Valid HTML 4.0! Valid CSS!
%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.00",
%%%     date            = "01 August 2018",
%%%     time            = "17:23:52 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "sigsoft1990.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "35410 31397 155436 1477454",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes;
%%%                        bibliography; BibTeX",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE bibliography of ACM
%%%                        SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes (CODEN
%%%                        SFENDP, ISSN 0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843
%%%                        (electronic)) for the years 1990--1999.
%%%                        Other decades are covered in companion
%%%                        bibliographies named sigsoftYYY0.bib.
%%%
%%%                        Publication began with volume 1, number 1, in
%%%                        May 1976, and there are up to 8 issues per
%%%                        annual volume.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has Web sites at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.sigsoft.org/
%%%                            https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.00, the COMPLETE year coverage
%%%                        looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             1990 (  84)    1994 (  66)    1998 ( 135)
%%%                             1991 (  61)    1995 ( 127)    1999 ( 115)
%%%                             1992 (  54)    1996 ( 149)
%%%                             1993 (  79)    1997 ( 147)
%%%
%%%                             Article:       1017
%%%
%%%                             Total entries: 1017
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
%%%                        count) utility output of lines, words, and
%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================
@Preamble{"\ifx \undefined \booktitle \def \booktitle #1{{{\em #1}}} \fi"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:
@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:
@String{j-SIGSOFT               = "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries, sorted by publication order with ``bibsort
%%% --byvolume'':
@Article{Neumann:1990:RPCa,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the public in computers and related systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4--23",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382295",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Knight:1990:RCK,
  author =       "John C. Knight and Nancy G. Leveson",
  title =        "A reply to the criticisms of the {Knight \& Leveson}
                 experiment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "24--35",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382710",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "The original paper is J. C. Knight and N. G. Leveson,
                 \booktitle{An Experimental Evaluation of the Assumption
                 of Independence in Multi-version Programming}, IEEE
                 Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. SE-12, No. 1
                 (January 1986), pp. 96--109.",
}

@Article{Britton:1990:TAD,
  author =       "Carol Britton and Jill Doake and Richard Mitchell",
  title =        "Taming the abstract data type: a taxonomy to help
                 information systems designers",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "36--41",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382711",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The overall aim of our research is to investigate the
                 use of data abstraction in the early stages of the
                 development of information systems. In this paper we
                 suggest a simple classification of abstract data types
                 as a guide to inexperienced system developers in the
                 transition from an initial problem statement to a
                 system description using data abstraction. The
                 classification identifies different roles that abstract
                 data types can play in a system description: providing
                 simple values; providing the ability to calculate with
                 simple values; providing the means to build tuples and
                 sets from simpler types; and providing the means to
                 express the required systems inputs and outputs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Chan:1990:COO,
  author =       "M. L. Chan and B. Henderson-Sellers",
  title =        "{Corporate Object-oriented Development Environment
                 (CODE)}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "42--43",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382713",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The maximum potential of the object-oriented paradigm
                 relies on reusability of existing code. For full
                 realisation in the corporate environment it is crucial
                 that evolving libraries of reusable modules be managed
                 efficiently and effectively. A framework for such
                 management is proposed: the Corporate Object-oriented
                 Development Environment (CODE).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Loy:1990:COO,
  author =       "Patrick H. Loy",
  title =        "A comparison of object-oriented and structured
                 development methods",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "44--48",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382714",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The significance of ``object-oriented'' as a
                 development method, and the current confusion over the
                 term are addressed. A set of characteristics is
                 proposed as a basis for agreement on a definition of
                 the term. Object-oriented development is compared to
                 the ``structured techniques,'' and work in progress on
                 integrating the two methods is reviewed. Practical
                 recommendations on assessing the importance of
                 object-oriented development are given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hecht:1990:COO,
  author =       "Alan Hecht",
  title =        "Cute object-oriented acronyms considered {FOOlish}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "48",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382715",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Brinkkemper:1990:DMC,
  author =       "S. Brinkkemper and M. de Lange and R. Looman and F. H.
                 G. C. van der Steen",
  title =        "On the derivation of method companionship by
                 meta-modelling",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--58",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382716",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "For an efficient and effective system development the
                 relation between methods and tools should be maintained
                 carefully. This relation --- called method
                 companionship --- can be derived using the mata-data
                 models and meta-activity models of methods and tools.
                 In order to formulate guide-lines for the use of the
                 Information Engineering Workbench (IEW) within the
                 System Development Methodology (SDM), we discuss the
                 determination of the meta-data models and a formal
                 derivation of the support. The structure of the
                 guide-lines is discussed together with their
                 verification within some organizations. Finally, some
                 conclusions from this research are given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Zhou:1990:PSP,
  author =       "Wanlei Zhou",
  title =        "{PM}: a system for prototyping and monitoring remote
                 procedure call programs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--63",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382717",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The design and implementation of a software tool PM
                 for prototyping and monitoring remote procedure call
                 (RPC) programs is described. The tool has two parts: a
                 prototyping generator and a monitor. The prototyping
                 generator takes as input several server description
                 files, one for each server, analyses them, and produces
                 a group of source files of the RPC prototype program.
                 If debug option is chosen during prototyping, the
                 produced programs will be monitored by the monitor. The
                 monitor records all events of an RPC-based program into
                 the monitor's database. Facilities are provided for
                 programmers to define, choose, and combine events that
                 will be recorded. Partial ordering among events is
                 built after the program's execution. An user can use
                 this relation to trace and replay the program's
                 execution. The tool forms a proper environment for
                 RPC-based program development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Caron:1990:BTD,
  author =       "Jacqueline M. Caron and Peter A. Darnell",
  title =        "{Bugfind}: a tool for debugging optimizing compilers",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "64--65",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382719",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a tool for isolating modules that
                 are compiled incorrectly when optimization is invoked.
                 This tool benefits application developers by
                 automatically compiling each module to its highest
                 level of correct optimization. It benefits compiler
                 writers by pinpointing failing modules.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Offutt:1990:CT,
  author =       "A. Jefferson Offutt",
  title =        "Comments on Tai",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382720",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Brandt:1990:QMD,
  author =       "Dennis L. Brandt",
  title =        "Quality measures in design: finding problems before
                 coding",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "68--72",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.383048",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Structure Charts are the third major deliverable of a
                 structured design, following the logical model and the
                 physical model. Code is usually written immediately
                 after the Structure Charts are approved. Many metrics
                 are available for measuring code complexity and some
                 forms of data coupling. Applying similar metrics to the
                 design might be used to find problems in complexity and
                 coupling before interfaces are formalized and code is
                 written. This paper reviews complexity and coupling
                 code measures which could be applied to structure
                 charts. Since there has been little analysis and data
                 collected in this area, it is proposed that relative
                 figures of merit can be derived from structure charts.
                 It is also proposed that in large systems, structure
                 charts with out of normal figures of merit are
                 candidates for detailed review. The general outline of
                 an Automated Auditor is also defined as a tool to
                 assist designers and reviewers in design analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Polack:1990:PAC,
  author =       "Alexander J. Polack",
  title =        "Practical applications of {CASE} tools on {DoD}
                 projects",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--78",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382724",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The use of software in the defense--related systems
                 has increased substantially in the last decade. The
                 Department of Defense has developed a comprehensive
                 standard for software development. Known as
                 DoD-STD-2167 A, its use is now mandated for all DoD
                 projects. CASE tools are uniquely positioned to help
                 DoD contractors in fulfilling the requirements of the
                 standard. This article discusses some of the practical
                 aspects of CASE technology applications in the DoD
                 contracting environment. An example, using Software
                 Requirements Analysis activity, is given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tahvanainen:1990:ACB,
  author =       "Veli-Pekka Tahvanainen and Kari Smolander",
  title =        "An annotated {CASE} bibliography",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--92",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382727",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Terwilliger:1990:OBE,
  author =       "Robert B. Terwilliger",
  title =        "An overview and bibliography of {ENCOMPASS}: an
                 environment for incremental software development using
                 executable, logic-based specification",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93--94",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382728",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Holbrook:1990:SBM,
  author =       "H. {Holbrook III}",
  title =        "A scenario-based methodology for conducting
                 requirements elicitation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "95--104",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382294.382725",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:29 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Requirements analysis is the process of identifying a
                 user's needs and determining what to build in an a
                 system. Within requirements analysis is the process of
                 requirements elicitation in which tacit information
                 about ``what to build'' is obtained from the user and
                 his environment. Here, we will describe a methodology,
                 dubbed Scenario Based Requirements Elicitation (SBRE),
                 which structures the early interaction between users
                 and designers in order to quickly develop a set of
                 initial requirements. The methodology features the
                 parallel development of requirements and a high-level
                 design, the use of scenarios to communicate the
                 behavior of a design, an evaluation function to assess
                 the suitability of the design, and an issue base with
                 which to maintain the issues that arise during the
                 elicitation process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1990:RPCb,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the public in computers and related systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "3--22",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382297",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Delgado:1990:ITS,
  author =       "Joseph F. Delgado",
  title =        "Issues in transfer of skills in software engineering
                 training",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23--25",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382695",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper summarizes issues of skills transfer in
                 current software engineering training, under the
                 categories of management support, training resources,
                 scheduling, training process, and incentives.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Clark:1990:FVD,
  author =       "Jon D. Clark",
  title =        "Function versus data-driven methodologies: a
                 prescriptive metric",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "26",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382696",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bowles:1990:NYS,
  author =       "Adrion J. Bowles",
  title =        "A note on the Yourdon structured method",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "27",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382697",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Brown:1990:CCQ,
  author =       "Bradley J. Brown",
  title =        "Correctness is not congruent with quality",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "28",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382698",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Duncan:1990:OMT,
  author =       "I. M. M. Duncan and D. J. Robson",
  title =        "Ordered mutation testing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "29--30",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382699",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Mutation Analysis is an established technique for test
                 data generation and source code testing. Developed
                 systems have concentrated on applying some or all of
                 the possible mutant operators (perturbations) to the
                 submitted code. Recent work tackled the scheduling of
                 mutant program execution on vector processors or a
                 Hypercube as a cost reduction scheme. This paper
                 discusses a logical mechanism of impact driven testing
                 in order to achieve full mutation testing with reduced
                 overheads regardless of implementation. Guiding the
                 mutant generation by block impact together with mutant
                 operator heirarchies and a test data coverage scheme
                 enable an efficient tool to be constructed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wybolt:1990:ECO,
  author =       "Nicholas Wybolt",
  title =        "Experiences with {C++} and object-oriented software
                 development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "31--39",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382700",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Object-oriented is a very hot topic and buzzword both
                 in academia and industry. There are object-oriented
                 analysis and design techniques, object-oriented
                 languages and databases, and so on. Many people see the
                 letters ``OO'', attach a ``G'' to the front, and a
                 ``D'' to the back and deem it to be ``GOOD'' ---
                 without much consideration for what it means in the
                 software life cycle. This paper discusses the on-going
                 (3+ years) object-oriented re-design and
                 re-implementation in C++ of a commercial CASE tool.
                 Specifically, why an object-oriented approach was
                 chosen and the implications and collective experiences
                 of this approach. In addition to the anticipated
                 benefits, much of what we experienced was unforeseen
                 and unexpected.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Koelbel:1990:WRE,
  author =       "Chuck Koelbel and Gene Spafford and George Leach",
  title =        "Workshop report: experiences with building distributed
                 and multiprocessor systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "39--41",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382701",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1990:WDR,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "Where does reuse start?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "42--46",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382702",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Prieto-Diaz:1990:DAI,
  author =       "Rub{\'e}n Prieto-D{\'\i}az",
  title =        "Domain analysis: an introduction",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "47--54",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382703",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The objective of this paper is to provide a brief
                 introduction to the area of domain analysis as seen
                 from the software engineering perspective. The approach
                 is by illustrating the concepts through selected
                 reported experiences and to point out the specific
                 characteristics of these experiences that relate to
                 domain analysis. Definitions are introduced after the
                 examples to avoid over explaining the concepts. A model
                 for the domain analysis process is also proposed. The
                 concept of a library based domain infrastructure is
                 introduced as an attempt to show how domain analysis is
                 integrated into the software development process.A
                 second objective in this paper is to give a perspective
                 on some of the research issues facing domain analysis.
                 The nature of the process calls for a variety of
                 multidiciplinary issues ranging from knowledge
                 acquisition and knowledge representation to management
                 and methodologies to cultural and social questions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cabral:1990:ISM,
  author =       "Regina H. B. Cabral and Ivan M. Campos and Donald D.
                 Cowan and Carlos J. P. Lucena",
  title =        "Interfaces as specifications in the {MIDAS} user
                 interface development systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "55--69",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382704",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes an evolving User Interface
                 Development System called MIDAS (for Merging Interface
                 Development with Application Specification) which
                 allows interface/systems designers to develop an
                 application-specific user interface interactively, in a
                 prototyping-oriented environment, while refining the
                 specification of the intended application itself. The
                 interface/systems designer receives expert advice on
                 both interface and application software design
                 principles, emerging from MIDAS' knowledge base, and
                 can also animate the intended user dialogue with the
                 interface being designed via an extensive set of visual
                 programming aids. The generated interface can be
                 further customized by the end-user, by flexibly
                 altering the default appearance of the dialogue
                 scenarios. Furthermore, the application-specific
                 end-user interface is also knowledge based. Its domain
                 knowledge covers user modeling and the application
                 domain, in order to adapt itself dynamically to
                 different degrees of user familiarity with the
                 application, from novice to expert. Both the interface
                 code and the programming-in-the-large of the
                 application code are developed within an
                 object-oriented framework. A proposal for a software
                 life cycle model based on the rapid prototyping of user
                 interfaces as a means to refining the specification of
                 the application all the way down to the import-export
                 list and module semantics specification for each and
                 every application module is also presented. The
                 lifecycle model is rule-encoded in MIDAS' knowledge
                 base. The interface/systems designer is guided by the
                 interpretation of those rules. MIDAS aims to provide a
                 testbed for new ideas in human-computer interfaces,
                 knowledge-based support of design activities and life
                 cycle models based on rapid prototyping of user
                 interfaces.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Coomber:1990:GTP,
  author =       "C. J. Coomber and R. E. Childs",
  title =        "A graphical tool for the prototyping of real-time
                 systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "70--82",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382705",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a prototyping tool for the design
                 and execution of real-time system specifications known
                 as transformation schemas. The tool comprises an editor
                 that makes full use of windows, menus, and icons; and a
                 simulator that executes transformation schemas based on
                 an object-oriented strategy. The tool not only enables
                 the syntactic correctness of a transformation schema to
                 be verified, but also assists in proving its semantic
                 correctness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Terry:1990:TSE,
  author =       "B. Terry and D. Logee",
  title =        "Terminology for Software Engineering Environment
                 {(SEE)} and Computer-Aided Software Engineering
                 {(CASE)}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "83--94",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382706",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tripp:1990:CES,
  author =       "Leonard L. Tripp",
  title =        "{CASE} evaluation and selection bibliography",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "95",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/382296.382707",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:30 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Yeung:1990:IJD,
  author =       "W. L. Yeung and G. Topping",
  title =        "Implementing {JSD} designs in {Ada}: a tutorial",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25--32",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101114.101115",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:31 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/adabooks.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Jackson System Development (JSD) method is widely
                 recognized as viable for the design of real-time
                 embedded systems. This paper discusses the
                 implementation of JSD designs in Ada through a
                 simulated lift control example.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Coomer:1990:DRS,
  author =       "T. N. {Coomer, Jr.} and J. R. Comer and D. J. Rodjak",
  title =        "Developing reusable software for military systems, why
                 it is needed, why it isn't working",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33--38",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101114.101116",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:31 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses the importance of developing
                 reusable software component libraries for Department of
                 Defense (DoD) military software systems, as well as a
                 few of the main reasons why current approaches are not
                 working. A working definition of software reusability
                 is established and the major goals of reuse are
                 examined. The emphasis of the paper is on the necessary
                 characteristics of a reusable software component as
                 well as the compilation and utilization of reusable
                 component libraries. The roles of UNIX{\TM}, Ada{\reg},
                 and C in the development of reusable components are
                 examined. Many of the problems facing the development
                 of adaptable, reusable software components are outlined
                 as well as some possible solutions to these problems.
                 Conclusions are drawn concerning the critical need for
                 these software characteristics in DoD military systems
                 of the future.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Gyorkos:1990:ICT,
  author =       "J. Gy{\"o}rk{\"o}s and I. Rozman and T. Welzer",
  title =        "Introducing {CASE} tools into the software development
                 group",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "39--41",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101114.101117",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:31 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Conventional groups for software development try to
                 increase its efficiency with a more advanced approach
                 to all phases of software life cycle. The need for more
                 formal specifications demands the introduction of
                 computer aided tools which base on the empirically
                 confirmed methodologies. The most important task of
                 CASE tools is to unite the methodologies for covering
                 various life cycle phases under one shell. In the paper
                 the problems, appearing in the contact of the tool with
                 the subjects of the developers team are described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Balda:1990:CEM,
  author =       "D. Balda and D. A. Gustafson",
  title =        "Cost estimation models for reuse and prototype {SW}
                 development life-cycles",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "42--50",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101114.101118",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:31 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Cocomo cost estimation model was developed to
                 estimate the cost of developing software utilizing the
                 waterfall life-cycle model. The assumptions in the
                 waterfall model account for many software development
                 situations, but do not account for the actual
                 development process when the requirements are known to
                 be unstable or incomplete or when extensive code and
                 design information are reused. The prototype and reuse
                 life-cycle models, respectively, were developed to
                 model these specific situations. The assumptions made
                 by any life-cycle model directly influence its cost
                 estimation model; therefore, when the life-cycle model
                 is inappropriate, its cost estimation model is also
                 inappropriate. This makes the Cocomo cost estimation
                 model inadequate for estimating development effort for
                 software developed utilizing the prototype or reuse
                 software development life-cycle models. Two cost
                 estimation models, one for the prototype software
                 life-cycle model and one for the reuse software
                 life-cycle model, are presented. Each cost estimation
                 model is derived from the basic Cocomo model and
                 modified to fit the characteristics of its respective
                 life-cycle model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Martinis:1990:SCC,
  author =       "J. Martinis",
  title =        "Softool change\slash configuration management",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "51",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101114.101119",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:31 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bolognesi:1990:SGR,
  author =       "Tommaso Bolognesi",
  title =        "On the soundness of graphical representations of
                 interconnected processes in {LOTOS}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "1--7",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99574",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Chung:1990:EED,
  author =       "Anthony Chung and Deepinder Sidhu",
  title =        "Experience with an {Estelle} development system",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "8--17",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99801",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{DeMan:1990:MLM,
  author =       "Jozef {De Man}",
  title =        "Making languages more powerful by removing
                 limitations",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18--24",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99805",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Eggert:1990:TSP,
  author =       "Paul Eggert",
  title =        "Toward special-purpose program verification",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "25--29",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99807",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Frost:1990:CPC,
  author =       "Richard A. Frost",
  title =        "Constructing programs in a calculus of lazy
                 interpreters",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "30--41",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99810",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garlan:1990:RFR,
  author =       "David Garlan",
  title =        "The role of formal reusable frameworks",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42--44",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99812",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jacky:1990:FSC,
  author =       "Jonathan Jacky",
  title =        "Formal specification for a clinical cyclotron control
                 system",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "45--54",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99814",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ledru:1990:AVL,
  author =       "Yves Ledru and Pierre-Yves Schobbens",
  title =        "Applying {VDM} to large developments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "55--58",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99815",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Logrippo:1990:ASL,
  author =       "Luigi Logrippo and Tim Melanchuk and Robert J. {Du
                 Wors}",
  title =        "The algebraic specification language {LOTOS}: an
                 industrial experience",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "59--66",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99817",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Narayana:1990:IPD,
  author =       "K. T. Narayana and Sanjeev Dharap",
  title =        "Invariant properties in a dialog system",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "67--79",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99818",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ness:1990:PET,
  author =       "Linda Ness",
  title =        "{L.0}: a parallel executable temporal logic language",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "80--89",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99820",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Nord:1990:FMM,
  author =       "Robert L. Nord and Peter Lee and William L. Scherlis",
  title =        "Formal manipulation of modular software systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "90--99",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99825",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Platek:1990:FMM,
  author =       "Richard Platek",
  title =        "Formal methods in mathematics",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "100--103",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99827",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Reddy:1990:FMT,
  author =       "Uday S. Reddy",
  title =        "Formal methods in transformational derivation of
                 programs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "104--114",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99828",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Runciman:1990:FDS,
  author =       "Colin Runciman and Mike Firth",
  title =        "Formalised development of software by machine assisted
                 transformation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "115--117",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99829",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Toetenel:1990:SAF,
  author =       "Hans Toetenel and Jan van Katwijk and Nico Plat",
  title =        "Structured analysis --- formal design, using stream
                 and object oriented formal specifications",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "118--127",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99830",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wile:1990:ARA,
  author =       "David S. Wile",
  title =        "Adding relational abstraction to programming
                 languages",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "128--139",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99833",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wing:1990:ELP,
  author =       "Jeannette M. Wing and Chun Gong",
  title =        "Experience with the Larch Prover",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "140--143",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99835",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wood:1990:AFM,
  author =       "William G. Wood",
  title =        "Application of formal methods to system and software
                 specification",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "144--146",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99837",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Young:1990:VPS,
  author =       "William D. Young",
  title =        "Verified program support environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "147--149",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99571.99839",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:32 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1990:RP,
  author =       "P. G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the public",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "3--17",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101328.101330",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:33 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ketchum:1990:CCQ,
  author =       "D. W. Ketchum",
  title =        "Correctness is not congruent with quality",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "18",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101328.101331",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:33 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lott:1990:CCQ,
  author =       "C. M. Lott",
  title =        "Correctness is congruent with quality",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "19--20",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101328.101332",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:33 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Laplante:1990:HU,
  author =       "P. Laplante",
  title =        "{Heisenberg} Uncertainty",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "21--22",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101328.101333",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:33 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/h/heisenberg-werner.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper it is suggested that the Heisenberg
                 Uncertainty Principle, normally applied to physical
                 systems, can be applied in analogy to certain phenomena
                 found in software engineering. The point is illustrated
                 with several examples. The applications of this
                 principle in the design and testing of software is
                 discussed. The import of this is that paradigms
                 relating physical phenomena to software engineering may
                 be found.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Aiken:1990:ABS,
  author =       "M. W. Aiken",
  title =        "{AI} based simulation in reusability",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "23--27",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101328.101334",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:33 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents a knowledge-based approach for
                 selecting and testing modular reusable code. This
                 approach entails three stages: system definition
                 through a system entity structure (SES), SES pruning
                 and model synthesis using an expert system (ES), and
                 the evaluation of candidate design models using
                 discrete event simulation (DEVS). An example of this
                 approach is shown through the development of a Group
                 Decision Support System (GDSS) idea generation tool.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Carasik:1990:DDG,
  author =       "R. P. Carasik and S. M. Johnson and D. A. Patterson
                 and G. A. {Von Glahn}",
  title =        "Domain description grammar: application of linguistic
                 semantics",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "28--43",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101328.101335",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:33 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Domain descriptions should represent more than the
                 characteristics of data and the operations on it. They
                 should be ``semantic'' in the sense that they may
                 represent information such as the meanings of special
                 terms used in the business, as well as goals and rules.
                 ER models are often described as ``semantic data
                 models''. However, the correspondence between ER and
                 natural language is through syntactic rather than
                 through semantic constructs. Conceptual modeling
                 languages and knowledge representation techniques are
                 more appropriate for representing domain meaning.
                 Modern research in linguistics, semantics, and
                 artificial intelligence provides valuable insight into
                 basic issues regarding such representations. Domain
                 descriptions must use languages based on
                 generally-accepted linguistic and knowledge
                 representation principles.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jean:1990:ETO,
  author =       "C. Jean and A. Strohmeier",
  title =        "An experience in teaching {OOD} for {Ada} software",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "44--49",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101328.101336",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:33 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/adabooks.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Overmyer:1990:DSM,
  author =       "S. P. Overmyer",
  title =        "{DoD-Std-2167A} and methodologies",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "50--59",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101328.101338",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:33 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Many experts in software engineering agree that the
                 emerging iterative requirements engineering, software
                 engineering and software design methodologies present
                 excellent ways to identify and validate user
                 requirements. These methodologies often include
                 innovative techniques for elicitation and validation of
                 user requirements including various forms of human
                 engineering analysis, rapid prototyping, and knowledge
                 acquisition tasks. This paper addresses the
                 compatibility of these techniques with DoD-Std-2167A.
                 Assessment is made regarding the compatibility of the
                 standard with innovative requirements techniques, and
                 how and where these techniques may be inserted into the
                 life cycle.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Mrdalj:1990:BOO,
  author =       "S. Mrdalj",
  title =        "Biblio of object-oriented system development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "60--63",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/101328.101339",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:33 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "An increasing number of articles and books is being
                 published in the area of object-oriented system
                 development (OOSD). A need for collection,
                 classification and evaluation of the available material
                 is already evident. This is why we decided to collect a
                 bibliography when we started our research project on
                 comparison of object-oriented analysis and design
                 methods. Most of the included items do not attack the
                 whole problem of OOSD but together they represent work
                 done on many aspects of the problem. Some are related
                 to the system design using various object-oriented
                 programming languages. Also a few items have been
                 included that deal with object-oriented principles in
                 general. There are even some which are ``comments'' or
                 ``discussions'' on the topic. The items were chosen on
                 the basis that they should have some direct reference
                 to object-oriented system development. This
                 bibliography contains material in the field that has
                 been published before Spring 1990. It is by no means
                 supposed to be complete. If any references of
                 particular significance have been omitted, the author
                 would appreciate hearing about them. I hope this
                 bibliography will help those planning to build
                 object-oriented systems, or those who are working on
                 new OOSD methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garlan:1990:LCA,
  author =       "David Garlan and Ehsan Ilias",
  title =        "Low-cost, adaptable tool integration policies for
                 integrated environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "1--10",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99279",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "An important requirement for successful integrated
                 programming environments is support for implicit tool
                 invocation; rather than force a user to explicitly
                 invoke each tool, mechanisms in the environment can
                 take responsibility for guaranteeing that the right
                 tools are invoked at the right times. However, these
                 mechanisms typically intertwine policies of when and
                 how the tools are invoked, with what the tools do when
                 they are invoked. Consequently, adapting the
                 environment to achieve different tool interactions is
                 often difficult without modifying the code that
                 implements the environment or the tools. In this paper
                 we describe a simple, low-cost mechanism that solves
                 this problem. Specifically, we show how tool
                 integration based on selective broadcast can be adapted
                 to allow dynamically configurable policies of tool
                 interaction. We describe an implementation of these
                 mechanisms, and show how it supports multiple levels of
                 users.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Clement:1990:DAP,
  author =       "Dominique Cl{\'e}ment",
  title =        "A distributed architecture for programming
                 environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "11--21",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99280",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Programming environments are typically based on
                 concepts, such as syntax and semantics, and they
                 provide functionalities, such as parsing, editing,
                 type-checking, and compiling. Most existing programming
                 environments are designed in a fully integrated manner,
                 where parsers, editors, and semantic tools are tightly
                 coupled. This leads to systems that are the sum of all
                 their components, with obvious implications in terms of
                 size, reusability, and maintainability. In this paper,
                 we present a proposal for a distributed architecture
                 for programming environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sullivan:1990:REI,
  author =       "Kevin Sullivan and David Notkin",
  title =        "Reconciling environment integration and component
                 independence",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "22--33",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99281",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We present an approach that eases the design and
                 evolution of integrated environments by increasing
                 independence among components. Our approach combines
                 mediators, which localize relationships, and a general
                 event mechanism, which increases the independence of
                 components from relationships in which they
                 participate. To clarify our notion of independence and
                 its relationship to evolution, we analyze four designs
                 for a simple environment. The first three show how
                 common approaches compromise independence in various
                 ways. The fourth design demonstrates how our approach
                 overcomes these problems. Our event mechanism is
                 specially designed to support integration and
                 evolution. We discuss detailed aspects of mediators and
                 events by presenting three environments we have built.
                 Our approach has also given us significant insights
                 into other related systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Qian:1990:CMP,
  author =       "Xiaolei Qian and Richard Jullig and Marilyn Daum",
  title =        "Consistency management in a project management
                 assistant",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "34--43",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99282",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Object management systems have been identified as the
                 core of object-oriented software development
                 environments. One of the most important objectives of
                 object management systems is to maintain consistency
                 between the vast amount of interrelated objects, which
                 is generated, accessed, and manipulated throughout the
                 software life cycle. Consistency management in such
                 systems is beyond the reach of conventional database
                 technology due to the complex structure and the
                 incompleteness of data, the dynamic nature of
                 constraints, and the need to tolerate various levels of
                 inconsistency. We investigate the design issues for
                 consistency management in the context of a Project
                 Management Assistant. Our consistency manager organizes
                 constraints into a hierarchy of consistency, and
                 associates a spectrum of management techniques with
                 classes of constraints. The various levels of
                 consistency are achieved by enabling or disabling
                 classes of constraints, and propagating constraints
                 cross the class boundary. The constraint manager is
                 capable of compiling constraint specifications into
                 triggers attached to objects in the object base. The
                 architecture is open to new constraints and new
                 management techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Minsky:1990:CMC,
  author =       "Naftaly H. Minsky and David Rozenshtein",
  title =        "Configuration management by consensus: an application
                 of law-governed systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "44--55",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99283",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "It is self-evident that if one wants to model and
                 control the cooperative process of software
                 development, one must provide for cooperative decision
                 making. In particular, one should be able to base the
                 decision on whether and how to carry out a given
                 operation on the consensus of several, possibly
                 independent, agents. It is important to emphasize that
                 this is not just a matter of computing the conjunction
                 of some set of conditions. One must also provide a
                 mechanism for establishing any desired consensus
                 structure, which would specify who is allowed to state
                 which kinds of concerns regarding this operation, and
                 what the relationship among these concerns should be.
                 In this paper we propose a general framework for such
                 decision making by consensus, which is based on the
                 concept of law-governed software development. As a
                 concrete application domain in which to illustrate this
                 framework, we consider here the issue of configuration
                 binding.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tan:1990:CCO,
  author =       "Lichao Tan and Yoichi Shinoda and Takuya Katayama",
  title =        "Coping with changes in an object management system
                 based on attribute grammars",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "56--65",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99284",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper, we discuss methods of dealing with
                 change in an object management system OS/O, which is a
                 prototype of an attribute grammar based object
                 management model, called Object-Oriented Attribute
                 Grammars(OOAG)[SK 9Oa]. OOAG is a hybrid model that
                 combines features of functional and object-oriented
                 paradigms. Various aspects of software object databases
                 can be described using its capabilities. Software
                 objects in OOAG are managed as autonomous, hierarchical
                 trees containing attributes. The OOAG is also capable
                 of describing software processes as hierarchies of
                 software objects, with data driven process enaction
                 mechanism. Many aspects of changes to such a tree,
                 including the evolution of the tree type definition, or
                 the dynamic transformation of its internal structure
                 can be dealt with easily by the benefits of a combined
                 attribute grammars based and object oriented paradigm.
                 We also introduce a mechanism that helps to provide an
                 efficient way for manipulating changed objects. The
                 mechanism is characterized by meta-objects that are
                 used to control the evaluation of the changes.
