrics of Halstead, and the cyclomatic complexity
metric of McCabe. One question is whether these metrics
actually measure such things as effort and complexity.
One measure of effort may be the time required to
produce a product. One measure of complexity might be
the number of errors made during the development of a
product. A second question is how these metrics compare
with standard size measures, such as the number of
source lines or the number of executable statements,
i.e., do they do a better job of predicting the effort
or the number of errors? Lastly, how do these metrics
relate to each other?",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ronback:1981:TMS,
author =       "James Ronback",
title =        "Test metrics for software quality",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "107--107",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807914",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper discusses Bell Northern Research's
experience in utilizing an extended set of test metrics
for assuring the quality of software. The theory and
use of branch and path class coverage is discussed and
the reaction of users in described. This paper also
discusses the effect of using co-resident inspection
procedures in achieving cost-effective testing for a
high degree of test coverage.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Benson:1981:AST,
author =       "J. P. Benson",
title =        "Adaptive search techniques applied to software
testing",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "109--116",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807915",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An experiment was performed in which executable
assertions were used in conjunction with search
techniques in order to test a computer program
automatically. The program chosen for the experiment
computes a position on an orbit from the description of
the orbit and the desired point. Errors were interested
in the program randomly using an error generation
method based on published data defining common error
types. Assertions were written for program and it was
tested using two different techniques. The first
divided up the range of the input variables and
selected test cases from within the sub-ranges. In this
way a grid'' of test values was constructed over the
program's input space. The second used a search
algorithm from optimization theory. This entailed using
the assertions to define an error function and then
maximizing its value. The program was then tested by
varying all of them. The results indicate that this
search testing technique was as effective as the grid
testing technique in locating errors and was more
efficient. In addition, the search testing technique
located critical input values which helped in writing
correct assertions.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Paige:1981:DST,
author =       "Michael Paige",
title =        "Data space testing",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "117--127",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807916",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A complete software testing process must concentrate
on examination of the software characteristics as they
may impact reliability. Software testing has largely
been concerned with structural tests, that is, test of
program logic flow. In this paper, a companion software
test technique for the program data called data space
testing is described. An approach to data space
analysis is introduced with an associated notation. The
concept is to identify the sensitivity of the software
to a change in a specific data item. The collective
information on the sensitivity of the program to all
data items is used as a basis for test selection and
generation of input values.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Goel:1981:OTP,
author =       "Amrit L. Goel",
title =        "Optimal testing policies for software systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "129--130",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807918",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An important problem of practical concern is to
determine how much testing should be done before a
system is considered ready for release. This decision,
of course, depends on the model for the software
failure phenomenon and the criterion used for
evaluating system readiness. In this paper, we first
develop a cost model based on the time dependent
failure rate function of Goel and Okumoto. Next, we
derive policies that yield the optimal values of the
level of test effort (b*) and software release time
(T*). The sensitivity of the optimal solution is also
numerically evaluated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Littlewood:1981:BDD,
author =       "B. Littlewood",
title =        "A {Bayesian} differential debugging model for software
reliability",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "129--130",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807919",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An assumption commonly made in early models of
software reliability is that the failure rate of a
program is a constant multiple of the number of bugs
remaining. This implies that all bugs have the same
effect upon the overall failure rate. The assumption is
challenged and an alternative proposed. The suggested
model results in earlier bug-fixes having a greater
effect than later ones (the worst bug show themselves
earlier and so are fixed earlier), and the DFR properly
between bug-fixes (confidence in programs increases
during periods of failure-free operation, as well as at
bug-fixes). The model shows a high degree of
mathematical tractability, and allows a range of
reliability, and allows a range of reliability measures
to be calculated exactly. Predictions of total
execution time to achieve a target reliability, are
obtained.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Musa:1981:SRMa,
author =       "J. D. Musa and A. Iannino",
title =        "Software reliability modeling accounting for program
size variation due to integration or design changes",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "129--130",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807920",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Estimation of software reliability quantities has
traditionally been on stable systems; i.e., systems
that are completely integrated and are not undergoing
design changes. Also, it is assumed that test results
are completely inspected for failures. This paper
describes a method for relaxing the foregoing
conditions by adjusting the lengths of the intervals
between failures experienced in tests as compensation.
The resulting set of failure intervals represents the
set that would have occurred for a stable system in its
final configuration with complete inspection. The
failure intervals are then processed as they would be
for a complete system. The approach is developed for
the execution time theory of software reliability, but
the concepts could be applied to many other models the
estimation of quantities of interest to the software
manager are illustrated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Musa:1981:SRMb,
author =       "John D. Musa",
title =        "Software reliability measurement session",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "129--130",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807917",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Many people think of reliability as a devoutly wished
for but seldom present attribute of a program. This
leads to the idea that one should make a program as
reliable as one possibly can. Unfortunately, in the
real world software reliability is usually achieved at
the expense of some other characteristic of the product
such as program size, run or response time,
maintainability, etc. or the process of producing the
product such as cost, resource requirements,
scheduling, etc. One wishes to make explicit trade-offs
among the software product and process rather than let
them happen by chance. Such trade-offs imply the need
for measurement. Because of mounting development and
operational costs, pressures for obtaining better ways
of measuring reliability, have been mounting. This
session deals with this crucial area.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Goel:1981:WST,
author =       "Amrit L. Goel and Kazuhira Okumoto",
title =        "When to stop testing and start using software?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "131--138",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807921",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "During the last decade, numerous studies have been
undertaken to quantify the failure process of large
scale software systems. (see for example, references
1-12.) An important objective of these studies is to
predict software performance and use the information
for decision making. An important decision of practical
concern is the determination of the amount of time that
should be spent in testing. This decision of course
will depend on the model used for describing the
failure phenomenon and the criterion used for
determining system readiness. In this paper we present
a cost model based on the time dependent fault
detection rate model of Goel and Okumoto (4,5) and
describe a policy that yields the optimal value of test
time T.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Littlewood:1981:SRG,
author =       "B. Littlewood",
title =        "Stochastic reliability growth: {A} model with
applications to computer software faults and hardware
design faults",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "139--152",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807922",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An assumption commonly made in early models of
software reliability is that the failure rate of a
program is a constant multiple of the number of faults
remaining. This implies that all faults have the same
effect upon the overall failure rate. The assumption is
challenged and an alternative proposed. The suggested
model results in earlier fault-fixes having a greater
effect than later ones (the worst faults show
themselves earlier and so are fixed earlier), and the
DFR property between fault-fixes (confidence in
programs increases during periods of failure-free
operations, as well as at fault-fixes). The model shows
a high degree of mathematical tractability, and allows
a range of reliability measures to be calculated
exactly. Predictions of total execution time to achieve
a target reliability, and total number of fault-fixes
to target reliability, are obtained. It is suggested
that the model might also find applications in those
hardware reliability growth situations where design
errors are being eliminated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Decreasing failure rate; Design debugging; Design
errors; Pareto Distribution; Probability distribution
mixture; Programming debugging modelling; Reliability
growth; Software errors; Software failure rate;
Software faults; Software mttf; Software reliability",
}

@Article{Ottenstein:1981:SDS,
author =       "Linda M. Ottenstein",
title =        "Software defects --- a software science perspective",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "153--155",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807923",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper gives a model for computing the programming
time. The results of tests with programs in APL, BASIC,
and FORTRAN are also given and discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ottenstein:1981:PNE,
author =       "Linda Ottenstein",
title =        "Predicting numbers of errors using software science",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "157--167",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807924",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An earlier paper presented a model based on software
science metrics to give quantitative estimate of the
number of bugs in a programming project at the time
validation of the project begins. In this paper, we
report the results from an attempt to expand the model
to estimate the total number of bugs to expect during
the total project development. This new hypothesis has
been tested using the data currently available in the
literature along with data from student projects. The
model fits the published data reasonably well, however,
the results obtained using the student data are not
conclusive.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Schneider:1981:SEE,
author =       "Victor Schneider",
title =        "Some experimental estimators for developmental and
delivered errors in software development projects",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "169--172",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807925",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Experimental estimators are presented relating the
expected number of software problem reports (B) in a
software development project to the overall reported
professional effort (E) in man months'' the number of
subprograms (n) the overall count of thousands of coded
source statements of software(S). [equation] These
estimators are shown to be consistent with data
obtained from the Air Force's Rome Air Development
Center, the Naval Research Laboratory, and Japan's
Fujitsu Corporation. Although the results are
promising, more data is needed to support the validity
of these estimators.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sneed:1981:SSA,
author =       "H. Sneed",
title =        "{SOFTDOC} --- {A} system for automated software static
analysis and documentation",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "173--177",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010627.807926",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The code itself is useless without adequate
documentation. Besides that it is almost impossible to
validate and verify code unless it is properly
documented. Yet most of the attention of the past has
been devoted to producing code and little to producing
the documentation although it is obvious that it is
necessary both for testing and maintaining the software
product. Software documentation can be classified
according to its usage. Thus, there is a functional
documentation for describing what a system does and
what it is used for, and technical documentation for
describing how the software is constructed and how it
performs its functions. The former is directed toward
the user, the latter toward the tester and maintainer.
The two are, however, highly interrelated. Since the
programmer seldom writes the user documentation it is
necessary for those who describe what the system does,
to know how it does it. An accurate technical
documentation is a prerequisite for producing accurate
user documentation. Finally it serves yet another
purpose. Without it, it is not possible to control the
quality of the software. Software Quality Control
presupposes a full and up to date technical description
in order to assess the characteristics of the system
such as modularity, portability, reliability, etc.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

author =       "John D. Crowley",
title =        "The application development process: {What}'s wrong
with it?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "179--187",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807927",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper will examine the process used in the
development of computer applications. The claim is made
that the current methodology has serious deficiencies,
but that a software development approach is becoming
available to help address these problems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bailey:1981:SSU,
author =       "C. T. Bailey and W. L. Dingee",
title =        "A software study using {Halstead} metrics",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "189--197",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800003.807928",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:03 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes an application of Maurice
Halstead's software theory to a real time switching
system. The Halstead metrics and the software tool
developed for computing them are discussed. Analysis of
the metric data indicates that the level of the
switching language was not constant across algorithms
and that software error data was not a linear function
of volume.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Esposito:1981:WCT,
author =       "A. Esposito and A. Mazzeo and P. Costa",
title =        "Workload characterization for trend analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "5--15",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041799.1041800",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The methodology of analysis proposed in this paper
aims at predicting the workload of a computer. This
methodology consists of applying an algorithm of
clustering to the workload, its jobs being identified
by a pair $(X,P)$, where $X$ is the resource-vector of
the job and $P$ stands for the priority given to the
job by the user. The hereby obtained clusters are then
associated to the $a_i$ activities developed in the
system and determine the influence of each $a_i$ to the
overall workload. By repeating this operation at
different times, either the periodicity or the
monotonic changes that may occur in each activity are
determined. This makes it possible to predict the
evolution of the overall workload and consequently to
evaluate changes to be carried out in the system. The
above methodology is applied to a specific case and is
illustrated in its various phases. The results obtained
have validated the method. The study is still going on,
with continuous periodical observations in order to
update the data.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Musa:1981:SRMc,
author =       "J. D. Musa and A. Iannino",
title =        "Software reliability modeling: accounting for program
size variation due to integration or design changes",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "16--25",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041799.1041801",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Estimation of software reliability quantities has
traditionally been based on stable programs; i.e.,
programs that are completely integrated and are not
undergoing design changes. Also, it is ordinarily
assumed that all code is being executed at one time or
another and that test or operational results are being
completely inspected for failures. This paper describes
a method for relaxing the foregoing conditions by
adjusting the lengths of the intervals between failures
experienced as compensation. The resulting set of
failure intervals represents the set that would have
occurred for a completely inspected program that was at
all times in its final configuration. The failure
intervals are then processed as they would be for a
stable program. The approach is developed for the
execution time theory of software reliability, but the
concepts could be applied to many other models as well.
Many definitions are given to describe program size
variation and associated phenomena. Attention is
focused on the special case of sequential integration
and pure growth. The adjustment method is described and
its benefits in improving the estimation of quantities
of interest to the software manager are illustrated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Comer:1981:CTD,
author =       "J. R. Comer and J. R. Rinewalt and M. M. Tanik",
title =        "A comparison of two different program complexity
measures",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "26--28",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041799.1041802",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In recent years, a number of program complexity
metrics have been developed to measure various
characteristics of computer programs [1, 3]. Included
among these metrics are Zolnowski's composite measure
of program complexity [4, 5] and McCade's cyclomatic
measure of program complexity [2]. The present paper
examines these two metrics and attempts to measure
their correlation with a third metric assigned by the
program's author. This metric has been called the
psychological complexity or the intuitive complexity of
a program.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Abrams:1981:NNM,
author =       "Marshall D. Abrams and Dorothy C. Neiman",
title =        "{NBS} network measurement methodology applied to
synchronous communications",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "29--36",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041799.1041803",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper focuses on the application of the NBS
Network Measurement Instrument (NMI) to synchronous
data communication. The suitability of the underlying
Stimulus --- Acknowledgement --- Response (SAR) model
to support the implementation of this methodology
permitting quantitative evaluation of interactive
teleprocessing service delivered to the user is
described. The logic necessary to interpret SAR
components and boundaries depends on character time
sequence for asynchronous data communications traffic
but entails protocol decomposition and content analysis
for character synchronous data traffic. The
decomposition and analysis rules necessary to evaluate
synchronous communications are discussed and the level
of protocol violation detection which results as a
byproduct is cited. Extensions to the utility of the
Network Measurement Instrument (NMI), deriving from
character synchronous communications, are also
presented.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "data communications; protocol validation; synchronous;
teleprocessing service evaluation",
}

@Article{Larsen:1981:CEL,
author =       "R. L. Larsen and J. R. Agre and A. K. Agrawala",
title =        "A comparative evaluation of local area communication
technology",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "37--47",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041799.1041804",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The builder of a local area network is immediately
confronted with the selection of a communications
architecture to interconnect the elements (hosts and
terminals) of the network. This choice must often be
made in the presence of great uncertainty regarding the
available alternatives and their capabilities, and a
dearth of comparative information. This was the
situation confronting NASA upon seriously considering
local area networks as an architecture for mission
support operations. As a result, a comparative study
was performed in which alternative communication
architectures were evaluated under similar operating
conditions and system configurations. Considered were:
(1) the ring, (2) the cable-bus, (3) a
circuit-switching system, and (4) a shared memory
system. The principle performance criterion used was
the mean time required to move a message from one host
processor to another host processor. Local operations
within each host, such as interrupt service time, were
considered to be part of this overall time. The
performance of each alternative was evaluated through
simulation models and is summarized in this paper.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hughes:1981:HPT,
author =       "Herman D. Hughes",
title =        "A highly parameterized tool for studying performance
of computer systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "48--65",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041799.1041805",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A highly parameterized simulation model is described
which allows experiments to be performed for computer
performance evaluations studies. The results of these
experiments can be used to evaluate the effect of
changing the hardware configuration, the workload, the
scheduling policy, the multiprogramming level, etc. The
model is constructed to function either as a batch or
time-sharing system, or as a combination of both. This
simulation model also has the potential of providing
dynamic feedback for the scheduler. A discussion of the
design, implementation, and use of the model is
presented. Examples are provided to illustrate some
possible uses of the model and verifications of the
results obtained from the model.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "cumulative distribution function; events; hardware
configuration; model validation; queue; scheduling
policies; simulation model; system performance;
}

@Article{Spiegel:1981:RPP,
author =       "Mitchell G. Spiegel",
title =        "{RTE}'s: past is prologue",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "66--73",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041799.1041806",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:56:45 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper surveys the evolution of Remote Terminal
Emulators (RTEs). Major developments in RTE technology
are separated into three generations' of products.
Each generation's unique applications and features are
highlighted. Recent developments are noted and a
prediction of future use for RTEs is provided.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Browne:1981:DSP,
author =       "J. C. Browne",
title =        "Designing systems for performance",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "1--1",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805467",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Real-time systems and systems to interface human work
environments will dominate the growth of computer
applications over the next decade. These systems must
execute their functions with the timeliness and
responsiveness required in these environments. The
design, development and testing of such systems must
guarantee performance as well as functionality and
reliability. There is not yet in place a technology to
support this requirement for engineering of
performance. The research and development community in
performance has focused primarily on analysis and
deduction rather than the performance arena. This talk
will define and discuss the tasks of engineering
performance into software systems and describe the
recent progress towards this goal.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Reiner:1981:MAP,
author =       "David Reiner and Tad Pinkerton",
title =        "A method for adaptive performance improvement of
operating systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "2--10",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805468",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents a method for dynamic modification
of operating system control parameters to improve
system performance. Improved parameter settings are
learned by experimenting on the system. The experiments
compare the performance of alternative parameter
settings in each region of a partitioned
load-performance space associated with the system. The
results are used to modify important control parameters
periodically, responding to fluctuations in system load
and performance. The method can be used to implement
adaptive tuning, to choose between alternative
algorithms and policies, or to select the best fixed
settings for parameters which are not modified. The
method was validated and proved practical by an
investigation of two parameters governing core quantum
allocation on a Sperry Univac 1100 system. This
experiment yielded significant results, which are
presented and discussed. Directions for future research
include automating the method, determining the effect
of simultaneous modifications to unrelated control
parameters, and detecting dominant control
parameters.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Wang:1981:VVT,
author =       "Y. T. Wang",
title =        "On the {VAX\slash VMS} time-critical process
scheduling",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "11--18",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805469",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The VAX/VMS process schedule is briefly described. A
simple priority-driven round-robin queuing model is
then constructed to analyze the behavior of the
time-critical processes of VAX/VMS under such a
schedule. Mean and variance of the conditional response
time of a process at a given priority are derived,
conditioned on the amount of service time required by
that process. Numerical results are given with
comparisons to the ordinary priority queuing systems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Soderlund:1981:ECP,
author =       "Lars S{\"o}derlund",
title =        "Evaluation of concurrent physical database
reorganization through simulation modeling",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "19--32",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805470",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The performance of a database system commonly
deteriorates due to degradation of the database's
physical data structure. The structure degradation is a
consequence of the normal operations of a general
database management system. When system performance has
degraded below acceptable limits the database must be
reorganized. In conventional, periodic reorganization
the database, or part of it, is taken off line while
the data structure is being reorganized. This paper
presents results from a study where it is shown that
concurrent reorganization, i.e. a continuous
reorganization of the physical data structure while
is an attractive alternative to conventional
reorganization. The paper also presents a solution to a
methodological problem concerning the simulation of a
system which has activities with extremely varying
durations.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lazowska:1981:AMD,
author =       "Edward D. Lazowska and John Zahorjan",
title =        "Analytic modelling of disk {I/O} subsystems: {A}
tutorial",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "33--35",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805471",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This is a summary of a tutorial presented during the
conference discussing a number of approaches to
representing disk I/O subsystems in analytic models of
computer systems. As in any analytic modelling study,
the fundamental objective in considering an I/O
subsystem is to determine which devices should be
required by jobs, and are the basic parameters needed
by the computational algorithm which calculates
performance measures for the model. To set these
parameters, knowledge of service times at the various
devices in the I/O subsystem is required. The tutorial
begins by distinguishing analytic modelling from
alternative approaches, by identifying the parameter
values that are required for an analytic modelling
study, and by explaining the role of the computational
algorithm that is employed (Denning \& Buzen [1978]
provide a good, although lengthy, summary). We then
consider a sequence of models of increasingly complex
I/O subsystems. Next we discuss I/O subsystems with
rotational position sensing. We then discuss approaches
to modelling shared DASD, emphasizing hierarchical
techniques in which highlevel models of each system can
be analyzed in isolation. We also mention recent
techniques for modelling complex I/O subsystems
involving multipathing. Finally, we discuss the
analysis of I/O subsystems based on broadcast channels
such as Ethernet.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Dowdy:1981:MUS,
author =       "Lawrence W. Dowdy and Hans J. Breitenlohner",
title =        "A model of {Univac 1100\slash 42} swapping",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "36--47",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805472",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The performance of a computer system depends upon the
efficiency of its swapping mechanisms. The swapping
efficiency is a complex function of many variables. The
swapping devices, and the speed of the swapping devices
are all interdependent variables that affect swapping
performance. In this paper, a model of swapping
behavior is given. The interdependencies between the
degree of multiprogramming, the swapping devices'
using an iterative scheme. The validation of a model is
its predictive capability. The given swapping model was
applied to a Univac 1100/42 system to predict the
effect of moving the swapping activity from drums to
discs. When the swapping activity was actually moved,
throughput increased by 20\%. The model accurately
predicted this improvement. Subtopics discussed
include: (1) the modeling of blocked and overlapped
disc seek activity, (2) the usefulness of empirical
formulae, and (3) the calibration of unmeasurable
parameters. Extensions and further applications of the
model are given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Closed queuing networks; Model validation; Parameter
interdependencies; Performance prediction; Swapping",
}

@Article{Turner:1981:SFP,
author =       "Rollins Turner and Henry Levy",
title =        "Segmented {FIFO} page replacement",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "48--51",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805473",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A fixed-space page replacement algorithm is presented.
A variant of FIFO management using a secondary FIFO
buffer, this algorithm provides a family of performance
curves lying between FIFO and LRU. The implementation
is simple, requires no periodic scanning, and uses no
special hardware support. Simulations are used to
determine the performance of the algorithm for several
memory reference traces. Both the fault rates and
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "FIFO page replacement; LRU page replacement; Page
replacement algorithms; Performance evaluation",
}

@Article{Ferrari:1981:GMW,
author =       "Domenico Ferrari",
title =        "A generative model of working set dynamics",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "52--57",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805474",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An algorithm for generating a page reference string
which exhibits a given working set size behavior in the
time domain is presented, and the possible applications
of such a string are discussed. The correctness of the
algorithm is proved, and its computational complexity
found to be linear in the length of the string. A
program implementing the algorithm, which is performed
in one pass and requires very little space, is briefly
described, and some experimental results are given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Zahorjan:1981:BJB,
author =       "J. Zahorjan and K. C. Sevcik and D. L. Eager and B. I.
Galler",
title =        "Balanced job bound analysis of queueing networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "58--58",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805475",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Applications of queueing network models to computer
system performance prediction typically involve the
computation of their equilibrium solution. When
numerous alternative systems are to be examined and the
numbers of devices and customers are large, however,
the expense of computing the exact solutions may not be
warranted by the accuracy required. In such situations,
it is desirable to be able to obtain bounds on the
system solution with very little computation.
Asymptotic bound analysis (ABA) is one technique for
obtaining such bounds. In this paper, we introduce
another bounding technique, called balanced job bounds
(BJB), which is based on the analysis of systems in
which all devices are equally utilized. These bounds
are tighter than ABA bounds in many cases, but they are
based on more restrictive assumptions (namely, those
that lead to separable queueing network models).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Neuse:1981:SHA,
author =       "D. Neuse and K. Chandy",
title =        "{SCAT}: {A} heuristic algorithm for queueing network
models of computing systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "59--79",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805476",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents a new algorithm for the
approximate analysis of closed product-form queueing
networks with fixed-rate, delay (infinite-server), and
load-dependent queues. This algorithm has the accuracy,
speed, small memory requirements, and simplicity
necessary for inclusion in a general network analysis
package. The algorithm allows networks with large
numbers of queues, job classes, and populations to be
analyzed interactively even on microcomputers with very
limited memory.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Analytic models; Approximations; Iterative algorithms;
Product-form; Queueing networks",
}