                 Meta-objects prove to be a suitable mechanism for
                 handling change management tasks in evolving object
                 environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jordan:1990:EPE,
  author =       "Mick Jordan",
  title =        "An extensible programming environment for Modula-3",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "66--76",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99285",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the design and implementation of
                 a practical programming environment for the Modula-3
                 programming language. The environment is organised
                 around an extensible intermediate representation of
                 programs and makes extensive use of reusable
                 components. The environment is implemented in Modula-3
                 and exploits some of the novel features of the
                 language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ballance:1990:PLB,
  author =       "Robert A. Ballance and Susan L. Graham and Michael L.
                 {Van De Vanter}",
  title =        "The {Pan} language-based editing system for integrated
                 development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "77--93",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99286",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Powerful editing systems for developing complex
                 software documents are difficult to engineer. Besides
                 requiring efficient incremental algorithms and complex
                 data structures, such editors must integrate smoothly
                 with the other tools in the environment, maintain a
                 sharable database of information concerning the
                 documents being edited, accommodate flexible editing
                 styles, provide a consistent, coherent, and empowering
                 user interface, and support individual variations and
                 project-wide configurations. Pan is a language-based
                 editing and browsing system that exhibits these
                 characteristics. This paper surveys the design and
                 engineering of Pan, paying particular attention to a
                 number of issues that pervade the system: incremental
                 checking and analysis, information retention in the
                 presence of change, tolerance for errors and anomalies,
                 and extension facilities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ipser:1990:MFS,
  author =       "Edward A. Ipser and David S. Wile and Dean Jacobs",
  title =        "A multi-formalism specification environment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "94--106",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99287",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes initial work on a software
                 development environment capable of smoothly integrating
                 modules written in different languages. The focus of
                 this work is on supporting the construction of
                 executable, multi-formalism specifications, where each
                 part of a problem is described in a language that is
                 close to its underlying domain. We distinguish
                 specifications from programs to emphasize the closeness
                 of the formalism to these domains rather than
                 underlying computational models, and to indicate that
                 we are not attempting to integrate existing
                 implementations of programming languages. Rather, we
                 provide a grammar-based framework for the construction
                 and integration of interpreters for different
                 specification formalisms. The key to our approach is
                 that formalisms communicate through grammatically
                 described interfaces. Such interfaces hide incompatible
                 aspects of different formalisms, allowing new
                 combinations of formalisms to be created easily.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Goldberg:1990:RSD,
  author =       "Allen Goldberg",
  title =        "Reusing software developments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "107--119",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99288",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software development environments of the future will
                 be characterized by extensive reuse of previous work.
                 This paper addresses the issue of reusability in the
                 context in which design is achieved by the
                 transformational development of formal specifications
                 into efficient implementations. It explores how an
                 implementation of a modified specification can be
                 realized by replaying the transformational derivation
                 of the original and modifying it as required by changes
                 made to the specification. Our approach is to structure
                 derivations using the notion of tactics, and record
                 derivation histories as an execution trace of the
                 application of tactics. One key idea is that tactics
                 are compositional: higher level tactics are constructed
                 from more rudimentary using defined control primitives.
                 This is similar to the approach used in LCF[12] and
                 NuPRL[1, 8]. Given such a derivation history and a
                 modified specification, the correspondence problem [21,
                 20] addresses how during replay a correspondence
                 between program parts of the original and modified
                 program is established. Our approach uses a combination
                 of name association, structural properties, and
                 associating components to one another by intensional
                 descriptions of objects defined in the transformations
                 themselves. An implementation of a rudimentary replay
                 mechanism for our interactive development system is
                 described. For example with the system we can first
                 derive a program from a specification that computes
                 some basic statistics such as mean, variance, frequency
                 data, etc. The derivation is about 15 steps; it
                 involves deriving an efficient means of computing
                 frequency data, combining loops and selecting data
                 structures. We can then modify the specification by
                 adding the ability to compute the maximum or mode and
                 replay the steps of the previous derivation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hart:1990:EDS,
  author =       "C. Frederick Hart and John J. Shilling",
  title =        "An environment for documenting software features",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "120--132",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99289",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The software engineering environment described in this
                 paper directly addresses the problems of modifying
                 software by explicitly linking software designs to
                 implementations --- localizing and partitioning the
                 portions of the implementation corresponding to
                 distinct features and thus facilitating understanding.
                 The operations of feature extraction and generic
                 feature instantiation implemented in this environment
                 provide mechanisms for partially automating the
                 configuration of software. Software documentation based
                 on the notion of features not only records information
                 on program function and structure but information on
                 how maintenance is to be performed. Furthermore, a
                 design environment supporting features and feature
                 contexts promotes feature-oriented design which means
                 designing for reuse and maintainability.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Yang:1990:PIA,
  author =       "Wuu Yang and Susan Horwitz and Thomas Reps",
  title =        "A program integration algorithm that accommodates
                 semantics-preserving transformations",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "133--143",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99290",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a program Base and two variants, A and B, each
                 created by modifying separate copies of Base, the goal
                 of program integration is to determine whether the
                 modifications interfere, and if they do not, to create
                 an integrated program that includes both sets of
                 changes as well as the portions of Base preserved in
                 both variants. Text-based integration techniques, such
                 as the one used by the UNIX diff3 utility, are
                 obviously unsatisfactory because one has no guarantees
                 about how the execution behavior of the integrated
                 program relates to the behaviors of Base, A, and B. The
                 first program-integration algorithm to provide such
                 guarantees was developed by Horwitz, Prins, and Reps.
                 However, a limitation of that algorithm is that it
                 incorporates no notion of semantics-preserving
                 transformations. This limitation causes the algorithm
                 to be overly conservative in its definition of
                 interference. For example, if one variant changes the
                 way a computation is performed (without changing the
                 values computed) while the other variant adds code that
                 uses the result of the computation, the algorithm would
                 classify those changes as interfering. This paper
                 describes a new integration algorithm that is able to
                 accommodate semantics-preserving transformations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Snodgrass:1990:FGD,
  author =       "Richard Snodgrass and Karen Shannon",
  title =        "Fine grained data management to achieve evolution
                 resilience in a software development environment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "144--156",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99291",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A software development environment (SDE) exhibits
                 evolution resilience if changes to the SDE do not
                 adversely affect its functionality nor performance, and
                 also do not introduce delays in returning the SDE to an
                 operational state after a change. Evolution resilience
                 is especially difficult to achieve when manipulating
                 fine grained data, which must be tightly bound to the
                 language in which the SDE is implemented to achieve
                 adequate performance. We examine a spectrum of
                 approaches to tool integration that range from high
                 SDE-development-time efficiency to high
                 SDE-execution-time efficiency. We then present a
                 meta-environment, a specific SDE tailored to the
                 development of target SDE's, that supports easy
                 movement of individual tools along this spectrum.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lockman:1990:PTT,
  author =       "Abe Lockman and John Salasin",
  title =        "A procedure and tools for transition engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "157--172",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99292",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kobialka:1990:CEG,
  author =       "Hans-Ulrich Kobialka",
  title =        "Configuration editing, generation and test within
                 working contexts",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "173--182",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99293",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In a software development environment any progress is
                 reflected in modifications of design documents. These
                 changes must be attended by recording of versions in
                 order to restore consistent states and to rebuild
                 delivered systems for error detection. The introduction
                 of versions implies the need for version selection
                 mechanisms, to achieve the same degree of operability
                 as known in versionless environments. This paper
                 introduces a version selection mechanism based on the
                 notion of working contexts. Examples generated by the
                 ADD document management system illustrate how editing,
                 generation and test of configurations are eased using
                 working contexts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ambriola:1990:SPE,
  author =       "V. Ambriola and P. Ciancarini and C. Montangero",
  title =        "Software process enactment in Oikos",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "183--192",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99294",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Despite much research work in progress to model the
                 different facets of software process enactment from
                 different approaches, there are no models yet generally
                 recognized as adequate, and there is need for more
                 experimentation. We describe the Oikos environment and
                 its coordination language ESP: they provide an
                 infrastructure in which experiments may be performed
                 and evaluated. Oikos predefines a number of services
                 offering basic facilities, like access to data bases,
                 workspaces, user interfaces etc.. Services are
                 customizable, in a declarative way that matches
                 naturally the way ESP defines and controls the software
                 process. ESP allows to define services, to structure
                 them in a dynamic hierarchy, and to coordinate them
                 according to the blackboard paradigm. The concepts of
                 environment and of software process and their interplay
                 are naturally characterized in Oikos, in terms of sets
                 of services and of the hierarchy. In the paper, an
                 example taken from a real project (the specification of
                 a small language and the implementation of its
                 compiler) shows how Oikos and ESP are effective for
                 software process enactment. As it is, ESP embeds Prolog
                 as its sequential component, and combines it smoothly
                 to the blackboard approach to deal with concurrency and
                 distribution. Anyway, most of the concepts used to
                 model and enact software processes are largely
                 independent of logic programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Gruhn:1990:MSP,
  author =       "Volker Gruhn",
  title =        "Managing software processes in the environment
                 {MELMAC}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "193--205",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99295",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we introduce an approach to software
                 process modeling and execution based on the distinction
                 between an application level (oriented towards a
                 comprehensive representation of software process
                 models) and an intermediate level representation of
                 software process models (oriented towards uniform and
                 executable description of software process models). The
                 application level representation of software models
                 identifies various entities of software process models.
                 For describing different entities of software process
                 models different views are used. The entities specified
                 within all the views are uniformly represented on the
                 intermediate level by FUNSOFT nets. FUNSOFT nets are
                 high-level Petri nets which are adapted to the
                 requirements of software process management. A
                 mechanism for coping with software process model
                 modifications raised in software process execution is
                 introduced. This mechanism is based on modification
                 points. Moreover, we discuss the architecture of the
                 environment MELMAC which supports software process
                 modeling as well as software process execution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sutton:1990:LCM,
  author =       "Stanley M. {Sutton, Jr.} and Dennis Heimbigner and
                 Leon J. Osterweil",
  title =        "Language constructs for managing change in
                 process-centered environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "206--217",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99296",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Change is pervasive during software development,
                 affecting objects, processes, and environments. In
                 process centered environments, change management can be
                 facilitated by software-process programming, which
                 formalizes the representation of software products and
                 processes using software-process programming languages
                 (SPPLs). To fully realize this goal SPPLs should
                 include constructs that specifically address the
                 problems of change management. These problems include
                 lack of representation of inter-object relationships,
                 weak semantics for inter-object relationships,
                 visibility of implementations, lack of formal
                 representation of software processes, and reliance on
                 programmers to manage change manually. APPL/A is a
                 prototype SPPL that addresses these problems. APPL/A is
                 an extension to Ada.. The principal extensions include
                 abstract, persistent relations with programmable
                 implementations, relation attributes that may be
                 composite and derived, triggers that react to relation
                 operations, optionally-enforceable predicates on
                 relations, and five composite statements with
                 transaction-like capabilities. APPL/A relations and
                 triggers are especially important for the problems
                 raised here. Relations enable inter-object
                 relationships to be represented explicitly and
                 derivation dependencies to be maintained automatically.
                 Relation bodies can be programmed to implement
                 alternative storage and computation strategies without
                 affecting users of relation specifications. Triggers
                 can react to changes in relations, automatically
                 propagating data, invoking tools, and performing other
                 change management tasks. Predicates and the
                 transaction-like statements support change management
                 in the face of evolving standards of consistency.
                 Together, these features mitigate many of the problems
                 that complicate change management in software processes
                 and process-centered environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ossher:1990:SCR,
  author =       "Harold Ossher and William Harrison",
  title =        "Support for change in {RPDE3}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "218--228",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99297",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "RPDE$^3$ is a framework for building environments.
                 Great emphasis has been placed on supporting changes of
                 various kinds, such as extensions to existing
                 environments and creation of new environments by
                 adapting existing environments. We have a three-pronged
                 approach to supporting change: (1) use of a central
                 framework providing key services is a uniform fashion,
                 (2) an extended object-oriented programming paradigm
                 supporting fine-grained changes by addition of small
                 code fragments, and (3) structured representation of
                 program material facilitating sophisticated
                 language-sensitive processing. RPDE$^3$ has been used
                 on a daily basis for its own development for about
                 three years now, and during that time has undergone
                 extensive change. This experience has indicated
                 strongly that our approach to supporting change is
                 effective, and has identified extensions to it that
                 should make it more effective still. This paper
                 describes the approach and, primarily, our
                 experience.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Mahler:1990:ICM,
  author =       "Axel Mahler and Andreas Lampen",
  title =        "Integrating configuration management into a generic
                 environment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "229--237",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99298",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The software development process consists of a number
                 of complex activities for work coordination,
                 organization, communication, and disciplines that are
                 essential for achieving quality software, maintaining
                 system integrity, and keeping the software process
                 manageable. Software Engineering Environments can be
                 helpful instruments in pursuing these goals when they
                 are integrated, open to extension, and capable of
                 adapting to real processes as they occur in software
                 development projects. Adaptability and the ability to
                 perform adaptations rapidly are crucial features of
                 SEEs. In this paper we are presenting an approach to
                 rapid environment extension that provides the means to
                 capture characteristics of software development
                 processes and realize environment support for these
                 processes by using existing tools. An object oriented
                 environment infrastructure is the basis for achieving
                 these goals while providing and maintaining an
                 integrated behavior of the environment. The presented
                 approach is demonstrated by defining a set of classes
                 for version control and configuration management that
                 model the behavior of an existing configuration
                 management toolkit.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tedjini:1990:QSS,
  author =       "Mohamed Tedjini and Ian Thomas and Guy Benoliel and
                 Fernando Gallo and R{\'e}gis Minot",
  title =        "A query service for a software engineering database
                 system",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "238--248",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/99278.99299",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:34 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The PCTE interfaces define a Public Tool Interface
                 intended to serve as a basis for the construction of
                 integrated software engineering environments (SEEs).
                 The interfaces include Object Management System (OMS)
                 services that manage the data repository of the
                 environment. The OMS is based on a binary
                 Entity-Relationship model. This paper describes a query
                 service constructed on the PCTE interfaces. Following a
                 brief summary of the OMS features that are necessary to
                 understand the paper, we describe the requirements and
                 design objectives for a query service in an integrated
                 SEE, the basic model for our solution, and then review
                 the facilities of the service. The paper also contains
                 a comparison with other work on queries on E-R and
                 object-oriented databases. The paper's conclusions
                 indicate the differences that exist between
                 requirements and characteristics for query services on
                 SEE data repositories and those for other databases. It
                 shows, for example, how assumptions about data
                 availability and accessibility that are often made for
                 query services are not appropriate for SEE data
                 repositories.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wei:1991:MCU,
  author =       "Yin-min Wei and Klaus Eldridge",
  title =        "Module Completeness as a Useful Guideline for
                 Programming",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:36 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Scarlato:1991:DAS,
  author =       "Philip P. Scarlato",
  title =        "Developing {Ada} software without target hardware",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "36--40",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/126496.126497",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:36 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/adabooks.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "An analysis of several of the Ada software projects
                 recently completed at the E-Systems ECI Division
                 reveals that although the software is very target
                 specific, a large portion of this software could be
                 developed independent of the target hardware. Only a
                 very small portion of this software could not be
                 developed in some way without the physical target
                 hardware. However, it seems that the projects that
                 experienced the most difficulty in completing the
                 software task had a large portion of the software that
                 was target test dependent. To visualize this software
                 development difficulty, the target test dependent
                 portion of software can be thought of as the small
                 portion of an iceberg's mass that is visible above the
                 water line as illustrated in figure 1 --- the greater
                 the mass above the water line, the greater the overall
                 mass of the iceberg, the longer the melt down, and the
                 greater the threat to navigation. Therefore, to reduce
                 the overall navigation threat to project completion,
                 this target test dependent software should be limited
                 in a manner that allows the bulk of the iceberg to be
                 verified and fine tuned independent of the target
                 hardware. This paper discusses software development
                 tactics used to reduce the overall risk in developing
                 software for a project in which hardware and software
                 were developed in parallel and access to the target
                 hardware was limited or unavailable until after the
                 majority of the software was developed. These tactics
                 are useful in partitioning the software into a
                 manageable form, can help prevent the creation of
                 duplicate software development, and can allow Computer
                 Software Component (CSC) integration and test of the
                 majority of the software in the host environment before
                 the target hardware becomes available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Rine:1991:PSS,
  author =       "David C. Rine",
  title =        "A proposed standard set of principles for
                 object-oriented development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "43--49",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/126496.126498",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:36 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Maciaszek:1991:ACR,
  author =       "Leszek A. Maciaszek",
  title =        "{AD}\slash Cycle repository manager from
                 object-oriented perspective",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "50--53",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/126496.126499",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:36 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The advantage of an object-oriented approach to
                 development is that it offers the analyst, designer and
                 programmer a higher level of abstraction in which to
                 work. AD/Cycle uses object orientation in two contexts:
                 (1) it encourages an object-oriented approach to
                 software production based on AD/Cycle, and (2) it
                 presents itself as an object-oriented database
                 development platform. The former is a methodological
                 issue, the latter --- an environmental issue. The
                 methodological issue is only sketched in AD/Cycle
                 documents, and as such is addressed only briefly in
                 this paper. The main thread of the paper is on the
                 evaluation of the environmental aspect of AD/Cycle.
                 This implies that the paper concentrates on the
                 Repository Manager of AD/Cycle. In particular, the
                 paper examines the conceptual specification view and
                 also the logical specification view combined with
                 run-time services. The conclusions of this paper are
                 only as sound as the object orientation paradigm
                 itself. The paper places special emphasis on this
                 issue. It is believed that object orientation solves
                 the application a nd data management problems faced by
                 CASE developers and users, but hard proof has yet to be
                 provided. The same applies to the claims of
                 productivity improvements in most but particularly
                 susceptible application development activities (such as
                 window management).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ducasse:1991:ODEa,
  author =       "Mireille Ducass{\'e} and Anna-Maria Emde",
  title =        "{OPIUM}: a debugging environment for {Prolog}
                 development and debugging research",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "54--59",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/126496.126500",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:36 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Opium is an extensible debugging environment for
                 PROLOG providing high-level debugging facilities for
                 programmers and debugging experts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kamat:1991:CR,
  author =       "Vikas K. Kamat",
  title =        "Code reader",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "60--61",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/126496.126501",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:36 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Source code reading as an element of Software
                 Engineering has long been ignored. Presented here is a
                 pseudo-design of a Code reader (CREAD) for 'C' like
                 language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kirner:1991:RTS,
  author =       "Tereza G. Kirner",
  title =        "Real-time systems specification: a process and a
                 tool",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "62--67",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/126496.126502",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:36 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bukovsky:1991:PAS,
  author =       "Nikolay S. Bukovsky",
  title =        "A practical approach to software quality assurance",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "68--72",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/126496.126503",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:36 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software quality assurance (SQA) has been recognized
                 as an effective approach to quality problems. This
                 paper reflects INTERPROGRAMA Institute's experience in
                 developing and implementing a SQA program. Topics to be
                 discussed will include: Phased approach to SQA
                 implementation; Management and organization of SQA;
                 Quality measurement; Quality control procedures;
                 Quality measurement tools; Developers' participation in
                 SQA; Anomaly reporting; Quality planning; Defects
                 analysis; INTERPROGRAMA's practical experience and
                 results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lai:1991:ATT,
  author =       "Robert Chi Tau Lai",
  title =        "{Ada} task taxonomy support for concurrent
                 programming",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--91",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/126496.126504",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:36 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/adabooks.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Ada task taxonomy can be used as the main scheme
                 to help programmers to develop concurrent programs. The
                 conventional way of defining a taxonomy for software
                 modules is not based on the interactive behavior of the
                 modules. The behavior of Ada tasks is more dynamic than
                 that of other Ada modules such as procedures, functions
                 and packages. By classifying sets of tasks by their
                 interactive characteristics, functions, and procedural
                 behaviors, a task taxonomy can be formulated. Task
                 taxonomy can be used as an abstraction for software
                 developers to design, store, and retrieve concurrent
                 systems and reusable parts. A set of tools based on
                 characteristics formally representing kinds of tasks
                 can be designed. This set of tools will help
                 programmers define their own task taxonomies for
                 designing, constructing, and maintaining concurrent
                 systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1991:RPCa,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the public in computers and related systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "4--18",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122539",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{DeTreville:1991:CT,
  author =       "John DeTreville",
  title =        "A cautionary tale",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19--22",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122540",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lyu:1991:PRD,
  author =       "Michael Lyu",
  title =        "{PANEL}: research and development issues in software
                 reliability engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23--30",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122541",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kilov:1991:CCE,
  author =       "Haim Kilov",
  title =        "Conventional and convenient in entity-relationship
                 modeling",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "31--32",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122542",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Waters:1991:TDA,
  author =       "Richard C. Waters and Yang Meng Tan",
  title =        "Toward a design apprentice: supporting reuse and
                 evolution in software design",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "33--34",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122543",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Peterson:1991:CTS,
  author =       "A. Spencer Peterson",
  title =        "Coming to terms with software reuse terminology: a
                 model-based approach",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "45--51",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122544",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This article attempts to standardize the use of many
                 terms used in the software reuse literature. Three
                 terms of particular interest --- taxonomy, software
                 reuse, and domain analysis --- and some problems with
                 their usage are discussed. The specific problems with
                 these terms are generalized and several solutions are
                 given, the most important being the introduction of the
                 concept of using reuse process models to provide both
                 context and an overall view of the potential areas of
                 discourse in reuse. Several new terms are proposed for
                 future use; definitions of existing terms that are
                 meaningful in the context of software reuse are also
                 included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cherry:1991:SCOa,
  author =       "George W. Cherry",
  title =        "Software construction by object-oriented pictures:
                 stimulus-response machines",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "52--56",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122545",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Beckman:1991:DHT,
  author =       "Brian Beckman",
  title =        "Debugging for hypercubes in time warp",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "57",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122546",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Marsh:1991:VPM,
  author =       "Shaun Marsh",
  title =        "The V project manager tools",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "58--61",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122548",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper proposes a simple set of tools for managing
                 the concurrent development of a given project by many
                 developers. These tools may be added to most
                 programming environments while not hiding the files
                 from other tools which the developer may wish to use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sprague:1991:RSC,
  author =       "Kristopher G. Sprague",
  title =        "The role of software configuration management in a
                 measurement-based software engineering program",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "62--66",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122547",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The role of Software Configuration Management has
                 rapidly expanded and grown in importance over the last
                 few years for a number of reasons. This paper presents
                 an overview of the significant changes that are
                 occurring in the Software Configuration Management
                 discipline with respect to its role in a
                 measurement-based software engineering program. It
                 identifies the changes, provides an overview of the SCM
                 functions, proposes a process, and discusses directions
                 for future research and development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ducasse:1991:ODEb,
  author =       "Mireille Ducass{\'e} and Anna-Maria Emde",
  title =        "{OPIUM}: a debugging environment for {Prolog}
                 development and debugging research",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "67--72",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122549",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Opium is an extensible debugging environment for
                 PROLOG providing high-level debugging facilities for
                 programmers and debugging experts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Morell:1991:IDS,
  author =       "Larry J. Morell and Jeffrey Voas",
  title =        "On the inadequacies of data state space sampling as a
                 measure of the trustworthiness of programs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "73--74",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122550",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Omar:1991:SSF,
  author =       "A. A. Omar and F. A. Mohammed",
  title =        "A survey of software functional testing methods",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "75--82",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122538.122551",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:37 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Functional testing is used to find disagreement
                 between the specifications and the actual
                 implementation of the software systems. The method of
                 representing the specification can help to detect
                 inconsistency and incompleteness in it. The various
                 specification representation schemes are outlined in
                 the paper. The basic technique of functional testing of
                 software systems is the black box technique. This
                 technique generates the test data using the information
                 contained in the program's specification, independent
                 of the implemented program's code. Black box testing
                 cannot discover errors contained in the functions which
                 are not mentioned explicitly in the specification.
                 Therefore, a program dependent testing is necessary to
                 discover this type of errors. The paper surveys the
                 different methods of generating test data for both
                 techniques; the black box and the program dependent
                 techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1991:RPCb,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the public in computers and related systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "3--28",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127100",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Knight:1991:PIT,
  author =       "John C. Knight and E. Ann Myers",
  title =        "{Phased} inspections and their implementation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29--35",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127101",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1991:CMM,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "A conceptual model for megaprogramming",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "36--45",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127102",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "`` Currently, software is put together one statement
                 at a time. What we need is to put software together one
                 component at a time.'' --- Barry Boehm, at the Domain
                 Specific Software Architecture (DSSA) Workshop, July
                 11--12, 1990. Megaprogramming, as defined at the first
                 ISTO Software Technology Community Meeting, June 27-29,
                 1990, by Barry Boehm, director of DARPA/ISTO, is
                 component-based software engineering and life-cycle
                 management. The goal of this paper is to place
                 megaprogramming in perspective with research in other
                 areas of software engineering (i.e., formal methods and
                 rapid prototyping) and to describe the author's
                 experience developing a system to support
                 megaprogramming. The paper, first, analyzes
                 megaprogramming and its relationship to other DARPA
                 research initiatives (CPS/CPL --- Common Prototyping
                 System/Common Prototyping Language, DSSA --- Domain
                 Specific Software Architectures, and SWU --- Software
                 Understanding). Next, the desirable attributes of
                 megaprogramming software components are identified and
                 a software development model (The 3C Model) and
                 resulting prototype megaprogramming system (LILEANNA
                 --- Library Interconnection Language Extended by
                 Annotated Ada) are described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Dolado:1991:SDG,
  author =       "Jos{\'e} Javier Dolado",
  title =        "Structured development of graph-grammars for icon
                 manipulation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "46--51",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127103",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this work we are showing a structured process to
                 build a grammar for icon manipulation. We presuppose
                 that the object to be manipulated in the computer
                 screen can be stated as a set of relations among its
                 parts. We describe a procedure to generate a program
                 that manipulates the object, guaranteeing that only
                 objects with those properties will be constructed, and
                 that every instance of that object is allowable. The
                 formation rules for the object are stored in terms of
                 attributed graph-grammars productions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cherry:1991:RMV,
  author =       "George W. Cherry",
  title =        "{S-R} machines: a visual formalism for reactive and
                 interactive systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "52--55",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127105",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wybolt:1991:PCT,
  author =       "Nicholas Wybolt",
  title =        "Perspectives on {CASE} tool integration",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "56--60",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127106",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "CASE tool integration means making the whole tool
                 environment greater than the sum of its constituent
                 parts (tools). An integrated CASE environment, in turn,
                 is built on an integration framework. This paper
                 presents a series of perspectives on CASE tool
                 integration and frameworks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Prieto-Diaz:1991:MSR,
  author =       "Rub{\'e}n Prieto-D{\'\i}az",
  title =        "Making software reuse work: an implementation model",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "61--68",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127107",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Despite software reuse's promise to significantly
                 improve software quality and productivity, its practice
                 remains elusive. The difficult issues outside the
                 technical realm are seldom addressed. To be practical,
                 reuse must address not only technical but managerial,
                 economic, performance, cultural, and technology
                 transfer issues. A model for implementing software
                 reuse programs is discussed and supported by successful
                 experiences. This model is based on an incremental
                 strategy and addresses the above issues, directly and
                 indirectly. The approach is practical, effective, and
                 has potential to make reuse a regular practice in the
                 software development process. Portions of the model
                 have been used successfully in consulting with SPC
                 member companies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Yu:1991:VTR,
  author =       "Don Yu",
  title =        "A view on three {R}'s ({3Rs}): reuse, re-engineering,
                 and reverse-engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "69",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127109",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Buckley:1991:PAS,
  author =       "Fletcher J. Buckley",
  title =        "Perestroika, anyone? {A} standard for democracy in
                 professional organizations",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "70--72",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127111",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The IEEE Computer Society has been recently taken to
                 task for being an ``old boys'' club. Response to these
                 kind of attacks can sometimes be to raise the
                 drawbridge, drop the portcullis and man the
                 battlements. Sometimes, however, it is more productive
                 to sift through the muck and the mire, take a look at
                 the facts and see if a real problem exists. In this
                 particular case, as Al Smith used to say, let's take a
                 look at the record.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{MacAuslan:1991:CDH,
  author =       "Joel MacAuslan",
  title =        "Comments on debugging hypercubes in a {von Neumann}
                 language",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "73",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127113",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Foster:1991:AST,
  author =       "Kenneth A. Foster",
  title =        "Arithmetic statement testing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "74--77",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127115",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tripp:1991:RFS,
  author =       "Leonard L. Tripp",
  title =        "Report on future software engineering standards
                 direction",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "77",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127117",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Musa:1991:PAR,
  author =       "John D. Musa",
  title =        "Performance analysis rat holes to avoid or how to
                 stall a performance presentation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "78",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127119",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Musa:1991:RFE,
  author =       "John D. Musa",
  title =        "Rationale for fault exposure ratio {$K$}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "79",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127121",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Musa:1991:ETN,
  author =       "John D. Musa and A. Iannino",
  title =        "Estimating the total number of software failures using
                 an exponential model",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "80--84",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127123",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Different approaches to estimating the total number of
                 failures parameter for the Jelinski-Moranda model are
                 considered. The maximum likelihood estimator, a
                 harmonic jackknife maximum likelihood estimator, and a
                 simple Bayesian estimator are studied. None of these is
                 found to be entirely satisfactory, each suffering from
                 either infinite estimates and/or severe bias in small
                 to moderate samples. The purpose of this paper is to
                 summarize this work, in order to stimulate a search for
                 better estimators.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Saradhi:1991:SDP,
  author =       "Motamarri Saradhi",
  title =        "Systems deployment planning and scheduling",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "85--87",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127124",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In any large scale Systems Development activity, it is
                 unlikely that the whole application system is ready at
                 a time for deployment/launching to live action. In case
                 of turnkey projects the situation is much more
                 critical. Added to this there can be situations in
                 which, the implementation of design and deployment of
                 application system may have to go in tandem. As the
                 Systems Development Life Cycle does not include these,
                 the Project Management within that constrained
                 framework may likely face enormous setbacks. I have
                 realised these issues in the process of a turnkey
                 computerisation project for a large Thrift and Credit
                 Co-Operative Society application. The paper aims at
                 elaborating the role of Systems Deployment Planning and
                 Scheduling for successful Systems Development and
                 Deployment in such situations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lindquist:1991:OVT,
  author =       "Timothy E. Lindquist and Kurt M. Gutzmann and David L.
                 Remkes and Gary McKee",
  title =        "Optimization of validation test suite coverage",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "87--92",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127126",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Test coverage is an important aspect of a validation
                 suite for implementations of a standard such as the
                 CAIS. This paper presents the development and
                 application of a constrained optimization process for
                 CAIS test coverage. Subjective criteria and goals
                 combined with objective measures of test coverage
                 derived from information models yield a
                 quasi-quantitative figure of merit for test objectives.