@Article{Zahorjan:1981:SSQ,
author =       "John Zahorjan and Eugene Wong",
title =        "The solution of separable queueing network models
using mean value analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "80--85",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805477",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Because it is more intuitively understandable than the
previously existing convolution algorithms, Mean Value
Analysis (MVA) has gained great popularity as an exact
solution technique for separable queueing networks.
However, the derivations of MVA presented to date apply
only to closed queueing network models. Additionally,
the problem of the storage requirement of MVA has not
been dealt with satisfactorily. In this paper we
address both these problems, presenting MVA solutions
for open and mixed load independent networks, and a
storage maintenance technique that we postulate is the
minimum possible of any reasonable'' MVA technique.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Thomasian:1981:ASQ,
title =        "Aggregation of stations in queueing network models of
multiprogrammed computers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "86--104",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805478",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In queueing network models the complexity of the model
can be reduced by aggregating stations. This amounts to
obtaining the throughput of the flow-equivalent station
for the subnetwork of stations to be aggregated. When
the subnetwork has a separable solution, aggregation
can be carried out using the Chandy--Herzog--Woo theorem.
The throughput of the subnetwork can be expressed
explicitly in terms of its parameters when the stations
are balanced (have equal utilizations). This expression
for throughput can be used as an approximation when the
stations are relatively unbalanced. The basic
expression can be modified to increase the accuracy of
the approximation. A generating function approach was
used to obtain upper bounds on the relative error due
to the basic approximation and its modifications.
Provided that the relative error bound is tolerable, a
set of unbalanced stations can be replaced by a single
aggregate station or a set of balanced stations.
Finally, we propose a methodology to simplify the
queueing network model of a large-scale multiprogrammed
computer, which makes use of the previous aggregation
results.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Schwetman:1981:CSM,
author =       "Herb Schwetman",
title =        "Computer system models: {An} introduction",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "105--105",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805479",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A system model is a tool used to predict system
performance under changing conditions. There are two
widely used modeling techniques: one based on discrete
event simulation and one based on queuing theory
models. Because queueing theory models are so much
cheaper to implement and use, as compared to simulation
models, there is growing interest in them. Users are
developing and using queuing theory models to project
system performance, project capacity, analyze
bottlenecks and configure systems. This talk uses an
operational analysis approach to develop system models.
This approach, as presented in Denning and Buzen [1],
provides an intuitive basis for analyzing system
performance and constructing system models. Very simple
calculations lead to estimates of bounds on performance
--- maximum job throughput rates and minimum message
response times. The emphasis is on gaining an
understanding of system models which reenforces
intuition, not on mathematical formulae. Several
examples are included. References to other works and
publications are provided. Application areas and
limitations of modeling techniques are discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Denning:1981:PEE,
author =       "Peter J. Denning",
title =        "Performance evaluation: {Experimental} computer
science at its best",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "106--109",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805480",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "What is experimental computer science? This question
has been widely discussed ever since the Feldman Report
was published (1979 [18]). Many computer scientists
believe that survival of their discipline is intimately
linked to their ability to rejuvenate experimentation.
The National Science Foundation instituted the
Coordinated Experimental Research Program (CERP) in
1979 to help universities set up facilities capable of
supporting experimental research. Other agencies of
government are considering similar programs. Some
industrial firms are offering similar help through
modest cash grants and equipment discounts. What is
experimental computer science? Surprisingly, computer
scientists disagree on the answer. A few believe that
computer science is in flux --- making a transition
from theoretical to experimental science --- and,
hence, no operational definition is yet available. Some
believe that it is all the non-theoretical activities
of computer science, especially those conferring
hands-on'' experience. Quite a few believe that it is
large system development projects --- i.e., computer
and software engineering --- and they cite MIT's
Multics, Berkeley's version of Bell Labs' UNIX, the
ARPAnet, IBM's database System R, and Xerox's
Ethernet-based personal computer network as examples.
These beliefs are wrong. There are well-established
standards for experimental science. The field of
performance evaluation meets these standards and
provides examples of experimental science for the rest
of the computing field.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Rafii:1981:SAM,
author =       "Abbas Rafii",
title =        "Structure and application of a measurement tool ---
{SAMPLER\slash 3000}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "110--120",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805481",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Design, internal structure, implementation experience
and a number of unique features of the SAMPLER/3000
performance evaluation tool are presented. This package
can be used to produce program CPU and wait time
profiles in several levels of detail in terms of code
segments, procedure names and procedure relative
addresses. It also provides an accurate profile of the
operating systems code which is exercised to service
requests from the selective parts of the user code.
Programs can be observed under natural load conditions
in a single user or shared environment. A program's CPU
usage is determined in terms of direct and indirect
cost components. The approaches to determine direct and
indirect CPU times are described. A program counter
sampling technique in virtual memory domain is
discussed. Certain interesting aspects of data analysis
and on-line data presentation techniques are described.
The features of the computer architecture, the services
of the loader and compilers which relate to the
operation of the tool are discussed. A case study is
finally presented.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Tolopka:1981:ETM,
author =       "Stephen Tolopka",
title =        "An event trace monitor for the {VAX 11\slash 780}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "121--128",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805482",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes an event trace monitor
implemented on Version 1.6 of the VMS operating system
at Purdue University. Some necessary VMS terminology is
covered first. The operation of the data gathering
mechanism is then explained, and the events currently
being gathered are listed. A second program, which
reduces the data gathered by the monitor to usable
form, is next examined, and some examples depicting its
operation are given. The paper concludes with a brief
discussion of some of the monitor's uses.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Artis:1981:LFD,
author =       "H. Pat Artis",
title =        "A log file design for analyzing secondary storage
occupancy",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "129--135",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805483",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A description of the design and implementation of a
log file for analyzing the occupancy of secondary
storage on IBM computer systems is discussed. Typical
applications of the data contained in the log are also
discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sanguinetti:1981:ESS,
author =       "John Sanguinetti",
title =        "The effects of solid state paging devices in a large
time-sharing system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "136--153",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805484",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper reports the results of some measurements
taken on the effects two new solid state paging
devices, the STC 4305 and the Intel 3805, have on
paging performance in the Michigan Terminal System at
the University of Michigan. The measurements were taken
with a software monitor using various configurations of
the two solid state devices and the fixed head disk,
which they replace. Measurements were taken both during
regular production and using an artificial load created
to exercise the paging subsystem. The results confirmed
the expectation that the solid state paging devices
provide shorter page-in waiting times than the
fixed-head disk, and also pointed up some of the
effects which their differing architectures have on the
system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Wang:1981:VMB,
author =       "Richard T. Wang and J. C. Browne",
title =        "Virtual machine-based simulation of distributed
computing and network computing",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "154--156",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805485",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper proposes the use of virtual machine
architectures as a means of modeling and analyzing
networks and distributed computing systems. The
requirements for such modeling and analysis are
explored and defined along with an illustrative study
of an X.25 link-level protocol performance under normal
execution conditions. The virtualizable architecture
used in this work is the Data General Nova 3/D.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Huslende:1981:CEP,
author =       "Ragnar Huslende",
title =        "A combined evaluation of performance and reliability
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "157--164",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805486",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "As the field of fault-tolerant computing is maturing
and results from this field are taken into practical
use the effects of a failure in a computer system need
not be catastrophic. With good fault-detection
mechanisms it is now possible to cover a very high
percentage of all the possible failures that can occur.
Once a fault is detected, systems are designed to
reconfigure and proceed either with full or degraded
performance depending on how much redundancy is built
into the system. It should be noted that one particular
failure may have different effects depending on the
circumstances and the time at which it occurs. Today we
see that large numbers of resources are being tied
together in complex computer systems, either locally or
in geographically distributed systems and networks. In
such systems it is obviously very undesirable that the
failure of one element can bring the entire system
down. On the other hand one can usually not afford to
design the system with sufficient redundancy to mask
the effect of all failures immediately.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Jacobson:1981:MSD,
author =       "Patricia A. Jacobson and Edward D. Lazowska",
title =        "The method of surrogate delays: {Simultaneous}
resource possession in analytic models of computer
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "165--174",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805487",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents a new approach to modelling the
simultaneous or overlapped possession of resources in
queueing networks. The key concept is that of iteration
between two models, each of which includes an explicit
representation of one of the simultaneously held
resources and a delay server (an infinite server, with
service time but no queueing) acting as a surrogate for
queueing delay due to congestion at the other
simultaneously held resource. Because of this, we refer
to our approximation technique as the method of
surrogate delays''.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Jacobson:1981:AAM,
author =       "Patricia Jacobson",
title =        "Approximate analytic models of arbiters",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "175--180",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805488",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Results at very light and very heavy loads are easy to
obtain, but at intermediate loads performance modelling
is necessary. Because of the considerable cost of
simulation, we develop queueing network models which
can be solved quickly by approximate analytic
techniques. These models are validated by comparing
with simulations at certain points, and then used to
get a wide range of results quickly.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Briggs:1981:PCB,
author =       "Fay{\'e} A. Briggs and Michel Dubois",
title =        "Performance of cache-based multiprocessors",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "181--190",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805489",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A possible design alternative to improve the
performance of a multiprocessor system is to insert a
private cache between each processor and the shared
memory. The caches act as high-speed buffers, reducing
the memory access time, and affect the delays caused by
memory conflicts. In this paper, we study the
performance of a multiprocessor system with caches. The
shared memory is pipelined and interleaved to improve
the block transfer rate, and assumes an L-M
organization, previously studied under random word
access. An approximate model is developed to estimate
the processor utilization and the speedup improvement
provided by the caches. These two parameters are
essential to a cost-effective design. An example of a
design is treated to illustrate the usefulness of this
investigation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bryant:1981:QNA,
author =       "R. M. Bryant and J. R. Agre",
title =        "A queueing network approach to the module allocation
problem in distributed systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "191--204",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800189.805490",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Given a collection of distributed programs and the
modules they use, the module allocation problem is to
determine an assignment of modules to processors that
minimizes the total execution cost of the programs.
Standard approaches to this problem are based on
solving either a network flow problem or a constrained
$0$-$1$ integer programming problem. In this paper we
discuss an alternative approach to the module
allocation problem where a closed, multiclass queueing
network is solved to determine the cost of a particular
module allocation. The advantage of this approach is
that the execution cost can be expressed in terms of
performance measures of the system such as response
time. An interchange heuristic is proposed as a method
of searching for a good module allocation using this
model and empirical evidence for the success of the
heuristic is given. The heuristic normally finds module
allocations with costs within 10 percent of the optimal
module allocation. Fast, approximate queueing network
solution techniques based on mean-value-analysis allow
each heuristic search to be completed in a few seconds
of CPU time. The computational complexity of each
search is $O(M K (K + N) C)$ where $M$ is the number of
modules, $K$ is the number of sites in the network, $N$
is the number of communications processors, and $C$ is
the number of distributed program types. It appears
that substantial problems of this type could be solved
using the methods we describe.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Distributed computer systems; File assignment problem;
Mean-value analysis; Multiclass queueing network model;
}

@Article{Marathe:1981:AME,
author =       "Madhav Marathe and Sujit Kumar",
title =        "Analytical models for an {Ethernet}-like local area
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "205--215",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010629.805491",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:00 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Ethernet-like local area network links have been
studied by a number of researchers. Most of these
studies have involved extensive simulation models
operating at the level of individual packets. However,
as we begin building models of systems built around
such links, detailed simulation models are neither
necessary, nor cost-effective. Instead, a simple
analytical model of the medium should be adequate as a
component of the higher level system models. This paper
discusses a number of analytical models and identifies
a last-in-first-out M/G/1 model with slightly increased
service time as one which adequately captures both the
mean and the coefficient of variation of the response
time. Given any offered load, this model can be used to
predict the mean waiting time and its coefficient of
variation. These two can be used to construct a
suitable 2 stage hyperexponential distribution. Random
numbers can then be drawn from this distribution for
use as waiting times of individual packets.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Pechura:1981:PLM,
author =       "Michael A. Pechura",
title =        "Page life measurements",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "10--12",
month =        dec,
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041865",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:58 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Computer performance analysis, whether it be for
design, selection or improvement, has a large body of
literature to draw upon. It is surprising, however,
that few texts exist on the subject. The purpose of
this paper is to provide a feature analysis of the four
major texts suitable for professional and academic
purposes.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "computer performance evaluation; computer system
selection",
}

@Article{Clark:1981:UES,
author =       "Jon D. Clark",
title =        "An update on economies-of-scale in computing systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "13--14",
month =        dec,
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041866",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:58 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A workshop on the theory and application of analytical
models to ADP system performance prediction was held on
March 12-13, 1979, at the University of Maryland. The
final agenda of the workshop is included as an
appendix. Six sessions were conducted: (1) theoretical
advances, (2) operational analysis, (3) effectiveness
of analytical modeling techniques, (4) validation, (5)
case studies and applications, and (6) modeling tools.
A summary of each session is presented below. A list of
references is provided for more detailed information.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Janusz:1981:GMS,
author =       "Edward R. Janusz",
title =        "Getting the most out of a small computer",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "22--35",
month =        dec,
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041867",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:58 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The concept of a working-set' of a program running in
a virtual memory environment is now so familiar that
many of us fail to realize just how little we really
know about what it is, what it means, and what can be
done to make such knowledge actually useful. This
follows, perhaps, from the abstract and apparently
intangible facade that tends to obscure the meaning of
working set. What we cannot measure often ranks high in
curiosity value, but ranks low in pragmatic utility.
Where we have measures, as in the page-seconds of
SMF/MVS, the situation becomes even more curious: here
a single number purports to tell us something about the
working set of a program, and maybe something about the
working sets of other concurrent programs, but not very
much about either. This paper describes a case in which
the concept of the elusive working set has been
encountered in practice, has been intensively analyzed,
and finally, has been confronted in its own realm. It
has been trapped, wrapped, and, at last, forced to
reveal itself for what it really is. It is not a
number! Yet it can be measured. And what it is,
together with its measures, turns out to be something
not only high in curiosity value, but also something
very useful as a means to predict the page faulting
behavior of a program running in a relatively complex
multiprogrammed environment. The information presented
here relates to experience gained during the conversion
of a discrete event simulation model to a hybrid model
which employs analytical techniques to forecast the
duration of steady-state' intervals between mix-change
events in the simulation of a network-scheduled job
stream processing on a 370/168-3AP under MVS. The
specific encounter' with the concept of working sets
came about when an analytical treatment of program
paging was incorporated into the model. As a result of
considerable luck, ingenuity, and brute-force
empiricism, the model won. Several examples of
empirically derived characteristic working set
functions, together with typical model results, are
supported with a discussion of relevant modeling
techniques and areas of application.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Cox:1981:DDD,
author =       "Springer Cox",
title =        "Data, definition, deduction: an empirical view of
operational analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "36--44",
month =        dec,
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041868",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:58 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper discussed the problems encountered and
techniques used in conducting the performance
evaluation of a multi-processor on-line manpower data
collection system. The two main problems were: (1) a
total lack of available software tools, and (2) many
commonly used hardware monitor measures (e.g., CPU
busy, disk seek in progress) were either meaningless or
not available. The main technique used to circumvent
these problems was detailed analysis of one-word
resolution memory maps. Some additional data collection
techniques were (1) time-stamped channel measurements
used to derive some system component utilization
characteristics and (2) manual stopwatch timings used
to identify the system's terminal response times.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Muramatsu:1981:SVQ,
author =       "Hiroshi Muramatsu and Masahiro Date and Takanori
Maki",
title =        "Structural validation in queueing network models of
computer systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "41--46",
month =        dec,
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041869",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:58 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The current status of an implementation of a
methodology relating load, capacity and service for IBM
MVS computer systems is presented. This methodology
encompasses systems whose workloads include batch, time
sharing and transaction processing. The implementation
and analysis, automatic benchmarking, and exhaust point
forecasting.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sauer:1981:NSS,
author =       "Charles H. Sauer",
title =        "Numerical solution of some multiple chain queueing
networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "47--56",
month =        dec,
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041870",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:58 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper reports the results of simulation
experiment of a model of a virtual memory computer. The
model consists of three major subsystems: Program
Behavior, Memory Allocation and Secondary Storage. By
adapting existing models of these subsystems an overall
model for the computer operation is developed and its
performance is tested for various design alternatives.
The results are reported for different paging devices,
levels of multiprogramming, job mixes, memory
allocation scheme, page service scheduling and page
replacement rate.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Nemeth:1981:AIP,
author =       "Thomas A. Nemeth",
title =        "An approach to interactive performance analysis in a
busy production system {(NOS/BE)}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "57--73",
month =        dec,
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041808.1041815",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:58 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Many different ideas have been promulgated on
performance evaluation by software and hardware
monitoring or modelling, but most of these have
associated implementation problems in practice. By
adopting a slightly different approach, (using an
approximation to service wait time'), an analysis of
response is possible in a production system, with
negligible overhead. This analysis allows the actual
areas of contention to be identified, and some rather
unexpected results emerge, with a direct application to
scheduling policy. The work was done using the NOS/BE
operating system on a CDC Cyber 173 at the University
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "measurement; multiprogramming; performance evaluation;
production; response; scheduling; timesharing",
}

@Article{Knudson:1981:CPE,
author =       "Michael E. Knudson",
title =        "A computer performance evaluation operational
methodology",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "74--80",
month =        dec,
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041808.1041816",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:57:58 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A method suggesting how to organize and operate a
Computer Performance and Evaluation (CPE) project is
presented. It should be noted that the suggested
principles could apply to a modeling or simulation
effort.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Afshari:1981:MNT,
author =       "P. V. Afshari and S. C. Bruell and R. Y. Kain",
title =        "Modeling a new technique for accessing shared buses",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4--13",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801685",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Consider a queueing system in which customers (or
jobs) arrive to one of $Q$ separate queues to await
service from one of $S$ identical servers (Figure 1).
Once a job enters a queue it does not leave that queue
until it has been selected for service. Any server can
serve any job from any queue. A job selected for
service cannot be preempted. In this paper we consider
jobs to be in a single class; for the multiple class
result see [AFSH81a]. We assume once a queue has been
selected, job scheduling from that queue is fair. In
particular, our results hold for first come first serve
as well as random selection [SPIR79] and, for that
matter, any fair nonpreemptive scheduling policy within
a queue. We assume that arrivals to each queue follow a
Poisson process with the mean arrival rate to queue $q$
being $\lambda q$. The $S$ identical exponential
servers are each processing work at a mean rate of
$\mu$. This system is general enough to be adaptable
for modeling many different applications. By choosing
the policy employed for queue selection by the servers,
we can model multiplexers, channels, remote job entry
stations, certain types of communication processors
embedded in communication networks, and sets of shared
buses. In this paper we will use the latter application
to discuss a realistic situation. The elements
(jobs'') in the queues are messages to be sent from
modules connected to the shared bus of the system. The
servers are the buses; their service times are equal to
the message transmission times. The queues are in the
interface modules connected to and sharing the buses.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lazar:1981:OCM,
author =       "Aurel A. Lazar",
title =        "Optimal control of a {M\slash M\slash m} queue",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "14--20",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801686",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The problem of optimal control of a M/M/m queueing
system is investigated. As in the M/M/l case the
optimum control is shown to be a window type mechanism.
The window size $L$ depends on the maximum allowable
time delay $T$ and can be explicitly computed. The
throughput time delay function of the M/M/m system is
briefly discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Spirn:1981:NMB,
author =       "Jeffrey R. Spirn",
title =        "Network modeling with bursty traffic and finite buffer
space",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "21--28",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801687",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper, we propose a class of queueing network
models, and a method for their approximate solution,
for computer networks with bursty traffic and finite
buffer space. The model is open, implying no population
limit except for buffer size limits and therefore no
window-type flow control mechanism. Each node of the
computer network is represented as a finite-length
queue with exponential service and an arrival process
which is initially bulk Poisson, but becomes less and
less clustered from hop to hop. Elaborations are
possible to account for varying mean packet sizes and
certain buffer pooling schemes, although these involve
further approximation. The approximations of the method
were validated against several simulations, with
reasonable agreement, and certainly with much less
error than is obtained by modeling a bursty traffic
source as Poisson.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lam:1981:ORN,
author =       "Simon S. Lam and Y. Luke Lien",
title =        "Optimal routing in networks with flow-controlled
virtual channels",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "38--46",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801688",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Packet switching networks with flow-controlled virtual
channels are naturally modeled as queueing networks
with closed chains. Available network design and
analysis techniques, however, are mostly based upon an
open-chain queueing network model. In this paper, we
first examine the traffic conditions under which an
open-chain model accurately predicts the mean
end-to-end delays of a closed-chain model having the
same chain throughputs. We next consider the problem of
optimally routing a small amount of incremental traffic
corresponding to the addition of a new virtual channel
(with a window size of one) to a network. We model the
new virtual channel as a closed chain. Existing flows
in the network are modeled as open chains. An optimal
routing algorithm is then presented. The algorithm
solves a constrained optimization problem that is a
compromise between problems of unconstrained
individual-optimization and unconstrained
network-optimization.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Livny:1981:LBH,
author =       "Miron Livny and Myron Melman",
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "47--55",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801689",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Three different load balancing algorithms for
distributed systems that consist of a number of
identical processors and a CSMA communication system
are presented in this paper. Some of the properties of
a multi-resource system and the balancing process are
demonstrated by an analytic model. Simulation is used
as a mean for studying the interdependency between the
parameters of the distributed system and the behaviour
of the balancing algorithm. The results of this study
shed light on the characteristics of the load balancing
process.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Wecker:1981:PGD,
author =       "Stuart Wecker and Robert Gordon and James Gray and
James Herman and Raj Kanodia and Dan Seligman",
title =        "Performance of globally distributed networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "58--58",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801690",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In the design and implementation of computer networks
one must be concerned with their overall performance
and the efficiency of the communication mechanisms
chosen. Performance is a major issue in the
architecture, implementation, and installation of a
computer communication network. The architectural
design always involves many cost/performance tradeoffs.
Once implemented, one must verify the performance of
the network and locate bottlenecks in the structure.
Configuration and installation of a network involves
the selection of a topology and communication
components, channels and nodes of appropriate capacity,
satisfying performance requirements. This panel will
focus on performance issues involved in the efficient
design, implementation, and installation of globally
distributed computer communication networks.
Discussions will include cost/performance tradeoffs of
alternative network architecture structures, methods
used to measure and isolate implementation performance
problems, and configuration tools to select network
components of proper capacity. The panel members have
all been involved in one or more performance issues
related to the architecture, implementation, and/or
configuration of the major networks they represent.
They will describe their experiences relating to
performance issues in these areas. Methodologies and
examples will be chosen from these networks in current
use. There will be time at the end of the session for
questions to the panel.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gordon:1981:OMH,
author =       "R. L. Gordon",
title =        "Operational measurements on a high performance ring",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "59--59",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801691",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Application and system software architecture can
greatly influence the operational statistics of a local
network. The implementation of a transparent file
system on top of a high bandwidth local network has
resulted in generating a high degree of file traffic
over the local network whose characteristics are
largely fixed and repeatable. These statistics will be
presented along with arguments for and against
designing mechanisms that optimize specifically for
that class of traffic.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Local networks; Performance; Remote files",
}