                 The approach next identifies resource (time and effort)
                 and process constraints. A greedy algorithm provides a
                 partial solution to the coverage design problem. The
                 decreasing first fit bin packing heuristic then refines
                 the coverage measure of the validation test suite
                 within the process constraints. Finally, the paper
                 presents the results of the application test selection
                 and optimization process to the design of the CIVC-A
                 test suite.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Smith:1991:QAT,
  author =       "Richard E. Smith",
  title =        "Quality assurance through direct implementation of
                 analysis and design constructs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "93--94",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/127099.127128",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:38 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A measurably good design does not guarantee a
                 correspondingly good implementation. When an
                 implementer translates a software design into the
                 implementation language. We weaken the correspondence
                 between the measured capabilities of the design and the
                 implementation. This can lead to a failure to achieve
                 goals that the design originally assured. We can avoid
                 such failures if we transform the exad models and
                 structures from the analysis and design phase into
                 software components of the implementation. This paper
                 presents a practitioners efforts to integrate realtime
                 software implementation with the abstractions used in
                 system analysis and design. Our approach as been to
                 adapt existing paradigms and took to achieve this
                 effect. We have applied this to three real time
                 software projects using techniques such as object
                 oriented analysis and data low design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Boundy:1991:TP,
  author =       "David Boundy",
  title =        "A taxonomy of programmers",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23--30",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122552.122553",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:39 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{vonMayrhauser:1991:TED,
  author =       "Anneliese von Mayrhauser",
  title =        "Testing and evolutionary development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "31--36",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122552.122554",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:39 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Shimomura:1991:ARM,
  author =       "Takao Shimomura",
  title =        "Automatic resumption mechanism for program debugging",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "37--41",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122552.122555",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:39 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In program debugging, tracing control instructions
                 that examine internal program states can be saved in a
                 file and this file can be used to initialize the
                 debugging environment when a program is loaded by a
                 debugger. When a source program is modified because of
                 bugs, however, source line numbers are also changed. It
                 is therefore necessary to update the source line
                 numbers in a tracing control instruction file according
                 to the modifications in the source program. This paper
                 proposes a solution by means of an automatic resumption
                 mechanism that simplifies the debugging procedure from
                 source modification to the beginning of the next
                 debugging. While a programmer is creating an executable
                 program using make after he has modified the program,
                 the tracing control instruction file is updated
                 automatically, so the programmer does not even have to
                 think of updating them. This mechanism makes it very
                 easy to resume debugging with the same debugging
                 environment after program modification.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cherry:1991:SCOb,
  author =       "George W. Cherry",
  title =        "System construction with object-oriented pictures",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42--52",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122552.122556",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:39 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the process guide, behavior
                 model, icons, and diagrams of SCOOP-3, a pictorial
                 method for developing reactive systems. SCOOP-3's
                 semantics are Concurrent C++ or Ada: its icons and
                 diagrams are mechanically translatable to these
                 languages. SCOOP-3's process guide supports reuse,
                 prototyping, and concurrent specification and design.
                 Its behavior model (S-R Machines) integrates the
                 notions of finite and infinite automata, data
                 abstractions, and objects. My earlier notes in SEN
                 demonstrated the Finite State Automata power of S-R
                 Machines. This note demonstrates their far greater
                 power and expressiveness. SCOOP-3's black box, machine,
                 and clear box diagrams have the same objective (and
                 names!) as Mills' Box-Structured approach: stepwise
                 provable specifications and designs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{McLaughlin:1991:SNP,
  author =       "Robert McLaughlin",
  title =        "Some notes on program design",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "53--54",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122552.122557",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:39 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Program design is an important part of the design
                 process. The propose of this paper is to give some
                 guidelines to the design process. It is not possible to
                 write down a set of rules that will deal with all
                 design problems. However it is possible to make program
                 design a respected science within the computer
                 sciences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hughes:1991:MSE,
  author =       "David K. Hughes",
  title =        "Multilingual software engineering using {Ada} and
                 {C}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "55--59",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122552.122558",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:39 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/adabooks.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The technique necessary to interface one software
                 language with another is not clearly defined. The
                 significant increase in the size and complexity of
                 embedded systems and the time and cost constraints
                 imposed by both government and the market place require
                 that software engineers develop a better understanding
                 of the problems of multilingual software
                 implementation. This paper focuses on the technique
                 necessary to successfully interface the Ada* language
                 with the C language in homogeneous or embedded computer
                 systems. These two languages should dominate the
                 software development arena for at least the next
                 decade: Ada, because it is mandated by Federal law to
                 be used in all Department of Defense contracts which
                 require software, and C because it is the
                 implementation language of choice for the vast majority
                 of commercial off-the-shelf software systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Rine:1991:SOH,
  author =       "David C. Rine",
  title =        "A short overview of a history of software maintenance:
                 as it pertains to reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "60--63",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122552.122559",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:39 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kokol:1991:SSM,
  author =       "Peter Kokol and Bruno Stiglic and Viljem Zumer",
  title =        "Soft system methodology and is research: development
                 of a new is design paradigm evaluation approach",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "64--66",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/122552.122560",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:39 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A sound and complete evaluation is a necessity in
                 efficient and effective information system design. In
                 the present paper we show how the Checklands Soft
                 System Methodology can be used in the development of a
                 new evaluation process, in the manner to overcome some
                 of the greatest weaknesses of conventional ones.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Rushby:1991:FVA,
  author =       "John Rushby and Friedrich von Henke",
  title =        "Formal verification of algorithms for critical
                 systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "1--15",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123044",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Atlee:1991:SBM,
  author =       "Joanne Atlee and John Gannon",
  title =        "State-based model checking of event-driven system
                 requirements",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "16--28",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123047",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Dandanell:1991:RDU,
  author =       "Bent Dandanell",
  title =        "Rigorous development using {RAISE}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "29--43",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123049",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hansen:1991:SVR,
  author =       "Kirsten M. Hansen and Anders P. Ravn and Hans
                 Rischel",
  title =        "Specifying and verifying requirements of real-time
                 systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "44--54",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123051",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sogaard-Anderson:1991:SKD,
  author =       "J{\o}rgen F. S{\o}gaard-Anderson and Camilla
                 {\O}sterberg Rump and Hans Henrik L{\o}vengreen",
  title =        "A systematic kernel development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "55--65",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123053",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Butler:1991:IEQ,
  author =       "Ricky W. Butler and George B. Finelli",
  title =        "The infeasibility of experimental quantification of
                 life-critical software reliability",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "66--76",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123054",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Frankl:1991:AFD,
  author =       "Phyllis G. Frankl and Elaine J. Weyuker",
  title =        "Assessing the fault-detecting ability of testing
                 methods",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "77--91",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123056",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Issarny:1991:EHM,
  author =       "Val{\'e}rie Issarny",
  title =        "An exception handling model for parallel programming
                 and its verification",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "92--100",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123058",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cameron:1991:RTT,
  author =       "E. Jane Cameron and Yow-Jian Lin",
  title =        "A real-time transition model for analyzing behavioral
                 compatibility of telecommunications services",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "101--111",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123059",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ratel:1991:PVC,
  author =       "Christophe Ratel and Nicolas Halbwachs and Pascal
                 Raymond",
  title =        "Programming and verifying critical systems by means of
                 the synchronous data-flow language {LUSTRE}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "112--119",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123062",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kurki-Suonio:1991:SDR,
  author =       "Reino Kurki-Suonio",
  title =        "Stepwise design of real-time systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "120--131",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123063",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Xu:1991:STC,
  author =       "Jia Xu and David Lorge Parnas",
  title =        "On satisfying timing constraints in hard-real-time
                 systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "132--146",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123066",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wang:1991:AAB,
  author =       "Chih-Kan Wang and Duu-Chung Tsou and Rwo-Hsi Wang and
                 James C. Browne and Aloysius K. Mok",
  title =        "Automated analysis of bounded response time for two
                 {NASA} expert systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "147--161",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/123041.123067",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:40 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1992:IRP,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Illustrative risks to the public in the use of
                 computer systems and related technology",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "23--32",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134293",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Griswold:1992:CAV,
  author =       "William G. Griswold and David Notkin",
  title =        "Computer-aided vs. manual program restructuring",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "33--41",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134294",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Restructuring a software system as it evolves promises
                 to reduce associated maintenance costs. To simplify
                 restructuring, we have developed a tool that preserves
                 the meaning of a program as the engineer applies
                 structural transformations. To help evaluate the
                 prototype tool and its underlying approach, we ran an
                 experiment to compare how people using standard editing
                 tools restructure a program against the computer-aided
                 style that our tool supports. We drew three conclusions
                 from the experiment. First, the subjects generally used
                 a mix of copy/paste and cut/paste editing paradigms;
                 our tool gives the engineer the safety of copy/paste
                 and the speed of cut/paste. Second, most of the
                 subjects made mistakes, including simple syntactic
                 errors and semantic errors (such as not updating the
                 call site after modifying a function definition); our
                 tool avoids errors by the engineer using compensation
                 (for instance, it automatically updates call sites when
                 a procedure definition is changed) or by signalling an
                 error. Third, manual restructuring tends to be
                 haphazard, with engineers handling the order of
                 changes, testing, etc. in inconsistent and potentially
                 error-prone ways; by separating restructuring from
                 functional maintenance and by ensuring preservation of
                 meaning during restructuring, our approach can make the
                 maintenance process more orderly.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{vanReeken:1992:SNP,
  author =       "A. J. van Reeken",
  title =        "Some notes on program design",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "42",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134295",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  note =         "See reply \cite{McLaughlin:1992:SNS}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Matthews:1992:WWB,
  author =       "Peter J. D. Matthews",
  title =        "When to white box test",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "43",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134296",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Finkelsteiin:1992:RE,
  author =       "Anthony Finkelsteiin",
  title =        "Requirements engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "45--47",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134297",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Leveson:1992:FM,
  author =       "Nancy Leveson",
  title =        "Formal methods",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--50",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134298",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Schaefer:1992:DMS,
  author =       "Wilhelm Schaefer",
  title =        "Design methods and software processes",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "50--51",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134302",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jian:1992:MAF,
  author =       "Lu Jian",
  title =        "A method of acquiring formal specifications from
                 examples",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52--56",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134299",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The acquisition of the formal specification is very
                 important in software development automation. This
                 paper presents a method which combines the concept
                 formation and the antecedent derivation mechanism to
                 accomplish the automatic acquisition of the formal
                 specification from the example specification and the
                 plausibility of the generated formal specification is
                 guaranteed in some sense.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Rine:1992:ECT,
  author =       "David Rine",
  title =        "{EIFFEL}: a case tool supporting object-oriented
                 software construction",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "57",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134300",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tripp:1992:WFS,
  author =       "Leonard L. Tripp",
  title =        "What is the future of software engineering standards?:
                 discussion paper",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "58--61",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134301",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Henderson-Sellers:1992:CCO,
  author =       "B. Henderson-Sellers and C. Freeman",
  title =        "Cataloguing and classification for object libraries",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "62--64",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/134292.134303",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:41 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Reusable object classes are seen as a major benefit of
                 adopting the object-oriented paradigm in the commercial
                 data processing and applications programming worlds.
                 However, without some efficient and effective method of
                 locating previously written classes, this benefit of
                 reuse will be lost. Code location requires the classes
                 to be stored in some retrievable fashion. Such an
                 underlying classification system, together with an
                 associated cataloguing system, appropriate for object
                 libraries, is proposed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wiener:1992:TRS,
  author =       "Lauren Wiener",
  title =        "A trip report on {SIGSOFT} '91",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23--38",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130841",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Scott:1992:CSE,
  author =       "Gregory J. Scott",
  title =        "Can software engineering afford to improve the
                 process?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "39--42",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130842",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to raise questions and
                 generate discussion within the software engineering
                 community about the potential impact of software
                 engineering process improvements. This paper begins by
                 providing a few facts about software engineering
                 economics and process improvement benefits followed by
                 three views of those facts: the traditional cost
                 savings perspective; a software engineer's perspective;
                 and a government contractor's perspective. In the last
                 two perspectives, the questions of what is in this for
                 me and is it in my best interests to support process
                 improvement are asked. The conclusion of this paper is
                 that apparently significant changes must be made in the
                 business culture before process improvements can hope
                 to occur.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Connors:1992:SDM,
  author =       "Danny T. Connors",
  title =        "Software development methodologies and traditional and
                 modern information systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "43--49",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130843",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Considerable discussion exists about the proper
                 methodology for developing software. Some individuals
                 favor a strict step-by-step approach, while others
                 favor rapid prototyping. The extra dimensions of newer
                 information systems such as Decision Support Systems
                 and Expert Systems add to the confusion. Many
                 individuals believe that new systems need new
                 methodologies. This paper surveys the literature to
                 determine current philosophies concerning traditional
                 and modern information systems. Then, a typology which
                 integrates the philosophies into a model useful for
                 selecting an appropriate methodology for the
                 information system task at hand is proposed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Schaschinger:1992:EES,
  author =       "Harald Schaschinger",
  title =        "{ESA --- an} expert supported {OOA} method and tool",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "50--56",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130845",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Although this paper deals with object-oriented
                 software development in general, the focus is
                 definitely set on object-oriented analysis (OOA). After
                 a short comparison of the most important OOA
                 approaches, a new one will be derived. This approach is
                 evolutionary, non-domain specific and starts at the
                 definition of a software system. Based on this approach
                 there will be a presentation of an expert supported OOA
                 tool (ESA), which supports an analyst starting at the
                 collection of the requirements through the analysis of
                 an object-oriented system up to a preliminary
                 high-level design. Both the method and the tool are
                 conceived for the needs of practitioners.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Saradhi:1992:SMD,
  author =       "Motamarri Saradhi",
  title =        "Systems modelling and description",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "57--63",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130846",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to enunciate the
                 underlying notions of systems modelling. There is an
                 obvious lack with many techniques to allow the
                 description of the real world as native to its
                 functioning as possible. A generic analytical framework
                 is likely to have a strong impact in problem solving,
                 whatever may be the domain. Further, it may ease the
                 process of communication among various people by virtue
                 of proper capturing of the system functionality in a
                 more understandable framework. The exploration for such
                 a framework will also rationalize the development
                 process of computerized systems, whether they are going
                 to employ conventional software or AI/ES techniques.
                 The criticality of the computerized systems has been
                 raising potential problems with respect to safety and
                 security. Validation and verification of the systems
                 have become a potential challenge. The current
                 discussion will shed light on these issues, and guide
                 in ensuring a robust application system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cherry:1992:GFS,
  author =       "George W. Cherry",
  title =        "Graphic formalisms should integrate communication,
                 control, and data flow",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "64--69",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130847",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{McLaughlin:1992:SNS,
  author =       "Robert McLaughlin",
  title =        "Some notes on software design: reply to a reaction",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "70",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130848",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{vanReeken:1992:SNP}.",
  abstract =     "Mr. van Reeken wrote a note on my note. It is nice to
                 know that some reads what you write. I think his
                 comments force me to be a little more specific. I agree
                 with some of what he says, but must mark my
                 disagreement with other things he says.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ben-Natan:1992:MAT,
  author =       "Ron Ben-Natan",
  title =        "Making all types typedefed",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "72--73",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130849",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Encapsulation has been recognized as one of the most
                 important methods for assuring that software systems
                 maintenance is made possible. Many modern programming
                 languages now provide specific constructs for
                 encapsulation and abstraction. This note emphasizes the
                 fact that the return types of an encapsulation's
                 interface is a part of the interface functions
                 themselves, and as such must also be encapsulated. The
                 examples are given in C++ and encapsulating of the
                 types is done using typedefs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Linos:1992:TRC,
  author =       "Panagiotis Linos",
  title =        "{ToolCASE}: a repository of computer-aided software
                 engineering tools",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "74--78",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130850",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The design and construction of an up-to-date
                 repository of CASE (Computer-Aided Software
                 Engineering) tools, called ToolCASE, is introduced in
                 this paper. ToolCASE is populated with information
                 regarding purchasing, citations and software
                 engineering capabilities of existing CASE tools.
                 Purchasing information, included in ToolCASE, embodies
                 vendors, costs, discounts, hardware and software
                 requirements; the citations encompass various
                 publications on CASE, whereas software engineering
                 capabilities comprise phases of the paradigm automated,
                 software application area targeted and methodologies
                 supported by CASE tools. ToolCASE is designed for
                 people with diverse backgrounds who wish to choose the
                 proper CASE tool for their specific needs. For
                 instance, a project manager can retrieve the name and
                 phone number of the company that develops a particular
                 CASE tool, its price and the first year it was
                 available. A software engineer may request all CASE
                 tools that automate a particular phase of a software
                 engineering paradigm, aim at the development of
                 software for a specific application area or follow a
                 certain methodology. In addition, a researcher could
                 acquire citations on existing CASE tools that meet
                 specific requirements.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hagemeister:1992:ABS,
  author =       "J. Hagemeister and B. Lowther and P. Oman and X. Yu
                 and W. Zhu",
  title =        "An annotated bibliography on software maintenance",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "79--84",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/130840.130852",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Saradhi:1992:SEP,
  author =       "Motamarri Saradhi",
  title =        "Software engineering from a practical perspective",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21--26",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/140938.140939",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The development of software is a marathon feat.
                 Software Quality Assurance is a much more difficult and
                 challenging task. Further, putting the software for
                 live use, is a still more complex affair. These matters
                 are not trivial for successful and appropriate
                 exploitation of computers and Information Technology,
                 rather they are the central issues one must answer
                 first. Motivated by the ongoing discussions on a plenty
                 of issues related to software, (software technology!)
                 including standards and quality assurance, I am
                 translating my experiences as the mentioned issues are
                 duly represented in my systems development projects.
                 Perhaps, this is an attempt to bring to light the
                 prominent but less addressed points, especially that
                 are lying at the interface of the several disciplines
                 related to software creation. I present a generic
                 structure of Systems Development Process (SDP) from a
                 practical view point. The presentation will outline the
                 framework of SDP, and the environment in which it takes
                 place to illustrate the line of thinking that has
                 influenced the creation of successful application
                 systems developed in several domains.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1992:DAW,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "Domain analysis working group report: {First
                 International Workshop on Software Reusability}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27--34",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/140938.140940",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Loka:1992:SEQ,
  author =       "Raghavendra Rao Loka",
  title =        "Software engineering: quality assurance",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "34--38",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/140938.140941",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ward:1992:NGC,
  author =       "Aidan Ward",
  title =        "The next generation of computer assistance for
                 software engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "39--42",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/140938.140942",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Rozman:1992:USE,
  author =       "I. Rozman and J. Gy{\"o}rk{\"o}s and K. Rizma{\~n}",
  title =        "Understandability of the software engineering method
                 as an important factor for selecting a case tool",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "43--46",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/140938.140943",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The article highlights the understandability of a
                 software engineering methodology as an important
                 criterion for selecting a CASE tool. This aspect is
                 treated through the comparison of learning properties
                 for two very well known methodology on which the CASE
                 tools are usually based on. The first one is SA-SD and
                 the second one is JSD. In the purpose to compare both
                 methodology a group of young engineers has been tested.
                 Each of them wrote a seminar theme, answered a
                 questionnaire and explained his observations. At the
                 end of the paper, a general conclusion is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Brown:1992:ABI,
  author =       "Alan W. Brown and Maria H. Penedo",
  title =        "An annotated bibliography on integration in software
                 engineering environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "47--55",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/140938.140944",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:42 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Mody:1992:PA,
  author =       "R. P. Mody",
  title =        "Is programming an art?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--21",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/141874.141877",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:43 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Finkelsteiin:1992:SPI,
  author =       "Anthony Finkelsteiin",
  title =        "A software process immaturity model",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22--23",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/141874.141878",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:43 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Chelini:1992:DAR,
  author =       "James V. Chelini",
  title =        "A discussion on the {Ada Run-Time Environment} in
                 safety critical applications",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24--27",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/141874.141879",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:43 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/adabooks.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The complex systems being built today are increasingly
                 software driven. These systems, such as air traffic
                 control systems, nuclear power plants, avionics
                 software, and even automotive control software, are
                 integral parts of our world. We take these systems for
                 granted everyday and trust them to work safely, without
                 injury to us. The Ada language is being used in a
                 growing number of these systems. This requires a
                 reevaluation of how the language can be effectively
                 used in safety-critical systems. A key element of this
                 evaluation is the Ada Run-Time Environment (RTE)
                 itself. Ada is unique in that it provides its own
                 real-time executive. This paper examines the impact of
                 the Ada RTE on safety critical software and discusses
                 steps to identify and reduce potential risks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Walters:1992:UHS,
  author =       "Neal Walters",
  title =        "Using Harel statecharts to model object-oriented
                 behavior",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "28--31",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/141874.141880",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:43 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Object-oriented analysis and design methods are
                 increasingly being considered for complex system
                 development. However, object-oriented implementations
                 can introduce run-time inefficiencies. Therefore,
                 predicting system behavior is an important simulation
                 objective for validating completeness and analyzing
                 performance. There are two contributors to system
                 behavior --- the individual behavior of each object and
                 the collaborative behavior of object when executing
                 scenarios required by the system. Modeling the
                 collaborative interaction of objects is the primary
                 subject of this paper. Templates for three types of
                 objects are presented: Director, Agent and Server
                 object classes. The mechanisms presented in this paper
                 utilize Harel state diagram notation as supported by
                 the Statemate CASE tool.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Laitinen:1992:DCS,
  author =       "Kari Laitinen",
  title =        "Document classification for software quality systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "32--39",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/141874.141882",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:43 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software development organizations need to have
                 appropriate document control policies. A software
                 document classification can serve as a framework for
                 establishing such policies. This paper presents a
                 software document classification and discusses the
                 quality system functions needed for each class of
                 documents. Software development is viewed as a
                 documentation process, and documents are considered the
                 most essential products of the development process.
                 Referring to the document classification, new
                 definitions for the concept of software are given, and
                 the general difficulties of software documentation are
                 analyzed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Perry:1992:FSS,
  author =       "Dewayne E. Perry and Alexander L. Wolf",
  title =        "Foundations for the study of software architecture",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40--52",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/141874.141884",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:43 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to build the foundation
                 for software architecture. We first develop an
                 intuition for software architecture by appealing to
                 several well-established architectural disciplines. On
                 the basis of this intuition, we present a model of
                 software architecture that consists of three
                 components: elements, form, and rationale. Elements are
                 either processing, data, or connecting elements. Form
                 is defined in terms of the properties of, and the
                 relationships among, the elements --- that is, the
                 constraints on the elements. The rationale provides the
                 underlying basis for the architecture in terms of the
                 system constraints, which most often derive from the
                 system requirements. We discuss the components of the
                 model in the context of both architectures and
                 architectural styles and present an extended example to
                 illustrate some important architecture and style
                 considerations. We conclude by presenting some of the
                 benefits of our approach to software architecture,
                 summarizing our contributions, and relating our
                 approach to other current work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cheng:1992:PSS,
  author =       "Jingwen Cheng",
  title =        "Parameterized specifications for software reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "53--59",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/141874.141886",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:43 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software reusability is believed to be the key to
                 improving software development productivity, while
                 specification plays an important part in software
                 reuse. From a modern object oriented view, the reusable
                 software components can be grouped into three
                 categories. Procedural components, abstract data types
                 and concrete data objects. Both procedural components
                 and abstract data types can be parameterized in many
                 Object-Oriented languages. Specifications for reuse of
                 these components are discussed in detail in this paper.
                 The reusable software components and their
                 specifications will form a reusable software library,
                 and the information extracted from the specifications
                 forms a knowledge base. Based on the knowledge base and
                 the reusable software library, a new software
                 development paradigm with software reusability can be
                 realized.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Debest:1992:RCE,
  author =       "Xavier A. Debest and R{\"u}diger Knoop and J{\"u}rgen
                 Wagner",
  title =        "{Reveng}: a cost-effective approach to
                 reverse-engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "60--67",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/141874.141887",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:43 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Like many other Software Engineering buzzwords,
                 ``Reverse Engineering'' emerges as an attempt to
                 formalize some specific tasks, which have long been
                 performed by almost every software development or
                 maintenance team, but which were not judged worth
                 before to be considered an engineering discipline. The
                 emergence of powerful Computer Aided Software
                 Engineering (CASE) tools opens new opportunities for
                 the cost-effective re-use of the investments made in
                 existing software systems, and thus for the development
                 of specific tools and techniques to recover the
                 original design of these systems. While most of the
                 current discussion is centered around the development
                 and utilization of tools to automate the Reverse
                 Engineering Process, our attention focuses on the
                 practical application of these tools and techniques
                 under conditions found in real world entreprises. From
                 this view-point, the scope of the Reverse Engineering
                 Techniques appears to be much broader than implied by
                 the characteristics of individual tools. Our approach
                 is based on experiences gained by CMG in projects,
                 either directly related to Reverse Engineering or
                 dealing with tasks, where specific Reverse Engineering
                 Techniques and Tools were advantageously used (e.g.
                 Software Maintenance, Re-Design, Down-Sizing,
                 Conversion). It also evidentiates some pitfalls, which
                 may lead to the failure of some Reverse Engineering
                 projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Saradhi:1992:DVI,
  author =       "Motamarri Saradhi",
  title =        "A diagnostic view on information technology",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "68--70",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/141874.141888",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:43 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Computers, computerization, Systems Analysis, Systems
                 Design etc., have become the catchwords of the day. In
                 majority of the cases analysis is interpreted in the
                 narrow sense as the study of the existing system in
                 view of computerizing its operations. The thrust for
                 computerization is emphasized without any relevance to
                 the context of application. The real power of the
                 computer, its limitations, and level of applicability
                 are not properly thought of. Computerization at most,
                 is one facet of Information Technology; is surprisingly
                 overlooked. The aim of this article is to drive home
                 the point that a much rational thought and approach are
                 mandatory to get fruitful benefits out of Information
                 Technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ferrans:1992:HFH,
  author =       "James C. Ferrans and David W. Hurst and Michael A.
                 Sennett and Burton M. Covnot and Wenguang Ji and Peter
                 Kajka and Wei Ouyang",
  title =        "{HyperWeb}: a framework for hypermedia-based
                 environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "1--10",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.142899",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software productivity and quality will increase as we
                 improve our model of software and develop tools to
                 support that model. Development environments must take
                 into account that software is more than source; that it
                 is more than text; and that it forms a highly
                 interconnected web of information. Because more time is
                 spent understanding and maintaining software than
                 creating it, environments should strongly support
                 browsing and reading. Finally, environments must be
                 easy to customize. In this paper we present HyperWeb, a
                 framework that supports the construction of
                 hypermedia-based software development environments
                 having this richer view of software. It coordinates the
                 activities of an integrated set of tools through a
                 message server, uses an object-oriented database to
                 store software artifacts, and supports hypermedia
                 linking of these software artifacts. It is built around
                 an interpreter for a general purpose scripting
                 language, allowing for very flexible customization and
                 environment building. We also describe our experience
                 in using it to build an environment that supports
                 software design, development and maintenance on Unix.
                 Its primary features include support for document
                 linking, source code annotation and restructuring, and
                 modification request tracking. It is being used and
                 evaluated internally and at several external sites.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kaplan:1992:SCS,
  author =       "Simon M. Kaplan and William J. Tolone and Alan M.
                 Carroll and Douglas P. Bogia and Celsina Bignoli",
  title =        "Supporting collaborative software development with
                 {ConversationBuilder}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "11--20",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.142903",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we discuss the architecture of the
                 Conversation Builder, an environment for collaborative
                 work, and show how our framework provides a powerful
                 basis for support of collaborative software development
                 activities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Barghouti:1992:SCM,
  author =       "Naser S. Barghouti",
  title =        "Supporting cooperation in the {Marvel}
                 process-centered {SDE}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "21--31",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.142907",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Large scale software development processes often
                 require cooperation among multiple teams of developers.
                 To support such processes, SDEs must allow developers
                 to interleave their access to the various components of
                 the projects. This interleaving can lead to
                 interference, which may corrupt the project components.
                 In traditional database systems, the problem is avoided
                 by enforcing serializability among concurrent
                 transactions. In traditional software development, the
                 problem has been addressed by introducing version and
                 configuration management techniques combined with
                 checkout/checkin mechanisms. Unfortunately, both of
                 these solutions are too restrictive for SDEs because
                 they enforce serialization of access to data, making
                 cooperation unacceptably difficult. In this paper, I
                 illustrate the problem and show how the encoding of the
                 software development process in process-centered SDEs
                 can be used to provide more appropriate concurrency
                 control. I present the concurrency control mechanism I
                 developed for the MARVEL SDE. This mechanism uses the
                 process model in MARVEL to support the degree of
                 cooperation specified in the development process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Quester:1992:OCF,
  author =       "Remco Quester",
  title =        "{obTIOS}: a {CAx-framework} service for building
                 concurrent engineering environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "32--40",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.142909",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "An open integrated CAx-framework supplies services to
                 build derived CAx-environments (e.g. for concurrent
                 Engineering (CE), VLSI-design, Software Engineering,
                 etc.) with specialized, integrated in-house or foreign
                 tools. Such integrated tool uses services of the
                 CAx-framework and cooperates with other integrated
                 tools to achieve a common engineering objective like
                 the simulation of a VLSI-circuit. In most
                 CAx-frameworks the integrated tools cooperate
                 indirectly using CAx-framework services like Data
                 Handling or Inter-Tool Communication (ITC). With obTIOS
                 a high-level approach to control cooperation of
                 integrated tools within a Computer Aided Concurrent
                 Engineering (CACE) environment is introduced. The tools
                 of a CACE-environment are grouped to domains which
                 represent the most coarse, mutually independent,
                 structural unit within the CACE-environment. The way in
                 which the tools of a domain cooperate is described by
                 Encapsulated Composed Activities (ECA). An ECA
                 represents a template of control regarding
                 cooperation-in-the-large and cooperation-in-the-small
                 of tools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Toleman:1992:EIM,
  author =       "Mark A. Toleman and Jim Welsh and Alan J. Chapman",
  title =        "An empirical investigation of menu design in
                 language-based editors",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "41--46",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.142911",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In program visualization some form of graphics is used
                 to represent some aspect of a program. However,
                 graphics are necessarily expensive with respect to
                 ``screen real estate''. Alternatives, therefore, may be
                 required for presentation of certain concepts
                 fundamental to the programmer's model of a program. For
                 example, one graphical representation of a program,
                 written in a block-structured language like Pascal or
                 Modula-2, is the structure chart model of the
                 hierarchical structure of the blocks or modules making
                 up the program. This graphic may be the most
                 appropriate but it may not be conveniently implemented
                 as a menu and a means of ``directly'' selecting blocks
                 of program code to view or edit. Such graphics are used
                 extensively, for example, in the Garden environment
                 developed at Brown University. An alternative is a
                 text-based list of block names indented to summarize
                 the program's structure. UQ1, a language-based editor
                 developed at the University of Queensland, implements
                 the concept in this manner. Both types of menu
                 structure were examined and compared for efficiency in
                 a direct manipulation style of interaction. In general,
                 there was no significant difference ($ P > 0.05$) in
                 time taken by subjects to select items from either
                 style of menu.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Meyers:1992:ESM,
  author =       "Scott Meyers and Steven P. Reiss",
  title =        "An empirical study of multiple-view software
                 development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "47--57",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.142913",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hangensen:1992:CSS,
  author =       "Torben Mejlvang Hangensen and Bent Bruun Kristensen",
  title =        "Consistency in software system development: framework,
                 model, techniques \& tools",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "58--67",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.142914",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "An important aspect in the software development
                 process is the consistency between various parts of the
                 software system being designed and implemented. During
                 the development of a system we are aware of the
                 consistency problems and we usually solve these by
                 special arrangements developed as part of the
                 development of the software system. In general the
                 solutions applied for some specific system cannot be
                 reused for other systems. The purpose of this paper is
                 to introduce a general understanding of consistency and
                 the techniques and tools for handling consistency. We
                 introduce a concept called description to denote the
                 various pieces of information which must be consistent.