@Article{Gray:1981:PSL,
author =       "James P. Gray",
title =        "Performance of {SNA}'s {LU-LU} session protocols",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "60--61",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801692",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "SNA is both an architecture and a set of products
built in conformance with the architecture (1,2,3). The
architecture is layered and precisely defined; it is
both evolutionary and cost effective for implementing
products. Perhaps the largest component of cost
effectiveness is performance: transaction throughput
and response times. For SNA, this involves data link
control protocols (for SDLC and S/370 channel DLC's),
routing algorithms, protocols used on the sessions that
connect logical units (LU-LU session protocols), and
interactions among them. SNA's DLC and routing
protocols have been discussed elsewhere (4,5,6); this
talk examines protocols on sessions between logical
units (LU-LU session protocols) and illustrates the
results of design choices by comparing the performance
of various configurations.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Herman:1981:APT,
author =       "James G. Herman",
title =        "{ARPANET} performance tuning techniques",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "62--62",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801693",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "As part of its operation and maintenance of the
ARPANET for the past twelve years, BBN has been asked
to investigate a number of cases of degradation in
network performance. This presentation discusses the
practical methods and tools used to uncover and correct
the causes of these service problems. A basic iterative
method of hypothesis generation, experimental data
gathering, and analysis is described. Emphasis is
placed on the need for experienced network analysts to
direct the performance investigation and for the
availability of network programmers to provide special
purpose modifications to the network node software in
order to probe the causes of the traffic patterns under
observation. Many typical sources of performance
problems are described, a detailed list of the tools
used by the analyst are given, and a list of basic
techniques provided. Throughout the presentation
specific examples from actual ARPANET performance
studies are used to illustrate the points made.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Aleh:1981:DUB,
author =       "Avner Aleh and K. Dan Levin",
title =        "The determination of upper bounds for economically
effective compression in packet switching networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "64--72",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801694",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper deals with the economic tradeoffs
associated with data compression in a packet switching
environment. In section II we present the data profile
concept and the compression analysis of typical
file-transfer data strings. This is followed by a
compression cost saving model that is developed in
section III. Upper bounds for an economically effective
compression service are derived there, and the paper
concludes with an example of these bounds based on
state of the art technology.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{McGregor:1981:CMP,
author =       "Patrick V. McGregor",
title =        "Concentrator modeling with pipelining arrivals
compensation",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "73--94",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801695",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A general model of Intelligent Communications
Concentrating Devices (ICCD) is presented and analyzed
for delay and overflow performance with compensation
for the pipelining effect of message arrivals extending
over time. The results of the analysis indicate that,
for the same trunk utilization, the trend towards
buffered terminals with longer messages requires
substantially greater buffering in the ICCD. The
nominal environment analyzed consisted of 10--40 medium
speed terminals (1200 b/s--9600 b/s) operating over a
medium speed trunk (9600 b/s) with trunk utilizations
from 20 percent to 80 percent and average message
lengths up to 1000 characters. This is a substantially
different environment than that typically served by
current implementations of ICCDs, which are frequently
reported to have throughput improvements of 2-3 times
the nominal originating terminal bandwidths, as opposed
to the typical factor of 5 for the analyzed
environment. This does not reflect on the
appropriateness of the ICCDs in serving the new
environment, but rather is simply stating that in the
new environment the same character volume of traffic
may be appearing with different traffic characteristics
over higher speed access lines. If the new environment
shows only a difference in traffic characteristics and
originating line speed, without change in the traffic
control scheme (or lack of scheme), the results
indicate essentially reproduction of a large part of
the terminal buffering in the ICCD for adequate
overflow performance. Alternatively, with smarter
terminals, traffic control schemes (flow control) may
enable the ICCD to be reduced to an essentially
unbuffered traffic cop,'' with the terminal buffering
also serving as the shared facility buffering. Several
practical implementations of ICCDs have provision for
flow control, but require cooperating terminals and
hosts. This suggests that ICCD design and application
will become more sensitive to the practical operating
features of the target environment than has been
generally the case to date. The analysis presented in
this paper involves many simplifications to the actual
problem. Additional work to accommodate non-exponential
message length distributions and heterogeneous terminal
configurations are perhaps two of the more immediate
problems that may be effectively dealt with.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Mink:1981:MEC,
author =       "Alan Mink and Charles B. {Silio, Jr.}",
title =        "Modular expansion in a class of homogeneous networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "95--100",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801696",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We consider a special class of homogeneous computer
network comprising several essentially identical but
independent computing systems (ICSs) sharing a single
resource. Of interest here are the effects of modularly
expanding the network by adding ICSs. We use a
previously presented approximate queueing network model
to analyze modular expansion in this class of network.
The performance measure used in this analysis is the
mean cycle time, which is the mean time between
successive requests for service by the same job at the
CPU of an ICS. In this analysis we derive an
intuitively satisfying mathematical relation between
the addition of ICSs and the incremental increase in
the service rate of the shared resource required to
maintain the existing level of system performance.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Thareja:1981:UBA,
author =       "Ashok K. Thareja and Satish K. Tripathi and Richard A.
Upton",
title =        "On updating buffer allocation",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "101--110",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801697",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Most of the analysis of buffer sharing schemes has
been aimed at obtaining the optimal operational
parameters under stationary load situations. It is well
known that in most operating environments the traffic
updating buffer allocation as the traffic load at a
network node changes. We investigate the behavior of a
complete partitioning buffer sharing scheme to gain
insight into the dependency of the throughput upon
system parameters. The summary of the analysis is
presented in the form of a heuristic. The heuristic is
shown to perform reasonably well under two different
types of stress tests.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

author =       "M. Y. Elsanadidi and Wesley W. Chu",
title =        "An analysis of a time window multiaccess protocol with
collision size feedback {(WCSF)}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "112--118",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801698",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We analyze the performance of a window multiaccess
protocol with collision size feedback. We obtain bounds
on the throughput and the expected packet delay, and
assess the sensitivity of the performance to collision
recognition time and packet transmission time. An
approximate optimal window reduction factor to minimize
packet isolation time is {equation}, where $n$ is the
collision size and $R$ the collision recognition time
(in units of packet propagation delay). The WCSF
is shown to have at least 30\% more capacity than
CSMA-CD for high bandwidth channels; that is, when
packet transmission time is comparable to propagation
delay. The capacity gain of the WCSF protocol decreases
as the propagation delay decreases and the collision
recognition time increases. Our study also reveals the
inherent stability of WCSF. When the input load
increases beyond saturation. The throughput remains at
its maximum value.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Roehr:1981:PALa,
author =       "Kuno M. Roehr and Horst Sadlowski",
title =        "Performance analysis of local communication loops",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "119--129",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801699",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The communication loops analyzed here provide an
economic way of attaching many different terminals
which may be some kilometers away from a host
processor. Main potential bottlenecks were found to be
the loop transmission speed, the loop adapter
processing rate, and the buffering capability, all of
which are analyzed in detail. The buffer overrun
probabilities are found by convolving individual buffer
usage densities and by summing over the tail-end of the
obtained overall density function. Examples of analysis
results are given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sherman:1981:DVH,
author =       "R. H. Sherman and M. G. Gable and A. W. Chung",
title =        "Distributed virtual hosts and networks: {Measurement}
and control",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "130--136",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801700",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Diverse network application requirements bring about
local networks of various size, degree of complexity
and architecture. The purpose of this paper is to
present a network protocol layer which is used to
provide a homogeneous operating environment and to
ensure the availability of network resources. The
network layer process probes the underlying local
network to discover its properties and then adapts to
changing network conditions. The principle contribution
of this paper is to generalize properties of diverse
local networks which can be measured. This is important
when considering maintenance and service of various
point-to-point links, multi-drop, loop or switched
links and multi-access contention data buses. A
prototype network is used to show a complexity
improvement in the number of measurement probes
required using a multi-access contention bus. Examples
of measurement techniques and network adaptation are
presented.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Brice:1981:NPA,
author =       "Richard Brice and William Alexander",
title =        "A network performance analyst's workbench",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "138--146",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801701",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Performance measurement and analysis of the behavior
of a computer network usually requires the application
of multiple software and hardware tools. The location,
functionality, data requirements, and other properties
of the tools often reflect the distribution of
equipment in the network. We describe how we have
attempted to organize a collection of tools into a
single system that spans a broad subset of the
measurement and analysis activities that occur in a
complex network of heterogeneous computers. The tools
are implemented on a pair of dedicated midicomputers. A
database management system is used to couple the data
collection and analysis tools into a system highly
insulated from evolutionary changes in the composition
and topology of the network.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{DuBois:1981:HMS,
author =       "Donald F. DuBois",
title =        "A {Hierarchical Modeling System} for computer
networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "147--155",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801702",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes the Hierarchical Modeling System
(HMS). HMS is a tool --- a unified and expandable
system --- which supports the development of analytic
and simulator models of computer networks. The same
system and workload descriptions can be interpreted as
analytic queueing models with optimization techniques
or as discrete event simulation models. The rationale
behind the development of HMS is that high level
analyses incorporating analytic techniques may be used
in the early design phase for networks when many
options are considered while detailed simulation
studies of fewer design alternatives are appropriate
during the later stages.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Analytic models; Computer networks; Hierarchical
models; Performance evaluation; Simulation",
}

@Article{Terplan:1981:NPR,
author =       "K. Terplan",
title =        "Network performance reporting",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "156--170",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801703",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Managing networks using Network Administration Centers
is increasingly considered. After introducing the
information demand for operational, tactical and
strategic network management the paper is dealing with
the investigation of the applicability of tools and
techniques for these areas. Network monitors and
software problem determination tools are investigated
in greater detail. Also implementation details for a
multihost-multinode network including software and
hardware tools combined by SAS are discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Spiegel:1981:QLA,
author =       "Mitchell G. Spiegel",
title =        "Questions for {Local Area Network} panelists",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "172--172",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801704",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Much has been written and spoken about the
capabilities of emerging designs for Local Area
Networks (LAN's). The objective for this panel session
was to gather together companies and agencies that have
brought LAN's into operation. Questions about the
performance of LANs have piqued the curiosity of the
computer/communications community. Each member of the
panel briefly described his or her LAN installation and
workload as a means of introduction to the audience.
Questions about performance were arranged into a
sequence by performance attributes. Those attributes
thought to be of greatest important were discussed
first. Discussion on the remainder of the attributes
continued as time and audience interaction permitted.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Roehr:1981:PALb,
author =       "Kuno M. Roehr and Horst Sadlowski",
title =        "Performance analysis of local communication loops",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "173--173",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801705",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The communication loops analyzed here provide an
economical way of attaching many different terminals to
a IBM 4331 host processor which may be several
kilometers away. As a first step of the investigation
protocol overhead is derived. It consists of request
and transmission headers and the associated
acknowledgements as defined by the System Network
physical layer protocols of the Synchronous Data Link
Control including lower level confirmation frames. The
next step is to describe the performance
characteristics of the loop attachment hardware,
primarily consisting of the external loop station
adapters for local and teleprocessing connections and
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

author =       "Barbara R. Sternick",
title =        "Systems aids in determining {Local Area Network}
performance characteristics",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "174--174",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801706",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "At Bethesda, Maryland, the National Library of
Medicine has a large array of heterogeneous data
processing equipment dispersed over ten floors in the
Lister Hill Center and four floors in the Library
Building. The National Library of Medicine decided to
implement a more flexible, expansible access medium
(Local Area Network (LAN)) to handle the rapid growth
in the number of local and remote users and the
changing requirements. This is a dual coaxial cable
communications system designed using cable television
(CATV) technology. One cable, the outbound cable,
transfers information between the headend and the user
locations. The other cable, the inbound cable,
transfers information from the user locations to the
headend. This system will permit the distribution of
visual and digital information on a single medium.
On-line devices, computers, and a technical control
system network control center are attached to the LAN
through BUS Interface Units (BIUs). The technical
control system will collect statistical and status
information concerning the traffic, BIUs, and system
components. The BIUs will, at fixed intervals, transmit
status information to the technical control. The
Network Control Centers (NCC) will provide network
directory information for users of the system,
descriptions of the services available, etc. A X.25
gateway BIU will interface the LAN to the public
networks (Telenet and Tymnet) and to X.25 host computer
systems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1981:AI,
author =       "Anonymous",
title =        "Authors Index",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "175--175",
month =        "Spring",
year =         "1981",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800047.801707",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:02 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Rajaraman:1982:PET,
author =       "M. K. Rajaraman",
title =        "Performance evaluation through job scheduler
modeling",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "9--15",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010673.800501",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The scheduler in the Cyber-176 computer does the major
functions of routing the job through the system,
controlling job's progress through aging and swapping
of jobs between various queues and resource allocation
among jobs. This paper reports some results of the
performance evaluation study of the Cyber-176 by
modeling the scheduler as the heart of the system. The
study explores the effects of varying the scheduler
parameters in the performance of the machine in a
particular installation. The basic theme of the paper
is that the selection of parameters in a laboratory or
a system test environment may not always result in the
best performance in an actual installation. The
simulation provides vital information for installation
management and tuning the operating system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Mager:1982:TPA,
author =       "Peter S. Mager",
title =        "Toward a parametric approach for modeling local area
network performance",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "17--28",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010673.800502",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The task of modeling the performance of a single
computer (host) with associated peripheral devices is
now well understood [Computer 80]. In fact, highly
usable tools based on analytical modeling techniques
are commercially available and in widespread use
throughout the industry. [Buzen 78] [Buzen 81] [Won 81]
These tools provide a mechanism for describing
computerized environments and the workloads to be
placed on them in a highly parameterized manner. This
is important because it allows users to describe their
computer environments in a structured way that avoids
unnecessary complexity. It also is helpful in
facilitating intuitive interpretations of modeling
results and applying them to capacity planning
decisions. A first step toward building a modeling tool
and associated network specification language that
allows straightforward, inexpensive, and interpretable
modeling of multi-computer network performance is to
identify the set of characteristics (parameters) that
most heavily influence that performance. The result of
such a study for the communication aspects of local
area networks is the subject of this paper.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gaffney:1982:SSI,
author =       "John E. {Gaffney, Jr.}",
title =        "Score 82 --- a summary (at {IBM Systems Research
Institute}, 3\slash 23-3\slash 24\slash 82)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "30--32",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010673.800503",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Score 82'', the first workshop on software counting
rules, was attended by practitioners who are working
with software metrics''. The concern was with
methodologies for counting such software measurables as
the number of operators'', operands'' or the number
of lines of code in a program. A metric'' can be a
directly countable measurable'' or a quantity
computable from one or several such measurables''.
Metrics'' quantify attributes of the software
development process, the software itself, or some
aspect of the interaction of the software with the
processor that hosts it. In general, a metric''
should be useful in the development of software and in
measuring its quality. It should have some theory to
support its existence, and it should be based on actual
software data. This workshop was concerned principally
with the data aspects of metrics'', especially with
the rules underlying the collection of the data from
which they are computed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Misek-Falkoff:1982:NFS,
author =       "Linda D. Misek-Falkoff",
title =        "The new field of {Software Linguistics''}: {An}
early-bird view",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "35--51",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800002.800504",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The phrase Software Linguistics'' is applied here to
a text-based perspective on software quality matters.
There is much in the new work on Software Metrics
generally, and Software Science in particular, that is
reminiscent of the activities of Natural Language
analysis. Maurice Halstead held that Software Science
could shed light on Linguistics; this paper sketches
some mutually informing reciprocities between the two
fields, and across related areas of textual, literary,
discourse, and communications analysis.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Ease of use; Linguistics; Metrics; Natural language
analysis; Quality; Software science; Text complexity",
}

@Article{Spiegel:1982:SCR,
author =       "Mitchell G. Spiegel",
title =        "Software counting rules: {Will} history repeat
itself?",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "52--56",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800002.800505",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Counting rules in the software metrics field have been
developed for counting such software measurables as the
occurrence of operators, operands and the number of
lines of code. A variety of software metrics, such as
those developed by Halstead and others, are computed
from these numbers. Published material in the software
metrics field has concentrated on relationships between
various metrics, comparisons of values obtained for
different languages, etc. Yet, little, if anything has
been published on assumptions, experimental designs, or
the nature of the counting tools (or programs)
themselves used to obtain the basic measurements from
which these metrics are calculated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kavi:1982:EDS,
author =       "Krishna M. Kavi and U. B. Jackson",
title =        "Effect of declarations on software metrics: {An}
experiment in software science",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "57--71",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800002.800506",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The attractiveness of software science [HAL77] is to
some extent due to the simplicity of its
instrumentation. Upon learning the detailed rules of
counting operators and operands, the experiments and
derivations using various algorithms and languages can
be repeated. Proposed or actual applications of
software science are quite varied (For example, see
[SEN79]). The size and construction time of a program
can be estimated from the problem specification and the
choice of programming language. An estimate of the
number of program bugs can be shown to depend on
programming effort. Optimal choice of module sizes for
multimodule implementations can be computed. Elements
of software science have applications to the analysis
of technical prose. The purpose of this experiment is
three fold. First, we want to apply software science
metrics to the language C'. The second purpose of the
experiment is to study the effect of including
declaration statements while counting operators and
operands. Finally, we have set out to determine whether
the area of application has any influence on software
science metrics.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gaffney:1982:MIC,
author =       "John E. {Gaffney, Jr.}",
title =        "{Machine Instruction Count Program}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "72--79",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800002.800507",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The Machine Instruction Count Program (MIC Program)
was originally developed in 1978 to produce operator'
and operand' counts of object programs written for the
AN/UYK-7 military computer. In 1981, its capability was
expanded so that it could apply to the AN/UYS-1 (or
Advanced Signal Processor'') military computer. The
former machine, made by UNIVAC, hosts the IBM-developed
software for the sonar and defensive weapons
system/command system for the TRIDENT missile launching
submarine and the software for the sonar for the new
Los Angeles-class attack submarines. The second
machine, made by IBM, is incorporated into several
military systems including the LAMPS anti-submarine
warfare system. The MIC program has been applied to
collect a large amount of data about programs written
for the AN/UYK-7 and AN/UYS-1 computers. From these
data, various of the well-known software metrics'(1)
such as volume', language level', and difficulty'
have been calculated. Some of the results obtained have
been reported in the literature (3,4). Probably, the
most significant practical use of these data, so far,
has been the development of formulas for use in the
estimation of the amount of code to be written(2,5) as
a function of measures of the requirements that they
are to implement or the (top-level) design that they
are to implement.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Misek-Falkoff:1982:UHS,
author =       "Linda D. Misek-Falkoff",
title =        "A unification of {Halstead}'s {Software Science}
counting rules for programs and {English} text, and a
claim space approach to extensions",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "80--114",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800002.800508",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In his Elements of Software Science, Maurice Halstead
proposed that software quality measurements could be
based on static lexemic analysis of the vocabularies of
operators and operands, and the number of occurrences
of each class, in computer programs. He also proposed
that quality issues in Natural Language text could be
addressed from similar perspectives, although his rules
for programs and for English seem to conflict. This
paper suggests that Halstead's seemingly disparate
rules for classifying the tokens of programs and the
tokens of English can be generally reconciled, although
Halstead himself does not claim such a union. The
thesis of Part One is a unification of his two
procedures, based on a linguistic partitioning between
open'' and closed'' classes. This unification may
provide new inputs to some open issues concerning
coding, and suggest, on the basis of a conceptual
rationale, an explanation as to why programs which are
by Halstead's definition impure'' might indeed be
confusing to the human reader. Part Two of this paper,
by exploring the nodes in a textual Claim Space,''
briefly considers other groupings of the classes taken
as primitive by Halstead, in ways which bring to light
alternate and supplementary sets of candidate coding
rules productive for study of textual quality.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Linguistics; Metrics; Natural language analysis;
Quality; Software science; Text complexity",
}

@Article{Estes:1982:DPO,
author =       "George E. Estes",
title =        "Distinguishing the potential operands in {FORTRAN}
programs",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "115--117",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800002.800509",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "There are several possible relationships between the
number of potential operands and the actual operands
used which correlate with available data (such as
Akiyama's debugging data). However, additional data is
required to distinguish between these hypotheses. Since
there is a large body of programs available written in
FORTRAN, we wish to develop a mechanical counting
procedure to enumerate potential operands in FORTRAN
programs. We are currently developing counting rules
for these potential operands. Sub-routine parameters
and input/output variables are relatively easy to
identify. However, a number of FORTRAN features, such
as COMMON blocks and EQUIVALENCE'd variables introduce
serious complications. Some additional analysis of
usage or heuristic approaches are required to
differentiate potential operands in these situations.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Conte:1982:EDC,
author =       "S. D. Conte and V. Y. Shen and K. Dickey",
title =        "On the effect of different counting rules for control
flow operators on {Software Science} metrics in
{Fortran}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "118--126",
month =        "Summer",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010673.800510",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:58:56 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Halstead in his Theory of Software Science, proposed
that in the Fortran language, each occurrence of a {\tt
GOTO i} for different label {\tt i}'s be counted as a
unique operator. Several writers have questioned the
wisdom of this method of counting GOTO's. In this
paper, we investigate the effect of counting GOTO's as
several occurrences of a single unique operator on
various software science metrics. Some 412 modules from
the International Mathematical and Statistical
Libraries (IMSL) are used as the data base for this
study.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Shanthikumar:1982:PCF,
author =       "J. G. Shanthikumar and P. K. Varshney and K. Sriram",
title =        "A priority cutoff flow control scheme for integrated
voice-data multiplexers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "8--14",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010675.807790",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper, we consider the flow control problem
for a movable boundary integrated voice-data
multiplexer. We propose a flow control scheme where a
decision rule based on the data queue length is
employed to cutoff the priority of voice to prevent a
data queue buildup. A continuous-time queueing model
for the integrated multiplexer is developed. The
performance of the flow control scheme is obtained
using an efficient computational procedure. A numerical
example is presented for illustration.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Cox:1982:DDD,
author =       "Springer Cox",
title =        "Data, definition, deduction: {An} empirical view of
operational analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "15--20",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010675.807791",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The theoretical aspects of operational analysis have
been considered more extensively than matters of its
application in practical situations. Since its
relationships differ in their applicability, they must
be considered separately when they are applied. In
order to do this, the foundations of three such
relationships are examined from an empirical point of
view. To further demonstrate the intimate connection
between data, definitions, and performance models, the
problem of measurement artifact is considered.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Perros:1982:QLD,
author =       "H. G. Perros",
title =        "The queue-length distribution of the {M\slash Ck\slash
1} queue",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "21--24",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010675.807792",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The exact closed-form analytic expression of the
probability distribution of the number of units in a
single server queue with Poisson arrivals and Coxian
service time distribution is obtained.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Anderson:1982:BMP,
author =       "Gordon E. Anderson",
title =        "{Bernoulli} methods for predicting communication
processor performance",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "25--29",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800201.807793",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents a method for applying Bernoulli
trials to predict the number of communication lines a
communication processor can process without losing data
due to character overrun conditions. First, a simple
method for determining the number of lines which a
communication processor can support without possibility
of character overrun will be illustrated. Then, it will
be shown that communication processors can tolerate
occasional character overrun. Finally, using Bernoulli
trials, the probability of character overrun and the
mean time between character overrun will be calculated.
These last two figures are useful to system designers
in determining the number of lines which a
communication processor can reasonably support.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Bernoulli trials; Character overrun; Communication
processor; Markov process; Protocol; Thrashing",
}