                 The description covers any fragments software and data,
                 e.g. such as source code, parse trees, and machine
                 code. The interpretation of a description is defined as
                 a mapping into the set of objects, that the description
                 is supposed to describe. Consistency of descriptions is
                 defined as relations between the interpretations of the
                 descriptions. The concepts description, interpretation
                 and relation are used as a framework for modeling
                 consistency in software systems. A consistency model
                 includes interfaces, control parts and representations
                 for descriptions in a system, and a specification of
                 the consistency relations, that are relevant for the
                 system. The model provides consistency as a new and
                 very important perspective on software systems. It
                 provides a graphical notation, which gives an overview
                 of the consistency relations in a software system being
                 designed. The model is very general and it does
                 therefore apply to any type of software systems. This
                 restricts the level of detail in the model of
                 consistency, but the model allows enhancement of the
                 specification once the type of software system is
                 given. We define four basic techniques for handling
                 consistency in software systems modeled in terms of
                 descriptions. By combining these techniques we are able
                 to describe the handling of consistency in a given
                 software system. These techniques and the graphical
                 consistency modeling language form a first step towards
                 an engineered approach to the construction of software
                 systems from a consistency view.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garlan:1992:TAG,
  author =       "David Garlan and Linxi Cai and Robert L. Nord",
  title =        "A transformational approach to generating
                 application-specific environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "68--77",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.142917",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Current software development environments tend to lie
                 at opposite ends of a spectrum: at one extreme are
                 specialized application generators; at the other are
                 general-purpose programming environments. The former
                 provide strong support for system development and
                 reuse, but are costly to build and available only for
                 limited domains. The latter provide weak support, but
                 are generally available and universally applicable. We
                 describe a technique for automating the production of
                 application-specific environments that lie between
                 these two extremes. The key idea is that these
                 environments can be derived from general-purpose
                 programming environments by a process of structured
                 transformation. We describe a tool for performing these
                 transformations. It provides a set of formal operators
                 for specializing a description of a general-purpose
                 environment; as operators are applied, the system
                 semi-automatically builds a set of transformation rules
                 used to translate application-specific programs into
                 those of the original general-purpose environment. The
                 output of the tool is an application-specific
                 environment together with a program transformer that
                 provides execution semantics for programs written in
                 that environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lippe:1992:OBM,
  author =       "Ernst Lippe and Norbert van Oosterom",
  title =        "Operation-based merging",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "78--87",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143753",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Existing approaches for merging the results of
                 parallel development activities are limited. These
                 approaches can be characterised as state-based: only
                 the initial and final states are considered. This paper
                 introduces operation-based merging, which uses the
                 operations that were performed during development. In
                 many cases operation-based merging has advantages over
                 state-based merging, because it automatically respects
                 the data-type invariants of the objects, is extensible
                 for arbitrary object types, provides better conflict
                 detection and allows for better support for solving
                 these conflicts. Several algorithms for conflict
                 detection are described and compared.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Muller:1992:REE,
  author =       "H. A. M{\"u}ller and S. R. Tilley and M. A. Orgun and
                 B. D. Corrie and N. H. Madhavji",
  title =        "A reverse engineering environment based on spatial and
                 visual software interconnection models",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "88--98",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143755",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Reverse engineering is the process of extracting
                 system abstractions and design information out of
                 existing software systems. This information can then be
                 used for subsequent development, maintenance,
                 re-engineering, or reuse purposes. This process
                 involves the identification of software artifacts in a
                 particular subject system, and the aggregation of these
                 artifacts to form more abstract system representations.
                 This paper describes a reverse engineering environment
                 which uses the spatial and visual information inherent
                 in graphical representations of software systems to
                 form the basis of a software interconnection model.
                 This information is displayed and manipulated by the
                 reverse engineer using an interactive graph editor to
                 build subsystem structures out of software building
                 blocks. The spatial component constitutes information
                 about how a software structure looks. The coexistence
                 of these two representations is critical to the
                 comprehensive appreciation of the generated data, and
                 greatly benefits subsequent analysis, processing, and
                 decision-making.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{White:1992:IHC,
  author =       "Elizabeth L. White and James M. Purtilo",
  title =        "Integrating the heterogeneous control properties of
                 software modules",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "99--108",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143757",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A concurrent software application, whether running on
                 a single machine or distributed across multiple
                 machines, is composed of tasks that interact
                 (communicate and sychronize) in order to achieve some
                 goal. Developing such concurrent programs so they
                 cooperate effectively is a complex task, requiring that
                 progrmmers craft their modules--the components from
                 which concurrent applications are built --- to meet
                 both functional requirements and communication
                 requirements. Unfortunately the result of this effort
                 is a module that is difficult to reason about and even
                 more difficult to reuse. Making programmers treat too
                 many diverse issues simultaneously leads to increased
                 development costs and opportunities for error. This
                 suggests the need for ways that a developer may specify
                 control requirements separately from the implementation
                 of functional requirements, but then have this
                 information used automatically when building the
                 component executables. The result is an environment
                 where programmers have increased flexibility in
                 composing software modules into concurrent
                 applications, and in reusing those same modules. This
                 paper describes our research toward a technology for
                 control integration, where we have developed techniques
                 for users to express control objectives for an
                 application and a system that translates those
                 specifications for use in packaging executables.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Richardson:1992:DIP,
  author =       "Debra J. Richardson and T. Owen O'Malley and Cynthia
                 Tittle Moore and Stephanie Leif Aha",
  title =        "Developing and integrating {ProDAG} in the {Arcadia}
                 environment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "109--119",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143759",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "ProDAG is an analysis toolset that provides an
                 application programmatic interface for program
                 dependence analysis. Program dependences are syntactic
                 relationships between program statements. The ProDAG
                 interface provides a uniform set of operations for
                 creating and accessing several pre-defined dependence
                 relations, which are represented as graphs, as well as
                 a standard mechanism for developing new dependence
                 graphs. ProDAG is one analysis toolset in Arcadia,
                 ProDAG was developed in the Arcadia environment and has
                 been integrated with the language processing, object
                 management, and process definition components of the
                 Arcadia architecture, and further integration with the
                 user interface development system and the measurement
                 and evaluation components are underway. This paper
                 describes the design, implementation and integration of
                 proDAG within Arcadia.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Thery:1992:RTP,
  author =       "Laurent Th{\'e}ry and Yves Bertot and Gilles Kahn",
  title =        "Real theorem provers deserve real user-interfaces",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "120--129",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143760",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper explains how to add a modern user interface
                 to existing theorem provers, using principles and tools
                 designed for programming environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Graham:1992:PPS,
  author =       "Susan L. Graham and Michael A. Harrison and Ethan V.
                 Munson",
  title =        "The {Proteus} presentation system",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "130--138",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143762",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software development environments can increase user
                 productivity by presenting information in more useful
                 ways. This paper describes Proteus, the presentation
                 system of Ensemble, a software development environment
                 that supports a wide variety of language and document
                 capabilities. Proteus provides a set of services which
                 allow the appearance of software development documents,
                 such as programs or design specifications, to be
                 determined by formal specifications of style. Proteus
                 is based on a generic model of presentation services
                 and is intended for use with a wide variety of media.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Brown:1992:ATE,
  author =       "Alan W. Brown and Peter H. Feiler",
  title =        "An analysis technique for examining integration in a
                 project support environment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "139--148",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143764",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "While many Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE)
                 tool vendors claim to provide open, integrated
                 environments for software development, in practice such
                 claims must be examined very carefully to understand
                 what is meant. One of the problems faced in trying to
                 examine these claims is that there is no established
                 technique for examining software development
                 environments with regard to their integration
                 characteristics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ben-Shaul:1992:AMU,
  author =       "Israel Z. Ben-Shaul and Gail E. Kaiser and George T.
                 Heineman",
  title =        "An architecture for multi-user software development
                 environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "149--158",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143765",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We present an architecture for multi-user software
                 development environments, covering general,
                 process-centered and rule-based MUSDEs. Our
                 architecture is founded on componentization, with
                 particular concern for the capability to replace the
                 synchronization component--to allow experimentation
                 with novel concurrency control mechanisms--with minimal
                 effects on other components while still supporting
                 integration. The architecture has been implemented for
                 the MARVEL SDE.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Heimbigner:1992:PPS,
  author =       "Dennis Heimbigner",
  title =        "The {ProcessWall}: a process state server approach to
                 process programming",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "159--168",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143767",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The ProcessWall is a process state server providing
                 storage for process states plus operations for defining
                 and manipulating the structure of those states. It
                 separates the state of a software process from any
                 program for constructing that state. Instead, client
                 programs implement the processes for operating on the
                 process state. This approach has a number of potential
                 benefits such as support for process formalism
                 interoperability, support for multiple process
                 languages, low-cost retro-fitting of process into
                 existing environments, and support for long-term
                 execution of processes. The process server interface
                 provides descriptive mechanisms for representing
                 process state as well as product state. A
                 classification of client programs is provided to show
                 how the state server can be used in a variety of
                 ways.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kadia:1992:IEB,
  author =       "R. Kadia",
  title =        "Issues encountered in building a flexible software
                 development environment: lessons from the {Arcadia}
                 project",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "169--180",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/142882.143768",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:44 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents some of the more significant
                 technical lessons that the Arcadia project has learned
                 about developing effective software development
                 environments. The principal components of the Arcadia-1
                 architecture are capabilities for process definition
                 and execution, object management, user interface
                 development and management, measurement and evaluation,
                 language processing, and analysis and testing. In
                 simultaneously and cooperatively developing solutions
                 in these areas we learned several key lessons. Among
                 them: the need to combine and apply heterogeneous
                 componentry, multiple techniques for developing
                 components, the pervasive need for rich type models,
                 the need for supporting dynamism (and at what
                 granularity), the role and value of concurrency, and
                 the role and various forms of event-based control
                 integration mechanisms. These lessons are explored in
                 the paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Loy:1993:MWS,
  author =       "Patrick Loy",
  title =        "The method won't save you: (but it can help)",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "30--34",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/157397.157398",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:45 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tichy:1993:SDW,
  author =       "Walter F. Tichy and Nico Habermann and Lutz Prechelt",
  title =        "Summary of the {Dagstuhl Workshop on Future Directions
                 in Software Engineering: February 17--21, 1992,
                 Schlo{\ss} Dagstuhl}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--48",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/157397.157399",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:45 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The intent of the workshop was to bring together
                 leading scientists for identifying promising directions
                 for future research in Software Engineering. The
                 motivation for the workshop was the realization that
                 Software Engineering research was not in good shape,
                 with the present emphasis on management and risk
                 control diverting attention from hard, technical
                 subjects. After week-long, intensive discussions of a
                 great number of issues, the following topics were seen
                 as most crucial for progress:1. Developing the area of
                 software architecture as a foundation of Software
                 Engineering;2. Learning to master evolving systems;3.
                 Building a scientific basis for Software Engineering;4.
                 Emphasizing science and engineering know-how when
                 educating practitioners. Formal methods, domain
                 specific knowledge, special purpose languages, and
                 reuse were seen as important approaches, but not as
                 solutions or ends in themselves. There was also a fair
                 amount of introspection on proper method, evaluation,
                 and experimentation in Software Engineering research.
                 This report contains participants' position statements
                 and a record of the discussions. The editors hope that
                 it may help make research in Software Engineering an
                 exciting and thriving endeavor once again.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Terashima:1993:TAC,
  author =       "Nobuyoshi Terashima",
  title =        "Toward automated communication software development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--51",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/157397.157401",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:45 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Aggarwal:1993:TWO,
  author =       "E. K. Aggarwal and M. Pavan Kumar and Vinay Santurkar
                 and Radha Ratnaparkhi",
  title =        "Towards a weighted operational profile",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52--53",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/157397.157402",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:45 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lang:1993:SMO,
  author =       "Neil Lang",
  title =        "{Schlaer--Mellor} object-oriented analysis rules",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "54--58",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/157397.157404",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:45 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Shlaer-Mellor Object Oriented Analysis provides a
                 complete and executable description of a problem domain
                 using a set of formal analysis models: an information
                 model, a set of state models, and a set of process
                 models. In this paper we present the conditions that
                 must be satisfied by a valid Shlaer-Mellor Object
                 Oriented Analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Saradhi:1993:DCP,
  author =       "Motamarri Saradhi",
  title =        "Database conversion planning",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--64",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/157397.157405",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:45 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In conventional approaches to Systems Development the
                 crucial task of the exercise, deployment figures
                 almost, at the end! The performance of the developed
                 software can only be realized if and only if, there is
                 a database to interact with. Surprisingly, this slips
                 the attention of system developers! The challenge of
                 converting the existing manual system, of all, the
                 database maintained in paper volumes to that of
                 computerized version, is not well accounted for.
                 However, mundane this task, Database Conversion
                 Planning (DBCP), has a definite and dominant role to
                 play in systems development. While handling several
                 complex turnkey computerization projects, we are
                 compelled to realize the criticality of DBCP. A careful
                 consideration of these issues in the early stages of
                 systems development has shown a multitude of benefits.
                 As a result, we were able to deploy projects amidst
                 several constraining and conflicting factors. The
                 projects have won the appreciation of customers, of
                 all, end-users. We would like to share the vision that
                 had lead to the creation of these systems, where
                 software and quality have only synonymous meaning! We
                 finally wish that these thoughts will influence the
                 practice of systems development or in general, software
                 engineering.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Vazquez:1993:ASF,
  author =       "Federico Vazquez and Guy Hanacek",
  title =        "Automatic system file generator",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "65--73",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/157397.157407",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:45 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Advanced Automation System is a large complex
                 system for Air Traffic Control used by the Federal
                 Aviation Administration and its development is expected
                 to last several years. Data Structure Design will
                 change throughout the development cycle during these
                 years. The Automatic System File Generator (ASFG) is
                 designed to ease the effect of this continuous change
                 in design in the area of Data Analysis. ASFG allows the
                 creation of system files from thousands of message
                 types whose structure is in continuous modification and
                 revision. The basic purpose of the ASFG is to allow the
                 input of any kind of message type files and convert
                 them to system files for use by the Report System that
                 is implemented with the Statistical Package for the
                 Social Sciences (SPSS).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Liao:1993:SRB,
  author =       "Hsian-Chou Liao and Feng-Jian Wang",
  title =        "Software reuse based on a large object-oriented
                 library",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "74--80",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/157397.157409",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:45 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Object-oriented software libraries expand in size more
                 rapidly than other type of software library. This paper
                 presents a simple approach for aiding reuse in software
                 development using object-oriented library. Our approach
                 improves the effectiveness of code searching by
                 reorganizing the library with facet classification
                 scheme and thesaurus. Information in specification
                 models, such as data flow diagrams (DFDs), is extracted
                 through object abstraction and then used as a query
                 input. We are currently implementing a Computer-Aided
                 Reuse Tool (CART) based on the approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Brykczynski:1993:ABS,
  author =       "Bill Brykczynski and David A. Wheeler",
  title =        "An annotated bibliography on software inspections",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "81--88",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/157397.157411",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:45 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1993:RPC,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the public in computers and related systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "4--17",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155829",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{McLaughlin:1993:DCM,
  author =       "Robert McLaughlin",
  title =        "Does {CASE} make the customer happier",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.156630",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "CASE technology is and will change the nature of
                 software development. It is often hailed as the thing
                 that will save our industry. It is however just another
                 tool. Just as a good hammer in the hands of a bad
                 carpenter will make a house that collapses, CASE in the
                 hands of a fool will save no one.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Boundy:1993:SCS,
  author =       "David Boundy",
  title =        "Software cancer: the seven early warning signs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.156632",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Olenfeldt:1993:WSC,
  author =       "Lars Olenfeldt",
  title =        "{Wish-4}: a specification for a {CASE}-tool to wish
                 for",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "20--22",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155830",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Carmel:1993:DSC,
  author =       "Erran Carmel",
  title =        "A discussion of special characteristics for software
                 package development life cycle models",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23--24",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155832",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software package development (SPD) is playing an
                 increasingly important role in the software market.
                 Traditionally, most software has been developed for
                 custom purposes which differs somewhat from SPD in some
                 Life Cycle Model (LCM) characteristics. Five special
                 characteristics for SPD are discussed: accommodating
                 the unknown user, formalizing customer requirements,
                 supporting multiple platforms and versions,
                 facilitating speed of development and reacting to
                 market pressures, and incorporating risk
                 minimization.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kokol:1993:MHW,
  author =       "Peter Kokol",
  title =        "Metamodeling: how, why and what?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "25--26",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155834",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The metamodeling is analyzed in the context of three
                 crucial questions: How, why and What? This analysis
                 showed that albeit the great advancement of process
                 modeling in last years at least one important question
                 still remains unsolved: How to design new process
                 models? In this paper we introduce a metaparadigm as a
                 possible solution to this question. Metaparadigm is a
                 metadesign paradigm based on Checklands Soft System
                 Methodology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Fisch:1993:UIU,
  author =       "Eric A. Fisch",
  title =        "Understanding and improving the user interface design
                 process",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "27--29",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155835",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Over the past few years user interfaces, especially
                 graphical ones, have been emphasized in the design of
                 computer systems [1]. Users often take for granted the
                 interfaces of today's computer systems. The person
                 entering data or typing up a report does not even
                 consider the work that has gone into making the system
                 and its applications as easy to use as a pen and paper.
                 The difficulty that does go into creating the
                 ``perfect'' user interface begins from the systems
                 inception and does not end until the system becomes
                 obsolete. Even then, the lasting effects of the
                 interface on its users will make future designers work
                 more laborious. This paper will discuss the design
                 process of the user interface. It concludes with some
                 suggestions that future designers may wish to consider
                 to make their jobs easier.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kaindl:1993:MLR,
  author =       "Hermann Kaindl",
  title =        "The missing link in requirements engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "30--39",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155836",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Especially the early phase of requirements engineering
                 is one of the most important and least supported parts
                 of the software life cycle. Since pure natural language
                 has its disadvantages, and directly arriving at a
                 formal representation is very difficult, a link through
                 a mediating representation is missing. We use hypertext
                 for this purpose, providing also links among
                 requirements statements and the representation of
                 objects in a domain model. This possibility of explicit
                 representation of links allows the users and analysts
                 to make relationships and dependencies explicit and
                 helps to be aware of them. Actually, our approach and
                 the tool supporting it use a combination of various
                 technologies, including also object-oriented approaches
                 and a grain of artificial intelligence (in particular
                 frames). Therefore, inheritance is provided by our tool
                 already in the early phase of requirements engineering.
                 In particular, we found it very useful to view
                 requirements as objects. A key idea is to support the
                 ordering of ideas especially through classification
                 already in the early stages. While our approach is not
                 intended to substitute useful existing techniques
                 emphasizing more formal representations, it can be
                 combined with them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1993:DSS,
  author =       "Will Tracz and Lou Coglianese and Patrick Young",
  title =        "A domain-specific software architecture engineering
                 process outline",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "40--49",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155837",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "One of the dilemmas that has prevented software
                 developers from reusing software is the lack of
                 software artifacts to use or the existence of artifacts
                 that are difficult to integrate. Domain-Specific
                 Software Architectures (DSSAs) have been proposed[4] in
                 order to address these issues. A DSAA not only provides
                 a framework for reusable software components to fit
                 into, but captures the design rationale and provides
                 for a degree of adaptability. This paper$_1$ presents
                 an outline for a Domain-Specifid Software Architecture
                 engineering process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Terwilliger:1993:TTS,
  author =       "Robert B. Terwilliger",
  title =        "Toward tools to support the {Gries\slash Dijkstra}
                 design process",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "50--59",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155838",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/d/dijkstra-edsger-w.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We are investigating software design processes using a
                 three part approach. For a design method of interest,
                 we first perform walkthroughs on a number of small
                 problems. Second, we construct a simulation program
                 which duplicates the designs produced by the
                 walkthroughs, and third, we construct a process program
                 that supports human application of the method. We have
                 been pursuing this program for the formal design
                 process developed by Dijkstra and Gries. In this paper,
                 we describe our first step towards process programming
                 this method: ISLET, a language-oriented program/proof
                 editor. ISLET supports simple stepwise refinement with
                 proof by automatically generating and mechanically
                 certifying verification conditions. In addition,
                 through ISLET the programmer has access to a library of
                 pre-verified cliches that can be used to create
                 programs more easily. We have constructed a prototype
                 implementation in Prolog and used it to generate a
                 number of example designs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sharble:1993:OOB,
  author =       "Robert C. Sharble and Samuel S. Cohen",
  title =        "The object-oriented brewery: a comparison of two
                 object-oriented development methods",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "60--73",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155839",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Interest in object-oriented methods has been rapidly
                 increasing, as software developers and project managers
                 try to reduce escalating development and maintenance
                 costs. There is an increasing need to determine if
                 there are differences in effectiveness between various
                 methods of object-oriented software development, and
                 whether techniques from more successful methods can be
                 extracted and applied to improve other methods. This
                 paper reports on research to compare the effectiveness
                 of two methods for the development of object-oriented
                 software. These methods are representative of two
                 dominant approaches in the industry. The methods are
                 the responsibility-driven method and a data-driven
                 method that was developed at The Boeing Company and
                 taught in a course available to the public. Each of the
                 methods was used to develop a model of the same example
                 system. A suite of metrics suitable for object-oriented
                 software was used to collect data for each model, and
                 the data was analyzed to identify differences. The
                 model developed with the responsibility-driven method
                 was found to be much less complex, and specifically to
                 have much less coupling between objects and much more
                 cohesion within an object.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Griss:1993:WFA,
  author =       "Martin Griss and Will Tracz",
  title =        "{WISR'92: Fifth Annual Workshop in Software Reuse}:
                 working group reports",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "74--85",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155841",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cherry:1993:SRM,
  author =       "George W. Cherry",
  title =        "Stimulus-response machines: a new visual formalism for
                 describing classes and objects",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "86--95",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155842",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Arifoglu:1993:MSC,
  author =       "Ali Arifoglu",
  title =        "A methodology for software cost estimation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "96--105",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155844",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software Cost Estimation is an empirical process to be
                 applied to find out basically the effort and
                 development time requirements for the software product
                 which is going to be developed. The process starts with
                 the planning phase activities and refined throughout
                 the development. It is very important for managing and
                 scheduling the software project. Various cost
                 estimation methods are available to be used for
                 software development process. Depending on the size of
                 the software, a macro (for the information systems
                 requiring more than 30 man years to develop) or a micro
                 cost model can be used for estimation. The paper
                 discusses available work on the cost estimation methods
                 and proposes a methodological view in cost estimation.
                 Basically, the methodology involves; how to combine
                 available cost estimation techniques to have better
                 estimation and, how to apply the methodology through
                 software development. In the application of the cost
                 estimation techniques, SD (Structured
                 Development/Design) methodology is assumed as applied
                 during the development. Some of the observations in the
                 experiments are also given in the paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Shu:1993:IRC,
  author =       "William S. Shu",
  title =        "Inertia --- the reluctance of code motion?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "106--108",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155845",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The effects of optimisation on debugging were
                 characterised, first as metric-based distances along
                 paths, and then within an algebraic framework [6, 7,
                 8]. In them, we observed algorithmic ambiguities which
                 may seriously compromise the efficiency-though not the
                 semantic definition-of a debugger for optimised
                 programs. Informal observations appear to indicate
                 enhanced performance if displaced codes were favoured
                 for further displacements, and unmoved codes were
                 preferentially left alone. This reluctance to change
                 the ``state of code motion'' seems much like the
                 physical quantity known as inertia. This paper
                 highlights points to support the ``inertial argument'',
                 and raises questions to be explored in relation to
                 it.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tripp:1993:SDP,
  author =       "Leonard L. Tripp",
  title =        "Standards development preference survey",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "109",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/159420.155846",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:46 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Blum:1993:DPC,
  author =       "Manuel Blum",
  title =        "Designing programs to check their work (abstract)",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "1",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154185",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Students, engineers, programmers, \ldots{}, are all
                 expected to check their work. Computer programs are
                 not. There are several reasons for this: 1. Computer
                 hardware almost never makes errors --- but that fails
                 to recognize that programmers do! 2. Programs are hard
                 enough to write without having to also write program
                 checkers for them --- but that is the price of
                 increased confidence! 3. There is no clear notion what
                 constitutes a good checker. Indeed, the same students
                 and engineers who are cautioned to check their work are
                 rarely informed what it is that makes a procedure good
                 for doing so --- but that is just the sort of problem
                 that computer science should be able to solve! In my
                 view, the lack of correctness checks in programs is an
                 oversight. Programs have bugs that could perfectly well
                 be caught by such checks. This talk urges that programs
                 be written to check their work, and outlines a
                 promising and rigorous approach to the study of this
                 fascinating new area.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Woit:1993:SOP,
  author =       "Denise M. Woit",
  title =        "Specifying operational profiles for modules",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "2--10",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154187",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe a technique for specifying operational
                 profiles for modules. The technique is more general
                 than those of the current literature and allows more
                 accurate specification of module usage. We also outline
                 an algorithm for automatically generating random test
                 cases from any such operational profile specification
                 for a module, such that the test cases correspond to a
                 random sampling of the module's input in actual
                 operation. Operational-based statistical estimations,
                 such as operational reliability, may be more meaningful
                 when our specification method and generation algorithm
                 are used, because our method permits more precise
                 specifications than do other methods in the current
                 literature.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Stocks:1993:TTF,
  author =       "P. Stocks and D. Carrington",
  title =        "Test template framework: a specification-based testing
                 case study",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11--18",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154190",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A framework for specification-based testing is
                 demonstrated on a symbol table case study, specified
                 using the Z notation. Test derivation and structuring
                 is discussed, as well as applications of the framework
                 in deriving test oracles and aiding regressing testing
                 during maintenance. Areas for further research and
                 discussion are comparison of heuristics with regard to
                 generated test suites and usability, formalising
                 testing heuristics, and the discrepancy between
                 functional testing and robustness testing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jackson:1993:AAA,
  author =       "Daniel Jackson",
  title =        "Abstract analysis with aspect",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19--27",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154192",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Aspect is a static analysis technique for detecting
                 bugs in code based on three forms of abstraction:
                 declarative specification, data abstraction and
                 partiality (ignoring some behavioural details).
                 Together, they bring efficiency (the checker runs
                 almost as fast as a type checker), modularity (a
                 procedure can be analysed independently of the
                 procedures it calls) and incrementality (allowing the
                 checking of incomplete programs). Aspect can detect
                 errors that are not detectable by other static means,
                 especially errors of omission, which are pervasive but
                 usually hard to detect.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Felder:1993:ARS,
  author =       "Miguel Felder and Carlo Ghezzi and Mauro Pezz{\`e}",
  title =        "Analyzing refinements of state based specifications:
                 the case of {TB} nets",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28--39",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154193",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe how formal specifications given in terms
                 of a high-level timed Petri net formalism (TB nets) can
                 be analyzed to check the temporal properties of bounded
                 invariance (the systems stays in a given state until
                 time $ \tau $) and bounded response (the system will
                 enter a given state within time $ \tau $). In
                 particular, we concentrate on specifications given in a
                 hierarchical, top-down manner, where one specification
                 level refines a more abstract level. Our goal is to
                 define the conditions under which the properties that
                 are proven to hold at a given abstraction level are
                 preserved at the next refined level. To do so, we
                 define the concept of correct refinement, and we show
                 that bounded invariance and bounded response are
                 preserved by a correct refinement. We also provide a
                 set of constructive rules that may be applied to refine
                 a net in such a way that the resulting net is a correct
                 refinement.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Levine:1993:MDR,
  author =       "David L. Levine and Richard N. Taylor",
  title =        "Metric-driven reengineering for static concurrency
                 analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "40--50",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154196",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "An approach to statically analyzing a concurrent
                 program not suited for analysis is described. The
                 program is reengineered to reduce the complexity of
                 concurrency-related activities, thereby reducing the
                 size of the concurrency state space. The key to the
                 reengineering process is a metric set that
                 characterizes program task interaction complexity and
                 provides guidance for restructuring. An initial version
                 of a metric set is proposed and applied to two examples
                 to demonstrate the utility of the
                 reengineering-for-analysis process. The reengineering
                 has potential benefits apart from supporting
                 analyzability, following the dictum that if it is hard
                 to analyze, it is hard to understand and maintain.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Duri:1993:USS,
  author =       "S. Duri and U. Buy and R. Devarapalli and S. M.
                 Shatz",
  title =        "Using state space reduction methods for deadlock
                 analysis in {Ada} tasking",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "51--60",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154197",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/adabooks.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Over the past few years, a number of research
                 investigations have been initiated for static analysis
                 of concurrent and distributed software. In this paper
                 we report on experiments with various optimization
                 techniques for reachability-based deadlock detection in
                 Ada programs using Petri net models. Our experimental
                 results show that various optimization techniques are
                 mutually beneficial with respect to the effectiveness
                 of the analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Vogel:1993:IGP,
  author =       "Peter A. Vogel",
  title =        "An integrated general purpose automated test
                 environment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "61--69",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154200",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "As software systems become more and more complex, both
                 the complexity of the testing effort and the cost of
                 maintaining the results of that effort increase
                 proportionately. Most existing test environments lack
                 the power and flexibility needed to adequately test
                 significant software systems. The CONVEX Integrated
                 Test Environment (CITE) is discussed as an answer to
                 the need for a more complete and powerful general
                 purpose automated software test system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Belli:1993:IBA,
  author =       "B. Belli and O. Jack",
  title =        "Implementation-based analysis and testing of {Prolog}
                 programs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "70--80",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154203",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper, we describe the PROTest II (PROlog Test
                 Environment, Version 2) system to test logic programs
                 in an interactive support environment. Logic programs
                 are augmented with declarative information about the
                 types and modes of the arguments of a predicate. Modes
                 correspond to in, out, and in-out parameters. With this
                 information PROTest II statically checks the types of
                 Prolog programs, generates test cases, executes Prolog
                 programs, and produces reports summarizing results
                 including information about new test coverage metrics.
                 Thus, PROTest II enables both static analysis and
                 dynamic testing uniformly using a Prolog-based test
                 language DTL/1. The strength of PROTest II stems from
                 its idea of defining coverage in real logic programming
                 terms, rather than adapting imperative programming
                 ideas.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Modes:1993:SIV,
  author =       "Ronald W. Modes",
  title =        "Structured {IV} \& {V} for the space shuttle flight
                 software",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "81",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154205",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Avritzer:1993:LTS,
  author =       "Alberto Avritzer and Brian Larson",
  title =        "Load testing software using deterministic state
                 testing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "82--88",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154244",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we introduce a new load testing
                 technique called Deterministic Markov State Testing and
                 report on its application. Our approach is called
                 ``deterministic'' because the sequence of test case
                 execution is set at planning time, and ``state
                 testing'' because each test case certifies a unique
                 software state. There are four main advantages of
                 Deterministic Markov State Testing for system testers:
                 provision of precise software state information for
                 root cause analysis in load test, accommodation for
                 limitations of the system test lab configuration,
                 higher acceleration ratios in system test, and simple
                 management of distributed execution of test cases.
                 System testers using the proposed method have great
                 flexibility in dealing with common system test
                 problems: limited access to the system test
                 environment, unstable software, or changing operational
                 conditions. Because each test case verifies correct
                 execution on a path from the idle state to the software
                 state under test, our method does not require the
                 continuous execution of all test cases. Deterministic
                 Markov State Testing is operational-profile-based, and
                 allows for measurement of software reliability
                 robustness when the operational profile changes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hamlet:1993:FSA,
  author =       "Dick Hamlet and Jeff Voas",
  title =        "Faults on its sleeve: amplifying software reliability
                 testing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "89--98",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154246",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Most of the effort that goes into improving the
                 quality of software paradoxically does not lead to
                 quantitative, measurable quality. Software developers
                 and quality-assurance organizations spend a great deal
                 of effort preventing, detecting, and removing
                 ``defects'' --- parts of software responsible for
                 operational failure. But software quality can be
                 measured only by statistical parameters like hazard
                 rate and mean time to failure, measures whose
                 connection with defects and with the development
                 process is little understood. At the same time, direct
                 reliability assessment by random testing of software is
                 impractical. The levels we would like to achieve, on
                 the order of 10$^6$ --- 10$^8$ executions without
                 failure, cannot be established in reasonable time. Some
                 limitations of reliability testing can be overcome but
                 the ``ultrareliable'' region above 10$^8$ failure-free
                 executions is likely to remain forever untestable. We
                 propose a new way of looking at the software
                 reliability program. Defect-based efforts should
                 amplify the significance of reliability testing. That
                 is, developers should demonstrate that the actual
                 reliability is better than the measurement. We give an
                 example of a simple reliability-amplification
                 technique, and suggest applications to systematic
                 testing and formal development methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Thevenod-Fosse:1993:SAS,
  author =       "P. Th{\'e}venod-Fosse and H. Waeselynck",
  title =        "{STATEMATE} applied to statistical software testing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "99--109",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154262",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper is concerned with the use of statistical
                 testing as a verification technique for complex
                 software. Statistical testing involves exercising a
                 program with random inputs, the test profile and the
                 number of generated inputs being determined according
                 to criteria based on program structure or software
                 functionality. In case of complex programs, the
                 probabilistic generation must be based on a black box
                 analysis, the adopted criteria being defined from
                 behavior models deduced from the specification. The
                 proposed approach refers to a hierarchical
                 specification produced in the STATEMATE environment.
                 Its feasibility is exemplified on a safety-critical
                 module from the nuclear field, and the efficiency in
                 revealing actual faults is investigated through
                 experiments involving two versions of the module.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Corbett:1993:PTB,
  author =       "J. Corbett and G. Avrunin",
  title =        "A practical technique for bounding the time between
                 events in concurrent real-time systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "110--116",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154263",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Showing that concurrent systems satisfy timing
                 constraints on their behavior is difficult, but may be
                 essential for critical applications. Most methods are
                 based on some form of reachability analysis and require
                 construction of a state space of size that is, in
                 general, exponential in the number of components in the
                 concurrent system. In an earlier paper with L. K.
                 Dillon and J. E. Wileden, we described a technique for
                 finding bounds on the time between events without
                 enumerating the state space, but the technique applies
                 chiefly to the case of logically concurrent systems
                 executing on a uniprocessor, in which events do not
                 overlap in time. In this paper, we extend that
                 technique to obtain upper bounds on the time between
                 events in maximally parallel concurrent systems. Our
                 method does not require construction of the state space
                 and the results of preliminary experiments show that,
                 for at least some systems with large state spaces, it
                 is quite tractable. We also briefly describe the
                 application of our method to the case in which there
                 are multiple processors, but several processes run on
                 each processor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Atlee:1993:ATR,
  author =       "Joanne M. Atlee and John Gannon",
  title =        "Analyzing timing requirements",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "117--127",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154264",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Coen-Porisini:1993:CAR,
  author =       "Alberto Coen-Porisini and Richard A. Kemmerer",
  title =        "The composability of {ASTRAL} realtime
                 specifications",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "128--138",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154271",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "ASTRAL is a formal specification language for realtime
                 systems. It is intended to support formal software
                 development, and therefore has been formally defined.
                 In ASTRAL a realtime system is modeled by a collection
                 of state machine specifications and a single global
                 specification. This paper focuses on extending the
                 ASTRAL methodology to allow the composition of ASTRAL
                 system specifications into specifications of larger and
                 more complex systems. The ASTRAL language includes
                 structuring mechanisms that allow one to build
                 modularized specifications of complex systems with
                 layering. In this paper we concentrate on how to
                 combine these complex system specifications into
                 specifications of even more complex realtime systems.
                 This is accomplished by adding a COMPOSE section to the
                 language that provides the needed information to
                 combine two or more ASTRAL specifications into a single
                 new one. In this paper we also introduce the necessary
                 proof obligations to assure that the assumptions of
                 each of the components of the larger system are
                 satisfied by the other components of the system that
                 replace the previous external environment. We also
                 discuss how some exported transitions become internal
                 transitions of the new system. A telephony example with
                 local central controls that interface to long distance
                 units is used to motivate the extensions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Untch:1993:MAU,
  author =       "Roland H. Untch and A. Jefferson Offutt and Mary Jean
                 Harrold",
  title =        "Mutation analysis using mutant schemata",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "139--148",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154265",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Mutation analysis is a powerful technique for
                 assessing and improving the quality of test data used
                 to unit test software. Unfortunately, current automated
                 mutation analysis systems suffer from severe
                 performance problems. This paper presents a new method
                 for performing mutation analysis that uses program
                 schemata to encode all mutants for a program into one
                 metaprogram, which is subsequently compiled and run at
                 speeds substantially higher than achieved by previous
                 interpretive systems. Preliminary performance
                 improvements of over 300\% are reported. This method
                 has the additional advantages of being easier to
                 implement than interpretive systems, being simpler to
                 port across a wide range of hardware and software
                 platforms, and using the same compiler and run-time
                 support system that is used during development and/or
                 deployment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Weiss:1993:ISA,
  author =       "Stewart N. Weiss and Vladimir N. Fleyshgakker",
  title =        "Improved serial algorithms for mutation analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "149--158",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154266",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Existing serial algorithms to do mutation analysis are
                 inefficient, and descriptions of parallel mutation
                 systems pre-suppose that these serial algorithms are
                 the best one can do serially. We present a universal
                 mutation analysis data structure and new serial
                 algorithms for both strong and weak mutation analysis
                 that on average should perform much faster than
                 existing ones, and can never do worse. We describe
                 these algorithms as well as the results of our analysis
                 of their run time complexities. We believe that this is
                 the first paper in which analytical methods have been
                 applied to obtain the run time complexities of mutation
                 analysis algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Miller:1993:EST,
  author =       "Edward F. Miller",
  title =        "Exploitation of software test technology",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "159",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154267",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Harrold:1993:ECP,
  author =       "Mary Jean Harrold and Brian Malloy and Gregg
                 Rothermel",
  title =        "Efficient construction of program dependence graphs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "160--170",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154268",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a new technique for constructing a program
                 dependence graph that contains a program's control
                 flow, along with the usual control and data dependence
                 information. Our algorithm constructs a program
                 dependence graph while the program is being parsed. For
                 programs containing only structured transfers of
                 control, our algorithm does not require information
                 provided by the control flow graph or post dominator
                 tree and therefore obviates the construction of these
                 auxiliary graphs. For programs containing explicit
                 transfers of control, our algorithm adjusts the partial
                 control dependence subgraph, constructed during the
                 parse, to incorporate exact control dependence
                 information. There are several advantages to our
                 approach. For many programs, our algorithm may result
                 in substantial savings in time and memory since our
                 construction of the program dependence graph does not
                 require the auxiliary graph. Furthermore, since we
                 incorporate control and data flow as well as exact
                 control dependence information into the program
                 dependence graph, our graph has a wide range of
                 applicability. We have implemented our algorithm by
                 incorporating it into the Free Software Foundation's
                 GNU C compiler; currently we are performing experiments
                 that compare our technique with the traditional
                 approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Goradia:1993:DIA,
  author =       "Tarak Goradia",
  title =        "Dynamic impact analysis: a cost-effective technique to
                 enforce error-propagation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "171--181",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154269",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper introduces dynamic impact analysis as a
                 cost-effective technique to enforce the
                 error-propagation condition for detecting a fault. The
                 intuition behind dynamic impact analysis is as follows.
                 In a specific test-case, if an execution of a syntactic
                 component has a strong impact on the program output and
                 if the output is correct, then the value of that
                 component-execution is not likely to be erroneous. To
                 capture this intuition in a theoretical framework the
                 notion of impact is formally defined and the concept of
                 impact strength is proposed as a quantitative measure
                 of the impact. In order to provide an infrastructure
                 supporting the computation of impact strengths, program
                 impact graphs and execution impact graphs are
                 introduced. An empirical study validating the
                 computation of impact strengths is presented. It is
                 shown that the impact strengths computed by dynamic
                 impact analysis provide reasonable estimates for the
                 error-sensitivity with respect to the output except
                 when the impact is via one or more error-tolerant
                 components of the program. Potential applications of
                 dynamic impact analysis in the area of mutation testing
                 and dynamic program slicing are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Thompson:1993:IFM,
  author =       "Margaret C. Thompson and Debra J. Richardson and Lori
                 A. Clarke",
  title =        "An information flow model of fault detection",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "182--192",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/174146.154270",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:48 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "RELAY is a model of how a fault causes a failure on
                 execution of some test datum. This process begins with
                 introduction of an original state potential failure at
                 a fault location and continues as the potential
                 failure(s) transfers to output. Here we describe the
                 second stage of this process, transfer of an incorrect
                 intermediate state from a faulty statement to output.
                 Transfer occurs along information flow chains, where
                 each link in the chain involves data dependence
                 transfer and/or control dependence transfer. RELAY
                 models concurrent transfer along multiple information
                 flow chains with transfer sets, which identify possible
                 interaction between potential failures, and with
                 transfer routes, which identify actual interactions.
                 Transfer sets, transfer routes, and control dependence
                 transfer are unique to the RELAY model. The model
                 demonstrates that the process of potential failure
                 transfer is extremely complex and full analysis of real
                 programs may not be practical. Nonetheless, RELAY
                 provides insight into testing and fault detection and
                 suggests an approach to fault-based testing and
                 analysis that may be warranted for critical systems
                 software.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Notkin:1993:NHR,
  author =       "David Notkin",
  title =        "{Nico Habermann} remembered",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "1",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163627",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Starke:1993:URI,
  author =       "Gernot Starke",
  title =        "Urgent research issues in software process
                 engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "13--15",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163628",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper outlines the major problems and research
                 directions in software process engineering. These
                 problems concern the terminology and language of
                 models; the difference between type and instance; the
                 inherent reflexivity of detailed process models and the
                 dynamic aspects of process models. Furthermore human
                 factors are shown to impose major difficulties on
                 process engineers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Rine:1993:NSE,
  author =       "David Rine",
  title =        "A note on software engineering, software systems
                 engineering and software design",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16--18",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163629",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hefley:1993:CCA,
  author =       "William E. Hefley",
  title =        "The {Cobbler}'s children: applying total quality
                 management to business process improvement, information
                 engineering and software engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--25",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163630",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes an approach to, and the
                 relationship among, Business Process Improvement,
                 Business Case Analysis, Information Engineering, and
                 Total Quality Management. This approach is shown to not
                 only complement existing software engineering
                 approaches; but to also provide a framework for
                 implementing continuous improvement processes focused
                 on improving the quality of the organization's
                 processes, services and products.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Conradi:1993:CFE,
  author =       "Reidar Conradi and Christer Fernstr{\"o}m and Alfonso
                 Fuggetta",
  title =        "A conceptual framework for evolving software
                 processes",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "26--35",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163631",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software processes are complex entities that may last
                 for long periods of time and are carried out through
                 the interaction of humans and computerized tools. They
                 need to continuously evolve in order to cope with
                 different kinds of changes or customizations both in
                 the organization and in the technologies used to
                 support software production activities. In recent
                 years, many software process support technologies have
                 been developed, and have currently been further
                 extended and used in trial projects. Moreover, some
                 research prototypes have generated commercial products,
                 that are marketed and currently used in industrial
                 organizations. Despite these significant efforts and
                 results, however, there is still little conceptual
                 characterization and assessment of the properties of
                 software processes and related support environments. It
                 is difficult to compare and assess existing approaches.
                 Even a common characterization of the problems to be
                 addressed seems to be problematic and difficult to
                 achieve. This is particularly true when we consider the
                 process evolution problem, for which it does not seem
                 that a common view of the issue has been established
                 yet. This paper aims at proposing a conceptual
                 framework to describe and assess flexible and evolving
                 software processes. It is based on the assumption that
                 a software process is composed of two main components:
                 a software production process to carry out software
                 production activities, and a software meta-process to
                 improve and evolve the whole software process. The
                 general requirements and properties of the process
                 domain are first discussed, and the meta-process
                 concept is introduced. Then, we discuss several process
                 related concepts and, in particular, the relationship
                 between the meta-process and the rest of the software
                 process. Methods and technologies needed to support the
                 meta-process are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we
                 apply the resulting framework to an example, in order
                 to show the potential and expected benefits of the
                 proposed approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Steward:1993:SSM,
  author =       "Donald V. Steward",
  title =        "A simple straightforward method for software
                 development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "36--43",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163632",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents a method that greatly simplifies
                 software development even while providing a richer
                 description of the system being developed. One tree
                 like structure captures the configuration of the
                 product throughout the whole development process. This
                 avoids the much criticized 'chasm' between analysis and
                 design [2] and gives complete traceability and
                 measurability from requirements to code. It provides
                 for the rich description of interfaces particularly
                 important for large systems. Although the system is
                 documented as a tree structure. it can be used with
                 top-down, bottom-up, object oriented and formal styles
                 of development. It can be tried and evaluated quite
                 easily using a conventional outline processor, which
                 allows one to show just the level of detail of whatever
                 part one wishes to see. This article will start out by
                 showing how you can use the basic method, then
                 successively add more features to demonstrate the
                 ramifications of this simple idea.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Vazquez:1993:UOO,
  author =       "Federico Vazquez",
  title =        "Using object oriented structured development to
                 implement a hybrid system",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "44--53",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163633",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Object Oriented Analysis, Design and Programming are
                 increasingly impacting the development approach to
                 Computer Systems. Although these methodologies are not
                 new, their use in industry is increasing and they have
                 had a large impact in both System Analysis and System
                 Design. Some People think that object oriented
                 techniques will be the new predominant methodologies
                 used in the 90s and there is no relationship with
                 Structured Design. Others believe that there is indeed
                 a relationship between Structured Analysis and Object
                 Oriented Design. During my work with the development of
                 computer systems I have found a certain degree of
                 compatibility between Object Oriented Analysis and
                 Structured Analysis. I did not however find
                 compatibility between Structured Design and Object
                 Oriented Design. This paper deals with the use of both
                 techniques in a successful system development effort
                 with a hybrid approach. It is possible to work with
                 hybrid systems where object Oriented and Structured
                 development are combined and complement each other.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Henderson-Sellers:1993:MOO,
  author =       "B. Henderson-Sellers and J. M. Edwards",
  title =        "The {O-O-O} methodology for the object-oriented life
                 cycle",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "54--60",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163634",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{McGregor:1993:NIS,
  author =       "John D. McGregor and Douglas M. Dyer",
  title =        "A note on inheritance and state machines",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "61--69",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163635",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The inheritance relationships in an object-oriented
                 program have been shown to be a natural structure for
                 facilitating reuse in a number of areas such as test
                 cases. This note reports on a technique for
                 incrementally building the state machine for a class
                 from the state machines of its base classes. Using a
                 style of state diagram similar to object charts
                 provides a graphical means of displaying the resulting
                 state machine. This incremental technique allows more
                 complex machines to be built with less effort.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cheng:1993:ISR,
  author =       "Jingwen Cheng",
  title =        "Improving the software reusability in object-oriented
                 programming",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "70--74",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163636",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "One of the promises which OOP (Object-Oriented
                 Programming) holds is that it enhances software
                 reusability. Indeed, software components designed in
                 OOP is easier to be reused than those designed in
                 conventional programming. But the state-of-the-art
                 software reusability in most OOP environments is still
                 very limited. This paper examines how OOP enhances
                 software reusability, what are the limitations of
                 software reuse in current state, and how to improve
                 software reusability.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Poulin:1993:ISS,
  author =       "Jeffrey S. Poulin",
  title =        "Integrated support for software reuse in
                 Computer-Aided Software Engineering {(CASE)}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "75--82",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163637",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The success and acceptance of reuse tools and
                 libraries depends on their integration into existing
                 software development environments. However, the
                 addition of large libraries of reusable components to
                 software design databases only exacerbates the problem
                 of design data management. Object-oriented databases
                 originated to meet the requirements of design data
                 management that relational databases could not satisfy.
                 This paper describes a semantic data model for an
                 object-oriented database supporting an integrated
                 Computer Aided Software Engineering environment (CASE).
                 The data model promotes reuse by providing objects that
                 match program design requirements to existing
                 components in the reuse library.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lott:1993:PMS,
  author =       "Christopher M. Lott",
  title =        "Process and measurement support in {SEEs}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "83--93",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163638",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software evolution processes are well-known to be
                 difficult to manage. Some software engineering
                 environments (SEEs) can use models of these processes
                 to guide their enaction. A few of these SEEs can
                 additionally collect and use measurement data to guide
                 processes precisely. Measurement-based guidance is
                 intended to improve the manageability of the guided
                 processes. This paper contributes an overview of many
                 process-centered SEEs, with special emphasis on those
                 that support the systematic collection of process,
                 product, and resource data for the purpose of process
                 guidance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Edelstein:1993:RIS,
  author =       "D. Vera Edelstein",
  title =        "Report on the {IEEE STD 1219--1993} --- standard for
                 software maintenance",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "94--95",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/163626.163639",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:49 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hoare:1993:AM,
  author =       "C. A. R. Hoare",
  title =        "Algebra and models",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "1--8",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167053",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Science makes progress by constructing mathematical
                 models, deducing their observable consequences, and
                 testing them by experiment. Successful theoretical
                 models are later taken as the basis for engineering
                 methods and codes of practice for design of reliable
                 and useful products. Models can play a similar central
                 role in the progress and practical application of
                 Computing Science.A model of a computational paradigm
                 starts with choice of a carrier set of potential direct
                 or indirect observations that can be made of a
                 computational process. A particular process is modelled
                 as the subset of observations to which it can give
                 rise. Process composition is modelled by relating
                 observations of a composite process to those of its
                 components. Indirect observations play an essential
                 role in such compositions. Algebraic properties of the
                 composition operators are derived with the aid of the
                 simple theory of sets and relations. Feasibility is
                 checked by a mapping from a more operational model.A
                 model constructed as a family of sets is easily adapted
                 as a calculus of design for total correctness. A
                 specification is given by an arbitrary set containing
                 all observations permitted in the required product. It
                 should be expressed as clearly as possible with the aid
                 of the full power of mathematics and logic. A product
                 meets a specification if its potential observations
                 form a subset of its permitted observations. This
                 principle requires that all envisaged failure modes of
                 a product are modelled as indirect observations, so
                 that their avoidance can be proved. Specifications of
                 components can be composed mathematically by the same
                 operators as the components themselves. This permits
                 top-down proof of correctness of designs even before
                 their implementation begins. Algebraic properties and
                 reasoning are helpful throughout development.
                 Non-determinism is seen as no problem, but rather as a
                 part of the solution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Abowd:1993:USU,
  author =       "Gregory Abowd and Robert Allen and David Garlan",
  title =        "Using style to understand descriptions of software
                 architecture",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "9--20",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167055",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The software architecture of most systems is described
                 informally and diagrammatically. In order for these
                 descriptions to be meaningful at all, figures are
                 understood by interpreting the boxes and lines in
                 specific, conventionalized ways[5]. The imprecision of
                 these interpretations has a number of limitations. In
                 this paper we consider these conventionalized
                 interpretations as architectural styles and provide a
                 formal framework for their uniform definition. In
                 addition to providing a template for precisely defining
                 new architectural styles, this framework allows for the
                 proof that the notational constraints on a style are
                 sufficient to guarantee the meanings of all described
                 systems and provides a unified semantic base through
                 which different stylistic interpretations can be
                 compared.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Balzer:1993:MGP,
  author =       "Robert Balzer and K. Narayanaswamy",
  title =        "Mechanisms for generic process support",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "21--32",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167058",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "As more and more programming environments incorporate
                 explicit process descriptions, generic process
                 capabilities will become crucial to the convenient
                 instantiation and maintenance of process description.
                 However, partly because process modeling languages have
                 followed the example of programming languages in
                 general, they are surprisingly weak in supporting
                 generic process descriptions. We propose mechanisms
                 whereby generic process capability can be added to any
                 process formalism. The generic portions of the process
                 description can then be refined through instantiation.
                 We define a system architecture in which a generic
                 process description can be refined gradually during its
                 enactment. Such capabilities will be crucial to
                 incorporating explicit process descriptions into the
                 program environments of the future.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Magnusson:1993:FGR,
  author =       "Boris Magnusson and Ulf Asklund and Sten Min{\"o}r",
  title =        "Fine-grained revision control for collaborative
                 software development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "33--41",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167061",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents a framework for controlling the
                 evolution of complex software systems concurrently
                 developed by teams of software engineers. A general
                 technique for fine-grained revision control of
                 hierarchically structured information, such as programs
                 and documents, is described and evaluated. All levels
                 in the hierarchy are revision controlled, leaves as
                 well as branch nodes. The technique supports sharing of
                 unchanged nodes among revisions, automatic change
                 propagation, and change-oriented representation of
                 differences. Its use in a software development
                 environment is presented, facilitating optimistic
                 check-out of revisions and alternatives, check-in with
                 incremental merge support, visualization of change
                 propagation, and an integrated flexible diff-ing
                 technique providing group awareness for team members.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Griswold:1993:DUD,
  author =       "William G. Griswold",
  title =        "Direct update of data flow representations for a
                 meaning-preserving program restructuring tool",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "42--55",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167063",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Automated assistance for meaning-preserving global
                 restructuring is an approach for helping software
                 engineers improve the structure of programs, thus
                 lowering the costs of maintenance. The construction of
                 a restructuring tool encounters many conflicting goals
                 --- such as simplicity. extensibility, and good
                 performance --- that cannot be met without some
                 compromise. In particular, the current technique for
                 assisting restructuring uses a costly program
                 representation --- a Program Dependence Graph (PDG)
                 with alias information --- that is not practical to
                 recompute from scratch after each restructuring
                 transformation. There are at least two possible
                 solutions. A commonly suggested approach for
                 efficiently updating data flow representations is to
                 use a generic incremental algorithm that does not make
                 use of the special nature of the restructuring. This
                 approach is general, but it does not yet handle
                 aliasing fully. By taking advantage of the special
                 nature of the restructuring transformations it is
                 possible to implement a more efficient update than
                 generic update that also handles aliasing. The idea is
                 to implement direct updates to the PDG that are
                 analogous to the changes on the program text. The
                 downsides to direct update are that it is
                 application-specific, applies only to semantically
                 restricted applications like restructuring, and may be
                 more complex. The choice between the two techniques
                 requires an understanding of the current and future
                 needs of the tool's users. This paper describes the
                 direct approach of updating the PDG and related
                 representations for restructuring, provides techniques
                 for managing its complexity, critiques its advantages
                 and shortcomings relative to generic incremental
                 update, and presents performance results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tarr:1993:POM,
  author =       "Peri Tarr and Lori A. Clarke",
  title =        "{PLEIADES}: an object management system for software
                 engineering environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "56--70",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167065",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software engineering environments impose challenging
                 requirements on the design and implementation of an
                 object management system. Existing object management
                 systems have been limited in both the kinds of
                 functionality they have provided and in the models of
                 support they define. This paper describes a system,
                 called PLEIADES, which provides many of the object
                 management capabilities required to support software
                 engineering environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cai:1993:TIP,
  author =       "Jiazhen Cai and Robert Paige",
  title =        "Towards increased productivity of algorithm
                 implementation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "71--78",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167067",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper reports experimental results that support
                 the feasibility of a new transformational approach
                 developed by the authors for implementing complex
                 algorithms correctly and efficiently. The class of
                 algorithms amenable to our methods includes
                 nonnumerical graph algorithms. Experiments were
                 performed to measure how this approach affects
                 productivity (in terms of the number of source lines in
                 the implementation divided by manual programming time)
                 and running times. Comparative benchmarks showed that
                 productivity can be increased over a conventional ad
                 hoc approach by factors ranging from 5.1 to 9.9
                 Preliminary results also showed that the running time
                 of C code produced by this new approach can be as fast
                 as 1.5 times that of tightly coded high quality
                 Fortran.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wood:1993:PAS,
  author =       "Kenneth R. Wood",
  title =        "A practical approach to software engineering using Z
                 and the refinement calculus",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "79--88",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167068",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a methodology for the formal specification
                 and development of software systems using Z and the
                 refinement calculus. The methodology combines the data
                 structuring capabilities and the codified discrete
                 mathematics of Z with the data encapsulation properties
                 and development style of the refinement calculus, and
                 it aims to provide a formal path from design to
                 implementation without unnecessary transformations of
                 notation or the definition of a new calculus. It is
                 illustrated here by the development of two systems, a
                 simply diary and (part of) a text editor, and is
                 contrasted with the use of Z on its own. We discuss
                 related and future work and conclude with some general
                 comments on applied formal methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Carrington:1993:DMD,
  author =       "David Carrington and David Duke and Ian Hayes and Jim
                 Welsh",
  title =        "Deriving modular designs from formal specifications",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "89--98",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167066",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of designing the top-level
                 modular structure of an implementation. Our starting
                 point is a formal specification of the system. Our
                 approach is to analyse the references to the state
                 variables by the operations of the system. Operations
                 that reference/modify similar sets of variables are
                 likely candidates for grouping into a module. We
                 evaluate the strategy by applying it to a large Z
                 specification of a language-based editor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lutz:1993:TSR,
  author =       "Robyn R. Lutz",
  title =        "Targeting safety-related errors during software
                 requirements analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "99--106",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167069",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper provides a Safety Checklist for use during
                 the analysis of software requirements for spacecraft
                 and others safety-critical, embedded systems. The
                 checklist specifically targets the two most common
                 causes of safety-related software errors: (1)
                 inadequate interface requirements and (2) discrepancies
                 between the documented requirements and the
                 requirements actually needed for correct functioning of
                 the system. The analysis criteria represented in the
                 checklist are evaluated by application to two
                 spacecraft projects. Use of the checklist to enhance
                 the software-requirements analysis is shown to reduce
                 the number of safety-related software errors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Votta:1993:DEI,
  author =       "Lawrence G. {Votta, Jr.}",
  title =        "Does every inspection need a meeting?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "107--114",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167070",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "At each step in large software development, reviewers
                 carry out inspections to detect faults. These
                 inspections are usually followed by a meeting to
                 collect the faults that have been discovered. However,
                 we have found that these inspection meetings are not as
                 beneficial as managers and developers think they are.
                 Even worse, they cost much more in terms of products
                 development interval and developer's time than anyone
                 realizes. Analysis of the inspection and collection
                 process leads us to make the following suggestions.
                 First, at the least, the number of participants
                 required at each inspection meeting should be
                 minimized. Second, we propose two alternative fault
                 collection methods, either of which would eliminate the
                 inspection meetings altogether: (a) collect faults by
                 deposition (small face-to-face meetings of two or three
                 persons), or (b) collect faults using verbal or written
                 media (telephone, electronic mail, or notes). We
                 believe that such a change in procedure would increase
                 efficiency by reducing production times without
                 sacrificing product quality.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cheung:1993:ECR,
  author =       "S. C. Cheung and J. Kramer",
  title =        "Enhancing compositional reachability analysis with
                 context constraints",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "115--125",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167071",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Compositional techniques have been proposed for
                 traditional reachability analysis in order to introduce
                 modularity and to control the state explosion problem.
                 While modularity has been achieved, state explosion is
                 still a problem. Indeed, this problem may even be
                 exacerbated as a locally minimised subsystem may
                 contain many states and transitions forbidden by its
                 context or environments. This paper presents a method
                 to alleviate this problem effectively by including
                 context constraints in local subsystem minimisation.
                 The global behaviour generated using the method is
                 observationally equivalent to that generated by
                 compositional reachability analysis without the
                 inclusion of context constraints. Context constraints,
                 specified as interface processes, are restrictions
                 imposed by the environment on subsystem behaviour. The
                 minimisation produces a simplified machine that
                 describes the behaviour of the subsystem constrained by
                 its context. This machine can also be used as a
                 substitute for the original subsystem in the subsequent
                 steps of the compositional reachability analysis.
                 Interface processes capturing context constraints can
                 be specified by users or automatically constructd using
                 a simple algorithm. The concepts in the paper are
                 illustrated with a clients/server system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bahsoun:1993:FPF,
  author =       "Jean Paul Bahsoun and Stephan Merz and Corinne
                 Servieres",
  title =        "A framework for programming and formalizing concurrent
                 objects",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "126--137",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167072",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose an object-oriented programming model based
                 on concurrently executing communicating agents which
                 aims to achieve reusability and extensibility of agent
                 descriptions by separating aspects of functionality and
                 synchronization. A formal semantics of an agent is
                 given as a theory in the Temporal Logic of Actions [15]
                 such that a system of agents is formalized by the
                 conjunction of the single agents' specifications plus
                 some axioms representing the communication structure.