@Article{Laurmaa:1982:AHT,
author =       "Timo Laurmaa and Markku Syrj{\"a}nen",
title =        "{APL} and {Halstead}'s theory: {A} measuring tool and
some experiments",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "32--47",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010675.807794",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We have designed and implemented an algorithm which
measures APL-programs in the sense of software science
familiar with the theories of software science. Our
purpose has been to find the best possible algorithm to
automatically analyse large quantities of APL-programs.
We have also used our measuring tool to make some
experiments to find out if APL-programs and workspaces
obey the laws of software science or not. Becasue our
purpose was to analyse large quantities, i.e. hundreds
of programs we have not implemented an algorithm, which
gives exactly correct results from software science
point of view, because this would necessitate manual
clues to the analysing algorithm and thus an
interactive mode of analysis. Instead of it we have
strived for a tool, which carries out the analysis
automatically and as correctly as possible. In the next
section some difficulties encountered in the design of
the measuring algorithm and some inherent limitations
of it are discussed. Section 3 summarises the sources
of errors in the analysis carried out by our algorithm,
while section 4 gives a more detailed description of
the way analysis is carried out. The remaining sections
of this paper report on some experiments we have
carried out using our measuring tool. The purpose of
these experiments has been to evaluate the explaining
power of Halstead's theory in connection of
APL-programs. However, no attempt has been made to
process the results of the experiments statistically.
The results of the experiments have been treated here
only when obvious' (in)compatibilities between the
theory and the results have been observed. Possible
reasons for the (in)compatibilities are also pointed
out.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Beser:1982:FES,
author =       "Nicholas Beser",
title =        "Foundations and experiments in software science",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "48--72",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800201.807795",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A number of papers have appeared on the subject of
software science; claiming the existence of laws
relating the size of a program and the number of
operands and operators used. The pre-eminent theory was
developed by Halstead in 1972. The thesis work focuses
on the examination of Halstead's theory; with an
emphasis on his fundamental assumptions. In particular,
the length estimator was analyzed to determine why it
yields such a high variance; the theoretical
foundations of software science have been extended to
improve the applicability of the critical length
estimator. This elaboration of the basic theory will
result in guidelines for the creation of counting rules
applicable to specific classes of programs, so that it
is possible to determine both when and how software
science can be applied in practice.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Schnurer:1982:PAP,
author =       "Karl Ernst Schnurer",
title =        "{Product Assurance Program Analyzer} ({P.A.P.A.}) a
tool for program complexity evaluation",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "73--74",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010675.807796",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This tool has been developed to assist in the software
validation process. P.A.P.A. will measure the
complexity of programs and detect several program
anomalies. The resulting list of analyzed programs is
sorted in order of descending complexity. Since high
complexity and error-proneness are strongly related,
the critical'' programs will be found earlier within
the development cycle. P.A.P.A. provides syntax
analyzers for RPG (II/III), PSEUDOCODE (design and
documentation language) and PL/SIII (without macro
language). It may be applied during the design-,
coding- and test phase of software development
(e.g. for design- and code inspections).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gross:1982:CME,
author =       "David R. Gross and Mary A. King and Michael R. Murr
and Michael R. Eddy",
title =        "Complexity measurement of {Electronic Switching System
(ESS)} software",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "75--85",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010675.807797",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We have been developing a tool that measures the
complexity of software: (1) to predict the quality of
software products and (2) to allocate proportionally
more testing resources to complex modules. The software
being measured is real-time and controls telephone
switching systems. This software system is large and
its development is distributed over a period of several
years, with each release providing enhancements and bug
fixes. We have developed a two-stage tool consisting of
a parser and an analyzer. The parser operates on the
source code and produces operator, operand, and
miscellaneous tables. These tables are then processed
by an analyzer program that calculates the complexity
measures. Changes for tuning our Halstead counting
rules involve simple changes to the analyzer only.
During the development there were problems and issues
to be confronted dealing with static analysis and code
metrics. These are also described in this paper. In
several systems we found that more than 80\% of
software failures can be traced to only 20\% of the
modules in the system. The McCabe complexity and some
of Halstead's metrics score higher than the count of
executable statements in their correlations with field
failures. It is reasonable to expect that we could
devote more effort to the review and test of
high-complexity modules and increase the quality of the
software product that we send to the field.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hartman:1982:CTR,
author =       "Sandra D. Hartman",
title =        "A counting tool for {RPG}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "86--100",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010675.807798",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The Halstead and McCabe metrics were evaluated for
their usefulness in identifying RPG II and RPG III
modules likely to contain a high number of errors. For
this evaluation, commercially available RPG modules
written within IBM were measured and assigned to low,
medium, or high metric value ranges. Conclusions from
this evaluation and RPG counting rules that were
concomitantly developed were presented at SCORE82 and
are summarized in the following report.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Naib:1982:ASS,
author =       "Farid A. Naib",
title =        "An application of software science to the quantitative
measurement of code quality",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "101--128",
month =        "Fall",
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1010675.807799",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:17 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The error rate of a software application may function
as a measure of code quality. A methodology has been
developed which allows for the accurate prediction of
the error rate and hence code quality prior to an
application's release. Many factors were considered
which could conceivably be related to the error rate.
These factors were divided into two categories: those
factors which vary with time, and those factors which
do not vary with time. Factors which vary with time
were termed environmental factors and included such
items as: number of users, errors submitted to date,
etc. Factors which do not vary with time were termed
internal factors and included Halstead metrics, McCabe
metrics and lines of code.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Blake:1982:OCT,
author =       "Russ Blake",
title =        "Optimal control of thrashing",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "1--10",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035332.1035295",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The method of discrete optimal control is applied to
control thrashing in a virtual memory. Certain
difficulties with several previous approaches are
discussed. The mechanism of optimal control is
presented as an effective, inexpensive alternative. A
simple, ideal policy is devised to illustrate the
method. A new feedback parameter, the thrashing level,
is found to be a positive and robust indicator of
thrashing. When applied to a real system, the idealized
policy effectively controlled the virtual memory.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Babaoglu:1982:HRD,
author =       "{\"O}zalp Babao{\u{g}}lu",
title =        "Hierarchical replacement decisions in hierarchical
stores",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "11--19",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035332.1035296",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "One of the primary motivations for implementing
virtual memory is its ability to automatically manage a
hierarchy of storage systems with different
characteristics. The composite system behaves as if it
were a single-level system having the more desirable
characteristics of each of its constituent levels. In
this paper we extend the virtual memory concept to
within each of the levels of the hierarchy. Each level
is thought of as containing two additional levels
within it. This hierarchy is not a physical one, but
rather an artificial one arising from the employment of
two different replacement algorithms. Given two
replacement algorithms, one of which has good
performance but high implementation cost and the other
poor performance but low implementation cost, we
propose and analyze schemes that result in an overall
algorithm having the performance characteristics of the
former and the cost characteristics of the latter. We
discuss the suitability of such schemes in the
management of storage hierarchies that lack page
reference bits.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hagmann:1982:PPR,
author =       "Robert B. Hagmann and Robert S. Fabry",
title =        "Program page reference patterns",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "20--29",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035298",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes a set of measurements of the
memory reference patterns of some programs. The
technique used to obtain these measurements is
unusually efficient. The data is presented in graphical
form to allow the reader to see' how the program uses
memory. Constant use of a page and sequential access of
memory are easily observed. An attempt is made to
classify the programs based on their referencing
behavior. From this analysis it is hoped that the
reader will gain some insights as to the effectiveness
of various memory management policies.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bunt:1982:EMP,
author =       "R. B. Bunt and R. S. Harbus and S. J. Plumb",
title =        "The effective management of paging storage
hierarchies",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "30--38",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035299",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The use of storage hierarchies in the implementation
of a paging system is investigated. Alternative
approaches for managing a paging storage hierarchy are
described and two are selected for further study ---
staging and migration. Characteristic behaviour is
determined for each of these approaches and a series of
simulation experiments is conducted (using program
reference strings as data) for the purpose of comparing
them. The results clearly show migration to be a
superior approach from the point of view of both cost
and performance. Conclusions are drawn on the
effectiveness of each approach in practice.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hodges:1982:WCP,
author =       "Larry F. Hodges and William J. Stewart",
title =        "Workload characterization and performance evaluation
in a research environment",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "39--50",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035332.1035301",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes the process of bench-marking the
diverse research environment that constitutes the
workload of VAX/VMS at the University Analysis and
Control Center at North Carolina State University. The
benchmarking process began with a study of the system
load and performance characteristics over the six-month
period from January to June of 1981. Statistics were
compiled on the number of active users, CPU usage by
individual accounts, and peak load periods. Individual
users were interviewed to determine the nature and
major computing characteristics of the research they
were conducting on VAX. Information from all sources
was compiled to produce a benchmark that closely
paralleled actual system activity.\par

An analytic model was introduced and used in
conjunction with the benchmark data and hardware
characteristics to derive performance measures for the
system. Comparisons with measured system performance
were conducted to demonstrate the accuracy of the
model. The model was then employed to predict
performance as the system workload was increased, to
suggest improvements for the system, and to examine the
effects of those improvements.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Haring:1982:SDW,
author =       "G{\"u}nter Haring",
title =        "On state-dependent workload characterization by
software resources",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "51--57",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035332.1035302",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A method for the characterization of computer workload
at the task level is presented. After having divided
the workload into different classes using a cluster
technique, each cluster is further analysed by state
dependent transition matrices. Thus it is possible to
derive the most probable task sequences in each
cluster. This information can be used to construct
synthetic scripts at the task level rather than the
usual description at the hardware resource level.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bolzoni:1982:PIS,
author =       "M. L. Bolzoni and M. C. Calzarossa and P. Mapelli and
G. Serazzi",
title =        "A package for the implementation of static workload
models",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "58--67",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035303",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The general principles for constructing workload
models are reviewed. The differences between static and
dynamic workload models are introduced and the
importance of the classification phase for the
implementation of both types of workload models is
pointed out. All the operations required for
constructing static workload models have been connected
in a package. Its main properties and fields of
application are presented. The results of an
experimental study performed with the package on a
batch and interactive workload show its ease of use and
the accuracy of the model obtained.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{McDaniel:1982:MSI,
author =       "Gene McDaniel",
title =        "The {Mesa Spy}: an interactive tool for performance
debugging",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "68--76",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035305",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The Spy is a performance evaluation tool for the Mesa
environment that uses a new extension to the PC
sampling technique. The data collection process can use
information in the run time call stack to determine
what code is responsible for the resources being
consumed. The Spy avoids perturbing the user
environment when it executes, provides symbolic output
at the source-language level, and can be used without
recompiling the program to be examined. Depending upon
how much complication the user asks for during data
collection, the Spy steals between 0.3\% and 1.8\% of
the cycles of a fast machine, and between 1.08\% and
35.9\% of the cycles on a slow machine.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "high level language performance debugging; pc
sampling; performance analysis",
}

@Article{Hercksen:1982:MSE,
author =       "Uwe Hercksen and Rainer Klar and Wolfgang
Klein{\"o}der and Franz Knei{\ss}l",
title =        "Measuring simultaneous events in a multiprocessor
system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "77--88",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035332.1035306",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In the hierarchically organized multiprocessor system
EGPA, which has the structure of a pyramid, the
performance of concurrent programs is studied. These
studies are assisted by a hardware monitor
(Z{\"A}HLMONITOR III), which measures not only the
activity and idle states of CPU and channels, but
records the complete history of processes in the CPU
and interleaved I/O activities. The applied method is
distinguished from usual hardware measurements for two
reasons: it puts together the a priori independent
event-streams coming from the different processors to a
well ordered single event stream and it records not
only hardware but also software events. Most useful
have been traces of software events, which give the
programmer insight into the dynamic cooperation of
distributed subtasks of his program. This paper
describes the measurement method and its application to
the analysis of the behaviour of a highly asynchronous
parallel algorithm: the projection of contour lines
from a given point of view and the elimination of
hidden lines.\par

This work is sponsored by the Bundesminister f{\"u}r
Forschung und Technologie (German Federal Minister of
Research and Technology).",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gelenbe:1982:SDF,
author =       "Erol Gelenbe",
title =        "Stationary deterministic flows in discrete systems:
{I}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "89--101",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035308",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We consider a deterministic system whose state space
is the $n$-dimensional first orthant. It may be
considered as a network of (deterministic) queues, a
Karp-Miller vector addition system, a Petrinet, a
complex computer system, etc. Weak assumptions are then
made concerning the asymptotic or limiting behaviour of
the instants at which events are observed across a cut
in the system : these instants may be considered as
arrival' or departure' instants. Thus, like in
operational analysis, we deal with deterministic and
observable properties and we need no stochastic
assumptions or restrictions (such as independence,
identical distributions, etc.).\par

We consider however asymptotic or stationary
properties, as in conventional queueing analysis. Under
our assumptions a set of standard theorems are proved:
concerning arrival and departure instant measures,
concerning, birth and death' type equations, and
concerning Little's formula. Our intention is to set
the framework for a new approach to performance
modelling of computer systems in a context close to
that used in actual measurements, but taking into
account infinite time behaviour in order to take
advantage of the useful mathematical properties of
asymptotic results.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Baccelli:1982:DBR,
author =       "F. Baccelli and E. G. Coffman",
title =        "A data base replication analysis using an {M\slash
M\slash m} queue with service interruptions",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "102--107",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035332.1035309",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A study of file replication policies for distributed
data bases will be approached through the analysis of
an M/M/m queue subjected to state-independent,
preemptive interruptions of service. The durations of
periods of interruption constitute a sequence of
independent, identically distributed random variables.
Independently, the times measured from the termination
of one period of interruption to the beginning of the
next form a sequence of independent, exponentially
distributed random variables. Preempted customers
resume service at the terminations of interrupt
periods.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Plateau:1982:MPR,
author =       "Brigitte Plateau and Andreas Staphylopatis",
title =        "Modelling of the parallel resolution of a numerical
problem on a locally distributed computing system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "108--117",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035310",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Modern VLSI technology has enabled the development of
high-speed computing systems, based upon various
multiprocessor architecture [1]. We can distinguish
several types of such systems, depending on the control
modes and the degree of resource-sharing. The
efficiency of parallel processing may be significant in
various areas of computer applications; especially,
large numerical applications, such as the solution of
linear systems and differential equations, are marked
by the need of high computation speeds. So, the advance
of parallel processing systems goes together with
research effort in developing efficient parallel
algorithms [2]. The implementation of parallel
algorithms concerns the execution of concurrent
processes, assigned to the processors of the system,
which communicate with each other. The synchronization
needed at process interaction points implies the
existence of waiting delays, which constitute the main
limiting factor of parallel computation. Several
modelling techniques have been developed, that allow
the prediction and verification of parallel systems
performance. The two general approaches followed
concern deterministic models [3] and probabilistic
models. The latter, based on the theory of stochastic
processes [5] \ldots{} are well adapted to the analysis
of complex variable phenomena and provide important
measures concerning several aspects of parallel
processing.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bard:1982:MSD,
author =       "Yonathan Bard",
title =        "Modeling {I/O} systems with dynamic path selection,
and general transmission networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "118--129",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035332.1035312",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper examines general transmission networks, of
which I/O subsystems are a special case. By using the
maximum entropy principle, we answer questions such as
what is the probability that a path to a given node is
free when that node is ready to transmit. Systems with
both dynamic and fixed path selection mechanisms are
treated. Approximate methods for large networks are
proposed, and numerical examples are given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lazowska:1982:MCM,
author =       "Edward D. Lazowska and John Zahorjan",
title =        "Multiple class memory constrained queueing networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "130--140",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035332.1035313",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Most computer systems have a memory constraint: a
limit on the number of requests that can actively
compete for processing resources, imposed by finite
memory resources. This characteristic violates the
conditions required for queueing network performance
models to be separable, i.e., amenable to efficient
analysis by standard algorithms. Useful algorithms for
analyzing models of memory constrained systems have
been devised only for models with a single customer
class.\par

In this paper we consider the multiple class case. We
introduce and evaluate an algorithm for analyzing
multiple class queueing networks in which the classes
have independent memory constraints. We extend this
algorithm to situations in which several classes share
a memory constraint. We sketch a generalization to
situations in which a subsystem within an overall
system model has a population constraint.\par

Our algorithm is compatible with the extremely time-
and space-efficient iterative approximate solution
techniques for separable queueing networks. This level
of efficiency is mandatory for modelling large
systems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "approximate solution technique; computer system
performance evaluation; memory constraint; population
constraint; queueing network model",
}

@Article{Brandwajn:1982:FAS,
author =       "Alexandre Brandwajn",
title =        "Fast approximate solution of multiprogramming models",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "141--149",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035332.1035314",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Queueing network models of computer systems with
multiprogramming constraints generally do not possess a
product-form solution in the sense of Jackson.
Therefore, one is usually led to consider approximation
techniques when dealing with such models. Equivalence
and decomposition is one way of approaching their
solution. With multiple job classes, the equivalent
network may be viewed as a set of interdependent
queues. In general, the state-dependence in this
equivalent network precludes a product-form solution,
and the size of its state space grows rapidly with the
number of classes and of jobs per class. This paper
presents two methods for approximate solution of the
equivalent state-dependent queueing network. The first
approach is a manifold application of equivalence and
decomposition. The second approach, less accurate than
the first one, is a fast-converging iteration whose
computational complexity grows near-linearly with the
number of job classes and jobs in a class. Numerical
examples illustrate the accuracy of the two methods.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "approximate solutions; equivalence and decomposition;
multiprogramming; queueing network models; simultaneous
resource possession",
}

@Article{Agrawal:1982:ASM,
author =       "Subhash C. Agrawal and Jeffrey P. Buzen",
title =        "The aggregate server method for analyzing
serialization delays in computer systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "150--150",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035316",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The aggregate server method is an approximate,
iterative technique for analyzing the delays programs
encounter while waiting for entry into critical
sections, non-reentrant subroutines, and similar
software structures that cause processing to become
serialized. The method employs a conventional product
form queueing network comprised of servers that
represent actual I/O devices and processors, plus
additional aggregate servers that represent serialized
processing activity. The parameters of the product form
network are adjusted iteratively to account for
contention among serialized and non-serialized
customers at each physical device.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Smith:1982:PAS,
author =       "Connie U. Smith and David D. Loendorf",
title =        "Performance analysis of software for an {MIMD}
computer",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "151--162",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035317",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper presents a technique for modeling and
analyzing the performance of software for an MIMD
(Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) computer. The
models can be used as an alternative to experimentation
for the evaluation of various algorithms and different
degrees of parallelism. They can also be used to study
the tradeoffs involved in increasing the amount of
parallel computation at the expense of increased
overhead for synchronization and communication. The
detection and alleviation of performance bottlenecks is
facilitated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Agre:1982:MRN,
author =       "Jon R. Agre and Satish K. Tripathi",
title =        "Modeling reentrant and nonreentrant software",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "163--178",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035318",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A description of software module models for computer
systems is presented. The software module models are
based on a two level description, the software level
and the hardware level, of the computer system. In the
software module level it is possible to model
performance effects of software traits such as
reentrant and nonreentrant type software modules. The
resulting queueing network models are, in general, not
of the product form class and approximation schemes are
employed as solution techniques.\par

An example of a software module model of a hypothetical
computer system is presented. The model is solved with
a simulation program and three approximation schemes.
The approximation results were compared with the
simulation results and some schemes are found to
produce good estimates of the effects of changing from
reentrant to non-reentrant software modules.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Wu:1982:OME,
author =       "L. T. Wu",
title =        "Operational models for the evaluation of degradable
computing systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "179--185",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035319",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Recent advances in multiprocessor technology have
established the need for unified methods to evaluate
computing systems performance and reliability. In
response to this modeling need, this paper considers a
general modeling framework which permits the modeling,
analysis and evaluation of degradable computing
systems. Within this framework, a simple and useful
user-oriented performance variable is identified and
shown to be a proper generalization of the traditional
notions of system performance and reliability.\par

The modeling and evaluation methods considered in this
paper provide a relatively straightforward approach for
integrating reliability and availability measures with
performance measures. The hierarchical decomposition
approach permits the modeling and evaluation of a
computing system's subsystems (e.g., hardware,
software, peripherals, interfaces, user demand systems)
as a whole rather than the traditional methods of
evaluating these subsystems independently. Accordingly,
it becomes possible to evaluate the performance of the
system software and the reliability of the system
hardware simultaneously in order to measure the
effectiveness of the system design. Since the
performance variable introduced permits the
characterization of the system performance according to
the user's view of the systems, the results obtained
represent more accurate assessments of the system's
ability to perform than the existing performance or
reliability measures.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Marie:1982:ECA,
author =       "Raymond A. Marie and Patricia M. Snyder and William J.
Stewart",
title =        "Extensions and computational aspects of an iterative
method",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "186--194",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035321",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The so-called iterative methods are among a class of
methods that have recently been applied to obtain
approximate solutions to general queueing networks. In
this paper it is shown that if the network contains
feedback loops, then it is more advantageous to
incorporate these loops into the analysis of the
station itself rather than into the analysis of the
complement of the station. We show how this analysis
may be performed for a simple two-phase Coxian server.
Additionally, it is shown that the number of iterations
required to achieve a specified degree of accuracy may
be considerably reduced by using a continuous updating
procedure in which the computed throughputs are
incorporated as soon as they are available, rather than
at the end of an iteration. An efficient computational
scheme is presented to accompany this continuous
updating. Finally a number of examples are provided to
illustrate these features.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Neuse:1982:HHA,
author =       "Doug Neuse and K. Mani Chandy",
title =        "{HAM}: the heuristic aggregation method for solving
general closed queueing network models of computer
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "195--212",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035322",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An approximate analytical method for estimating
performance statistics of general closed queueing
network models of computing systems is presented. These
networks may include queues with priority scheduling
disciplines and non-exponential servers and several
classes of jobs. The method is based on the aggregation
theorem (Norton's theorem) of Chandy, Herzog and Woo.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "aggregation theorem; analytical models;
approximations; computer system models; general closed
queueing networks; non-local-balance; non-product-form;
performance analysis; priority scheduling",
}

@Article{Eager:1982:PBH,
author =       "D. L. Eager and K. C. Sevcik",
title =        "Performance bound hierarchies for queueing networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "213--214",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035324",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In applications of queueing network models to computer
system performance prediction, the computational effort
required to obtain an exact equilibrium solution of a
model may not be justified by the accuracy actually
required. In these cases, there is a need for
approximation or bounding techniques that can provide
the necessary information at reduced cost. This paper
presents Performance Bound Hierarchies (PBHs) for
single class separable queueing networks consisting of
fixed rate and delay service centers. A PBH consists of
a hierarchy of upper (pessimistic) or lower
(optimistic) bounds on mean system residence time. (The
bounds can also be expressed as bounds on system
throughput or center utilizations.) Each successive
member requires more computational effort, and in the
limit, the bounds converge to the exact solution.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Brumfield:1982:EAH,
author =       "Jeffrey A. Brumfield and Peter J. Denning",
title =        "Error analysis of homogeneous mean queue and response
time estimators",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "215--221",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035325",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Flow balance and homogeneity assumptions are needed to
derive operational counterparts of M/M/1 queue length
and response time formulas. This paper presents
relationships between the assumption errors and the
errors in the queue length and response time estimates.
A simpler set of assumption error measures is used to
derive bounds on the error in the response time
estimate. An empirical study compares actual errors
with their bounds.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Harbitter:1982:MTL,
author =       "Alan Harbitter and Satish K. Tripathi",
title =        "A model of transport level flow control",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "222--232",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035327",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A Markov Decision Process model is developed to
analyze buffer assignment at the transport level of the
ARPAnet protocol. The result of the analysis is a
method for obtaining an assignment policy which is
optimal with respect to a delay/throughput/overhead
reward function. The nature of the optimal policy is
investigated by varying parameters of the reward.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gelenbe:1982:CPC,
author =       "Erol Gelenbe and Isi Mitrani",
title =        "Control policies in {CSMA} local area networks:
{Ethernet} controls",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "233--240",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035328",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An analysis of the random carrier sense multiple
access channel is presented in terms of the behaviour
of each participating station. A detailed model of the
station protocol, including the control policy used in
case collisions, is used to derive the traffic and
throughput of each station. The channel traffic
characteristics are derived from this model and used,
in turn, to derive the traffic parameters entering into
the station model. This provides a solution method for
complete system characteristics for a finite
prespecified set of stations. The approach is then used
to analyse control policies of the type used in
ETHERNET. We show, in particular, that as the
propagation delay becomes small, the specific form of
the control policy tends to have a marginal effect on
network performance. The approach also applies to the
DANUBE and XANTHOS networks.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Tripathi:1982:ATF,
author =       "Satish K. Tripathi and Alan Harbitter",
title =        "An analysis of two flow control techniques",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "241--249",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035329",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Queuing models can be useful tools in comparing the
performance characteristics of different flow control
techniques. In this paper the window control mechanism,
incorporated in protocols such as X.25 is compared to
the ARPAnet buffer reservation scheme. Multiclass
queuing models are used to examine message throughput
and delay characteristics. The analysis highlights the
interaction of long and short message (in terms of
length in packets) transmitters under the two flow
control techniques.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{King:1982:MCR,
author =       "P. J. B. King and I. Mitrani",
title =        "Modelling the {Cambridge Ring}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "250--258",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1035293.1035330",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:59:37 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Models for the local area computer network known as
the Cambridge Ring are developed and evaluated. Two
different levels of protocol are considered: the
hardware and the Basic Block. These require different
approaches and, in the second case, an approximate
solution method. A limited comparison between the
Cambridge Ring and another ring architecture --- the
token ring --- is carried out.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Marrevee:1982:PRT,
author =       "J. Marrevee",
title =        "The power of the read track and the need for a write
track command for disk back-up and restore utilities",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "10--14",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982/1983",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041865",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:33 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Computer performance analysis, whether it be for
design, selection or improvement, has a large body of
literature to draw upon. It is surprising, however,
that few texts exist on the subject. The purpose of
this paper is to provide a feature analysis of the four
major texts suitable for professional and academic
purposes.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "computer performance evaluation; computer system
selection",
}

@Article{Perros:1982:MPR,
author =       "H. G. Perros",
title =        "A model for predicting the response time of an on-line
system for electronic fund transfer",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "15--21",
month =        "Winter",
year =         "1982/1983",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041866",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:33 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A workshop on the theory and application of analytical
models to ADP system performance prediction was held on
March 12-13, 1979, at the University of Maryland. The
final agenda of the workshop is included as an
appendix. Six sessions were conducted: (1) theoretical
advances, (2) operational analysis, (3) effectiveness
of analytical modeling techniques, (4) validation, (5)
case studies and applications, and (6) modeling tools.
A summary of each session is presented below. A list of
references is provided for more detailed information.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Augustin:1982:CCD,
author =       "Reinhard Augustin and Klaus-J{\"u}rgen B{\"u}scher",
title =        "Characteristics of the {COX}-distribution",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "22--32",
month =        dec,
year =         "1982/1983",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041867",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:33 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The concept of a working-set' of a program running in
a virtual memory environment is now so familiar that
many of us fail to realize just how little we really
know about what it is, what it means, and what can be
done to make such knowledge actually useful. This
follows, perhaps, from the abstract and apparently
intangible facade that tends to obscure the meaning of
working set. What we cannot measure often ranks high in
curiosity value, but ranks low in pragmatic utility.
Where we have measures, as in the page-seconds of
SMF/MVS, the situation becomes even more curious: here
a single number purports to tell us something about the
working set of a program, and maybe something about the
working sets of other concurrent programs, but not very
much about either. This paper describes a case in which
the concept of the elusive working set has been
encountered in practice, has been intensively analyzed,
and finally, has been confronted in its own realm. It
has been trapped, wrapped, and, at last, forced to
reveal itself for what it really is. It is not a
number! Yet it can be measured. And what it is,
together with its measures, turns out to be something
not only high in curiosity value, but also something
very useful as a means to predict the page faulting
behavior of a program running in a relatively complex
multiprogrammed environment. The information presented
here relates to experience gained during the conversion
of a discrete event simulation model to a hybrid model
which employs analytical techniques to forecast the
duration of steady-state' intervals between mix-change
events in the simulation of a network-scheduled job
stream processing on a 370/168-3AP under MVS. The
specific encounter' with the concept of working sets
came about when an analytical treatment of program
paging was incorporated into the model. As a result of
considerable luck, ingenuity, and brute-force
empiricism, the model won. Several examples of
empirically derived characteristic working set
functions, together with typical model results, are
supported with a discussion of relevant modeling
techniques and areas of application.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Perros:1984:QNB,
author =       "H. G. Perros",
title =        "Queueing networks with blocking: a bibliography",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8--12",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041823.1041824",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:34 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In recent years, queueing networks with blocking have
been studied by researchers from various research
communities such as Computer Performance Modelling,
Operations Research, and Industrial Engineering. In
view of this, related results are scattered throughout
various journals. The bibliography given below is the
result of a first attempt to compile an exhaustive list
of related papers in which analytic investigations
(exact or approximate) or numerical investigations of
queueing networks with blocking have been reported.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{DeMarco:1984:ASS,
author =       "Tom DeMarco",
title =        "An algorithm for sizing software products",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "13--22",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041823.1041825",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:34 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper reports on efforts to develop a cost
forecasting scheme based on a Function Metric called
System BANG. A Function Metric is a quantifiable
indication of system size and complexity derived
directly from a formal statement of system
requirement. Conclusions from a small sample of
projects are presented.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Fishwick:1984:PPG,
author =       "Paul A. Fishwick and Stefan Feyock",
title =        "{PROFGEN}: a procedure for generating machine
independent high-level language profilers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "27--31",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041823.1041826",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:34 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Many of the tools used in software metrics for
evaluating the execution characteristics of a program
are predicated on specific counting rules for operators
and operands [1, 2]. The analyst may use these counting
techniques to determine such program attributes as
estimation of object code size prior to actual
compilation and the relative efficiencies of various
language compilers. Operator/operand measures provide
useful results for certain analyses, but a deficiency
exists in that the data derived from this technique
does not directly reflect the program structure
afforded by a high-level language such as FORTRAN,
Pascal, or Ada. There are many instances where it is
desirable to measure the program at the source level
where the execution data may be directly associated
with specific high level program units such as source
statements and blocks.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Rajaraman:1984:PML,
author =       "M. K. Rajaraman",
title =        "Performance measures for a local network",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "34--37",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041823.1041827",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:34 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Parameters that influence the performance of a local
network consisting of three mainframes and an array
processor are identified. Performance measures are
developed for this network and their significance in
the operation and use of the network are discussed.
Some aspects of implementing such measures in a local
network are examined.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Jones:1984:PEJ,
author =       "Greg A. Jones",
title =        "Performance evaluation of a job scheduler",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "38--43",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041823.1041828",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:34 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "International Business Machines' (IBM) Job Entry
Subsystem 3 (JES 3) is the integral part of the MVS
operating system that is responsible for controlling
all jobs from their entry into the system until their
exit out of the system. JES 3 maintains total awareness
of each job while it is in the system and services the
jobs upon request. These services include: preparing
the job for execution, selecting the job for execution,
and the processing of SYSIN/SYSOUT data. This paper
reports the findings of the performance evaluation
study of JES 3 through the use of a General Purpose
Simulation System (GPSS) model of JES 3 and exhibits
the benefits of using simulation models to study
complex systems such as JES 3. Once the model was
developed, it was used to evaluate the effects of
varying the job scheduler parameters of JES 3 in the
batch job environment. The input workload and service
times for the model were derived from System Management
Facilities (SMF) and Resource Management Facilities
(RMF) data from the modeled system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Clark:1984:NCP,
author =       "Jon D. Clark and Thomas C. Richards",
title =        "A note on the cost-performance ratios of {IBM}'s
{43XX} series",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "44--45",
month =        "Spring-Summer",
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041823.1041829",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:34 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Pricing policies of computers with various performance
capabilities are usually assumed to be non-linear due
cost-performance ratios of a single IBM product line,
the 43XX series and found this performance
characteristic to be surprisingly linear but with great
deal of individual variation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "computer; cost-performance; performance evaluation",
}

@Article{Coffman:1984:RPP,
author =       "E. G. {Coffman, Jr.}",
title =        "Recent progress in the performance evaluation of
fundamental allocation algorithms",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "2--6",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809308",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Our understanding of several allocation algorithms
basic to operating systems and to data base systems has
improved substantially as a result of a number of
research efforts within the past one or two years. The
results have stirred considerable excitement in both
theorists and practitioners. This is not only because
also because of the surprising nature of the results;
in particular, we refer to proofs that certain
classical algorithms described as approximate are in
fact optimal in a strong probabilistic sense. The work
discussed here will be classified according to the
application areas, archival and dynamic storage
allocation. In both cases we are concerned with the
packing problems that arise in making efficient use of
storage. Equivalents of the archival problems also have
importance in scheduling applications [4]; however, we
shall focus exclusively on the storage allocation
setting.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ferrari:1984:FAW,
author =       "Domenico Ferrari",
title =        "On the foundations of artificial workload design",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "8--14",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809309",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The principles on which artificial workload model
design is currently based are reviewed. Design methods
are found wanting for three main reasons: their
resource orientation, with the selection of resources
often unrelated to the performance impact of resource
demands; their avoiding to define an accuracy criterion
for the resulting workload model; and their ignoring
the dynamics of the workload to be modeled. An attempt
at establishing conceptual foundations for the design
of interactive artificial workloads is described. The
problems found in current design methods are taken into
account, and sufficient conditions for the
applicability of these methods are determined. The
study also provides guidance for some of the decisions
current methods.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Perez-Davila:1984:PIF,
author =       "Alfredo de J. Perez-Davila and Lawrence W. Dowdy",
title =        "Parameter interdependencies of file placement models
in a {Unix} system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "15--26",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809310",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A file assignment case study of a computer system
running Unix is presented. A queueing network model of
the system is constructed and validated. A modeling
technique for the movement of files between and within
disks is proposed. A detailed queueing network model is
constructed for several file distributions in secondary
storage. The interdependencies between the speed of the
CPU, the swapping activity, the visit ratios and the
multiprogramming level are examined and included in the
modeling technique. The models predict the performance
of several possible file assignments. The various file
assignments are implemented and comparisons between the
predicted and actual performance are made. The models
are shown to accurately predict user response time.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bunt:1984:MPL,
author =       "Richard B. Bunt and Jennifer M. Murphy and Shikharesh
Majumdar",
title =        "A measure of program locality and its application",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "28--40",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809311",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Although the phenomenon of locality has long been
recognized as the single most important characteristic
of program behaviour, relatively little work has been
done in attempting to measure it. Recent work has led
to the development of an intrinsic measure of program
locality based on the Bradford--Zipf distribution.
Potential applications for such a measure are many, and
include the evaluation of program restructuring methods
(manual and automatic), the prediction of system
performance, the validation of program behaviour
models, and the enhanced understanding of the phenomena
that characterize program behaviour. A consideration of
each of these areas is given in connection with the
proposed measure, both to increase confidence in the
validity of the measure and to illustrate a methodology
for dealing with such problems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Krzesinski:1984:ILM,
author =       "A. Krzesinski and J. Greyling",
title =        "Improved lineariser methods for queueing networks with
queue dependent centres",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "41--51",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809312",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The Lineariser is an MVA-based technique developed for
the approximate solution of large multiclass product
form queueing networks. The Lineariser is capable of
computing accurate solutions for networks of fixed rate
centres. However, problems arise when the Lineariser is
applied to networks containing centres with queue
dependent service rates. Thus networks exist which seem
well suited (a large number of lightly loaded centres,
large numbers of customers in each closed chain) for
Lineariser solution but whose queue dependent centres
cannot be solved accurately by the Lineariser method.
Examples have also been found where the Lineariser
computes accurate values for the queue lengths, waiting
times and throughputs though the values computed for
the queue length distributions are totally in error.
This paper presents an Improved Lineariser which
computes accurate approximate solutions for multiclass
networks containing an arbitrary number of queue
dependent centres. The Improved Lineariser is based on
MVA results and is therefore simple to implement and
numerically well behaved. The Improved Lineariser has
storage and computation requirements of order (MN)
locations and (MNJ2) arithmetic operations where $M$ is
the number of centres, $N$ the total number of
customers and $J$ the number of closed chains. Results
from 130 randomly generated test networks are used to
compare the accuracy of the standard and Improved
Linearisers. The Improved Lineariser is consistently
more accurate (tolerance errors on all performance
measures less than 2 per cent) than the standard
Lineariser and its accuracy is insensitive to the size
of the network model. In addition, the Improved
Lineariser computes accurate solutions for networks
which cause the standard Lineariser to fail.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Approximate solutions; Error analysis; Mean value
analysis; Multiclass queueing networks; Product from
solutions",
}

@Article{Zahorjan:1984:ILD,
author =       "John Zahorjan and Edward D. Lazowska",
title =        "Incorporating load dependent servers in approximate
mean value analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "52--62",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800264.809313",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Queueing network performance modelling technology has
made tremendous strides in recent years. Two of the
most important developments in facilitating the
modelling of large and complex systems are hierarchical
modelling, in which a single load dependent server is
used as a surrogate for a subsystem, and approximate
mean value analysis, in which reliable approximate
solutions of separable models are efficiently obtained.
Unfortunately, there has been no successful marriage of
these two developments; that is, existing algorithms
for approximate mean value analysis do not accommodate

This paper presents a successful technique for
incorporating load dependent servers in approximate
mean value analysis. We consider multiple class models
in which the service rate of each load dependent server
is a function of the queue length at that server. In
other words, load dependent center $k$ delivers
service units'' at a total rate of $f_k(n_k)$ when
$n_k$ customers are present. We present extensive
experimental validation which indicates that our
algorithm contributes an average error in response
times of less than 1\% compared to the (much more
expensive) exact solution.\par

In addition to the practical value of our algorithm,
several of the techniques that it employs are of
independent interest.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Agrawal:1984:RTP,
author =       "Subhash C. Agrawal and Jeffrey P. Buzen and Annie W.
Shum",
title =        "{Response Time Preservation}: {A} general technique
for developing approximate algorithms for queueing
networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "63--77",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809314",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Response Time Preservation (RTP) is introduced as a
general technique for developing approximate analysis
procedures for queueing networks. The underlying idea
is to replace a subsystem by an equivalent server whose
response time in isolation equals that of the entire
subsystem in isolation. The RTP based approximations,
which belong to the class of decomposition
approximations, can be viewed as a dual of the Norton's
Theorem approach for solving queueing networks since it
matches response times rather than throughputs. The
generality of the RTP technique is illustrated by
developing solution procedures for several important
queueing systems which violate product form
assumptions. Examples include FCFS servers with general
service times, FCFS servers with different service
times for multiple classes, priority scheduling, and
distributed systems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Mussi:1984:EPE,
author =       "Ph. Mussi and Ph. Nain",
title =        "Evaluation of parallel execution of program tree
structures",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "78--87",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809315",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We define and evaluate two policies (NA-policy,
A-policy) for parallel execution of program tree
structures. Via a probabilistic model we analytically
determine, for each policy, the Laplace--Stieltjes
transform for the tree processing time distribution.
The acceleration of the program execution time achieved
when adding processors to a single processor
environment, is computed and plotted for each policy.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sanguinetti:1984:POP,
author =       "John Sanguinetti",
title =        "Program optimization for a pipelined machine a case
study",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "88--95",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800264.809316",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The Amdahl 580 processor is a pipelined processor
whose performance can be affected by characteristics of
the instructions it executes. This paper describes
certain optimizations made to a set of system software
routines during their development. The optimization
effort was driven by the execution frequencies of
common paths through the programs in question, and by
the execution characteristics of those paths, as shown
by a processor simulator. Path optimization itself was
done with both general program optimization techniques
and with techniques specific to the particular
characteristics of the 580's pipeline. Overall, the
average execution time for these routines was reduced
by over 50\%.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Turner:1984:PDB,
author =       "Rollins Turner and Jeffrey Schriesheim and Indrajit
Mitra",
title =        "Performance of a {DECnet} based disk block server",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "96--104",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809317",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This report describes an experimental disk block
server implemented for the RSX-11M Operating System
using DECnet. The block server allows user programs on
one system to access files on a disk physically located
on a different system. The actual interface is at the
level of physical blocks and IO transfers. Results of
basic performance measurements are given, and explained
in terms of major components. Performance predictions
are made for servers of this type supporting more
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Stavenow:1984:TDC,
author =       "Bengt Stavenow",
title =        "Throughput-delay characteristics and stability
considerations of the access channel in a mobile
telephone system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "105--112",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809318",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper a performance study of the access
channel in a cellular mobile telephone system /1/ is
presented. The method used in the Cellular System for
multiplexing the population of mobile terminals over
the access channel is a hybrid between the methods
known as CSMA/CD and BTMA. In the paper we extend an
analysis of CSMA/CD to accommodate the function of the
particular random multiaccess protocol. Results are
shown which illustrate the equilibrium channel
performance and the approximate
estimate of the average message delay is given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Williams:1984:PQD,
author =       "Elizabeth Williams",
title =        "Processor queueing disciplines in distributed
systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "113--119",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809319",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A distributed program consists of processes, many of
which can execute concurrently on different processors
in a distributed system of processors. When several
processes from the same or different distributed
programs have been assigned to a processor in a
distributed system, the processor must select the next
process to run. The following two questions are
investigated: What is an appropriate method for
selecting the next process to run? Under what
conditions are substantial gains in performance
achieved by an appropriate method of selection?
Standard processor queueing disciplines, such as
first-come-first-serve and round-robin-fixed-quantum,
are studied. The results for four classes of queueing
disciplines tested on three problems are presented.
These problems were run on a testbed, consisting of a
compiler and simulator used to run distributed programs
on user-specified architectures.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Stephens:1984:CBH,
author =       "Lindsey E. Stephens and Lawrence W. Dowdy",
title =        "Convolutional bound hierarchies",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "120--133",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809320",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The time required to find the exact solution of a
product-form queueing network model of a computer
system can be high. Faster and cheaper methods of
solution, such as approximations, are natural
alternatives. However, the errors incurred when using
an approximation technique should be bounded. Several
recent techniques have been developed which provide
solution bounds. These bounding techniques have the
extra computational effort is expended. Thus, a smooth
tradeoff of cost and accuracy is available. These
techniques are based upon mean value analysis. In this
paper a new bounding technique based upon the
convolution algorithm is presented. It provides a
continuous range of cost versus accuracy tradeoffs for
both upper and lower bounds. The bounds produced by the
technique converge to the exact solution as the
computational effort approaches that of convolution.
Also, the technique may be used to improve any existing
set of bounds.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Suri:1984:NBB,
author =       "Rajan Suri and Gregory W. Diehl",
title =        "A new building block' for performance evaluation of
queueing networks with finite buffers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "134--142",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809321",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We propose a new building block', for analyzing
queueing networks. This is a model of a server with a
variable buffer-size. Such a model enables efficient
analysis of certain queueing networks with blocking due
to limited buffer spaces, since it uses only
product-form submodels. The technique is extensively
tested, and found to be reasonably accurate over a wide
range of parameters. Several examples are given,
illustrating practical situations for which our model
would prove to be a useful performance analysis tool,
specially since it is simple to understand, and easy to
implement using standard software for closed queueing
networks.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "Approximate analysis; Blocking; Performance modelling;
Performance prediction; Product form networks; Queueing
networks",
}

@Article{Lavenberg:1984:SAE,
author =       "Stephen S. Lavenberg",
title =        "A simple analysis of exclusive and shared lock
contention in a database system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "143--148",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809322",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We consider a probabilistic model of locking in a
database system in which an arriving transaction is
blocked and lost when its lock requests conflict with
the locks held by currently executing transactions.
Both exclusive and shared locks are considered. We
derive a simple asymptotic expression for the
probability of blocking which is exact to order $1/N$
where $N$ is the number of lockable items in the
database. This expression reduces to one recently
derived by Mitra and Weinberger for the special case
where all locks are exclusive.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Becker:1984:MMS,
author =       "S. T. Becker and K. M. Rege and B. Sengupta",
title =        "A modeling methodology for sizing a computer based
system in a netted environment",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "149--157",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809323",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper describes a hybrid model, combining both
analytical and simulation techniques, which was
developed to study the performance of a netted computer
based system. The computer based system that was
modeled is the Facility Assignment and Control System
(FACS). This system is presently being deployed within
several Bell Operating Companies to inventory and
assign central office and outside plant facilities. A
key feature of the model is its ability to characterize
the dynamic nature of FACS. An understanding of this
dynamic nature is necessary in establishing important
operational guidelines such as allowable CPU
utilization, levels of multiprogramming and priority of
transaction processing. In addition, the model allows
the user to investigate the sensitivity of the system
to a wide range of conditions. Typical study items
could include the effect of various load scenarios,
ability of the system to meet performance objectives,
and different hardware configurations. As part of this
paper, both the practical aspects of modeling a netted
computer based system and the theoretical development
of the hybrid model are considered.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Peachey:1984:EIS,
author =       "Darwyn R. Peachey and Richard B. Bunt and Carey L.
Williamson and Tim B. Brecht",
title =        "An experimental investigation of scheduling strategies
for {UNIX}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "158--166",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809324",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The scheduler used in an operating system is an
important factor in the performance of the system under
heavy load. This paper describes the scheduling
philosophy employed in the UNIX operating system and
outlines the standard scheduling strategies. Modified
strategies which address deficiencies in the standard
strategies are described. The effectiveness of these
modified strategies is assessed by means of performance
experiments.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Menasce:1984:PEI,
author =       "Daniel A. Menasc{\'e} and Leonardo Lellis P. Leite",
title =        "Performance evaluation of isolated and interconnected
token bus local area networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "167--175",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809325",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The token bus based local area network, REDPUC,
designed and implemented at the Pont{\'\i}ficia
Universidade Cat{\'o}lica do Rio de Janeiro is briefly
described. Analytic models are presented, which allow
one to obtain an approximation for the average packet
delay, as well as exact upper and lower bounds for the
same performance measure. A performance evaluation of
interconnected local networks is also given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Agrawal:1984:UAS,
author =       "Subhash C. Agrawal and Jeffrey P. Buzen and Ashok K.
Thareja",
title =        "A Unified Approach to Scan Time Analysis of Token
Rings and Polling Networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "176--185",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809326",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Token rings and multipoint polled lines are two widely
used network interconnection techniques. The general
concept of cyclic allocation processes is defined and
used to characterize token passing and polling in these
networks. Scan time, the time to poll all nodes at
least once, is an important quantity in the response
time analysis of such networks. We derive expressions
for the mean and variance of scan times using a direct,
operational approach. Resulting expressions are general
and are applicable to both exhaustive and
non-exhaustive service. The effect of higher level
protocols is easily incorporated in the analysis via
calculations of constituent quantities. The expression
for mean scan time is exact and depends only on the
means of message transmission times and arrival rates.
The approximate analysis of variance takes into account
the correlation between message transmissions at
different nodes. Expected level of accuracy is
indicated by an example.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Brandwajn:1984:EAM,
author =       "Alexandre Brandwajn and William M. McCormack",
title =        "Efficient approximation for models of multiprogramming
with shared domains",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "186--194",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809327",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Queueing network models of multiprogramming systems
with memory constraints and multiple classes of jobs
are important in representing large commercial computer
systems. Typically, an exact analytical solution of
such models is unavailable, and, given the size of
their state space, the solution of models of this type
is approached through simulation and/or approximation
techniques. Recently, a computationally efficient
iterative technique has been proposed by Brandwajn,
Lazowska and Zahorjan for models of systems in which
each job is subject to a separate memory constraint,
i.e., has its own memory domain. In some important
applications, it is not unusual, however, to have
several jobs of different classes share a single memory
domain'' (e.g., IBM's Information Management System).
We present a simple approximate solution to the shared
domain problem. The approach is inspired by the
recently proposed technique which is complemented by a
few approximations to preserve the conceptual
simplicity and computational efficiency of this
technique. The accuracy of the results is generally in
fair agreement with simulation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bondi:1984:RTP,
author =       "Andr{\'e} B. Bondi and Jeffrey P. Buzen",
title =        "The response times of priority classes under
preemptive resume in {M/G/m} queues",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "195--201",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/800264.809328",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Approximations are given for the mean response times
of each priority level in a multiple-class multiserver
M/G/m queue operating under preemptive resume
scheduling. The results have been tested against
simulations of systems with two and three priority
classes and different numbers of servers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Thomasian:1984:AQN,
author =       "Alexander Thomasian and Paul Bay",
title =        "Analysis of {Queueing Network Models} with population
size constraints and delayed blocked customers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "202--216",
month =        aug,
year =         "1984",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1031382.809329",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:00:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Queueing Network Models --- QNM's with population size
constraints and delayed blocked customers occur due to
MultiProgramming Level --- MPL constraints in computer
systems and window flow-control mechanisms in Computer
Communication Networks --- CCN's. The computational
cost of existing algorithms is unacceptable for large
numbers of chains and high population sizes. A fast
approximate solution technique based on load
concealment is presented to solve such QNM's. The
solution procedure is non-iterative in the case of
fixed rate Poisson arrivals, while iteration is
required in the case of quasi-random arrivals. Each
iteration requires the solution of a single chain
network of queues comprised of stations visited by each
chain. We then present an algorithm to detect saturated
chains and determine their maximum throughput. A fast
solution algorithm due to Reiser for closed chains is
also extended to the case of quasi-random arrivals. The
accuracy of the proposed solution techniques is
compared to previous techniques by applying it to a
test case, reported in the literature, and a set of
randomly generated examples.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gaffney:1984:IEP,
author =       "John E. Gaffney",
title =        "Instruction entropy, a possible measure of
program\slash architecture compatibility",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "13--18",
year =         "1984/1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041865",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Computer performance analysis, whether it be for
design, selection or improvement, has a large body of
literature to draw upon. It is surprising, however,
that few texts exist on the subject. The purpose of
this paper is to provide a feature analysis of the four
major texts suitable for professional and academic
purposes.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "computer performance evaluation; computer system
selection",
}