                 This representation allows for the formal derivation of
                 systems properties. We terminate this paper by a
                 discussion about the proof of inheritance properties in
                 a parallel environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Turpin:1993:LAD,
  author =       "Russell Turpin",
  title =        "A logical approach to data structures",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "138--148",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167073",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Galois project at the University of Texas is
                 building a programming environment that supports the
                 formal development and verification of data structure
                 programs. This programming environment supports
                 features such as pointer manipulation and destructive
                 update that often make formal treatment difficult.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bergadano:1993:TCG,
  author =       "F. Bergadano",
  title =        "Test case generation by means of learning techniques",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "149--162",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167074",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a program P and a set of alternative programs P,
                 we generate a sequence of test cases that are adequate,
                 in the sense that they distinguish the given program
                 from all alternatives. The method is related to
                 fault-based approaches to program testing, but programs
                 in P need not be simple mutations of P. The technique
                 for generating an adequate test set is based on the
                 inductive learning of programs from finite sets of
                 input-output examples: given a partial test set, we
                 generate inductively a program P' E P which is
                 consistent with P on those input values; then we look
                 for an input value that distinguishes P from P', and
                 repeat the process until no program except P can be
                 induced from the generated examples. We show that the
                 so obtained test set is adequate w.r.t. the
                 alternatives belonging to P. The method is made
                 possible by a practical program induction procedure,
                 which has evolved from recent research in Machine
                 Learning and Inductive Logic Programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Gustafson:1993:SMS,
  author =       "David A. Gustafson and Joo T. Tan and Perla Weaver",
  title =        "Software measure specification",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "163--168",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167075",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper introduces the model-order-mapping (MOM)
                 approach for specifying software/document measures. A
                 MOM specification requires that the important
                 attributes of the document be identified, a model that
                 captures the attributes be chosen, and a mapping from
                 the document to the model be specified. A partial
                 ordering on the model must be developed as well as an
                 order-preserving mapping from the model to an answer
                 set. The relationship of the approach to measurement
                 theory is shown. Validation of the MOM specification is
                 presented. Properties of software measures that are
                 guaranteed by a validated MOM specification and those
                 that can be proved from a validated specification are
                 described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Podgurski:1993:PTS,
  author =       "Andy Podgurski and Charles Yang",
  title =        "Partition testing, stratified sampling, and cluster
                 analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "169--181",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167076",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a new approach to reducing the manual labor
                 required to estimate software reliability. It combines
                 the ideas of partition testing methods with those of
                 stratified sampling to reduce the sample size necessary
                 to estimate reliability with a given degree of
                 precision. Program executions are stratified by using
                 automatic cluster analysis to group those with similar
                 features. We describe the conditions under which
                 stratification is effective for estimating software
                 reliability, and we present preliminary experimental
                 results suggesting that our approach may work well in
                 practice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Zaremski:1993:SMK,
  author =       "Amy Moormann Zaremski and Jeannette M. Wing",
  title =        "Signature matching: a key to reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "182--190",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167077",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software reuse is only effective if it is easier to
                 locate (and appropriately modify) a reusable component
                 than to write it from scratch. We present signature
                 matching as a method for achieving this goal by using
                 signature information easily derived from the
                 component. We consider two kinds of software
                 components, functions and modules, and hence two kinds
                 of matching, function matching and module matching. The
                 signature of a function is simply its type; the
                 signature of a module is a multiset of user-defined
                 types and a multiset of function signatures. For both
                 functions and modules, we consider not just exact
                 match, but also various flavors of relaxed match. We
                 briefly describe an experimental facility written in
                 Standard ML for performing signature matching over a
                 library of ML functions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Batory:1993:SSL,
  author =       "Don Batory and Vivek Singhal and Marty Sirkin and Jeff
                 Thomas",
  title =        "Scalable software libraries",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "191--199",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/167049.167078",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:50 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Many software libraries (e.g., the Booch C++
                 Components, libg++, NIHCL, COOL) provide components
                 (classes) that implement data structures. Each
                 component is written by hand and represents a unique
                 combination of features (e.g. concurrency, data
                 structure, memory allocation algorithms) that
                 distinguishes it from other components. We argue that
                 this way of building data structure component libraries
                 is inherently unscalable. Libraries should not
                 enumerate complex components with numerous features;
                 rather, libraries should take a minimalist approach:
                 they should provide only primitive building blocks and
                 be accompanied by generators that can combine these
                 blocks to yield complex custom data structures. In this
                 paper, we describe a prototype data structure generator
                 and the building blocks that populate its library. We
                 also present preliminary experimental results which
                 suggest that this approach does not compromise
                 programmer productivity nor the run-time performance of
                 generated data structures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1994:IRP,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Illustrative risks to the public in the use of
                 computer systems and related technology",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "16--29",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181612",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kilov:1994:UHL,
  author =       "Haim Kilov",
  title =        "On understanding hypertext: are links essential?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181614",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kontogiannis:1994:REQ,
  author =       "Kostas A. Kontogiannis and Scott R. Tilley",
  title =        "Reverse engineering questionnaire",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--38",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181615",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This is a questionnaire on program understanding and
                 reverse engineering. It may be filled out manually or
                 on-line. The results of the questionnaire will be used
                 to guide the research of the two authors, both of whom
                 are Ph.D. students working in this area. Copies of the
                 resulting report will be mailed to all who participate,
                 and a summary of the results will be published in an
                 appropriate forum.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Lea:1994:CAI,
  author =       "Doug Lea",
  title =        "{Christopher Alexander}: an introduction for
                 object-oriented designers",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "39--46",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181617",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Apte:1994:PMS,
  author =       "Kishor Apte",
  title =        "Problem management system: experience and insights",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--54",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181619",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Poulin:1994:WAW,
  author =       "Jeff Poulin and Will Tracz",
  title =        "{WISR'93: 6th Annual Workshop on Software Reuse}:
                 summary and working group reports",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "55--71",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181620",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sefcik:1994:CSF,
  author =       "John G. Sefcik",
  title =        "Critical success factors for implementing software
                 quality plans",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "72--74",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181622",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Mamone:1994:ISS,
  author =       "Salvatore Mamone",
  title =        "The {IEEE} standard for software maintenance",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "75--76",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181623",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Maintenance, traditionally the last phase of the
                 Software Life Cycle, is usually overlooked, under
                 documented, and never appreciated. Maintenance is
                 usually thought of as ``something that's done after the
                 work is done'' and is usually delegated to junior
                 programmers. As a result the modified system can many
                 times contain more defects that the original system.
                 This article will describe the Software Maintenance
                 Standard and how it can provide the foundation for
                 better control of Maintenance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Roche:1994:SMM,
  author =       "John M. Roche",
  title =        "Software metrics and measurement principles",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "77--85",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181625",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software measurement is widely advocated as a
                 fundamental constituent of an engineering approach to
                 planning and controlling software development.
                 Unfortunately, there is a dichotomy between the
                 quantity of developed metrics and those used. This
                 paper provides a tutorial review of software
                 engineering measurement indicating the depth and
                 breadth of the field. Individual metrics are not
                 described due to the interest of this paper being on
                 the measurement process and not the products of that
                 process. Generic problems have been identified within
                 existing measurement processes, these provide learning
                 points for the expression of measurement principles.
                 These principles are classified and described according
                 to their position within the formulation, analysis and
                 application stages of measurement. Conclusions are
                 elaborated that suggest that existing measurement
                 frameworks for applying measurement --- often called
                 measurement methods --- do not provide sufficient
                 support for the principles and their continued use will
                 only serve to replicate the problems. In order to
                 improve the products i.e. metrics, the measurement
                 process requires improvement through inclusion of these
                 principles in a new method.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sharma:1994:FDC,
  author =       "Anil Sharma",
  title =        "Framework to define {CASE} tool requirements for
                 distributed environment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "86--89",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181610.181627",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we develop a framework for requirements
                 definition for a CASE tool which cover all phases of
                 software development life cycle. The resulting
                 requirements are driven through set objectives. Since
                 trend is toward distributed workstation based CASE
                 tools, we would specifically focus on CASE tool
                 requirements for heterogeneous network. These
                 requirement are illustrative and require fine tuning
                 for a specific organisation. But these can be used as a
                 general framework to develop detailed requirement
                 definition. These requirements become the part of
                 general process of evaluating a CASE tool and can be
                 used for example to develop 'Evaluation Check List'.
                 Moreover requirements definitions is not aimed at
                 conceiving a new CASE tool but addresses the issue of
                 what to look for when selecting a CASE tool among many
                 existing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Saradhi:1994:REI,
  author =       "Motamarri Saradhi",
  title =        "Re-Engineer: If It Wasn't Engineered!",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garg:1994:SAB,
  author =       "Pankaj K. Garg and Mehdi Jazayeri",
  title =        "Selected, annotated bibliography on process-centered
                 software engineering environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18--21",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181630",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Marovac:1994:GES,
  author =       "Nenad Marovac",
  title =        "Guidelines for embedded software documentation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "22--28",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181632",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Embedded program documentation, i.e. documentation
                 included in computer programs within program comments,
                 typically does not follow any formal standards or
                 conventions with regards to its contents and structure.
                 Software development organizations do not enforce any
                 standards covering the information content or format of
                 the embedded documentation. At best they may encourage
                 the use of some proprietary rules. It is very common in
                 such organizations that individual programmers have
                 their own individual documentation styles. This is
                 unfortunate since embedded documentation, containing
                 proper information and being properly structured, can
                 greatly assist us in reading and understanding software
                 programs and their individual components during the
                 maintenance of these programs or reuse of their
                 components. Furthermore, the use of embedded
                 documentation can assist in functional decomposition
                 and design of computer programs and in ensuring the
                 consistency of interfaces within programs. The purpose
                 of this document is to report on the schema we use at
                 San Diego State University in software projects and to
                 propose guidelines regarding documentation embedded in
                 computer programs and related documents. We believe
                 that these guidelines will help us to maintain
                 conformity in software documentation in programs
                 developed at SDSU in Software Engineering and
                 MultiMedia Labs. Furthermore, we have developed tools
                 that are based on the proposed embedded documentation
                 and that are used in four areas:1. interactive
                 functional decomposition and design of programs2.
                 automatic incorporation of submitted software into
                 reuse libraries3. conversion of developed software into
                 hypertext like structures that are used to maintain all
                 material related to a software project in a form
                 suitable for inspection, browsing, and updating4.
                 automatic generation of software documentation on
                 demand",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tomic:1994:PAO,
  author =       "Marijana Tomic",
  title =        "A possible approach to object-oriented reengineering
                 of {Cobol} programs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "29--34",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181633",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Reengineering is rapidly becoming a recognized and
                 important component of future computer-aided
                 systems-engineering (CASE) environment. This paper
                 presents framework for analyzing Object-Oriented
                 Reengineering process of COBOL programs. The process
                 embody software engineering principles that concern
                 module interactions such as low coupling and high
                 cohesion.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ponder:1994:PCH,
  author =       "Carl Ponder and Bill Bush",
  title =        "Polymorphism considered harmful",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "35--37",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181635",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Davis:1994:CPM,
  author =       "Alan M. Davis and Pradip Sitaram",
  title =        "A concurrent process model of software development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "38--51",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181637",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Most published software development models present
                 software engineering as a series of discrete phases.
                 They often capture the ``inevitable intertwining'' of
                 pairs of phases and they often capture the need to
                 return to earlier phases when new information is
                 ascertained. However, in actual software development
                 projects, activities typically associated with multiple
                 phases are performed concurrently. This paper presents
                 a new model of the software development process that
                 effectively captures the concurrency among activities
                 that is in berent in all non-trivial software
                 development. Statecharts are used to present the
                 model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1994:DSS,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "Domain-specific software architecture {(DSSA)}
                 frequently asked questions {(FAQ)}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "52--56",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181639",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Advanced Research Projects Agency's
                 Domain-Specific Software Architecture (DSSA) Project
                 has been the focal point of much interest in the
                 software engineering community. This paper provides a
                 list of ``Frequently Asked Questions'' (FAQ)$^1$. For a
                 more thorough treatment of DSSA, the reader should
                 consult ``Architecture-Based Acquisition and
                 Development of Software: Guidelines and Recommendations
                 from the ARPA Domain-Specific Software Architecture
                 (DSSA) Program'' by Dr. Frederick Hayes-Roth (see
                 address below).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cheng:1994:RBS,
  author =       "Jingwen Cheng",
  title =        "A reusability-based software development environment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "57--62",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181641",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software reuse has great potential to improve software
                 development productivity. However, it has had only
                 limited success in practice. This is because that there
                 are non technical factors as well technical ones
                 affecting software reusability. This paper discusses
                 some problems related to software reuse, analyzes some
                 technical supports for software reuse, and introduces a
                 reusability-based software development system which has
                 been prototyped and is under further improvement. The
                 prominent features of the system include: allowing
                 programmers dynamically to put tested working program
                 components (including data objects created at
                 run-times) into the reusable software library, helping
                 programmers produce software specifications,
                 automatically searching for the required components
                 according to users' queries, assisting users to make a
                 query, and allowing users to select the retrieved
                 components and browse their specifications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Henry:1994:DWR,
  author =       "Joel Henry and Bob Blasewitz",
  title =        "Do we really need {SQA} to produce quality software?:
                 no! well maybe. it depends. yes!",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "63--64",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181642",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Gorecki:1994:YCS,
  author =       "Andrzej Tomasz Gorecki",
  title =        "Is your computer system sub-critical?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "65--67",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181643",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Favaro:1994:ESS,
  author =       "John Favaro and Yves Coene and Marco Casucci",
  title =        "The {European} Space Software Development Environment
                 Reference Facility Project: a status report",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "68--71",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181644",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The ESSDE Reference Facility Project, whose goal is to
                 provide a uniform, open environment for software
                 development at the European Space Agency (ESA), has
                 just completed the architectural design phase. A
                 software engineering environment based upon the
                 Portable Common Tool Environment (PCTE) interfaces has
                 been specified, including a complete data model
                 supporting all activities and products in the ESA
                 standard software development life cycle. Several
                 issues of much current interest have been addressed
                 including scalability, configurability and the
                 integration of commercial tools into an existing
                 framework.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jankowski:1994:FCS,
  author =       "David J. Jankowski",
  title =        "The feasibility of {CASE} structured analysis
                 methodology support",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "72--82",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/181628.181645",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:52 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Feather:1994:SSI,
  author =       "Martin S. Feather and Axel van Lamsweerde",
  title =        "Succeedings of the {Seventh International Workshop on
                 Software Specification and Design}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18--22",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182826",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Dyadkin:1994:MP,
  author =       "Lev J. Dyadkin",
  title =        "Multibox parsers",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "23--25",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182827",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/fortran3.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Traditional compiler front end generating tools such
                 as Lex/Yacc assume a front end consisting of two boxes:
                 a lexical box and a syntax box. Lex produces a lexical
                 analyzer using regular expressions as a token
                 description. Yacc generates a syntax analyzer from the
                 LALR grammar for the parsed language. This approach has
                 big problems with such lexically and syntactically
                 complex languages as Fortran. The main reason for these
                 problems is that regular expressions, being equivalent
                 to a right linear grammar, do not have the capability
                 to describe the incredibly complex lexical structure of
                 Fortran. As a result, compiler writers abandon Lex and
                 produce handwritten lexers for Fortran, thus defeating
                 the main purpose of the parser generator, automation.
                 This work solves these problems by introducing a
                 multibox parser, where each lower box modifies its
                 input language to produce a more ``straightened''
                 output language for the higher box. The number of boxes
                 reflects the complexity of the parsed language. For
                 example, Fortran requires more boxes than does C. Each
                 box is represented by an L-attributed translation
                 grammar in simple assignment form with an LL(1) input
                 grammar. LL(1) grammars were chosen for higher speed,
                 smaller size, and because, unlike regular expressions,
                 they can express constructs such as nested parentheses,
                 a capability which is required for parsing Fortran on
                 the lexical level. New operations for the LL(1) machine
                 are added to ensure it is strictly forward moving,
                 without backtracking in the parsed source code. We have
                 extended the LL(1) grammars to ``indexed LL(1)
                 grammars.''This enhancement allows more of the
                 resulting code to be automatically generated, rather
                 than handwritten. New parser generating tools have been
                 developed by us to support this technology. The
                 multibox approach has been implemented in the Lahey
                 Fortran 90 compiler.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cherry:1994:VSE,
  author =       "George W. Cherry",
  title =        "Visual software engineering with rules",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26--29",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182828",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bourque:1994:ISR,
  author =       "Pierre Bourque and Alain Abran",
  title =        "An innovative software reengineering tools workshop
                 --- a test of market maturity and lessons learned",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30--34",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182829",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Practitioners still feel ill at ease regarding an
                 evaluation process for reengineering tools. To address
                 this issue, a Qu{\'e}bec-based special interest group
                 in software engineering reused a case study workshop
                 format that had been previously implemented to compare
                 CASE products. This case study format had to be
                 substantially modified to allow both vendors and
                 participants to properly position the reengineering
                 tools. For example, the workshop committee had to
                 prepare reengineering frameworks, including a taxonomy
                 of tools as well as legacy system selection criteria
                 for the case study. This article also reports on the
                 challenges met during the project as well as lessons
                 learned: within a context of an immature reengineering
                 market, the time has not yet come for a full real-life
                 case study at an acceptable economic cost.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Zucconi:1994:ICR,
  author =       "Lin Zucconi",
  title =        "Issues concerning re-engineering of legacy software in
                 the federal {R\&D} environment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "35",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182831",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Vazquez:1994:ICD,
  author =       "Federico Vazquez",
  title =        "Identification of complete data flow diagrams",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "36--40",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182832",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Structure Design is generated with Data Flow
                 Diagrams (DFD). DFD have been used for more than ten
                 years, and they are still popular. The main drawback of
                 DFD is the lack of mathematical foundation. The great
                 demand for bigger and more sophisticated computer
                 systems makes necessary the formulation of a formal
                 theory for DFD. This theory will provide a way of
                 checking consistency and completeness. Universal
                 Algebra has become a useful and important tool in
                 theoretical computer science. Universal Algebra is used
                 in this paper to represent DFD, to generate DFD, to
                 prove consistency and completeness and to define
                 complete DFD. A process decomposition is defined in
                 strict mathematical way; the famous Birkoff's Variety
                 Theorem is used to prove consistency in the process
                 decomposition; a definition of minimal DFD is given; a
                 relation between Universal Algebra concepts and DFD is
                 defined; and a definition of complete (well-defined)
                 DFD is given. The DFD are defined using basic concepts
                 of Universal Algebra theory. The results from this
                 paper can be incorporated in any of the CASE tools used
                 to generate DFD.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kilov:1994:FMS,
  author =       "Haim Kilov",
  title =        "Formal methods and standards",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "40",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182833",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Juell:1994:SNR,
  author =       "Paul Juell and Daniel Brekke and Ronald Vetter and
                 John Wasson",
  title =        "Storage and network requirements of a low-cost
                 computer-based virtual classroom",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "41--44",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182834",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we investigate the network and storage
                 requirements of a virtual classroom. The virtual
                 classroom replaces traditional class methodologies by
                 using the computer as the sole instrument for all class
                 activity. The instructor and the students each have a
                 networked workstation in an X cluster that provides for
                 the creation, modification, and distribution of
                 presentations, note-taking, capturing of presentation
                 material, out-of-class reviewing of presentation
                 material, and viewing of supplemental materials
                 provided by the instructor (including selected
                 readings, exams, and assignments). We have designed and
                 implemented an virtual classroom as a means of
                 enhancing the teaching/learning process. The creation
                 of this virtual classroom was accomplished by using
                 only existing computing resources: SUN workstations, X
                 tools, an Ethernet network, and UNIX operating system
                 support. Network statistics were collected to determine
                 how well existing networks can be utilized within this
                 environment. We also observed the performance of the
                 system in a realistic setting by using it to teach an
                 Office Information Systems class at North Dakota State
                 University.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Slovin:1994:EEE,
  author =       "Malcolm Slovin and Donn {Di Nunno}",
  title =        "Engineering the enterprise: evolving quality systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "45--47",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182836",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Aggarwal:1994:MFS,
  author =       "K. K. Aggarwal and Yogesh Singh",
  title =        "A modified form of software science measures",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "48--50",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182837",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In attempting to describe the quality of computer
                 software, one of the most frequently mentioned
                 measurable attributes is the complexity of the flow of
                 control. During the past several years, there have been
                 many attempts to quantify this aspect of computer
                 program, approaching the problem from such diverse
                 points of view as graph theory and software science.
                 Existing software science provides a general measure of
                 program complexity, but it fails to adequately quantify
                 program control flow complexity except for the
                 linearization issue. In this paper, weights are
                 assigned to the operators and operands which are part
                 of the control structures. Although similar type of
                 approach was used by Ramamurthy \& Melton for few
                 control structures, there was a need for a generalized
                 approach and this paper is an attempt in this
                 direction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Dedene:1994:MRM,
  author =       "G. Dedene and M. Snoeck",
  title =        "{M.E.R.O.DE.}: a model-driven entity-relationship
                 object-oriented Development method",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "51--61",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182838",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Object Orientation has as primary goal to improve the
                 software construction process. Object Oriented
                 analysis, design and software construction should yield
                 software of a high quality: software that is reliable,
                 maintainable, extensible, adaptable. However,
                 delivering large OO software systems in a qualitative
                 way is a significant challenge. Scaling up requires
                 formal precision of the semantics of the modelling
                 techniques and languages used by the development team.
                 And when the target system contains an abundance of
                 parallelism, the problem of validation becomes
                 unfeasible if it is not supported by formal techniques.
                 With the incorporation of formal techniques in the
                 development process, we can expect significant benefits
                 in terms of software quality. For this reason, one
                 might expect a high level of formality in current OOAD
                 methods [9]. Unfortunately, most current OOAD methods
                 are characterised by a low level of formality. The
                 M.E.R.O.DE. methodology addresses this void. By making
                 use of algebra, the methodology has been provided with
                 a formal basis at several levels with a significant
                 improvement of the quality of the software development
                 process as a result. Before presenting M.E.R.O.DE. to
                 the reader in the second section, the first section
                 motivates the development of still another OOA method.
                 The final section demonstrates how exactly the formal
                 definition of M.E.R.O.DE. results in a gain of quality
                 at the software specification level.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Castano:1994:FRE,
  author =       "Silvana Castano and Valeria {De Antonellis}",
  title =        "The F3 reuse environment for requirements
                 engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "62--65",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182839",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The F$^3$ reuse environment for supporting the
                 Requirements Engineering process is illustrated and
                 discussed in the paper. In particular, an overview of
                 our approach for building reusable components from
                 existing requirements and for exploiting them in the
                 development of new applications is presented. The
                 approach is based on classification techniques to
                 facilitate extraction of reusable components, and on
                 transformation techniques to support composition of
                 reusable components.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Fuggetta:1994:ABS,
  author =       "Alfonso Fuggetta and Gian Pietro Picco",
  title =        "An annotated bibliography on software process
                 improvement",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "66--68",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182841",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software process improvement is a critical problem
                 that is currently addressed both at the academic and
                 industrial level. The field is relatively young, and
                 there is no ``ultimate approach'' to the problem. The
                 related scientific literature is rapidly growing, and
                 is more and more difficult to make our way in the
                 plethora of different perspectives, approaches, and
                 case studies. This paper provides a guide to the
                 process improvement literature: we think that both
                 newbies and experts of this field can take advantage
                 from it.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Gossain:1994:USM,
  author =       "Sanjiv Gossain",
  title =        "Using the {Shlaer--Mellor} method to support a level 4
                 software process",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "69--74",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182842",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hayes:1994:UDB,
  author =       "I. J. Hayes and C. B. Jones and J. E. Nicholls",
  title =        "Understanding the differences between {VDM} and Z",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "75--81",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182843",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper attempts to provide an understanding of the
                 interesting differences between two well-known
                 specification languages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Rolling:1994:PAB,
  author =       "Walter A. Rolling",
  title =        "A preliminary annotated bibliography on domain
                 engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "82--84",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/182824.182844",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:53 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pfleeger:1994:DAS,
  author =       "Shari Lawrence Pfleeger",
  title =        "Design and analysis in software engineering: the
                 language of case studies and formal experiments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16--20",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190680",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sitariman:1994:CBS,
  author =       "Marulli Sitariman and Bruce Weide",
  title =        "Component-based software using {RESOLVE}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21--22",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.199221",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "The first author may be correctable to ``Murali
                 Sitaraman''.",
}

@Article{Ogden:1994:PRF,
  author =       "William F. Ogden and Murali Sitaraman and Bruce W.
                 Weide and Stuart H. Zweben",
  title =        "Part I: the {RESOLVE} framework and discipline: a
                 research synopsis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23--28",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190681",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Edwards:1994:PIS,
  author =       "Stephen H. Edwards and Wayne D. Heym and Timothy J.
                 Long and Murali Sitaraman and Bruce W. Weide",
  title =        "{Part II}: specifying components in {RESOLVE}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "29--39",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190682",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bucci:1994:PII,
  author =       "Paolo Bucci and Joseph E. Hollingsworth and Joan Krone
                 and Bruce W. Weide",
  title =        "{Part III}: implementing components in {RESOLVE}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40--51",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190683",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hollingsworth:1994:PIR,
  author =       "Joseph E. Hollingsworth and Sethu Sreerama and Bruce
                 W. Weide and Sergey Zhupanov",
  title =        "{Part IV}: {RESOLVE} components in {Ada} and {C++}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "52--63",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190684",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/adabooks.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Edwards:1994:PVA,
  author =       "Stephen H. Edwards",
  title =        "Part V: annotated bibliography of {RESOLVE} research",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "64--67",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190685",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Terry:1994:OTD,
  author =       "Allan Terry and Frederick Hayes-Roth and Lee Erman and
                 Norman Coleman and Mary Devito and George
                 Papanagopoulos and Barbara Hayes-Roth",
  title =        "Overview of {Teknowledge}'s domain-specific software
                 architecture program",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "68--76",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190686",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "As part of the ARPA DSSA program, we are developing a
                 methodology and integrating a suite of supporting tools
                 to help specify, design, validate, package and deploy
                 distributed intelligent control and management (DICAM)
                 applications. Our domain of specialization is vehicle
                 management systems, and our near-term focus is on
                 advanced artillery systems. To attain higher levels of
                 performance and functionality while reducing the time
                 and cost required for development, we are recommending
                 a generic control architecture suitable for use as a
                 single intelligent agent or as multiple cooperating
                 agents. This reference architecture combines a
                 task-oriented domain controller with a meta-controller
                 that schedules activities within the domain controller.
                 The domain controller provides functions for
                 model-based situation assessment and planning, and
                 inter-controller communication. Typically, these
                 functions are performed by components taken from a
                 repository of reusable software. In tasks that are
                 simple, deterministic or time-stressed, the modules may
                 be complied into or replaced by conventional control
                 algorithms. In complex, distributed, cooperative,
                 non-deterministic or unstressed situations, these
                 modules will usually exploit knowledge-based reasoning
                 and deliberative control. To improve the controller
                 development process, we are combining many of the best
                 ideas from software engineering and knowledge
                 engineering in a software environment. This environment
                 includes a blackboard-like development workspace to
                 represent both the software under development and the
                 software development process itself. In this workspace,
                 controllers are realized by mapping requirements into
                 specializations of the reference architecture. The
                 workspace also provides mechanisms for triggering
                 applications of software tools, including
                 knowledge-based software design assistants. We are
                 currently in the third year of a five-year program. In
                 conjunction with our collaborators at ARDEC, we have
                 produced a schema for describing architectures which is
                 being used by ARDEC's community of contractors, by an
                 ARPA architecture specification project for the Joint
                 Task Force ATD, and by the Stanford Knowledge Systems
                 Laboratory. We have released the second major version
                 of our development environment, which is being used at
                 ARDEC and in support of this ARPA architecture
                 specification program. This version of the development
                 environment is focused on initial requirements,
                 architecture, and design. It provides both CASE-like
                 editing of architectures and textual browsing/editing
                 of repository descriptions expressed in the schema
                 mentioned above. In the remaining years of the program
                 we will be expanding the suite of tools and improving
                 the methodologies required to build intelligent,
                 distributed, hybrid controllers capable of spanning
                 multiple levels of organization and system hierarchy.
                 This technology holds considerable promise for
                 near-term value, and the associated methodology
                 provides a candidate approach for realizing the goals
                 of mega-programming practice in control software. In
                 assessing this prospect, we discuss some of the
                 remaining shortfalls in both methodology and tools that
                 require additional research and development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Gelperin:1994:PIM,
  author =       "David Gelperin",
  title =        "The power of integrated methods",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "77--78",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190687",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Improving software quality is easy. Just do three
                 things: (1) Insert fewer bugs, (2) Find them earlier,
                 and (3) Find more of them. Modern test and evaluation
                 methods are very effective at all three. What is even
                 more effective is to integrate these methods into a
                 modern T\&E process and to integrate this process with
                 acquisition and development methods into a software
                 engineering program. Integration multiplies the impact
                 of effective methods and is a major theme in modern
                 approaches. On most projects, developers are
                 responsible for testing as well as designing, and
                 coding the software components. For a new component or
                 change to an existing component, one person usually
                 carries out all software engineering tasks. This note
                 describes an activity sequence that is very effective
                 at both avoiding and detecting defects when a single
                 individual does all the software engineering. The order
                 as well as the specific tasks in this sequence is
                 important in maximizing effectiveness. Understanding
                 the principals behind this process will make it easy to
                 modify when more than one person is assigned to the
                 development of a sinle component.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Zelkowitz:1994:AMR,
  author =       "Marvin V. Zelkowitz",
  title =        "Algebra and models (and reality)",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "79--81",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190688",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Billard:1994:QSG,
  author =       "Edward A. Billard and Alice E. Riedmiller",
  title =        "{Q-Sim}: a {GUI} for a queueing simulator using
                 {Tcl\slash Tk}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "82--85",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/190679.190689",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:55 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A design and implementation are presented for a
                 graphical user interface to a batch queueing simulator,
                 illustrating the benefits of using a high-level script
                 language. Rapid development was made possible with the
                 use of Tcl/Tk scripts to implement the entire
                 interface. The script implements a dynamic display of
                 job and queue movement along with graphs of statistical
                 behaviors. A message system is used to control the
                 interaction between the human interface and the batch
                 simulator.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jackson:1994:NMP,
  author =       "Daniel Jackson and Eugene J. Rollins",
  title =        "A new model of program dependences for reverse
                 engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "2--10",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195281",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A dependence model for reverse engineering should
                 treat procedures in a modular fashion and should be
                 fine-grained, distinguishing dependences that are due
                 to different variables. The program dependence graph
                 (PDG) satisfies neither of these criteria. We present a
                 new form of dependence graph that satisfies both, while
                 retaining the advantages of the PDG: it is easy to
                 construct and allows program slicing to be implemented
                 as a simple graph traversal. We define 'chopping', a
                 generalization of slicing that can express most of its
                 variants, and show that, using our dependence graph, it
                 produces more accurate results than algorithms based
                 directly on the PDG.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Reps:1994:SS,
  author =       "Thomas Reps and Susan Horwitz and Mooly Sagiv and
                 Genevieve Rosay",
  title =        "Speeding up slicing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "11--20",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195287",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Program slicing is a fundamental operation for many
                 software engineering tools. Currently, the most
                 efficient algorithm for interprocedural slicing is one
                 that uses a program representation called the system
                 dependence graph. This paper defines a new algorithm
                 for slicing with system dependence graphs that is
                 asymptotically faster than the previous one. A
                 preliminary experimental study indicates that the new
                 algorithm is also significantly faster in practice,
                 providing roughly a 6-fold speedup on examples of 348
                 to 757 lines.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Mashayekhi:1994:CCA,
  author =       "Vahid Mashayekhi and Chris Feulner and John Riedl",
  title =        "{CAIS}: collaborative asynchronous inspection of
                 software",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "21--34",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195290",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Many software engineering tasks have a synchronous
                 component that requires the participants to assemble
                 together at the same time and place. This approach is
                 expensive in terms of traveling, scheduling and human
                 resources. Existing computer tools mitigate these
                 constraints by adding structure to the meeting,
                 providing on-line document support, and distributing
                 the participants over geographic boundaries. The
                 constraint remains, however, that all participants
                 participate at the same time. We propose relaxing the
                 time constraint in software engineering tasks to
                 resolve issues non-concurrently, in effect reducing
                 (and in some cases eliminating) the need for the
                 synchronous meeting. We hypothesize that support for
                 asynchrony will enable software engineering teams to
                 work together as effectively in different times as in
                 same time. We have chosen software inspection as our
                 candidate software engineering task because it is
                 well-understood, highly-structured, and
                 widely-practiced. We have designed and developed a
                 Collaborative Asynchronous Inspection of Software
                 (CAIS) meeting prototype that supports the meeting part
                 of inspection. CAIS allows participants to effectively
                 ``meet'' even when separated by time zones and working
                 schedules. We have conducted a pilot study comparing
                 the manual and CAIS meetings and present our results
                 and lessons learned.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cece:1994:DIL,
  author =       "G{\'e}rard C{\'e}c{\'e} and Alain Finkel and S.
                 Purushothaman Iyer",
  title =        "Duplication, insertion and lossiness errors in
                 unreliable communication channels",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "35--43",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195292",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of verifying correctness of
                 finite state machines that communicate with each other
                 over unbounded FIFO channels that are unreliable.
                 Various problems regarding verification of FIFO
                 channels that can lose messages have been considered by
                 Finkel [10], and by Abdulla and Johnson [1, 2]. We
                 consider, in this paper, other possible unreliable
                 behaviors of communication channels, viz. (a)
                 duplication and (b) insertion errors. Furthermore, we
                 also consider various combinations of duplication,
                 insertion and lossiness errors. Finite state machines
                 that communicate over unbounded FIFO buffers is a model
                 of computation that forms the backbone of ISO standard
                 protocol specification languages Estelle and SDL. While
                 an assumption of a perfect communication medium is
                 reasonable at the higher levels of the OSI protocol
                 stack, the lower levels have to deal with an unreliable
                 communication medium; hence our motivation for the
                 present work. The verification problems that are of
                 interest are reachability, unboundedness, deadlock, and
                 model-checking against CTL. All of these problems are
                 undecidable for machines communicating over reliable
                 unbounded FIFO channels. So, it is perhaps surprising
                 that some of these problems become decidable when
                 unreliable channels are modeled. The contributions of
                 this paper are: (a) An investigation of solutions to
                 these problems for machines with insertion errors,
                 duplication errors, or a combination of duplication,
                 insertion and lossiness errors, and (b) A comparison of
                 the relative expressive power of the various errors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Abowd:1994:ISE,
  author =       "Gregory D. Abowd and Alan J. Dix",
  title =        "Integrating status and event phenomena in formal
                 specifications of interactive systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "44--52",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195293",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we investigate the appropriateness of
                 formal specification languages for the description of
                 user interface phenomena. Specifically, we are
                 concerned with the distinction between continuously
                 available information, which we call status, and
                 atomic, non-persistent information, which we call
                 events. We propose a hybrid model and notation to
                 address status and event phenomena symmetrically. We
                 demonstrate the effectiveness of this model for
                 designing and understanding mixed control interaction,
                 an especially important topic in the design of
                 multi-user systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Corbett:1994:TSC,
  author =       "James C. Corbett and George S. Avrunin",
  title =        "Towards scalable compositional analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "53--61",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195294",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Due to the state explosion problem, analysis of large
                 concurrent programs will undoubtedly require
                 compositional techniques. Existing compositional
                 techniques are based on the idea of replacing complex
                 subsystems with simpler processes with the same
                 interfaces to their environments, and using the simpler
                 processes to analyze the full system. Most algorithms
                 for proving equivalence between two processes, however,
                 require enumerating the states of both processes. When
                 part of a concurrent system consists of many highly
                 coupled processes, it may not be possible to decompose
                 the system into components that are both small enough
                 to enumerate and have simple interfaces with their
                 environments. In such cases, analysis of the systems by
                 standard methods will be infeasible. In this paper, we
                 describe a technique for proving trace equivalence of
                 deterministic and divergence-free systems without
                 enumerating their states. (For deterministic systems,
                 essentially all the standard notions of process
                 equivalence collapse to trace equivalence, so this
                 technique also establishes failures equivalence,
                 observational equivalence, etc.) Our approach is to
                 generate necessary conditions for the existence of a
                 trace of one system that is not a trace of the other;
                 if the necessary conditions cannot be satisfied the
                 systems are equivalent. We have implemented the
                 technique and used it to establish the equivalence of
                 some systems with state spaces too large for
                 enumeration to be practical.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Dwyer:1994:DFA,
  author =       "Matthew B. Dwyer and Lori A. Clarke",
  title =        "Data flow analysis for verifying properties of
                 concurrent programs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "62--75",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195295",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we present an approach, based on data
                 flow analysis, that can provide cost-effective analysis
                 of concurrent programs with respect to explicitly
                 stated correctness properties. Using this approach, a
                 developer specifies a property of a concurrent program
                 as a pattern of selected program events and asks the
                 analysis to verify that all or no program executions
                 satisfy the given property. We have developed a family
                 of polynomial-time, conservative data flow anlysis
                 algorithms that support reasoning about these
                 questions. To overcome the traditional inaccuracies of
                 static analysis, we have also developed a range of
                 techniques for improving the accuracy of the analysis
                 results. One strength of our approach is the
                 flexibility allowed in choosing and combining these
                 techniques so as to increase accuracy without making
                 analysis time impractical. We have implemented a
                 prototype toolset that automates the analysis for
                 programs with explicit tasking and rendezvous style
                 communication. We present preliminary experimental
                 results using this toolset.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Levy:1994:LIA,
  author =       "N. L{\'e}vy and G. Smith",
  title =        "A language-independent approach to specification
                 construction",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "76--86",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195296",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "An interactive specification development environment
                 is presented in which a number of development
                 methodologies and specification languages can be
                 supported. Within the environment, design concepts and
                 strategies are captured by the application of
                 development operators, i.e. operators which enable the
                 incremental construction and modification of
                 specifications. The focus of this paper is to
                 investigate the language independence feature of the
                 environment, based on the work done in the Esprit
                 project ICARUS. A set of operators enabling an
                 object-oriented approach to specification development
                 are instantiated for both the algebraic specification
                 language Glider and the model-based specification
                 language Z. These operators are illustrated by the
                 development of a case study of a simple card game in
                 both Glider and Z.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Evans:1994:LTU,
  author =       "David Evans and John Guttag and James Horning and Yang
                 Meng Tan",
  title =        "{LCLint}: a tool for using specifications to check
                 code",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "87--96",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195297",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes LCLint, an efficient and flexible
                 tool that accepts as input programs (written in ANSI C)
                 and various levels of formal specification. Using this
                 information, LCLint reports inconsistencies between a
                 program and its specification. We also describe our
                 experience using LCLint to help understand, document,
                 and re-engineer legacy code.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bowdidge:1994:ASE,
  author =       "Robert W. Bowdidge and William G. Griswold",
  title =        "Automated support for encapsulating abstract data
                 types",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "97--110",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195298",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A software engineer can use a meaning-preserving
                 program restructuring tool during maintenance to change
                 a program's structure to ease modification. One common
                 restructuring action is to create a new abstract data
                 type by encapsulating an existing data structure. Data
                 encapsulation simplifies modification by isolating
                 changes to the implementation and behavior of an
                 abstract data type. To perform encapsulation, a
                 programmer must understand how the data structure is
                 used in the code, identify abstract operations
                 performed on the data structure, and choose concrete
                 expressions to be made into functions. We provide a
                 manipulable program visualization, called the star
                 diagram, that both highlights information pertinent to
                 encapsulation and supports the application of
                 meaning-preserving restructuring transformations on the
                 program through a direct-manipulation user interface.
                 The visualization graphically and compactly presents
                 all statements in the program that use the given global
                 data structure, helping the programmer to choose the
                 functions that completely encapsulate it. Additionally,
                 the visualization elides code unrelated to the data
                 structure and to the task, and collapses similar
                 expressions to allow the programmer to identify
                 frequently occurring code fragments and manipulate them
                 together. The visualization is mapped directly to the
                 program text, so manipulation of the visualization also
                 restructures the program. We describe the design,
                 implementation, and application of the star diagram,
                 and evaluate its ability to assist data encapsulation
                 in large programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Batory:1994:RCA,
  author =       "Don Batory and Jeff Thomas and Marty Sirkin",
  title =        "Reengineering a complex application using a scalable
                 data structure compiler",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "111--120",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195299",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "P2 is a scalable compiler for collection data
                 structures. High-level abstractions insulate P2 users
                 from data structure implementation details. By
                 specifying a target data structure as a composition of
                 components from a reuse library, the P2 compiler
                 replaces abstract operations with their concrete
                 implementations.LEAPS is a production system compiler
                 that produces the fastest sequential executables of
                 OPS5 rule sets. LEAPS is a hand-written, highly-tuned,
                 performance-driven application that relies on complex
                 data structures. Reengineering LEAPS using P2 was an
                 acid test to evaluate P2's scalability, productivity
                 benefits, and generated code performance. In this
                 paper, we present some of our experimental results and
                 experience in this reengineering exercise. We show that
                 P2 scaled to this complex application, substantially
                 increased productivity, and provided unexpected
                 performance gains.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Vandevoorde:1994:USP,
  author =       "Mark T. Vandevoorde and John V. Guttag",
  title =        "Using specialized procedures and specification-based
                 analysis to reduce the runtime costs of modularity",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "121--127",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195300",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Managing tradeoffs between program structure and
                 program efficiency is one of the most difficult
                 problems facing software engineers. Decomposing
                 programs into abstractions simplifies the construction
                 and maintenance of software and results in fewer
                 errors. However, the introduction of these abstractions
                 often introduces significant inefficiencies. This paper
                 describes a strategy for eliminating many of these
                 inefficiencies. It is based upon providing alternative
                 implementations of the same abstraction, and using
                 information contained in formal specifications to allow
                 a compiler to choose the appropriate one. The strategy
                 has been implemented in a prototype compiler that
                 incorporates theorem proving technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hamlet:1994:FST,
  author =       "Dick Hamlet",
  title =        "Foundations of software testing: dependability
                 theory",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "128--139",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195400",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Testing is potentially the best grounded part of
                 software engineering, since it deals with the well
                 defined situation of a fixed program and a test (a
                 finite collection of input values). However, the
                 fundamental theory of program testing is in disarray.
                 Part of the reason is a confusion of the goals of
                 testing --- what makes a test (or testing method)
                 ``good.'' I argue that testing's primary goal should be
                 to measure the dependability of tested software. In
                 support of this goal, a plausible theory of
                 dependability is needed to suggest and prove results
                 about what test methods should be used, and under what
                 circumstances. Although the outlines of dependability
                 theory are not yet clear, it is possible to identify
                 some of the fundamental questions and problems that
                 must be attacked, and to suggest promising approaches
                 and research methods. Perhaps the hardest step in this
                 research is admitting that we do not already have the
                 answers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Dillon:1994:OCT,
  author =       "Laura K. Dillon and Qing Yu",
  title =        "Oracles for checking temporal properties of concurrent
                 systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "140--153",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195401",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Verifying that test executions are correct is a
                 crucial step in the testing process. Unfortunately, it
                 can be a very arduous and error-prone step, especially
                 when testing a concurrent system. System developers can
                 therefore benefit from oracles automating the
                 verification of test executions. This paper examines
                 the use of Graphical Interval Logic (GIL) for
                 specifying temporal properties of concurrent systems
                 and describes a method for constructing oracles from
                 GIL specifications. The visually intuitive
                 representation of GIL specifications makes them easier
                 to develop and to understand than specifications
                 written in more traditional temporal logics.
                 Additionally, when a test execution violates a GIL
                 specification, the associated oracle provides
                 information about a fault. This information can be
                 displayed visually, together with the execution, to
                 help the system developer see where in the execution a
                 fault was detected and the nature of the fault.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Harrold:1994:PDF,
  author =       "Mary Jean Harrold and Gregg Rothermel",
  title =        "Performing data flow testing on classes",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "154--163",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195402",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The basic unit of testing in an object-oriented
                 program is a class. Although there has been much recent
                 research on testing of classes, most of this work has
                 focused on black-box approaches. However, since
                 black-box testing techniques may not provide sufficient
                 code coverage, they should be augmented with code-based
                 or white-box techniques. Dataflow testing is a
                 code-based testing technique that uses the dataflow
                 relations in a program to guide the selection of tests.
                 Existing dataflow testing techniques can be applied
                 both to individual methods in a class and to methods in
                 a class that interact through messages, but these
                 techniques do not consider the dataflow interactions
                 that arise when users of a class invoke sequences of
                 methods in an arbitrary order. We present a new
                 approach to class testing that supports dataflow
                 testing for dataflow interactions in a class. For
                 individual methods in a class, and methods that send
                 messages to other methods in a the class, our technique
                 is similar to existing dataflow testing techniques. For
                 methods that are accessible outside the class, and can
                 be called in any order by users of the class, we
                 compute dataflow information, and use it to test
                 possible interactions between these methods. The main
                 benefit of our approach is that it facilitates dataflow
                 testing for an entire class. By supporting dataflow
                 testing of classes, we provide opportunities to find
                 errors in classes that may not be uncovered by
                 black-box testing. Our technique is also useful for
                 determining which sequences of methods should be
                 executed to test a class, even in the absence of a
                 specification. Finally, as with other code-based
                 testing techniques, a large portion of our technique
                 can be automated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Moriconi:1994:CCS,
  author =       "Mark Moriconi and Xiaolei Qian",
  title =        "Correctness and composition of software
                 architectures",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "164--174",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195403",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The design of a large system typically involves the
                 development of a hierarchy of different but related
                 architectures. A criterion for the relative correctness
                 of an architecture is presented, and conditions for
                 architecture composition are defined which ensure that
                 the correctness of a composite architecture follows
                 from the correctness of its parts. Both the criterion
                 and the composition requirements reflect special
                 considerations from the domain of software
                 architecture. The main points are illustrated by means
                 of familiar architecture for a compiler. A proof of the
                 relative correctness of two different compiler
                 architectures shows how to decompose a proof into
                 generic properties, which are proved once for every
                 pair of architectural styles, and instance-level
                 properties, which must be proved for every
                 architecture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garlan:1994:ESA,
  author =       "David Garlan and Robert Allen and John Ockerbloom",
  title =        "Exploiting style in architectural design
                 environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "175--188",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/195274.195404",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:56 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "As the design of software architectures emerges as a
                 discipline within software engineering, it will become
                 increasingly important to support architectural
                 description and analysis with tools and environments.
                 In this paper we describe a system for developing
                 architectural design environments that exploit
                 architectural styles to guide software architects in
                 producing specific systems. The primary contributions
                 of this research are: (a) a generic object model for
                 representing architectural designs; (b) the
                 characterization of architectural styles as
                 specializations of this object model; and (c) a toolkit
                 for creating an open architectural design environment
                 from a description of a specific architectural style.
                 We use our experience in implementing these concepts to
                 illustrate how style-oriented architectural design
                 raises new challenges for software support
                 environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Howell:1995:SNSa,
  author =       "Chuck Howell",
  title =        "Surfing the net for {{\booktitle{Software Engineering
                 Notes}}}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7--15",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225908",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1995:RPCa,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the public in computers and related systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "16--21",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225909",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pfleeger:1995:EDAa,
  author =       "Shari Lawrence Pfleeger",
  title =        "Experimental design and analysis in software
                 engineering:{Part 2}: how to set up and experiment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "22--26",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225910",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Shaw:1995:BOS,
  author =       "Mary Shaw",
  title =        "Beyond objects: a software design paradigm based on
                 process control",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--38",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225911",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  note =         "See response \cite{Appelbe:1995:BOR}.",
  abstract =     "A standard demonstration problem in object-oriented
                 programming is the design of an automobile cruise
                 control. This design exercise demonstrates
                 object-oriented techniques well, but it does not ask
                 whether the object-oriented paradigm is the best one
                 for the task. Here we examine the alternative view that
                 cruise control is essentially a control problem. We
                 present a new software organization paradigm motivated
                 by process control loops. The control view leads us to
                 an architecture that is dominated by analysis of a
                 classical feedback loop rather than by the
                 identification of discrete stateful components to treat
                 as objects. The change in architectural model calls
                 attention to important questions about the cruise
                 control task that aren't addressed in an
                 object-oriented design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pohl:1995:WSF,
  author =       "Klaus Pohl and Gernot Starke and Peter Peters",
  title =        "Workshop summary: {First International Workshop on
                 Requirements Engineering: Foundation of Software
                 Quality (REFSQ;94)}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "39--45",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225912",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "As achieving high quality means the realization of
                 customers needs, requirements engineering (RE) is the
                 most crucial phase within software development. In the
                 RE process not only the functional requirements but
                 also the so-called 'non-functional' or 'quality'
                 requirements of the planned software system have to be
                 elicited from the customer and represented in a
                 requirements document in order to provide the software
                 designer a complete and correct specification.
                 Conventional RE methods usually support only parts of
                 this process or help stating only specific kinds of
                 requirements. These methodological problems were the
                 prime motivation for the REFSQ'94 workshop held in
                 conjunction with the CAiSE '94 Conference on Advanced
                 Information Systems Engineering in Utrecht, The
                 Netherlands on June 6th and 7th 1994. In order to find
                 solutions which handle the described deficiencies, it
                 was the goal of the workshop to improve the
                 understanding of the relations between both areas of
                 research in software engineering and not to give new
                 definitions of either requirements engineering or
                 software quality. On the Call for Papers addressing the
                 above problems we received 24 submissions. After the
                 reviewing process, we accepted 14 papers which have
                 high quality and cover the research areas related to
                 the workshop. Finally, 13 full and position papers were
                 presented at REFSQ '94 and discussed with the 23
                 participants (including the organizers) coming from
                 eleven different countries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Song:1995:FUI,
  author =       "Xiping Song",
  title =        "A framework for understanding the integration of
                 design methodologies",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "46--54",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225913",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software researchers and practitioners have studied
                 and used a number of approaches to integrating major
                 design paradigms in order to improve Software Design
                 Methodologies (SDMs). Software tool developers have
                 developed tools to aid the integration and
                 customization of existing SDM support tools. However, a
                 framework for understanding and guiding various
                 integration and customization processes is still
                 lacking. Because of this users, even with tool support,
                 often fail to systematically integrate SDMs and SDM
                 support tools. In this paper, we define a framework
                 that can be used to understand various SDM integrations
                 and customizations. Through this definition, we
                 describe what kinds of integrations are useful, what
                 difficulties are to be met, and how the integrity of
                 the SDMs can be maintained.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Raccoon:1995:CMC,
  author =       "L. B. S. Raccoon",
  title =        "The chaos model and the chaos cycle",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "55--66",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225914",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "I believe that to truly understand software
                 development, we must not only understand the flow of an
                 entire project and how to write each line of code, we
                 must also understand how one line of code relates to
                 the whole project. It seems to me that we have studied
                 each aspect of software development in isolation, not
                 how all aspects fit together. The Waterfall model,
                 defined by Royce, and the Spiral model, defined by
                 Boehm, discuss management-level issues, such as phases
                 and deadlines, rather than how to write one line of
                 code or fix one bug. Programming methodologies show us
                 how to solve technical problems, rather than how to
                 solve users' problems or to meet deadlines. In this
                 paper, I use the principles of chaos (or fractals) as a
                 metaphor to bridge the gap in our understanding of the
                 relationship between one line of code and the entire
                 project. Throughout this paper, I describe software
                 development from the developer's point of view. If we
                 want to understand software development, we must
                 describe what developers do. After all, developers do
                 the work. We know that large programs consist of many
                 lines of code and that large projects consist of the
                 daily efforts made by individual developers. We know
                 that the large scale and the small scale somehow relate
                 to each other. Yet most models of software development
                 seem to focus on one extreme or another, ignoring the
                 role of developers. In the first section, I define the
                 Chaos model which combines a simple, people-oriented,
                 problem-solving loop with fractals to describe the
                 structures within a project. I believe that software
                 development is a human activity: people write the
                 software, use the solutions, and experience the
                 problems. I believe that creating software is very
                 complex; we cannot simplify software development by
                 imposing simple models on it. The Chaos model uses
                 fractals to describe a cohesive structure which
                 encompasses many of the issues actually encountered
                 during software development. This structure helps to
                 explain the influences within a project and the roles
                 that developers play. In the second section, I
                 interpret the Chaos model to reveal the meaning behind
                 the structure. I show that users, developers, and
                 technologies form a continuum throughout software
                 development. They all interact in a complex dance. This
                 interpretation improves our understanding of the
                 contribution and limitations of users, developers, and
                 technologies. In the third section, I define the Chaos
                 life cycle to describe how a project evolves over time.
                 Life cycles are essentially the top-level perspectives
                 of software development. In light of the Chaos model, I
                 define the phases of the life cycle in terms of
                 fractals and show that all phases occur throughout the
                 life cycle. These chaotic definitions suggest that I
                 can interpret the complete life cycle in terms of each
                 phase, and conversely, I can interpret each phase in
                 terms of a complete life cycle. The phases of the life
                 cycle show our perspectives on the state of a project,
                 rather than what the state of a project really is.
                 Thus, developers need many skills to be able to
                 understand and respond to situations that arise
                 throughout a software development project.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Amoroso:1995:CFS,
  author =       "Edward G. Amoroso",
  title =        "Creating formal specifications from requirements
                 documents",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--70",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225915",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "An approach is introduced for creating a model-based
                 formal specification from an informal requirements
                 document. The approach employs a structured
                 categorization and evolutionary refinement of informal
                 requirements to functional requirements, goals,
                 implementation demands, theorems, and axioms stated
                 with respect to a formal specification. The
                 evolutionary refinement terminates when the
                 specification and axioms can be expressed using
                 constructs in a target specification language. Guidance
                 is provided for integrating requirements changes,
                 existing automated support, and informal design
                 activities into the refinement. The approach is
                 demonstrated using informal requirements for an RS-232
                 repeater device.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jorgensen:1995:QQB,
  author =       "Magne J{\o}rgensen",
  title =        "The quality of questionnaire based software
                 maintenance studies",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "71--73",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225916",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Questionnaires sent to maintenance managers is a
                 frequently used approach to collect data on software
                 maintenance. This paper reports findings from two
                 studies, carried out at a large Norwegian maintenance
                 organisation, investigating the quality of
                 questionnaire based software maintenance studies.
                 Interesting findings were, among others, that:- The
                 definition of essential terms, for example of 'software
                 maintenance', at the beginning of a questionnaire did
                 not assure a consistent use of the terms by the
                 questionnaire respondents.- Manager estimates of the
                 proportion of effort spent on corrective maintenance
                 were biased when based on best guesses instead of good
                 data. For this reason, the frequently referred studies
                 of Lientz and Swanson (1980) and Nosek and Palvia
                 (1990) may have reported a too high proportion of
                 effort spent on corrective maintenance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Viljamaa:1995:PBI,
  author =       "Panu Viljamaa",
  title =        "The patterns business: impressions from {PLoP-94}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "74--78",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225917",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Monticello --- Illinois was the place that hosted
                 PLoP-94 (The first Conference on Pattern Languages of
                 Programs) 4th --- 6th August 1994. Here I'll summarize
                 the insights into the nature of 'Patterns' and 'Pattern
                 Languages' I gained. The intended reader works with
                 software development but is more generally anybody
                 trying to improve the quality of intellectual tasks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jazaa:1995:TBS,
  author =       "Adid Jazaa",
  title =        "Toward better software automation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--84",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225918",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses the concept and advantages of
                 automating software activities. It also addresses
                 software production costs and the problems associated
                 with software development. A logic-based framework for
                 managing the complexity of software projects is
                 proposed. The main investigations and suggestions are
                 summarised.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ambriola:1995:DVM,
  author =       "Vincenzo Ambriola and Giovanni A. Cignoni",
  title =        "A distributed virtual machine to support software
                 process",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "85--89",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.225919",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The availability of new technologies increases, at
                 least potentially, the chance to support cooperative
                 work exploiting the many resources offered by computer
                 networks. This opportunity is impaired by the lack of
                 tools able to manage the large variety of network
                 resources at an adequate level of abstraction. This
                 lack is particularly felt in the implementation of
                 software process support environments. In this paper we
                 describe how, in Oikos, we realized the distributed
                 run-time support to process enactment. On the basis of
                 this experience, we claim the need of a homogeneous
                 framework that overcomes this limitation. We propose
                 oiXos, a virtual machine that abstracts a network of
                 Unix workstations, disk servers, and X Window
                 terminals. We introduce the notions of component, item,
                 and gibject. Upon these notions we build the
                 abstraction level given by the oiXos virtual machine.
                 We discuss the oiXos architecture that relies on a
                 collection of system components that manage the objects
                 of the oiXos machine.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Poulin:1995:BRO,
  author =       "Jeffrey S. Poulin",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {{\booktitle{Object Databases --- The
                 Essentials}} by Mary E. S. Loomis}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--91",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.565600",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kostecki:1995:BRO,
  author =       "John A. Kostecki",
  title =        "Book review: {{\booktitle{Object-Oriented Software
                 Metrics}} by Mark Lorenz and Jeff Kidd}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "91--93",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.773556",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1995:BRS,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Book review: {{\booktitle{Software Creativity}} by
                 Robert L. Glass}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.773557",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1995:BRC,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "Book review: {{\booktitle{Computer Related Risks}} by
                 Peter G. Neumann (ACM Press Books 1995)}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.773559",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1995:BRS,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "Book review: {{\booktitle{Software Engineering
                 Standards and Specifications: an Annotated Index and
                 Directory}} by Stan Magee and Leanard L. Trip}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/225907.773558",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:57 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1995:RPCb,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7--13",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565629",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pfleeger:1995:EDAb,
  author =       "Shari Lawrence Pfleeger",
  title =        "Experimental Design and Analysis in Software
                 Engineering: Types of Experimental Design",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14--16",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565630",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sejnowski:1995:RDS,
  author =       "Matt Sejnowski",
  title =        "Revolutionary {DCF} System to Replace {CMM}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16--17",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565632",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Davis:1995:PPD,
  author =       "Margaret J. Davis",
  title =        "Process and Product: Dichotomy or Duality?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17--18",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565634",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Vanooteghem:1995:MMA,
  author =       "Hubert Vanooteghem",
  title =        "The Maturity Movement and Acedia",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18--19",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565636",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Britchef:1995:FPF,
  author =       "Bob Britchef",
  title =        "A Few (Proposed) Fundamental Laws of Programming",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19--20",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565637",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Holloway:1995:SEE,
  author =       "C. Michael Holloway",
  title =        "Software Engineering and Epistemology",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "20--21",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565638",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1995:TIC,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "Third International Conference on Software Reuse
                 Summary",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21--22",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565639",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Anderson:1995:BOC,
  author =       "Bruce Anderson",
  title =        "Building organizational competence in software
                 architecture: {OOPSLA'94 Workshop} report",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "25--28",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565642",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Dubois:1995:GTT,
  author =       "E. Dubois and J. Hagelstein and A. van Lamsweerde and
                 F. Orejas and J. Souquieres and P. Wodon",
  title =        "A Guided Tour through the {ICARUS} Project",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "28--33",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565643",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Krishnamurthy:1995:CWE,
  author =       "Balachander Krishnamurthy",
  title =        "{CSCW 94 Workshop to Explore Relationships between
                 Research in Computer Supported Cooperative Work and
                 Software Process}: Workshop Report",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "34--35",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.565647",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Agarwal:1995:PPA,
  author =       "Rakesh Agarwal and Patricia Lago",
  title =        "{PATHOS --- a} paradigmatic approach to high-level
                 object-oriented software development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "36--41",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.224156",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The growing complexity of information systems and the
                 ensuring problems of their development, maintenance and
                 management have highlighted the inadequacy of formal
                 and informal methods for constructing such systems.
                 These problems manifest themselves in the computer
                 systems which are often unmanageable, unreliable,
                 inflexible and hence difficult to maintain. Users have
                 often demanded for reliable computer systems because
                 they realize that most failures are due to poor
                 specification, and design. This has resulted in the
                 emergence of a number of information systems
                 methodologies together with associated computerized
                 development environments in which the Object-Oriented
                 (OO) approach is one of the most recent.OO is often
                 used for promoting software development and its reuse.
                 Languages like Smalltalk reduce not only development
                 time but also the cost of maintenance, simplifying the
                 creation of new systems and the reuse of old ones.
                 Nevertheless OO is not a panacea i.e. efforts are to
                 put in for its proper use. Thus we consider OO as a
                 paradigm which provides a new image, a new way of
                 conceptualizing the development life cycle. By the help
                 of paradigms, software developers and users are
                 supported in apprehending the development life cycle
                 and means to organize the aspects of the life cycle
                 into a comprehensive method.PATHOS (A Paradigmatic
                 Approach To High-level Object-Oriented Software
                 development) aims to demonstrate an approach to
                 information system development that will lead not only
                 to good information system creation, but also to
                 explicitly represent the maintenance of the business
                 knowledge so as to allow for its more effective and
                 active exploitation at run time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Mannion:1995:SR,
  author =       "Mike Mannion and Barry Keepence",
  title =        "{SMART} requirements",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "42--47",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.224157",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Systems Analysis, or as it is increasingly known as
                 today, Requirements Engineering, is a time consuming,
                 expensive but critical phase in software (and system)
                 development. The ``perfect'' Requirements Specification
                 should exhibit a number of qualities including
                 correctness, completeness and consistency. Within a
                 Requirements Specification individual requirements at
                 the microscopic level should be justified, clear,
                 unambiguous and verifiable. However, in many cases
                 Systems Analysts or Requirements Engineers describe
                 requirements which fall short of these demands. In
                 addition, outside reviewers faced with presenting an
                 independent qualitative assessment of a Requirements
                 Specification have few guidelines to assist them. In
                 this paper we present a simple technique, borrowed from
                 objective setting in Management Psychology, to assist
                 the construction and evaluation of individual
                 requirements.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jing:1995:MHL,
  author =       "Ying Jing and He Zhijun and Wu Zhaohui and Li Jiangyun
                 and Fan Weicheng and Xu Zhaohui",
  title =        "A methodology for high-level software specification
                 construction",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "48--54",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.224158",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper puts forward a kind of novel methodology
                 for software system development, from the point of view
                 of the problem existed in software development --- the
                 gap between the requirement specification level and the
                 program implementation level. We attempt to begin from
                 the specification level of software development to
                 touch the process of high-level specification
                 construction profoundly. We propose a specification
                 language to support multiple semantic dimensions and
                 based on which build a unified functional model of
                 software system in a specific domain. On the bases of
                 these, we apply transformation and refinement methods
                 to the model and transit it from the specification
                 level to the implementation level. We expect such a
                 process can change the current software producing
                 procedure in nature. We also put this methodology into
                 the application of the software development in
                 real-time serving domain we focus on, which turns out
                 to be encouraging.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Zelkowitz:1995:AMR,
  author =       "Marvin V. Zelkowitz",
  title =        "Algebra and models (and reality)",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "55--57",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.224159",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ryant:1995:CAS,
  author =       "Ivan Ryant",
  title =        "The correctly analyzed system which behaves
                 incorrectly",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "58--61",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.224161",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Many systems analysts believe that strictly following
                 a methodology prevents them from producing incorrect
                 system specification. In fact, banking systems,
                 telephone exchanges and other information and control
                 systems may fail in any moment because of hidden
                 errors. This article explains that the most widespread
                 methodologies nowadays aid rising of dangerous
                 synchronization errors in the specification. What's the
                 matter? The methodologies isolate interacting
                 concurrent processes one from other. In order to
                 analyze concurrent behavior, we need to consider
                 interactions as a whole. We must not split interactions
                 into separate processes. Systems analysis aims to
                 specify information systems. There are several
                 approaches to the systems analysis. The two main
                 streams today are structured and object oriented
                 analysis. Unfortunately, both of them hide the danger
                 of incorrect synchronization without giving the analyst
                 any chance to control it. Perhaps, the most delusive
                 case of incorrect synchronization are time ---
                 dependent errors. Concurrent system is the system of
                 concurrent (sequential) processes that may interact
                 (communicate or synchronize each other).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Arnold:1995:CIB,
  author =       "John E. Arnold",
  title =        "Control integration: a briefly annotated
                 bibliography",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "62--67",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.224162",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Churcher:1995:TCF,
  author =       "Neville I. Churcher and Martin J. Shepperd",
  title =        "Towards a conceptual framework for object oriented
                 software metrics",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "69--75",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.224163",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The development of software metrics for object
                 oriented (OO) languages is receiving increasing
                 attention. We examine the reasons why this is a much
                 more challenging problem than for conventional
                 languages. It seems premature to develop and apply OO
                 metrics while there remains uncertainty not only about
                 the precise definitions of many fundamental quantities
                 and their subsequent impact on derived metrics, but
                 also a lack of qualitative understanding of the
                 structure and behaviour of OO systems. We argue that
                 establishing a standard terminology and data model will
                 help provide a framework for both theoretical and
                 empirical work and increase the chances of early
                 success. One potential benefit is improvement of the
                 ability to perform independent validation of models and
                 metrics. We propose a data model and terminology and
                 illustrate the importance of such definitions by
                 examining the seemingly straightforward concept of the
                 number of methods per class. We discuss the
                 implications of ambiguities in definitions for a suite
                 of metrics which has recently been proposed.
                 Preliminary results from our analysis of industrial
                 systems are presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Whittle:1995:MLC,
  author =       "Ben Whittle",
  title =        "Models and languages for component description and
                 reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "76--89",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/224155.224165",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:12:58 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper brings together the current research on
                 reusable component models and component description
                 languages for reuse. The paper contains a description
                 and comparison of the 3C and REBOOT component models.