@Article{Sauer:1984:NSS,
author =       "Charles H. Sauer",
title =        "Numerical solution of some multiple chain queueing
networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "19--28",
month =        dec,
year =         "1984/1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041866",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A workshop on the theory and application of analytical
models to ADP system performance prediction was held on
March 12-13, 1979, at the University of Maryland. The
final agenda of the workshop is included as an
appendix. Six sessions were conducted: (1) theoretical
advances, (2) operational analysis, (3) effectiveness
of analytical modeling techniques, (4) validation, (5)
case studies and applications, and (6) modeling tools.
A summary of each session is presented below. A list of
references is provided for more detailed information.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Thomasian:1984:SCS,
author =       "Alexander Thomasian and Kameshwar Gargeya",
title =        "Speeding up computer system simulations using
hierarchical modeling",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "34--39",
month =        dec,
year =         "1984/1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041867",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The concept of a working-set' of a program running in
a virtual memory environment is now so familiar that
many of us fail to realize just how little we really
know about what it is, what it means, and what can be
done to make such knowledge actually useful. This
follows, perhaps, from the abstract and apparently
intangible facade that tends to obscure the meaning of
working set. What we cannot measure often ranks high in
curiosity value, but ranks low in pragmatic utility.
Where we have measures, as in the page-seconds of
SMF/MVS, the situation becomes even more curious: here
a single number purports to tell us something about the
working set of a program, and maybe something about the
working sets of other concurrent programs, but not very
much about either. This paper describes a case in which
the concept of the elusive working set has been
encountered in practice, has been intensively analyzed,
and finally, has been confronted in its own realm. It
has been trapped, wrapped, and, at last, forced to
reveal itself for what it really is. It is not a
number! Yet it can be measured. And what it is,
together with its measures, turns out to be something
not only high in curiosity value, but also something
very useful as a means to predict the page faulting
behavior of a program running in a relatively complex
multiprogrammed environment. The information presented
here relates to experience gained during the conversion
of a discrete event simulation model to a hybrid model
which employs analytical techniques to forecast the
duration of steady-state' intervals between mix-change
events in the simulation of a network-scheduled job
stream processing on a 370/168-3AP under MVS. The
specific encounter' with the concept of working sets
came about when an analytical treatment of program
paging was incorporated into the model. As a result of
considerable luck, ingenuity, and brute-force
empiricism, the model won. Several examples of
empirically derived characteristic working set
functions, together with typical model results, are
supported with a discussion of relevant modeling
techniques and areas of application.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Elshoff:1984:PMP,
author =       "James L. Elshoff",
title =        "The {PEEK} measurement program",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "40--53",
month =        "Winter",
year =         "1984/1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041868",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper discussed the problems encountered and
techniques used in conducting the performance
evaluation of a multi-processor on-line manpower data
collection system. The two main problems were: (1) a
total lack of available software tools, and (2) many
commonly used hardware monitor measures (e.g., CPU
busy, disk seek in progress) were either meaningless or
not available. The main technique used to circumvent
these problems was detailed analysis of one-word
resolution memory maps. Some additional data collection
techniques were (1) time-stamped channel measurements
used to derive some system component utilization
characteristics and (2) manual stopwatch timings used
to identify the system's terminal response times.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hac:1984:STM,
author =       "Anna H{\'a}c",
title =        "A survey of techniques for the modeling of
serialization delays in computer systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "54--56",
month =        dec,
year =         "1984/1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041864.1041869",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:43 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The current status of an implementation of a
methodology relating load, capacity and service for IBM
MVS computer systems is presented. This methodology
encompasses systems whose workloads include batch, time
sharing and transaction processing. The implementation
and analysis, automatic benchmarking, and exhaust point
forecasting.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Mosleh:1985:BPR,
author =       "Ali Mosleh and E. Richard Hilton and Peter S.
Browne",
title =        "{Bayesian} probabilistic risk analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "1",
pages =        "5--12",
month =        jun,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041838.1041839",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:44 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "As modern business and financial institutions have
come to rely more and more on large scale computers for
management support, the magnitude of the risks and
their potential consequences has increased
correspondingly. In addition, large systems involving
multiprocessing, resource sharing, and distributed
processing have given rise to a new generation of risks
due to the increased vulnerabilities of such large
scale systems and the potential for fraudulent or
malicious misuse of their resources. Somehow, these
risks must be managed since either deliberate or
accidental impairment of these large scale systems can
have serious consequences for the business. That is,
threats must be identified, and the likelihood of their
occurrences and the elements of the system vulnerable
to each of these threats must be established. Any
program for risk management must begin with a risk
analysis to compare the vulnerabilities in order to
pinpoint and rank the system's weaknesses and to
provide a guide for the cost-effective, systematic
reduction of the probability of the system's being
subverted or otherwise impaired.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gong:1985:CMB,
author =       "Huisheng Gong and Monika Schmidt",
title =        "A complexity measure based on selection and nesting",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "1",
pages =        "14--19",
month =        jun,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041838.1041840",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:44 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Many concepts concerning the quantification of program
complexity have been developed during the last few
years. One of the most accepted and easy-to-apply
complexity measures, McCabe's cyclomatic number, has
been discussed and improved in several studies. The
cyclomatic number only considers the decision structure
of a program. Therefore, this paper proposes a new
method for calculating program complexity, the concept
of postdomination. This takes into account the degree
of nesting of a program. Combining this method and the
cyclomatic number, a new complexity measure will be
defined.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "cyclomatic number; degree of nesting; forward
dominance; program complexity",
}

@Article{Knudson:1985:PMS,
author =       "Michael E. Knudson",
title =        "A performance measurement and system evaluation
project plan proposal",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "1",
pages =        "20--31",
month =        jun,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041838.1041841",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:44 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This document is an outline for a performance
measurement and evaluation effort. Performance
measurements consist of producing data showing
frequency and execution times for components of
computer systems. Components implies: (1) hardware, (2)
ucode, (3) macrocode, (4) applications software,
(5)systems (e.g., utilities in an operating-system
environment). Evaluation can be broken down into
several areas. Principle areas of interest are
comparative performance evaluation and an analysis of a
system's structure/behavior. Comparative evaluation
consists of: relative performance measurements of
different machines; a summary of collected data; and an
analysis of a system's structure, including the
production of data describing the interrelationship of
system components. This data may be narrative, but the
preferred technique is a graphical presentation showing
component relationships.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ejiogu:1985:SMS,
author =       "Lem O. Ejiogu",
title =        "A simple measure of software complexity",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "1",
pages =        "33--47",
month =        jun,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041838.1041842",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:44 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Every science mast have its own method of
investigation built on a sound foundation that is
empirical, justifiable and verifiable. Software
metrics, too, can benefit from this principle. A
complex aggregate of tools, ideas, methodologies,
programming languages, and varieties of applications go
into the development, design, manufacture and
maintenance of software. The combinations impose
another level of complexity on software.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Eager:1985:CRI,
author =       "Derek L. Eager and Edward D. Lazowska and John
Zahorjan",
title =        "A comparison of receiver-initiated and
abstract)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "1--3",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317802",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "One goal of locally distributed systems is to
facilitate resource sharing. Most current locally
distributed systems, however, share primarily data,
data storage devices, and output devices; there is
little sharing of computational resources. Load sharing
is the process of sharing computational resources by
transparently distributing the system workload. System
performance can be improved by transferring work from
nodes that are heavily loaded to nodes that are lightly
the average behavior of the system; transfer decisions
are independent of the actual current system state.
Static policies may be either deterministic (e.g.,
transfer all compilations originating at node $A$ to
server $B$'') or probabilistic (e.g., transfer half
of the compilations originating at node $A$ to server
$B$, and process the other half locally''). Numerous
static load sharing policies have been proposed. Early
studies considered deterministic rules [Stone 1977,
1978; Bokhari 1979]. More recently, Tantawi and Towsley
[1985] have developed a technique to find optimal
probabilistic rules. The principal advantage of static
policies is their simplicity: there is no need to
maintain and process system state information. Adaptive
policies, by contrast, are more complex, since they
employ information on the current system state in
making transfer decisions. This information makes
possible significantly greater performance benefits
than can be achieved under static policies. This
potential was clearly indicated by Livny and Melman
[1982], who showed that in a network of homogeneous,
autonomous nodes there is a high probability that at
least one node is idle while tasks are queued at some
other node, over a wide range of network sizes and
average node utilizations. In previous work [Eager,
Lazowska \& Zahorjan 1984] we considered the
sharing policies. (For example, how much system state
information should be collected, and how should it be
used in making transfer decisions?) Rather than
advocating specific policies, we considered fairly
abstract strategies exhibiting various levels of
complexity. We demonstrated that the potential of
simple strategies that the use only small amounts of
system state information. This result is important
because of a number of practical concerns regarding
complex policies: the effect of the overhead required
to administer a complex policy, the effect of the
inevitable inaccuracies in detailed information about
system state and workload characteristics, and the
potential for instability. (We consciously use the
phrase load sharing'' rather than the more common
load balancing'' to highlight the fact that load
balancing, with its implication of attempting to
equalize queue lengths system-wide, is not an
can employ either centralized or distributed control.
Distributed control strategies can be of two basic
types (although intermediate strategies also are
conceivable): sender-initiated (in which congested
nodes search for lightly loaded nodes to which work may
be transferred), and receiver-initiated (in which
lightly loaded nodes search for congested nodes from
which work may be transferred). Our earlier paper
considered distributed, sender-initiated policies --- a
sufficiently rich class to allow us to answer the
fundamental questions of policy complexity that we were
addressing. In the course of understanding the reasons
for the degradation of these policies at high system
policies as a possible alternative. The comparison of
sharing is the purpose of the present paper. There have
been several experimental studies, using prototypes and
simulation models, of specific (typically fairly
Finkel 1981; Livny \& Melman 1982; Kreuger \& Finkel
1984; Barak \& Shiloh 1984]. Both sender-initiated
policies and receiver-initiated policies have been
considered. However, there has not previously been a
rigorous comparison of these two strategies. Such a
comparison is made difficult by the problem of choosing
appropriate representative policies of each type, and
by the potentially quite different costs incurred in
typically will require the transfer of executing tasks,
which incurs substantial costs in most systems [Powell
\& Miller 1983]. Sender-initiated policies naturally
avoid such costly transfers, since tasks can be
transferred upon arrival, prior to beginning
execution.) Our present paper is similar to our
previous work in that our purpose, rather than to
question concerning policies in general: How should
system state information be collected and load sharing
actions initiated --- by potential receivers of work,
or by potential senders of work? In studying this
question we consider a set of abstract policies that
represent only the essential aspects of
strategies. These policies are investigated using
simple analytic models. Our objective is not to
determine the absolute performance of particular load
sharing policies, but rather to gain intuition
regarding the relative merits of the different
approaches under consideration. We represent locally
distributed systems as collections of identical nodes,
each consisting of a single processor. The nodes are
connected by a local area network (e.g., an Ethernet).
All nodes are subjected to the same average arrival
rate of tasks, which are of a single type. In contrast
to most previous papers on load sharing, we represent
the cost of task transfer as a processor cost rather
than as a communication network cost. It is clear from
measurement and analysis [Lazowska et al. 1984] that
the processor costs of packaging data for transmission
and unpackaging it upon reception far outweigh the
communication network costs of transmitting the data.
We study three abstract load sharing policies,
comparing their performance to each other and to that
of a system in which there is no load sharing. The
Sender policy is used a representative of
and Reservation policies are used as representatives of
Receiver policy, the Reservation policy will transfer
only newly arriving tasks. In a bit more detail: Sender
In our earlier work concerning the appropriate level of
identified two sub-policies of sender-initiated
strategies. The transfer policy determines whether a
task should be processed locally or remotely. The
location policy determines to which node a task
selected for transfer should be sent. In that previous
study, we considered threshold transfer policies, in
which each node uses only local state information. An
service or waiting for service (the node queue length)
is greater than or equal to some threshold T. We
considered various location policies spanning a range
of complexity. We found that the use of a complex
location policy yields only slight improvement over the
use of a simple location policy that, like the transfer
policy, uses threshold information. In this threshold
location policy, a node is selected at random and
probed to determine whether the transfer of a task to
that node would place the node above the threshold T.
If not, then the task is transferred. If so, then
another node is selected at random and probed in the
same manner. This continues until either a suitable
destination node is found, or the number of probes
reaches a static probe limit, Lp. In the latter case,
the originating node must process the task. (The use of
probing with a fixed limit, rather than broadcast,
ensures that the cost of executing the load sharing
policy will not be prohibitive even in large networks.
The performance of this policy was found to be
surprisingly insensitive to the choice of probe limit:
the performance with a small probe limit, e.g., 3 or 5,
is nearly as good as the performance with a large probe
limit, e.g., 20.) The sender-initiated policy with a
threshold transfer policy and a threshold location
policy was found to yield performance not far from
optimal, particularly at light to moderate system
loads. For this reason, and because of its simplicity,
we choose this policy to serve as the representative of
sender-initiated strategies for the comparison that is
the subject of the present paper, and term it here the
Sender policy. Receiver To facilitate comparison
between sender-initiated strategies and
of the latter class should be as similar as possible to
the Sender policy. In particular, it should utilize
threshold-type state information, and have a bound Lp
on the number of remote nodes whose state can be
examined when making a task transfer decision. In the
has completed processing if there are less than $T$
tasks remaining at the node. A remote node is selected
at random and probed to determine whether the transfer
of a task from that node would place its queue length
below the threshold value T. If not, and if the node is
task is transferred to the node initiating the probe.
Otherwise, another node is selected at random and
probed in the same manner. This continues until either
a node is found from which a task can be obtained, or
the number of probes reaches a static probe limit, Lp.
In the latter case, the node must wait until another
task departs before possibly attempting again to
initiate a transfer. (This is completely analogous to
the operation of the Sender policy, in which a node
that fails to find a suitable destination to which to
before attempting again to initiate a transfer.) The
Receiver policy with T=1 has been studied using a
simulation model by Livny and Melman [1982], who term
it the poll when idle algorithm''. Reservation The
Reservation policy, like the Sender policy but in
contrast to the Receiver policy, will only transfer
multiprogramming systems in which nodes attempt to give
each of the tasks present some share of the total
available processing power. If the Receiver policy is
used in such a system, almost all task transfers will
involve executing tasks, and may be substantially more
costly than transfers of non-executing tasks. In the
Reservation policy, as in the Receiver policy, a node
attempts to replace a task that has completed
processing if there are less than $T$ tasks remaining
at the node. A remote node is selected at random and
probed to determine whether the transfer of the next
task to originate at that node would place its queue
length below the threshold value T. If not, and if no
other reservation'' is pending for this node, then
this next arrival is reserved'' by the probing node;
it is transferred upon arrival if no other tasks have
arrived at the probing node by that time. If the
reservation attempt is not successful, another node is
selected at random and probed at the same manner. This
continues until either a node is found at which the
next arrival can be reserved, or the number of probes
reaches a static probe limit, Lp. In the latter case,
the node must wait until another task departs before
possibly attempting again to reserve a task. Our
evaluation of this policy is optimistic. (Even this
optimistic evaluation predicts unsatisfactory
performance.) At the time a reservation is attempted,
we assume that the probed node can see into the
future'' to the arrival time of the (potentially)
probed node will be above threshold at that time. Also,
even when a reservation request is successful, the
probed node considers this next arrival as ineligible
for other reservation requests only if it will actually
be transferred to the node holding the reservation.
Finally, we assume that the probability that a task
will be processed locally rather than transferred,
given that it arrives when the node queue length is at
or over threshold, is independent of the prior history
of the task arrivals and departures. In fact, this
probability is higher for tasks with shorter
interarrival times. Many of the results of our study
are illustrated in the accompanying figure. While the
figure illustrates specific choices of parameter
values, the results are quite robust with respect to
these choices; a substantial part of the full paper is
devoted to demonstrating this robustness. The results
policies offer substantial performance advantages over
the situation in which no load sharing is attempted
(shown as M/M/1 in the figure). Sender-initiated
policies are preferable to receiver-initiated policies
policies are preferable at high system loads, but only
if the costs of task transfer under the two strategies
are comparable. If the cost of task transfers under
than under sender-initiated policies (for example,
because executing tasks must be transferred), then
sender-initiated policies provide uniformly better
transfer only newly-arrived tasks (so as to avoid the
cost of transferring executing tasks) yields
unsatisfactory performances.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gelernter:1985:ACP,
author =       "David Gelernter and Sunil Podar and Hussein G. Badr",
title =        "An adaptive communications protocol for network
computers (extended abstract)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "4--5",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317803",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A network computer is a collection of computers
designed to function as one machine. On a network
computer, as opposed to a multiprocessor, constituent
subcomputers are memory-disjoint and communicate only
by some form of message exchange. Ensemble
architectures like multiprocessors and network
computers are of growing interest because of their
capacity to support parallel programs, where a parallel
program is one that is made up of many
simultaneously-active, communicating processes.
Parallel programs should, on an appropriate
architecture, run faster than sequential programs, and,
indeed, good speed-ups have been reported in parallel
programming experiments in several domains, amongst
which are AI, numerical problems, and system
simulation. Our interest lies in network computers,
particularly ones that range in size from several
hundred nodes to several thousand. Network computers
may be organized in either of two basic ways: their
nodes may communicate over a shared bus (or series of
buses), as in S/Net; or over point-to-point links, as
in Cosmic Cube and the Transputer Network. The work to
be presented deals with the point-to-point class, the
elements of which we shall refer to as linked
networks''. Linked networks face a fundamental
communication problem. Unless they are completely
connected (which is rarely possible), two communicating
nodes will not necessarily be connected by a single
link. Messages between nodes must therefore, in
general, travel over several links and be processed by
several intermediate nodes. Communication delays
increase with the length of the traveled path. Network
computer designers therefore provide networks the
diameters of which are small relative to their size,
and network operating systems will attempt to place
communicating processes as close to each other as
possible. We present a communication protocol for
linked networks that was designed specifically for
network computers. Staged Circuit Switching is a
communication protocol that combines aspects of
store-and-forwarding with aspects of circuit switching,
where circuit switching refers to the class of
protocols in which a communicating source and
destination first construct a dedicated path or circuit
between them, then communicate directly over this path.
The path may be a physical connection, as in
spaced-switched circuit-switching, or a series of
dedicated slots in time-division multiplexing switches,
as in time-switching protocols. The
stage-circuit-switching design is strongly related to
spaced-switched circuit-switching and encompasses both
the protocol itself and a communication architecture to
support it. In staged circuit switching, each message
constructs for itself the longest physical circuit that
it can without waiting for links. When a message is to
be sent, a header that records the message's source and
destination is sent propagating through the network
towards the destination node; the header seizes each
free link along its path and incorporates it into a
growing circuit. When it meets a busy link, or arrives
at its destination, circuit building stops, the
message's data portion is transmitted and acknowledged
over the existing circuit, and the circuit is released.
A message that has not arrived at its destination then
gathers itself together and plunges onward in the same
fashion. In an empty network then, staged circuit
switching is the same as circuit switching: each
message is transmitted over a direct circuit from
source to destination. In a heavily loaded network, it
is the same as store-and-forwarding: each next-link is
busy, each circuit is therefore only one link long, and
the message proceeds hop by hop. The protocol combines
the speed benefits of circuit switching at light
store-and-forwarding at heavy loads. We have carried
out extensive simulation studies to evaluate the
dynamics of staged circuit switching from the point of
view of message delays, throughput, circuit lengths,
efficiency, implementation, and so on. The studies were
implemented in the context of a toroidal topology of
diameter 32, yielding a 1024-node network. Uniform
source-to-destination distributions were used. Both the
topology and the source-to-destination distributions
are analyzed. An analysis of network saturation based
on mean values is also given. Staged circuit switching
unambiguously emerges as a strong protocol with
superior performance characteristics than either
classical store-and-forwarding or circuit switching,
particularly with regards to adaptability to varying
network loads and in providing a consistently high
effective network bandwidth. On the basis of our
results the protocol is proposed as a suitable
candidate for linked networks. Its attractiveness is
further enhanced by its potential ability to
continually reconfigure the network dynamically at
runtime to optimize for observed traffic patterns.
Heavily-used circuits may be left in place over longer
periods than a single message transmission. In this
way, the system constantly rearranges the network
topology in order to bring heavily-communicating
distant nodes closer together, thereby acting as a
communication cache''. A cache hit'' would
correspond to finding the desired destination node one
hop away from a given source. Effective exploitation of
this capability is the subject of ongoing research.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

author =       "Erol Gelenbe and David Finkel and Satish K.
Tripathi",
title =        "On the availability of a distributed computer system
with failing components",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "6--13",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317804",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We present a model for distributed systems with
failing components. Each node may fail and during its
recovery the load is distributed to other nodes that
are operational. The model assumes periodic
checkpointing for error recovery and testing of the
status of other nodes for the distribution of load. We
consider the availability of a node, which is the
proportion of time a node is available for processing,
as the performance measure. A methodology for
optimizing the availability of a node with respect to
the checkpointing and testing intervals is given. A
decomposition approach that uses the steady-state flow
balance condition to estimate the load at a node is
proposed. Numerical examples are presented to
demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. For the
case in which all nodes are identical, closed form
solutions are obtained.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Conway:1985:RNE,
author =       "A. E. Conway and N. D. Georganas",
title =        "{RECAL} --- a new efficient algorithm for the exact
analysis of multiple-chain closed queueing networks
(abstract)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "14--14",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317805",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "RECAL, a Recursion by Chain Algorithm for computing
the mean performance measures of product-form
multiple-chain closed queueing networks, is presented.
It is based on a new recursive expression which relates
the normalization constant of a network with $r$ closed
routing chains to those of a set of networks having
$(r-l)$ chains. It relies on the artifice of breaking
down each chain into constituent sub-chains that each
have a population of one. The time and space
requirements of the algorithm are shown to be
polynomial in the number of chains. When the network
contains many routing chains the proposed algorithm is
substantially more efficient than the convolution or
mean value analysis algorithms. The algorithm therefore
extends the range of queueing networks which can be
analyzed efficiently by exact means. A numerical
example is given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Balbo:1985:MPS,
author =       "G. Balbo and S. C. Bruell and S. Ghanta",
title =        "Modeling priority schemes",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "15--26",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317795.317806",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We develop Generalized Stochastic Petri Net models for
several priority queueing disciplines. The building
blocks of these models are explained and many variants
are easily derivable from them. We then combine these
building blocks with product-form queueing network
models. Numerical results are provided that illustrate
the effectiveness of the method.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "generalized stochastic Petri nets; head-of-the-line;
preemptive resume; priorities; product-form queueing
networks; reorientation; time-out",
}

@Article{Walstra:1985:NNQ,
author =       "Robbe J. Walstra",
title =        "Nonexponential networks of queues: a maximum entropy
analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "27--37",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317807",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We will propose a new, iterative method for
approximately analyzing closed networks of queues with
nonexponential service time distributions and FCFS
scheduling. Our method is based on the Principle of
Maximum Entropy and produces results which, first, are
consistent with the fundamental Work Rate Theorem and,
second, are exact for separable networks of queues.
Considering accuracy and execution time
characteristics, our method offers a viable alternative
to Marie's homogeneous approximation method.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Calzarossa:1985:SSC,
author =       "Maria Calzarossa and Domenico Ferrari",
title =        "A sensitivity study of the clustering approach to
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "38--39",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317795.317808",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In a paper published in 1984 [Ferr84], the validity of
applying clustering techniques to the design of an
executable model for an interactive workload was
discussed. The following assumptions, intended not to
be necessarily realistic but to provide sufficient
conditions for the applicability of clustering
be modeled is an interactive system, and its
performance can be accurately evaluated by solving a
product-form closed queueing network model. The
behavior of each interactive user can be adequately
modeled by a probabilistic graph (called a user
behavior graph); in such a graph, each node represents
an interactive command type, and the duration of a
user's stay in the node probabilistically equals the
time the user spends typing in a command of that type,
waiting for the system's response, and thinking about
what command should be input next. The interactive
model to be constructed is intended to reproduce its
global characteristics (not those of some brief excerpt
from it exhibiting peculiar dynamics), hence to be
stationary as well. It was shown in [Ferr84] that,
under these assumptions, clustering command types
having the same probabilistic resource demands does not
affect the values of the performance indices the
evaluators are usually interested in, provided the
visit ratio to each node in the reduced (i.e.,
post-clustering) user behavior graph is equal to the
sum of the visit ratios the cluster's components had in
the original graph. Since the reduction we have just
described is equivalent to replacing each cluster with
one or more representatives of its components, and
since this is also the goal of applying clustering
techniques to the construction of executable workload
models substantially more compact than the original
workload to be modeled, this result shows that such
techniques are valid (i.e., produce accurate models)
when the assumptions and the conditions mentioned above
are satisfied. One condition which in practice is never
satisfied, however, is that the clustered commands are
characterized by exactly the same resource demands. In
fact, clustering algorithms are non-trivial just
because they have to recognize nearness'' among
commands with different characteristics, and group
those and only those commands whose resource demands
are sufficiently similar (where the notion of
similarity is to be defined by introducing that of
distance between two commands). Thus, the question of
the sensitivity of a workload model's accuracy to the
inevitable dispersion of the characteristics of a
cluster's components immediately arises. We know that,
if an adequate product-form model of an interactive
system can be built, if the users' behaviors can be
accurately modeled by probabilistic graphs, and if the
workload and the model of it to be constructed are
stationary, then a workload model in which all commands
with identical characteristics are grouped together and
modeled by a single representative is an accurate model
of the given workload (i.e., the model produces the
same values of the performance indices of interest as
the modeled workload when it is processed by a given
system). This is true, of course, provided the visit
ratios of the workload model's components equal the
sums of those of the corresponding workload components.
If we now apply a clustering algorithm to the given
workload, thereby obtaining clusters of similar, but
not identical, commands, and we build a workload model
by assembling cluster representatives (usually one per
cluster, for instance with demands corresponding to
those of the cluster's center of mass), by how much
will the values of the performance indices produced by
the workload model running on the given system differ
from those produced by the workload to be modeled? As
with several other problems, this could be attacked by
a mathematical approach or by an experimental one.
While a successful mathematical analysis of the
sensitivity of the major indices to the dispersion in
the resource demands of the commands being clustered
together would provide more general results, it would
also be likely to require the introduction of
simplifying assumptions (for example, having to do with
the distributions of the resource demands in a cluster
around its center of mass) whose validity would be
neither self-evident nor easy to verify experimentally.
On the other hand, an experimental approach achieves
results which, strictly speaking, are only applicable
to the cases considered in the experiments.
Extrapolations to other systems, other workloads, other
environments usually require faith, along with
experience, common sense, and familiarity with real
systems and workloads. This inherent lack of generality
is somehow counterbalanced, however, by the higher
degree of realism that is achievable with an
experimental investigation. In particular, when in a
study the properties of workloads are to play a crucial
role (there are very few studies indeed in which this
is not the case!), using a mathematical approach is
bound to raise about such properties questions that are
either very difficult or impossible to answer.
Primarily for this reason, and knowing very well the
limitations in the applicability of the results we
would obtain, we decided to adopt an experimental
approach. Since the question we were confronted with
justified by the exploratory nature of the study. If
the resulting sensitivity were to turn out to be high,
we could conclude that not even under the above
assumptions can clustering techniques be trusted to
provide reasonable accuracy in all cases and hence
should not be used, or used with caution in those cases
(if they exist) in which their accuracy might be accept
able. If, on the other hand, the sensitivity were low,
then we could say that, in at least one practical case,
clustering techniques would have been shown to work
adequately (of course, under all the other assumptions
listed above). The rationale of this investigation
might be questioned by asking why it would not be more
convenient to test the validity of clustering
techniques directly, that is, by comparing the
performance indices produced by a real workload to
those produced by an executable model (artificial
workload) built according to a clustering technique.
Our answer is that, in this study as well as in
[Ferr84], we are more interested in understanding the
limitations and the implications of clustering and
other workload model design methods than in evaluating
the accuracy of clustering in a particular case. In
other words, we are not so much keen on finding out
whether the errors due to clustering are of the order
of 10\% or of 80\%, but we want to be able to
understand why they are only 10\% or as large as 80\%,
respectively. Thus, we need to decompose the total
error into the contributions to it of the various
discrepancies that any real situation exhibits with
respect to the ideal one. This paper describes a study
primarily performed to assess the magnitude of one such
contribution, that of the dispersion of the resource
demands of clustered commands. An experimental
approach, in the ease being considered here, requires
first of all that a workload for the experiment be
selected. Then, that workload is to be measured, in
order to obtain the values of the parameters defined by
the desired characterization. Next, an executable
workload model is to be built by applying a clustering
technique to the real workload selected. Then, the
workload and its model are to be run on the same
system, so that the model's accuracy can be evaluated
by comparing the performance indices produced by them.
As our study is to try to isolate the sensitivity of
that accuracy to the differences in demands among the
commands that have been grouped into the same cluster,
these differences must be made the only source of
inaccuracies in the performance produced by the model.
To isolate this contribution to the error from all of
the others, the latter sources should be eliminated.
Finally, the experiment is to be carried out, and its
results interpreted. The results show that, on the
whole, the clustering method for workload model design
is reasonably accurate in the context of the case
examined in our study. The sensitivities we found were
reasonably low. Thus, we can state that, in at least
one practical case and under the assumptions discussed
in this paper, clustering techniques for executable
workload model design have been shown to work well.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Raghavan:1985:CIU,
author =       "S. V. Raghavan and R. Kalyanakrishnan",
title =        "On the classification of interactive user behaviour
indices",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "40--48",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317795.317809",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The concepts of user behaviour entropy and user
behaviour mobility are proposed as indices for the
description of user behaviour. The user behaviour
indices are derivable from the mode probability vector
and the mode transition matrix which adequately
describe the behaviour dynamics of an interactive user.
The user behaviour indices reduce the ((n*n)+n)
dimensional parameter space to two dimensions only for
classification, without loss of information related to
the user behaviour dynamics. The classification of the
users in an interactive educational environment using
the user behaviour indices is presented as a case
study.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Verkamo:1985:ERL,
author =       "A. Inkeri Verkamo",
title =        "Empirical results on locality in database
referencing",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "49--58",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317795.317810",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Database referencing behaviour is analyzed with
respect to locality features. The analysis is based on
database reference strings collected from several runs
of typical batch programs accessing a real database.
Locality of reference is measured by the stack distance
probability distribution, the number of block faults,
and a locality measure based on the memory reservation
size. In all the experiments, locality of reference is
observed, but it is found to be weaker than in code
referencing or even in some previous studies on
database referencing. The phase/transition concept used
in virtual memory systems is not well applicable to
database referencing, since a large part of the
locality set is constantly changing. The disruption of
the phases is predominantly due to random referencing
of data blocks. The references to index blocks show
stronger locality. In some special cases, sequentiality
is observed in the use of the data blocks. In general,
neither replacement strategies developed for virtual
memory systems nor prefetching techniques seem adequate
for performance improvement of database referencing.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Khelalfa:1985:DCS,
author =       "Halin M. Khelalfa and Anneliese K. von Mayrhauser",
title =        "Degradable computer systems with dependent
subsystems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "59--68",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317811",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "When building a model for degradable computer systems,
it is not sufficient to merely quantify reliability and
performance measures. These indices must be
mathematically sound if they are to be used to design
such systems in an optimal way. The paper presents an
analysis of design optimisation for degradable computer
systems and shows how this particular application leads
to a system model with interdepedent subsystems. A
procedure is presented on how to solve the resulting
Markov model. Its computational complexity is compared
to another solution method and shown to be largely more
efficient.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Chillarege:1985:ESW,
author =       "Ram Chillarege and Ravishankar K. Lyer",
title =        "The effect of system workload on error latency: an
experimental study",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "69--77",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317812",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper, a methodology for determining and
characterizing error latency is developed. The method
is based on real workload data, gathered by an
experiment instrumented on a VAX 11/780 during the
normal workload cycle of the installation. This is the
first attempt at jointly studying error latency and
workload variations in a full production system.
Distributions of error latency were generated by
simulating the occurrence of faults under varying
workload conditions. A family of error latency
distributions so generated illustrate that error
latency is not so much a function of when in time a
fault occurred but rather a function of the workload
that followed the failure. The study finds that the
mean error latency varies by a 1 to 8 (hours) ratio
between high and low workloads. The method is general
and can be applied to any system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gonsalves:1985:PCT,
author =       "Timothy A. Gonsalves",
title =        "Performance characteristics of two {Ethernets}: an
experimental study",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "78--86",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317813",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Local computer networks are increasing in popularity
for the interconnection of computers for a variety of
applications. One such network that has been
implemented on a large scale is the Ethernet. This
paper describes an experimental performance evaluation
of a 3 and a 10 Mb/s Ethernet. The effects of varying
packet length and transmission speed on throughput,
mean delay and delay distribution are quantified. The
protocols are seen to be fair and stable. These
measurements span the range from the region of high
performance of the CSMA/CD protocol to the upper limits
of its utility where performance is degraded. The
measurements are compared to the predictions of
existing analytical models. The correlation is found to
range from good to poor, with more sophisticated models
yielding better results than a simple one.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Chlamtac:1985:PIS,
author =       "I. Chlamtac and M. Eisinger",
title =        "Performance of integrated services (voice\slash data)
{CSMA\slash CD} networks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "87--93",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317795.317814",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We consider a voice/data integrated local area
communication system. Due to the high suitability of
CSMA/CD protocols for data communication and the
existence of real time voice delay constraints we
consider a hybrid TDM/CSMA/CD protocol. This model
fundamentally differs from the very well documented
voice/data integrated systems in point to point
networks in which both voice and data users are
assigned fixed duration time slots for transmission.
The TDM/CSMA/CD integrated system performance is
analysed and basic performance tradeoffs in the system
design are manifested.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Chlamtac:1985:AMH,
author =       "I. Chlamtac and M. Eisinger",
title =        "An analytic model of the hyperchannel network using
multiple channel architecture",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "94--104",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317815",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The HYPERchannel communication network configured
around one to four channels is considered. We develop a
queueing model which characterizes the network
performance as a function of the number of channels,
the channel load and the number of stations in the
network. The model is used to analyze the multichannel
system performance and to evaluate the effect of the
channel selection mechanism, as implemented by the
HYPERchannel station interface units, on the
performance. It is shown that the network bandwidth
utilization is directly related to the channel
selection process and that it varies with network
configuration and load. These observed relations are
especially significant since they are most pronounced
in networks with small number of stations, the typical
configuration in the majority of operational
HYPERchannel networks.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Bleistein:1985:APM,
author =       "Sandra Bleistein and Shin-Sun Cho and Robert T.
Goettge",
title =        "Analytic performance model of the {U.S.} en route air
traffic control computer systems",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "105--115",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317795.317816",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An analytic performance modeling case study of a
complex command and control computer system is
presented. A queueing network model of the system was
developed and validated. Features of the model found to
be critical to its accuracy were detailed software
models, general service time distributions, and models
of transient response time behavior. Response time
prediction accuracy of the model was validated to 20
percent for moderate device utilizations. The study
shows that analytic techniques can be successfully
applied to performance modeling of complex systems.
Prediction of response time percentile values and
modeling of transient effects are identified as two
areas where improved analytic techniques would enhance
performance engineering of such systems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Dowdy:1985:AUM,
author =       "Lawrence W. Dowdy and Manvinder S. Chopra",
title =        "On the applicability of using multiprogramming level
distributions",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "116--127",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317817",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A computer system's workload is represented by its
multiprogramming level, which is defined as the number
of tasks (jobs, customers) which actively compete for
resources within the system. In a product-form queuing
network model of the system, the workload is modeled by
assuming that the multiprogramming level is either
fixed (i.e., closed model) or that the multiprogramming
level depends upon an outside arrival process (i.e.,
open model). However, in many actual systems, closed
and open models are both inappropriate since the
multiprogramming level is neither fixed nor governed by
an outside arrival process. In an actual system., the
multiprogramming level varies due to features such as
task spawning, killing, blocking, parallel processing,
and/or simultaneous resource possession. The
multiprogramming level is a random variable with an
associated distribution. This paper demonstrates that
improved models can result from using this
multiprogramming level distribution information.
Several examples relative to open versus closed models,
subsystem models, actual system models, and blocking
models are given which demonstrate the applicability of
using multiprogramming level distributions. This
applicability, shown via the examples, is the main
contribution of the paper. The examples also motivate
interesting theoretical results relating to open
models, closed models, and subsystem models.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "blocking; multiprogramming level distributions; open
and closed queuing networks; subsystem modeling",
}

@Article{Krzesinski:1985:MQN,
author =       "A. E. Krzesinski and P. Teunissen",
title =        "Multiclass queueing networks with population
constrainted subnetworks",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "128--139",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317818",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A Multiclass Queueing Network model (MQN) is
partitioned into a set of disjoint subnetworks.
Population constraints are applied to each subnetwork
such that within each subnetwork each population chain
is either subject to an individual population
constraint, or a group of chains may be subject to a
common (shared) population constraint. Such population
constraints are necessary in order to model
multiprogramming level constraints in mainframe
computer systems and window flow control mechanisms in
computer communication networks. A computationally
efficient approximate solution method is developed for
solving MQN's with population constraints. Each
subnetwork is reduced to a single approximately flow
equivalent composite centre by assuming that the effect
of other chains on a given chain can be adequately
represented by their average customer populations. The
accuracy of the population constraint approximation is
compared against previous techniques by applying it to
a set of test cases for which simulation solutions have
previously been reported. The accuracy of the
approximation technique is found to be good and in
general is an improvement over previously published
concurrency constraint approximations.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "approximate solution; mean value analysis; multiclass
queueing networks; product form solutions",
}

@Article{Branwajn:1985:NSI,
author =       "Alexandre Branwajn and Yung-Li Lily Jow",
title =        "A note on service interruptions",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "140--148",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317986",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This note is devoted to a few remarks on the
performance evaluation of systems with service
interruptions such as priority queues for lower
priority customers, systems subject to breakdowns, etc.
Recent work on priority queues has shown that a popular
approximation method, the reduced occupancy
approximation'', can be exceedingly inaccurate for a
range of parameter values. We identify a cause of
inaccuracy and, hence, propose a simple correction that
provides a substantial improvement in the results.
Using the example of a simple model with service
interruptions, we show also that conditional
probabilities can be of value in deriving recurrent
solutions to some problems.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
xxnote =       "Check: author may be Brandwajn??",
}

@Article{Plateau:1985:SSP,
author =       "Brigitte Plateau",
title =        "On the stochastic structure of parallelism and
synchronization models for distributed algorithms",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "147--154",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317819",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper a new technique to handle complex Markov
models is presented. This method is based on a
description using stochastic automatas and is dedicated
to distributed algorithms modelling. One example of a
mutual exclusion algorithm in a distributed environment
is extensively analysed. The mathematical analysis is
based on tensor algebra for matrices.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Snyder:1985:ANS,
author =       "Patricia M. Snyder and William J. Stewart",
title =        "An approximate numerical solution for multiclass
preemptive priority queues with general service time
distributions",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "155--165",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317820",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper an approximate numerical solution for a
multiclass preemptive priority single server queue is
developed. The arrival process of each class follows a
Poisson distribution. The service time distribution
must have a rational Laplace transform, but is
otherwise arbitrary and may be different for different
classes. The work reported here was motivated by a
desire to compute the equilibrium probability
distribution of networks containing preemptive priority
servers. Such networks are frequently encountered when
modeling computer systems, medical care delivery
systems and communication networks. We wish to use an
iterative technique which constructs a series of two
station networks consisting of one station from the
original network and one complementary'' station
whose behavior with respect to the original station
mimics that of the rest of the network. At each
iteration, it is necessary to compute the equilibrium
probability distribution of one or more preemptive
priority queues.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hevner:1985:EOD,
author =       "Alan R. Hevner",
title =        "Evaluation of optical disk systems for very large
database applications",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "166--172",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317795.317821",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Optical Disk Systems have significant advantages over
conventional magnetic mass storage media for very large
database applications. Among other features, optical
disk systems offer large capacity and high transfer
rate. A critical problem is how to integrate the
optical disk system into a total application system
environment while maintaining the high performance
capabilities of the optical disk. In this paper the
performance of optical disk system configurations under
realistic application environments is analyzed via
queueing models. The results provide several important
guidelines for the use of optical disk systems on large
applications.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Houtekamer:1985:LDC,
author =       "Gilbert E. Houtekamer",
title =        "The local disk controller",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "173--182",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317822",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The performance of the I/O subsystem in the 370-XA
architecture has been improved considerably with the
introduction of the new channel subsystem, as compared
to the System/370 architecture. The emphasis in the
370-XA architecture is on reducing the CPU load
associated with I/O, and on reducing the congestion in
multi-CPU, shared systems, by redesigning the channel
system. In this paper we will show that a reallocation
of the control unit logic may triple the channel
subsystem's capacity, while still using the same disk
drives. The performance gain is achieved by adding
control-unit like intelligence and local buffer memory
to each disk drive, creating a Local Disk Controller
(LDC), and thus eliminating the performance degradation
caused by reconnect failures at a high channel
utilization. The system proposed remains fully software
compatible with the current 370-XA architecture. A
simpler approach, requiring only a slight modification
to the disk drives, is also discussed.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Yu:1985:MCC,
author =       "Philip S. Yu and Daniel M. Dias and John T. Robinson
and Balakrishna R. Iyer and Douglas Cornell",
title =        "Modelling of centralized concurrency control in a
multi-system environment",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "183--191",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317795.317823",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The performance of multiple systems sharing a common
data base is analyzed for an architecture with
concurrency control using a centralized lock engine.
The workload is based on traces from large mainframe
systems running IBM's IMS database management system.
Based on IMS lock traces the lock contention
probability and data base buffer invalidation effect in
a multi-system environment is predicted. Workload
parameters are generated for use in event-driven
simulation models that examine the overall performance
of multi-system data sharing, and to determine the
performance impact of various system parameters and
design alternatives. While performance results are
presented for realistic system parameters, the emphasis
is on the methodology, approximate analysis technique
and on examining the factors that affect multi-system
performance.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Thomasian:1985:ASO,
author =       "Alexander Thomasian and In Kyung Ryu",
title =        "Analysis of some optimistic concurrency control
schemes based on certification",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "2",
pages =        "192--203",
month =        aug,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317786.317824",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:01:51 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Optimistic Concurrency Control-OCC schemes based on
certification are analyzed in this paper. We allow two
types of data access schemes referred to as static and
dynamic. According to the first (second) scheme a
transaction reads all the required data items at the
beginning of its processing (on demand during its
processing), respectively. After completing its
processing, each transaction is checked as to whether
it has encountered a data conflict. Validated
transactions commit; otherwise, they are restarted. A
variant of the regular (silent) commit scheme where a
committing transaction notifies conflicted transactions
to restart immediately (broadcast commit scheme) is
also considered. We use an iterative method to analyze
the performance of OCC schemes in the framework of a
system with a fixed number of transactions in multiple
classes with given probabilities for their occurrence.
The iterative method is validated against simulation
and shown to be highly accurate even for high data
contention. We present graphs/tables, which are used to
determine how system performance is affected by: (i)
various OCC schemes, (ii) transaction size, i.e.,
number of data items accessed, (iii) number of
transactions, (iv) the distribution of transaction
processing time requirements, (v) the throughput
characteristic of the system, and (vi) granule
placement.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ryu:1985:RPA,
author =       "In Kyung Ryu",
title =        "Review of {'OS 1100-of performance algorithms: a guide
to the resource allocation algorithms of OS-1100'} by
{John C. Kelly}",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "9--9",
month =        nov,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041844.1041845",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The book describes the algorithms which were used by
OS-1100 to manage the resources of Sperry 1100 computer
systems, and lists the parameters that may affect the
performance of OS-1100. However, the book fails in
providing the reader how the algorithms and the
parameters affect the performance of OS-1100. It is not
clear to the reader why the algorithm in OS-1100 was
selected and how to tune the parameters.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Perros:1985:AMF,
author =       "H. G. Perros and D. Mirchandani",
title =        "An analytic model of a file server for bulk file
transfers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "14--22",
month =        nov,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041844.1041846",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "An analytic model of a file server is presented. The
file server was an experimental system designed to
provide an environment for storage and retrieval of
bulk files. The file server was envisaged to be
accessed by single-user workstations, equipped with
limited secondary storage, via a local area network.
The analytic model is a hierarchical model involving an
open/closed queueing network of the BCMP type and an
open queueing network with blocking. These two models
were combined together through the means of an
iterative scheme. The results obtained from the
analytic model were in close agreement with simulation
data.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Domanski:1985:BIS,
author =       "Bernard Domanski",
title =        "Building {IMS} synthetic workloads",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "13",
number =       "3--4",
pages =        "23--28",
month =        nov,
year =         "1985",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1041844.1041847",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:50 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Historically, workload characterization, and cluster
analysis in particular, has been a proven technique
when applied to performance evaluation / capacity
planning studies. Given the problem of constructing a
synthetic workload that represents a production
workload, our goal is to use this technique to identify
a {\em concise}, yet accurate set of work units that
will compose the workload. For IMS, these work units
are transactions. Yet the selection of transactions
must be done with care; for an additional goal must be
to identify a {\em concise}, yet accurate set of
databases that are required by the transactions. This
paper will review clustering techniques, and apply them
to drive the transaction selection process. An
algorithm is also presented that identifies the
technique behind database selection. A case study
follows that illustrates the implementation of the
methodology.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Buzen:1986:MST,
author =       "Jeffrey P. Buzen",
title =        "Modeling {I/O} subsystems (tutorial)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1--1",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317499.317532",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This tutorial will present techniques for modeling the
performance of I/O subsystems that incorporate
channels, control units, string controllers and direct
access devices. The presentation will focus on the
general principles involved in analyses of this type,
and will explore the strengths and weaknesses of
alternative assumptions. Attendees should gain an
overall understanding of basic analysis procedures so
they can deal with alternative I/O architectures that
are not treated explicitly in the presentation. The
material in this tutorial is mathematically oriented,
and attendees should have some familiarity with basic
queueing theory. However, the presentation is almost
entirely self contained, and all important concepts and
equations will be fully explained. Operational analysis
will be used throughout to simplify the derivation of
major results and clarify the assumptions required at
each stage.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Ferrari:1986:WCT,
author =       "Domenico Ferrari",
title =        "Workload characterization (tutorial): issues and
approaches",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1--1",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317499.317900",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Workload characterization is that branch of
performance evaluation which concerns itself with the
measurement and modeling of the workloads to be
processed by the system being evaluated. Since all
performance indices of interest are workload-dependent,
there is no evaluation study that does not require the
characterization of one or more workloads. In spite of
the importance of the problem, our knowledge in this
area leaves much to be desired. The tutorial addresses
the main issues, both resolved and unresolved, in the
field, and surveys the major approaches that have been
proposed and are in use. Modern methods for designing
executable artificial workloads, as well as the
applications of these techniques in system procurement,
system tuning, and capacity planning are emphasized.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Goel:1986:SRM,
author =       "Amrit L. Goel",
title =        "Software reliability modeling (tutorial)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2--2",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317901",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "There are a number of views as to what software
reliability is and how it should be quantified. Some
people believe that this measure should be binary in
nature so that an imperfect program would have zero
reliability while a perfect one would have a
reliability value of one. This view parallels that of
program proving whereby the program is either correct
or incorrect. Others, however, feel that software
reliability should be defined as the relative frequency
of the times that the program works as intended by the
user. This view is similar to that taken in testing
where a percentage of the successful ewes is used as a
measure of program quality. According to the latter
viewpoint, software reliability is a probabilistic
measure and can be defined as follows: Let $F$ be a
class of faults, defined arbitrarily, and $T$ be a
measure of relevant time, the units of which are
dictated by the application at hand. Then the
reliability of the software package with respect to the
class of faults $F$ and with respect to the metric $T$,
is the probability that no fault of the class occurs
during the execution of the program for a prespecified
period of relevant time. A number of models have been
proposed during the past fifteen years to estimate
software reliability and several other performance
measures. These are based mainly on the failure history
of software and can be classified according to the
nature of the failure process studied as indicated
below. Times Between Failures Models: In this class of
models the process under study is the time between
failures. The most common approach is to assume that
the time between, say, the $(i-1)$st and $i$th
failures, follows a distribution whose parameters
depend on the number of faults remaining in the program
during this interval. Failure Count Models: The
interest of this class of models is in the number of
faults or failures in specified time intervals rather
than in times between failures. The failure counts are
assumed to follow a known stochastic process with a
time dependent discrete or continuous failure rate.
Fault Seeding Models: The basic approach in this class
of models is to seed'' a known number of faults in a
program which is assumed to have an unknown number of
indigenous faults. Input Domain Based Models: The basic
approach taken here is to generate a set of test cases
from an input distribution which is assumed to be
representative of the operational usage of the program.
Because of the difficulty in obtaining this
distribution, the input domain is partitioned into a
set of equivalence classes, each of which is usually
associated with a program path. In this tutorial we
discuss the key models from the above classes and the
related issues of parametric estimation, unification of
models, Bayesian interpretation, validation and
comparison of models, and determination of optimum
release time.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Hedlund:1986:PMI,
author =       "Kye Hedlund",
title =        "Performance modeling in integrated curcuit design
(tutorial)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2--2",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317499.317902",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This tutorial is an introduction to performance
modeling in the design of integrated circuits (ICs). It
assumes no background in either electrical engineering
or VLSI design; all relevant concepts and terminology
will be introduced. The goal is to give an overview of
the role of performance modeling in IC design, the
current state of the art, central problems and research
challenges. First, the process of IC design will be
reviewed. Every design progresses through a series of
stages: concept, architecture, implementation and
realization. Each level of design manipulates different
abstractions and hence is concerned with different
measures of design quality. Some principle measures
are: speed, silicon area, power consumption and the
number of input/output connections. There are several
different major design paradigms such as gate array,
standard cell and custom design. Each results in
different tradeoffs between flexibility, ease of
implementation and design quality. This has a
fundamental impact on both the design process and the
resulting design. Performance considerations enter into
IC design at a variety of levels: device, circuit,
logic design and architecture. Each requires different
performance models, and the designer must make
tradeoffs that are qualitatively different at different
levels. Circuit level design requires fast and accurate
models of logic gate behavior. A circuit's speed,
silicon area and power consumption must be accurately
estimated. Each of these circuit characteristics can be
traded off against the others, and the designer may
needs of a particular application. Accurate and
computationally fast models form the basis for the
tools that assist the designer in circuit optimization.
Tools exist that accurately predict circuit performance
and that automatically optimize circuits. Integrated
circuit design is a field still in its infancy. This,
coupled with the fact that the underlying technological
base has undergone rapid change in recent years, means
that performance modeling of IC design is still in its
formative stages. Some areas (e.g. device modeling) are
more mature and better understood than others (e.g.
architectural modeling). Research opportunities are
plentiful.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Artis:1986:ESP,
author =       "H. Pat Artis",
title =        "Expert systems for performance analysis (tutorial)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3--3",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317903",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A great portion of the formal practice called computer
performance evaluation is the application of rules of
thumb and proceduralized analysis of model results,
specific reports, and data elements based on the
experience and knowledge of the practitioner. Expert
systems provide a technique to support the analyst in
such mundane analyses and allow them to study more
complex problems that cannot easily be proceduralized.
Rather than replacing performance analysts expert
systems provide an opportunity to increase their
productivity. The tutorial focuses on a discussion of
the fundamental building blocks of expert systems:
vocabularies, rules, and policies. A familiar example
is used to illustrate using expert systems for analysis
of performance results.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Tripathi:1986:PIL,
author =       "Satish K. Tripathi",
title =        "Performance issues in local area networks (tutorial)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3--3",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317499.317904",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This tutorial addresses performance problems in Local
Area Networks (LAN). User level performance measures
are affected both by the software as well as
communication bottlenecks. Techniques for modeling the
key components of the performance of a LAN will be
presented. Models will be presented to discuss the
throughput and response time characteristics of LANs.
We also present some measurement data obtained from a
LAN performance experiment.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Stone:1986:FC,
author =       "Harold S. Stone and Dominique Thibaut",
title =        "Footprints in the cache",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4--8",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317533",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "This paper develops an analytical model for a
cache-reload transient. When an interrupt program or
system program runs periodically in a cache-based
computer, a short cache-reload transient occurs each
time the interrupt program is invoked. That transient
depends on the size of the cache, the fraction of the
cache used by the interrupt program, and the fraction
of the cache used by background programs that run
between interrupts. We call the portion of a cache used
by a program its footprint in the cache, and we show
that the reload transient is related to the area in the
tail of a normal distribution whose mean is a function
of the footprints of the programs that compete for the
cache. We believe that the model may be useful as well
for predicting paging behavior in virtual-memory
systems with round-robin scheduling.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Vernon:1986:PAM,
author =       "Mary K. Vernon and Mark A. Holliday",
title =        "Performance analysis of multiprocessor cache
consistency protocols using generalized timed {Petri}
nets",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "9--17",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317499.317534",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We use an exact analytical technique, based on
Generalized Timed Petri Nets (GTPNs), to study the
performance of shared bus cache consistency protocols
for multiprocessors. We develop a general framework
within which the key characteristics of the Write-Once
protocol and four enhancements that have been combined
in various ways in the literature can be identified and
evaluated. We then quantitatively assess the
performance gains for each of the four enhancements. We
consider three levels of data sharing in our workload
models. One of the enhancements substantially improves
system performance in all cases. Two enhancements are
shown to have negligible effect over the range of
workloads analyzed. The fourth enhancement shows a
small improvement for low levels of sharing, but shows
more substantial improvement as sharing is increased,
if we assume a good access pattern''. The effects of
two architectural parameters, the blocksize and the
main memory cycle time are also considered.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Harrison:1986:PMP,
author =       "P. G. Harrison and A. J. Field",
title =        "Performance modelling of parallel computer
architectures",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "18--27",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317535",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In this paper we describe two types of complex server
aggregations which can be used to model collections of
components in certain types of parallel computer
systems and give a case study showing how the
aggregations may be applied in practice. Analytical
models of such systems are becoming increasingly
important as a means of guiding the often complex
design processes, particularly since recent
developments in VLSI technology now make it possible to
fabricate many paper-designs hitherto impractical for
reasons of cost. We argue that aggregations of the type
described are essential in the modelling of parallel
systems; using the proposed techniques, large numbers
of components can be modelled as queue-length-dependent
servers within a queueing network in which the number
of servers is the same as the number of distinct types
of processing element in the system being modelled.
Because the number of severs in the model is fixed i.e.
is independent of the number of processors, very large
multiprocessor systems can be modelled efficiently with
no explosion in the size of the state space.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

author =       "Stuart Madnick and Y. Richard Wang",
title =        "Modeling multiprocessor computer systems with
unbalanced flows",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "28--34",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317499.317536",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A performance analysis methodology using certain
aspects of queueing theory to evaluate computer system
speed performance is presented. This methodology
specifically focuses on modeling multiprocessor
computer systems with unbalanced flows (i.e., number of
transactions leaving a server is not the same as number
of transactions entering that server) due to
asynchronously spawned parallel tasks. This unbalanced
flow phenomenon, which has a significant effect on
performance, cannot be solved analytically by classical
queueing network models. A decomposition method is
applied to decompose the unbalanced flows. Formulae for
open queueing networks with unbalanced flows due to
Furthermore, an algorithm based on Buzen's convolution
algorithm is developed to test the necessary and
sufficient condition for closed system stability as
well as to compute performance measures. An average of
less than four iterations is reported for convergence
with this algorithm. A Study of the INFOPLEX
multiprocessor data storage hierarchy, comparing this
rapid solution algorithm with simulations, has shown
highly consistent results. A cost effective software
tool, using this methodology, has been developed to
analyze an architectural design, such as INFOPLEX, and
to produce measures such as throughput, utilization,
and response time so that potential performance
problems can be identified.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Kleeman:1986:APB,
author =       "Lindsay Kleeman and Antonio Cantoni",
title =        "The analysis and performance of batching arbiters",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "35--43",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317537",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "A class of arbiters, known as batching arbiters, is
introduced and defined. A particularly simple
decentralised example of a batching arbiter is
described, with motivation given for the batching
arbiter model adopted. It is shown that under
reasonable assumptions, batching arbiters can be
described by a finite state Markov chain. The key steps
in the analysis of the arbiter performance are the
method of assigning states, evaluation of state
transition probabilities and showing that the Markov
chain is irreducible. Arbiter performance parameters
are defined, such as proportion of time allocated to
each requester and mean waiting time for each
requester. Apart from results describing the steady
state behavior of the arbiter for general system
parameters, a number of limiting results are also
obtained corresponding to light and heavy request
interest are presented, showing the performance
parameters of the arbiter versus request rates for
various configurations.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lehoczky:1986:PRT,
author =       "John P. Lehoczky and Lui Sha",
title =        "Performance of real-time bus scheduling algorithms",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "44--53",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317499.317538",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
over a bus, the problem of hard real-time bus
scheduling arises. This paper addresses several
problems of hard real-time bus scheduling, including
the evaluation of scheduling algorithms and the issues
of message packet pacing, preemption, priority
granularity and buffering.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Leland:1986:LBH,
author =       "Will Leland and Teunis J. Ott",
title =        "Load-balancing heuristics and process behavior",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "54--69",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317539",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Dynamic load balancing in a system of loosely-coupled
homogeneous processors may employ both judicious
initial placement of processes and migration of
existing processes to processors with fewer resident
processes. In order to predict the possible benefits of
these dynamic assignment techniques, we analyzed the
behavior (CPU, disk, and memory use) of 9.5 million
Unix* processes during normal use. The observed process
behavior was then used to drive simulation studies of
particular dynamic assignment heuristics.\par

Let $F(\cdot)$ be the probability distribution of the
amount of CPU time used by an arbitrary process. In the
environment studied we found:\par

$\bullet$ $(1-F(x)) \approx r x^{-c},$1.05 < c <
1.25;\par

$\bullet$ $F(\cdot)$ is far enough from exponential to
make exponential models of little use.\par

$\bullet$ With a foreground-background process
scheduling policy in each processor, simple heuristics
for initial placement and processor migration can
significantly improve the response ratios of processes
that demand exceptional amounts of CPU, without harming
the response ratios of ordinary processes.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Lee:1986:CPB,
author =       "Kyoo Jeong Lee and Don Towsley",
title =        "A comparison of priority-based decentralized load
balancing policies",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "70--77",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317540",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Load balancing policies in distributed systems divide
jobs into two classes; those processed at their of
origination (local jobs) and those processed at some
other site in the system after being transferred
through a communication network (remote jobs). This
paper considers a class of decentralized load balancing
policies that use a threshold on the local job queue
length at each host in making decisions for remote
processing. They differ from each other according to
how they assign priorities to each of these job
classes, ranging from one providing favorable treatment
to local jobs to one providing favorable treatment to
remote jobs. Under each policy, the optimal load
balancing problem is formulated as an optimization
problem with respect to the threshold parameter. The
optimal threshold is obtained numerically using
matrix-geometric formulation and an iteration method.
Last, we consider the effects that the job arrival
process can have on performance. One expects that load
balancing for systems operating in an environment of
bursty job arrivals should be more beneficial than for
an environment with random job arrivals. This fact is
observed through numerical examples.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{LeBoudec:1986:BEM,
author =       "Jean-Yves {Le Boudec}",
title =        "A {BCMP} extension to multiserver stations with
concurrent classes of customers",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "78--91",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317541",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We consider a multiclass service station with $B$
identical exponential servers, with constant service
rate $\mu$. At a station, the classes of customers are
sorted into $M$ concurrent groups ; the discipline of
service is on a first come first served basis, but two
customers of the same group cannot be served
simultaneously. We show that product form is maintained
when such stations are inserted in BCMP networks, and
give closed form expressions for the steady-state
probabilities.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Conway:1986:EAS,
author =       "A. E. Conway and N. D. Georganas",
title =        "An efficient algorithm for semi-homogeneous queueing
network models",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "92--99",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317542",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "The class of product-form semi-homogeneous queueing
networks is introduced as a generalization of the class
of homogeneous networks, which has been considered by
Balbo et al for the performance modeling of local area
networks. In semi-homogeneous networks, the relative
traffic intensity at the various shared resources may
depend on the routing chain to which a customer
belongs. We develop an efficient algorithm for the
exact analysis of this class of networks. It is based
on the equations which form the foundation of RECAL, a
general purpose exact algorithm for multiple-chain
closed queueing networks. The complexity of the
algorithm is shown to be of order less than exponential
in $(P-1)^{1/2}$, where $P$ is the number of processors
(workstations) in the network. It is therefore, in
general, more efficient than a direct application of
either convolution, MVA or RECAL to the class of
semi-homogeneous queueing networks. The algorithm
presented here may be situated between the algorithms
of Balbo et al and the general purpose algorithms, both
in terms of its generality and efficiency.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Nain:1986:OMH,
author =       "Philippe Nain and Keith Ross",
title =        "Optimal multiplexing of heterogeneous traffic with
hard constraint",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "100--108",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317499.317543",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Considered are optimal dynamic policies for
multiplexing $K + 1$ heterogeneous traffic types onto a
single communication channel. The packet types arrive
to the channel according to independent Poisson
processes. The service requirements are exponential
with type dependent means. The optimization criterion
is to minimize a linear combination of the average
delays for packet types 1 to $K$, while simultaneously
subjecting the average delay of type-0 packets to a
hard constraint. The optimal multiplexing policy is
shown to be a randomized modification of the $\mu c$
rule''. The optimization problem is thereby reduced to
a problem of finding the optimal randomization factor;
an algorithm, which can be implemented in real time, is
given to do this for two particular cases.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Sevcik:1986:CTP,
author =       "Kenneth Sevcik and Marjory J. Johnson",
title =        "Cycle time properties of the {FDDI} token ring
protocol (extended abstract)",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "109--110",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317544",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Communication technology now makes it possible to
support high data transmission rates at relatively low
cost. In particular, optical fiber can be used as the
medium in local area networks with data rates in the
range of 100 megabits per second. Unfortunately, local
area network topologies and communication protocols
that work well with lower speed media are not
necessarily appropriate when the data transmission rate
is scaled up by approximately an order of magnitude.
Recognizing this fact, an ANSI sub-committee (ANSIX3T9)
has been working for the past two years on a proposed
standard for a token ring protocol tailored to a
transmission medium with transmission rate in the 100
megabits per second range. The protocol is referred to
as the FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) Token
Ring protocol. The proposal for the standard is now
quite mature and nearly stable. While numerous analyses
of the performance of token ring protocols have been
carried out and described in the literature, these have
for the most part dealt with protocol variations of
less complexity than FDDI. The major feature that
distinguishes FDDI from token ring protocols that have
been analyzed previously is the concept of a timed
token'', which selectively allocates the right to
transmit data among the stations depending in part on
how rapidly the token progressed around the ring on the
previous cycle. A station is allowed to transmit
certain types of data only if the token's last cycle
has been shorter than a target'' token rotation time.
This feature makes it possible to give guaranteed
response to time-critical messages. The timed token''
creates some dependencies among transmissions at
various stations, however, and these dependencies
complicate the analysis of the protocol's performance.
The basic ideas of the timed token protocol on which
the FDDI protocol is based were first presented by Grow
[A Timed-Token Protocol for Local Area Networks'',
Electro 82, 1982]. He distinguished two types of
traffic. Synchronous traffic is a type of traffic that
has delivery time constraints. Examples include voice
and video transmissions, where delays in transmission
can result in disruptions of the sound or picture
signal. Asynchronous traffic has no such time
constraints, or at least the time constraints are
measured in units that are large relative to the token
cycle time. Here is a brief overview of how the timed
token'' protocol works. The stations on the local area
network choose, in a distributed fashion, a target
token rotation time (TTRT). Basically, the TTRT is
chosen to be sufficiently small that requirements for
responsiveness at every station will be met. The right
to use network bandwidth for transmission of
synchronous traffic is allocated among the stations in
a manner that guarantees that network capacity is not
exceeded. The token is then forced by the protocol to
circulate with sufficient speed that all stations
receive their allocated fractions of capacity for
synchronous traffic. This is done by conditioning the
right to transmit asynchronous messages on the fact
that the token has rotated sufficiently fast that it is
ahead of schedule'' in delivering synchronous
allocations to the stations. In essence, the TTRT value
dictates a departure schedule for the token to pass
from station to station, and asynchronous traffic can
be transmitted only when doing so does not cause that
schedule to broken. Subsequently, Ulm [A Timed Token
Ring Local Area Network and Its Performance
Characteristics'', Proc. of Conf. on Local Area
Networks, IEEE, 1982] analyzed the protocol described
by Grow and determined its sensitivity to various
parameters. He considered the effect of overheads and
provided a number of graphs indicating the impact of
various parameters on maximum transmission capacity. As
well as describing the timed token protocol, Grow and
Ulm included intuitive arguments supporting two
fundamental properties of (a somewhat idealized version
of) the protocol. These two properties are: The average
token cycle time in the absence of failures is at most
the TTRT. The maximum token cycle time in the absence
of failures is at most twice the TTRT. Both these
properties are important to the successful operation of
the protocol. The first one guarantees that the average
long run bandwidth provided to each station is at least
its allocated fraction of the network's capacity. The
second property guarantees that, in the absence of
component failures, the time between a station's
successive opportunities to transmit synchronous
traffic will never exceed twice the target token
rotation time. While Grow and Ulm assert that these
properties hold for the timed-token protocol, neither
formal proofs nor references are provided. Because the
FDDI protocol is based on the same timed-token
protocol, subsequent publications specifically
describing the FDDI protocol have also claimed that the
two properties hold. In this paper, we prove both
properties using a common notational framework. We
first treat an idealized situation in which several
types of overhead are ignored. We actually study a
protocol that is slightly more liberal that the FDDI
proposed standard in that it allows asynchronous
transmission more often because lateness'' is not
carried forward from cycle to cycle. The protocol
variation, which still guarantees properties (1) and
(2), is at least as easily implemented as the original
version. Also, it guarantees sufficient responsiveness
and capacity for the transmission of synchronous
traffic, while providing improved responsiveness to
considered, it is found that the proposed standard FDDI
protocol satisfies the constraint on average token
rotation time (relying on the retention of lateness''
from cycle to cycle), but not the one on maximum cycle
time. We analyze a variation of the protocol that
ignores accumulated lateness, but accounts for the
rule include: It guarantees both desired properties
without having to retain lateness'' from one cycle to
the next. It provides better service to asynchronous
requests in the case where the amount of overhead is
small relative the token rotation time. (When the
amount of overhead is large, the original proposed
protocol may have token rotation times significantly in
excess of twice the TTRT.) It is easier to implement.
Work is underway on the task of quantifying the
performance of the FDDI protocol by determining
estimates of, or tighter bounds on, the average token
rotation time and on the average delivery time of a
submitted message. The properties established in this
paper are required to form the basis of the
quantitative analysis.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

author =       "Yves Dallery and Rajan Suri",
title =        "Approximate disaggregation and performance bounds for
queueing networks with multiple-server stations",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "111--128",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317545",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "We introduce the concept of approximate disaggregation
which enables us to replace a station by a subnetwork,
i.e. a set of stations, such that the performance of
the derived network is close to the performance of the
initial network. We use this concept to disaggregate
any multiple-server station into a set single-server
stations. Using two different disaggregations, we are
able to bound the performance of the initial network by
the performance of a lower'' and an upper'' network
each consisting of single-server stations, whose
performance can in turn be bounded by the Balanced Job
Bounds (or other known bounds). Several examples show
the useful information provided by these bounds at a
very low cost: for $K$ stations and $N$ customers, the
computational complexity here is $\Omega(K)$ which is
significantly less than the $\Omega(KN^2)$ operations
required for exact solution. Indeed, despite the
multiple server stations, the computational complexity
of our bounds is the same as that of Balanced Job
Bounds.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
keywords =     "approximate disaggregation; closed queueing networks;
performance bounds; product form networks",
}

@Article{Strelen:1986:GMV,
author =       "Johann Strelen",
title =        "A generalization of mean value analysis to higher
moments: moment analysis",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "129--140",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317546",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "Closed product-form queueing networks are considered.
Recursive schemata are proposed for the higher moments
of the number of customers in the queues, called
moment analysis''. As with mean value analysis (MVA),
in general no state probabilities are needed.
Approximation techniques for these schemata similar to
those existing for MVA are introduced.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

author =       "William A. Massey",
title =        "A probabilistic analysis of a database system",
journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
volume =       "14",
number =       "1",
pages =        "141--146",
month =        may,
year =         "1986",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/317531.317547",
ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:02:55 MDT 2008",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib",
abstract =     "In Gray, Homan, Obermarck, and Korth [GHOK], the
authors give many conjectures based on simulation for
the probabilistic analysis of transaction lock-waits
and transaction deadlocks. In this paper, we introduce
a probabilistic model to explain their observations.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Revi