                 The importance and further development of the 3C model
                 is discussed. The component description language field
                 is surveyed, and an introduction is given to the
                 languages LIL, ACT TWO, $ \Pi $, Meld, CDL, CIDER,
                 LILEANNA, and RESOLVE. All of these languages are aimed
                 at describing reusable components in the design stages
                 of development. Criteria for examining component
                 description languages are introduced and used as the
                 basis of a comparison of the languages. The paper
                 concludes with suggestions for the convergence of these
                 developments, and suggestions for further work in this
                 field.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Howell:1995:SNSb,
  author =       "Chuck Howell",
  title =        "Surfing the net for {{\booktitle{Software Engineering
                 Notes}}}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "2--7",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.773573",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1995:RPCc,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the Public in Computers and Related Systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "7--12",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.773574",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pfleeger:1995:EDAc,
  author =       "Shari Lawrence Pfleeger",
  title =        "Experimental design and analysis in software
                 engineering, part 4: choosing an experimental design",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13--15",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219311",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1995:ICS,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "17th International Conference on Software Engineering:
                 Window on the World",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16--28",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.773575",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Parnas:1995:IMI,
  author =       "David Lorge Parnas",
  title =        "On {ICSE}'s ``most influential'' papers",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29--32",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219312",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The International Conference on Software Engineering
                 has established a tradition of looking back 10
                 conferences and selecting papers that have stood the
                 test of time. The remarks below were prepared in
                 connection an acceptance speech at ICSE 17 where two
                 colleagues and I received the award for the best paper
                 of ICSE 7.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Humphrey:1995:WSY,
  author =       "Watts S. Humphrey",
  title =        "Why should you use a personal software process?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33--36",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219313",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Personal Software Process (PSP) is a structured
                 set of forms, standards, and procedures that is
                 designed to help you do better work. Data on the PSP's
                 early use shows that engineers achieve average
                 reductions of 75\% in numbers of injected defects, make
                 more accurate plans, and have higher productivity. To
                 date, the PSP has been used to write more than 1000
                 small programs with a total of over 100,000 LOC. C is
                 the language most commonly used but C++, Ada, Pascal,
                 FORTRAN, and Visual Basic have also been used. This
                 note describes the PSP, why it was developed, and how
                 it can help you to be a better software engineer.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Raccoon:1995:CG,
  author =       "L. B. S. Raccoon",
  title =        "The complexity gap",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "37--44",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219315",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Complexity Gap defines a new way to think about
                 software development. We have all heard that developers
                 need to be more productive and to work harder. But what
                 does this mean exactly? The Complexity Gap defines a
                 structure in which to explore concepts of process and
                 productivity and to show how these concepts relate to
                 conventional software development issues of tools and
                 training. Software development is complex. This paper
                 expands on the principles of the Chaos model that
                 suggest that the top-level user requirements and
                 bottom-level hacking are connected through many
                 intermediate levels, and that every level of software
                 development affects quality and productivity to the
                 same degree. In The Chaos Model and the Chaos Life
                 Cycle, I make these points. To clarify the
                 possibilities and limitations of software development,
                 I compare software development to assembly-line work.
                 In the software engineering community, we compare
                 software development to assembly lines for a variety of
                 reasons. Some managers want to acquire the same sense
                 of control over software development as factory
                 managers have over assembly lines. Other managers want
                 to apply assembly-line techniques, such as Statistical
                 Quality Control, to software development. I use both
                 the definition of the Complexity Gap and the
                 assembly-line analogy to suggest ways to improve the
                 software development process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Appelbe:1995:BOR,
  author =       "Bill Appelbe and Gregory Abowd",
  title =        "Beyond objects: a response",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "45--48",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219316",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Shaw:1995:BOS}.",
  abstract =     "In a recent article [5], Shaw puts forth the argument
                 that a process control paradigm for structuring
                 software is more natural, and hence most appropriate
                 for process control applications. However, we believe
                 that there are other considerations, such as
                 scalability and maintainability, that need to be
                 addressed when choosing a design paradigm. Our
                 experience, and a re-examination of Shaw's models,
                 suggests that object modeling is more appropriate for
                 large scale process control applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1995:DDS,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "{DSSA} (Domain-Specific Software Architecture):
                 pedagogical example",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "49--62",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219318",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A Domain-Specific Software Architecture (DSSA) has
                 been defined as: * ``an assemblage of software
                 components, specialized for a particular type of task
                 (domain), generalized for effective use across that
                 domain, composed in a standardized structure (topology)
                 effective for building successful applications''
                 [Hay94] or, alternately * a context for patterns of
                 problem elements, solution elements, and situations
                 that define mappings between them'' [Hid90]. The
                 following small example illustrates these definitions
                 as well as provides the reader with some insight into
                 the types of processes and tools needed to support the
                 creation and use of a DSSA.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garlan:1995:SDW,
  author =       "David Garlan and Walter Tichy and Frances Paulisch",
  title =        "Summary of the {Dagstuhl Workshop on Software
                 Architecture}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "63--83",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219320",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garlan:1995:FIW,
  author =       "David Garlan",
  title =        "{First International Workshop on Architectures for
                 Software Systems} workshop summary",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "84--89",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219322",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "As systems become more complex, the high-level
                 organization of the overall system --- the software
                 architecture --- becomes a critical aspect of design.
                 Architectural concerns include organization of a system
                 as a composition of components; global control
                 structures; protocols for communication,
                 synchronization, and data access; assignment of
                 functionality to design elements; physical
                 distribution; scaling and performance; dimensions of
                 evolution; and selection among design alternatives.
                 Recently, software architecture has begun to emerge as
                 an important field of study for software engineering
                 practitioners and researchers. Architectural issues are
                 being addressed by work in areas such as module
                 interface languages, domain-specific architectures,
                 software reuse, codification of organizational patterns
                 for software, architectural description languages,
                 formal underpinnings for architectural design, and
                 architectural design environments. While there has been
                 considerable recent activity in this area, much of it
                 has gone on in small groups and many of these efforts
                 are operating without detailed knowledge of other
                 on-going work. This workshop brought together
                 researchers and practitioners interested in software
                 architecture to discuss the current state of the
                 practice and art. The primary goal was to establish a
                 common understanding of the state of the practice, the
                 kinds of research and development efforts that are in
                 progress, and the important challenges for this
                 emerging field. The response to the call for papers for
                 this workshop provides convincing evidence of the
                 increasing interest and importance of software
                 architecture. There were 86 papers submitted, involving
                 over 140 authors. Of these, 32 were chosen for
                 inclusion in the workshop. These papers were
                 distributed to the participants in the form of a
                 workshop proceedings. The proceedings has recently been
                 reissued as a Carnegie Mellon Technical report,
                 ``Proceedings of the First International Workshop on
                 Software Architecture'', CMU-CS-TR-95-151. Copies may
                 be obtained from CS Documentation, School of Computer
                 Science, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave.,
                 Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3891 (tel: 412-268-2596, email:
                 [email protected]). The workshop organizing committee
                 consisted of David Garlan, Workshop Chair (Carnegie
                 Mellon University), Bob Balzer (USC Information
                 Sciences Institute), Barry Boehm (University of
                 Southern California), Martin Griss (Hewlett Packard
                 Laboratories), Jeffrey Kramer (Imperial College), Doug
                 Lea (SUNY Oswego \& NY CASE Center), Dewayne Perry
                 (AT\&T Bell Labs), Mary Shaw (Carnegie Mellon
                 University), Will Tracz (Loral Federal Systems), and
                 Alexander Wolf (University of Colorado at Boulder).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Maiden:1995:ROR,
  author =       "N. A. M. Maiden",
  title =        "Reuse-oriented requirements engineering in {NATURE}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "90--93",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219324",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This short paper outlines research undertaken as part
                 of the ESPRIT III NATURE basic research action into
                 domain-specific requirements engineering environments.
                 It describes a set of problem abstractions which are
                 the basis for intelligent guidance during requirements
                 scoping, acquisition, modeling, critiquing and
                 communication. It presents a toolkit designed to
                 exploit the problem abstractions during different
                 requirements engineering activities. Routes for
                 industrial exploitation of these research results are
                 also outlined.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tatsuta:1995:PVR,
  author =       "Tanehiro Tatsuta",
  title =        "Practical verification for requirements model of
                 {Hatley\slash Pirbhai}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "94--97",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/219308.219325",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:00 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Five years have passed since translated version of a
                 popular book on Real Time Structured Analysis method
                 was published in Japan. Japanese readers of it have
                 been discussing its practical usage actively. Its
                 research work is however hardly ever presented abroad.
                 We will show here recent Japanese research work on
                 it.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Aho:1995:FIG,
  author =       "Alfred V. Aho and Nancy D. Griffeth",
  title =        "Feature interactions in the global information
                 infrastructure",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "2--4",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222133",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garlan:1995:SAP,
  author =       "David Garlan",
  title =        "Software architecture (panel): next steps towards an
                 engineering discipline for software systems design",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "5",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222134",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Zaremski:1995:SMS,
  author =       "Amy Moormann Zaremski and Jeannette M. Wing",
  title =        "Specification matching of software components",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "6--17",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222135",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Murphy:1995:SRM,
  author =       "Gail C. Murphy and David Notkin and Kevin Sullivan",
  title =        "Software reflexion models: bridging the gap between
                 source and high-level models",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18--28",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222136",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Gupta:1995:HSA,
  author =       "Rajiv Gupta and Mary Lou Soffa",
  title =        "Hybrid slicing: an approach for refining static slices
                 using dynamic information",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "29--40",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222137",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Reps:1995:PIC,
  author =       "Thomas Reps and Genevieve Rosay",
  title =        "Precise interprocedural chopping",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41--52",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222138",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hoffman:1995:SAM,
  author =       "Daniel Hoffman and Paul Strooper",
  title =        "State abstraction and modular software development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "53--61",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222139",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Fekete:1995:LCM,
  author =       "Alan Fekete",
  title =        "Liveness conditions in model-based service
                 specifications: a case study",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "62--71",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222140",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Fiadeiro:1995:IFS,
  author =       "Jos{\'e} Luiz Fiadeiro and Tom Maibaum",
  title =        "Interconnecting formalisms: supporting modularity,
                 reuse and incrementality",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "72--80",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222141",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Weyuker:1995:UCF,
  author =       "Elaine J. Weyuker",
  title =        "Using the consequence of failures for testing and
                 reliability assessment",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "81--91",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222143",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Porter:1995:EAC,
  author =       "A. Porter and H. Siy and C. A. Toman and L. G. Votta",
  title =        "An experiment to assess the cost-benefits of code
                 inspections in large scale software development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "92--103",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222144",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Horwitz:1995:DID,
  author =       "Susan Horwitz and Thomas Reps and Mooly Sagiv",
  title =        "Demand interprocedural dataflow analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "104--115",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222146",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Murphy:1995:LSM,
  author =       "Gail C. Murphy and David Notkin",
  title =        "Lightweight source model extraction",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "116--127",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222147",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wing:1995:MCS,
  author =       "Jeannette M. Wing and Mandana Vaziri-Farahani",
  title =        "Model checking software systems: a case study",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "128--139",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222148",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cheung:1995:CRA,
  author =       "S. C. Cheung and J. Kramer",
  title =        "Compositional reachability analysis of finite-state
                 distributed systems with user-specified constraints",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "140--150",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222149",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Zeller:1995:UVM,
  author =       "Andreas Zeller",
  title =        "A unified version model for configuration management",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "151--160",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222151",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kaplan:1995:FAU,
  author =       "Alan Kaplan and Jack C. Wileden",
  title =        "Formalization and application of a unifying model for
                 name management",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "161--172",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/222132.222152",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:01 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1995:RPCd,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the public in computers and related systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "8--14",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217031",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pfleeger:1995:EDAd,
  author =       "Shari Lawrence Pfleeger",
  title =        "Experimental design and analysis in software
                 engineering, part 5: analyzing the data",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "14--17",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217032",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Boehm:1995:REN,
  author =       "Barry Boehm",
  title =        "Reuse emphasized at next process workshop",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "17",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.773572",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Salasin:1995:EDC,
  author =       "John Salasin and Howie Shrobe",
  title =        "Evolutionary design of complex software {(EDCS)}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "18--22",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217033",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This document is intended to provide background
                 information for offerers responding to BAA 95-40:
                 Evolutionary Design of Complex Software (EDCS). It
                 describes the general problem that the EDCS Program
                 addresses along with some of the characteristics of the
                 Program's organization. Then it discusses some concepts
                 for evolutionary systems and some of the technology
                 investigations that are felt to support those concepts.
                 This is presented for illustrative purposes only.
                 Offerors should not feel constrained to the particular
                 concepts of evolution articulated nor to the technology
                 areas and sample investigation projects delineated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Cross:1995:SWC,
  author =       "James H. {Cross II} and Alex Quilici and Linda Wills
                 and Philip Newcomb and Elliot Chikofsky",
  title =        "Second working conference on reverse engineering
                 summary report",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "23--26",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217619",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Taylor:1995:SDU,
  author =       "Richard N. Taylor and Will Tracz and Lou Coglianese",
  title =        "Software development using domain-specific software
                 architectures: {CDRl} A011 --- a curriculum module in
                 the {SEI} style",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "27--38",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217034",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The objective of software development using
                 domain-specific software architectures (DSSA) is
                 reduction in time and cost of producing specific
                 application systems within a supported domain, along
                 with increased product quality, improved manageability,
                 and positioning for acquisition of future business. Key
                 aspects of the approach include software reuse based on
                 parameterization of generic components and
                 interconnection of components within a canonical
                 solution framework. Viability of the approach depends
                 on identification and deep understanding of a selected
                 domain of applications. The DSSA approach, to be
                 effectively applied, requires a variety of support
                 tools, including repository mechanisms, prototyping
                 facilities, and analysis tools. This curriculum module
                 describes the DSSA approach, representative examples,
                 supporting tools, and processes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kelsey:1995:PTM,
  author =       "Robert Bruce Kelsey",
  title =        "``{A} plea for tolerance in matters
                 epistemological{\ldots}''",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "39",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217036",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Raccoon:1995:CS,
  author =       "L. B. S. Raccoon",
  title =        "The chaos strategy",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "40--47",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217037",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "``What line of code should I write next?'' This paper
                 resulted from my search for an answer that reflects my
                 experiences in writing real programs, and reflects both
                 the Chaos model and life cycle. After trying to infer
                 an answer directly from the Chaos life cycle, in fact
                 from any life cycle, I ultimately gave up. I concluded
                 that while life cycles describe what I can do in a
                 project, life cycles do not describe what I should do
                 in a project. For that I need another concept, such as
                 strategy. Strategies are idealized plans of how
                 software development should work. Strategies help us to
                 prioritize the things we do. A general strategy defines
                 an overall approach for solving a problem that must be
                 adapted to meet local circumstances. A specific
                 strategy defines immediate goals. A good specific
                 strategy balances short-term progress with long-term
                 goals. Applying the concept of strategy to software
                 development may seem inappropriate, or even absurd, to
                 software developers who normally worry about concepts
                 like correctness, specification, and quality.
                 Developers have been taught to think of software
                 development as totally predictable, with each step a
                 perfectly understood element. Strategy implies a
                 contest which admits that a developer could lose. On
                 the other hand, developers may be more familiar
                 applying strategy to investments, marketing, elections,
                 and war. People do meaningfully use strategy for
                 complex military and business problems. In The Chaos
                 Model and the Chaos Life Cycle, I argued that each
                 software development project is a chaotic, multi-level
                 sequence of issues that arise and get resolved.
                 Developers repeatedly select an issue to resolve,
                 devise an approach, implement a solution, maintain the
                 resulting program, and so forth. Software development
                 is a project-to-project, situation-to-situation,
                 minute-to-minute process, with many levels. Developers
                 must deal with all levels from the ``whole project''
                 level down to the ``one line of code'' level. In The
                 Complexity Gap, I argued that the middle levels of a
                 project are not addressed by the traditional Stepwise
                 Refinement and Object-Oriented Design strategies. The
                 macro-process and top-down strategies address the top
                 levels of a project. The micro-process and bottom-up
                 strategies address the bottom levels of a project. In
                 this paper, I propose the Chaos strategy to guide
                 development on the levels of a project within the
                 Complexity Gap. I begin by describing parallels between
                 software development and games of strategy, and by
                 defining the Software Development Game. I then define
                 elements of the Chaos strategy, a middle-out,
                 technology-independent strategy. Finally, I show how to
                 adapt the Chaos strategy to fit the various
                 circumstances that arise in complex software
                 development projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Billard:1995:GML,
  author =       "Edward A. Billard and Alice E. Riedmiller",
  title =        "A {GUI} for a manager of lightweight processes",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "48--50",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217038",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A design is presented for a graphical user interface
                 to a manager of lightweight processes. The manager is
                 XINU-like in its support for semaphores, messages and
                 sleeping but is implemented with the lightweight
                 process library of UNIX. Each state change is piped to
                 a GUI written in Tcl/Tk. The display shows processes
                 waiting in queues and processes moving from state to
                 state (i.e. free, suspended, ready, current, waiting,
                 receiving, sleeping, writing, reading). The GUI has a
                 control panel that allows the user to watch and debug
                 user-written concurrent processes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Philip:1995:RFS,
  author =       "Thomas Philip and Ramani Ramsundar",
  title =        "A reengineering framework for small scale software",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "51--55",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217040",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Reengineering software is approached in different
                 ways, even though the basic process remains the same:
                 reverse engineering followed by forward engineering.
                 Tools are available to aid during reverse engineering
                 and reengineering. This paper presents a framework we
                 used to reengineer a small scale software system from a
                 partial structured implementation to an object-oriented
                 implementation. The framework uses function matrix to
                 organize the extracted abstractions, algorithm tables,
                 and data dictionary during its initial phase.
                 Components for the target system object model are
                 retrieved from the matrices and the dictionary. An
                 empirical reuse metric was applied to the matrix to
                 identify reusable parts. Application of this framework
                 is also discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Aggarwal:1995:SRA,
  author =       "K. K. Aggarwal and Yogesh Singh",
  title =        "Software reliability apportionment using the analytic
                 hierarchy process",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "56--61",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217041",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper, we present a software reliability
                 apportionment scheme using analytic hierarchy process
                 which attempts to answer the question ``how reliable
                 should each system module be?''. Reliability
                 requirements determined by integrating user's view,
                 software manager's view and programmer's view would be
                 more realistic, consistent and economically attainable
                 than those obtained through subjective or haphazard
                 method. This model determines reliability goals at the
                 planning and design stages of the software project,
                 hence making reliability a singular measure for
                 performance evaluation. The concept of frequency ratio
                 is used which considers the probability of a module
                 execution when the software is executed for a
                 predefined number of input cases. Modules which are to
                 be executed rather infrequently may be allocated
                 relatively lower reliability values.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Xu:1995:ISS,
  author =       "Dianxiang Xu and Guoliang Zheng",
  title =        "Inheritance as sublation and its semantics",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "62--66",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217042",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents an approach to non-monotonic
                 inheritance in an object-oriented logic programming
                 framework. Inheritance as sublation, achieved through
                 predicate extension and exception, not only provides a
                 very flexible mechanism for software reuse but also is
                 very philosophical. Taking the (iterated least
                 fixpoint) well-founded model semantics to traditional
                 logic programs as a basis, the declarative semantics is
                 also explored.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Xu:1995:DJD,
  author =       "Manwu Xu and Fancong Zeng and Jianfeng Lu and Dong
                 Yang",
  title =        "The development of {JR}-{DSSG}: a case study of
                 software reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "67--72",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217043",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "To increase software productivity and enhance its
                 quality, techniques for software reuse have attracted
                 more and more attention in recent years. Among these
                 techniques, application generator is a rather practical
                 one but without deep explorations yet. In this paper,
                 at first we examine the application generator in terms
                 of characteristics of software reuse. And then, as a
                 case study of application generator technique, the
                 development of JR-DSSG and its features are presented.
                 Finally, we end this paper with a discussion of
                 intended further work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kogut:1995:DRC,
  author =       "Paul Kogut",
  title =        "Design reuse: chemical engineering vs. software
                 engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "73--77",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217044",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The evolution of software engineering to a mature
                 engineering discipline can be accelerated by adopting
                 practices from other mature engineering disciplines.
                 Mature engineering disciplines such as a chemical
                 engineering have extensive systematic design reuse
                 practices. In this paper, design reuse in chemical
                 engineering is compared to current and emerging design
                 reuse in software engineering. This comparison is based
                 on the analogy that a chemical process that is
                 implemented as a chemical plant is comparable to a
                 software architecture that is implemented as a software
                 system. The goal is to gain some insights on how
                 engineering models are used to support systematic
                 design reuse. These insights will help form the basis
                 of model based software engineering.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Leach:1995:IDA,
  author =       "Ronald J. Leach and Terrence L. Fuller",
  title =        "An illustration of the domain analysis process",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "78--82",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217046",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/linux.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/unix.bib",
  abstract =     "Most researchers in software reuse believe that domain
                 analysis is a requirement for a successful reuse
                 program. Domain analysis is a generalization of systems
                 analysis, in which the primary objective is to identify
                 the operations and objects needed to specify
                 information processing in a particular application
                 domain. The ultimate purpose is to create
                 domain-specific languages that permit specifications to
                 be written in terms meaningful to the domain. The paper
                 discusses domain analysis of the Linux operating
                 system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept. of Syst. and Comput. Sci., Howard Univ.,
                 Washington, DC, USA",
  classification = "C6110B (Software engineering techniques); C6150J
                 (Operating systems)",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  keywords =     "Domain analysis; Domain-specific languages;
                 Information processing; Linux; Operating system;
                 Software reuse; Specification; Systems analysis",
  thesaurus =    "Formal specification; Operating systems [computers];
                 Software reusability; Systems analysis",
}


@Article{Ozcan:1995:VRV,
  author =       "M. B. Ozcan and I. Morrey",
  title =        "A visual requirements validation environment for the
                 reverse engineering of formal specifications from rapid
                 prototypes",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "83--87",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.217047",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a research project whose aim is
                 the use of requirements visualisation techniques in the
                 construction of an environment for the reverse
                 engineering of validated formal specifications from
                 rapid prototypes. The work will build on established
                 research by the proposers in the animation of
                 model-based and algebraic formal specifications. The
                 report examines the current problems with requirements
                 engineering and looks at solutions based on software
                 prototyping and executable formal specifications. It is
                 argued that prototypes built in this way can be too
                 ``formal'', in the sense that the customer viewing the
                 prototype cannot easily comprehend the results of
                 execution. For these types of prototypes to be useful,
                 the output must be transformed into a representation
                 which is more amenable for comprehension, namely
                 graphical visualisations and animation instead of
                 cryptic mathematical expressions. In this context, the
                 term ``animation'' normally refers to an executable
                 version of a formal specification which can be used to
                 demonstrate to the user that the specification is doing
                 what it should. In other words, the animation is a
                 program whose behaviour can be explored with a view to
                 confirming the user's expectations. Our aim is to
                 investigate techniques and a methodology for building
                 this program prior to the specification, based on some
                 initial informal requirements, and reverse engineering
                 a formal specification from it. The product of the
                 research programme will be a software environment to
                 support this requirements visualisation, animation and
                 reverse engineering approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ayers:1995:BRC,
  author =       "Michael Ayers",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {{\booktitle{The Capability Maturity
                 Model Guidelines for Improving the Software
                 Process}}}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "88--89",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.565652",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Borstler:1995:BRR,
  author =       "Jurgen Borstler",
  title =        "Book Review: {{\booktitle{Reengineering Information
                 Technology Success Through Empowerment}}}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "89",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.565653",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Finkbine:1995:SI,
  author =       "Ronald B. Finkbine and Ph. D.",
  title =        "Software Inspection",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "90",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.565654",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Leisner:1995:CFU,
  author =       "Marry Leisner",
  title =        "Confessions o f a Used Program Salesman:
                 Institutionalizing Software Reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "90",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.565657",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1995:SSS,
  author =       "Peter Neumann",
  title =        "Safeware: System Safety and Computers",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "90--91",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.565656",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hansen:1995:SS,
  author =       "Brinch Hansen",
  title =        "The {SuperPascal} Software",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "91",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.565658",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1995:FDC,
  author =       "Peter Neumann",
  title =        "Fatal Defect: Chasing Killer Computer Bugs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "91",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/217030.565659",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:02 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Shaw:1995:AIS,
  author =       "Mary Shaw",
  title =        "Architectural issues in software reuse: it's not just
                 the functionality, it's the packaging",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "3--6",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211783",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Effective reuse depends not only on finding and
                 reusing components, but also on the ways those
                 components are combined. The informal folklore of
                 software engineering provides a number of diverse
                 styles for organizing software systems. These styles,
                 or architectures, show how to compose systems from
                 components; different styles expect different kinds of
                 component packaging and different kinds of interactions
                 between the components. Unfortunately, these styles and
                 packaging distinctions are often implicit; as a
                 consequence, components with appropriate functionality
                 may fail to work together. This talk surveys common
                 architectural styles, including important packaging and
                 interaction distinctions, and proposes an approach to
                 the problem of reconciling architectural mismatches.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Prieto-Diaz:1995:SRS,
  author =       "Rub{\'e}n Prieto-D{\'\i}az",
  title =        "Systematic reuse: a scientific or an engineering
                 method?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "9--10",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211784",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Tracz:1995:CUP,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "Confessions of a used-program salesman: lessons
                 learned",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "11--13",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211785",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software reuse is the second oldest programming
                 profession. Ever since the first program logic board
                 was wired, people have been looking for ways of saving
                 time and money by building upon other's efforts and not
                 ``not re-inventing any wheels.'' This article
                 summarizes the lessons I have learned as used-program
                 salesman. Using this analogy, I will examine efforts
                 made to institutionalize software reuse.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Griss:1995:SSR,
  author =       "Martin Griss and Ivar Jacobson and Chris Jette and Bob
                 Kessler and Doug Lea",
  title =        "Systematic software reuse (panel): objects and
                 frameworks are not enough",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "17--20",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.213969",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Ensuring that object technology will achieve its
                 promise of significant software reuse requires that
                 special attention be paid to a combination of people,
                 process and technology issues. Reuse will not happen
                 automatically. The panelists will describe their
                 experience with OO reuse and their views on the
                 issues.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Arango:1995:SRI,
  author =       "Guillermo Arango",
  title =        "Software reusability and the {Internet}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "22--23",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.213970",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Batory:1995:CRA,
  author =       "Don Batory and Lou Coglianese and Mark Goodwin and
                 Steve Shafer",
  title =        "Creating reference architectures: an example from
                 avionics",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "27--37",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211786",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "ADAGE is a project to define and build a
                 domain-specific software architecture (DSSA)
                 environment for assisting the development of avionics
                 software. A central concept of DSSA is the use of
                 software system generators to implement component-based
                 models of software synthesis in the target domain
                 [SEI90]. In this paper, we present the ADAGE
                 component-based model (or reference architecture) for
                 avionics software synthesis. We explain the modeling
                 procedures used, review our initial goals, show how
                 component reuse is achieved, and examine what we were
                 (and were not) able to accomplish. The contributions of
                 our paper are the avionics reference architecture and
                 the lessons that we learned; both may be beneficial to
                 others in future modeling efforts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Davis:1995:ARC,
  author =       "Margaret J. Davis",
  title =        "Adaptable, reusable code",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "38--46",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211789",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/adabooks.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses the concept of adaptability as a
                 means for reaping the cost and schedule reduction
                 benefits of reuse. Adaptability strives to implement
                 the variability identified by domain analyses while
                 managing the cost of implementation, extension, and
                 use. The paper discusses a context for understanding
                 different domain-specific reuse approaches relative to
                 adaptability and analyzes experience in designing and
                 developing adaptable code. The experience is drawn from
                 the ARPA Software Technology for Adaptable, Reliable
                 Systems (STARS) joint demonstration project with U.S.
                 Navy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Bieman:1995:RTI,
  author =       "James M. Bieman and Josephine Xia Zhao",
  title =        "Reuse through inheritance: a quantitative study of
                 {C++} software",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "47--52",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211794",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "According to proponents of object-oriented
                 programming, inheritance is an excellent way to
                 organize abstraction and a superb tool for reuse. Yet,
                 few quantitative studies of the actual use of
                 inheritance have been conducted. Quantitative studies
                 are necessary to evaluate the actual usefulness of
                 structures such as inheritance. We characterize the use
                 of inheritance in 19 existing C++ software systems
                 containing 2,744 classes. We measure the class depth in
                 the inheritance hierarchies, and the number of child
                 and parent classes in the software. We find that
                 inheritance is used far less frequently than
                 expected.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{BenGhezala:1995:RAB,
  author =       "Henda Hadjami {Ben Ghezala} and Farouk Kamoun",
  title =        "A reuse approach based on object orientation: its
                 contributions in the development of {CASE} tools",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "53--62",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211798",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The aim of this paper is to present an approach to
                 facilitate reuse. This approach, which is based on an
                 object oriented design method, describes a way of
                 structuring components and reuse library. Two concepts,
                 domain and theme, are introduced to allow a
                 classification of components by the services that they
                 offer and by application domain. The library itself is
                 organized in three hierarchical levels -general,
                 dedicated and personal-, where the reusable components
                 are stored according to their degree of ``interest''
                 (general interest, by application type or particular).
                 So, the library is generic and could cluster various
                 reusable component types (specification components,
                 design components, packages,{\ldots}). The
                 contributions of this approach in the development of
                 CASE tools are also emphasized.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Mambella:1995:IAS,
  author =       "E. Mambella and R. Ferrari and F. D. Carli and A. L.
                 Surdo",
  title =        "An integrated approach to software reuse practice",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "63--80",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211805",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Since 1993, Sodalia's Software Engineers have been
                 studying a reuse program whose goal is making software
                 reuse a significant and systematic part of the software
                 process. The Sodalia's Corporate Reuse Program is
                 intended to develop a Software Reuse Process that
                 incorporates reuse-specific activities along the
                 Object-Oriented Software Development Process, and a
                 reuse library to support the classification and
                 management of reusable components. This paper focuses
                 on the on-going experience of Sodalia in the gradual
                 introduction of reuse practice in the organization,
                 illustrates the evolutionary stages, and the reached
                 results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Gennari:1995:RPI,
  author =       "John H. Gennari and Russ B. Altman and Mark A. Musen",
  title =        "Reuse with {PROT{\'E}G{\'E}-II}: from elevators to
                 ribosomes",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "72--80",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.316710",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Castano:1995:BRC,
  author =       "S. Castano and V. {De Antonellis} and B. Pernici",
  title =        "Building reusable components in the public
                 administration domain",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "81--87",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211809",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The paper proposes methods and tools for building
                 reusable components from families of Information System
                 conceptual schemas, based on the identification of
                 similar components in different schemas, and on their
                 engineering into normalized descriptions. Clustering
                 and abstraction techniques to help identifying similar
                 components, and techniques to build corresponding
                 reusable components are described in the paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Alencar:1995:FSR,
  author =       "P. S. C. Alencar and D. D. Cowan and C. J. P. Lucena
                 and L. C. M. Nova",
  title =        "Formal specification of reusable interface objects",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "88--96",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211811",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we present a formal approach of a new
                 object-oriented design concept to support
                 reuse-in-the-large called Abstract Data Views (ADVs).
                 The ADV approach was created to specify clearly and
                 formally the separation of interfaces from the
                 application components of a software system. Such an
                 approach should lead to high degree of reuse of designs
                 for both interface and application components. Our
                 specification framework is based on descriptive schemas
                 for both ADVs and ADOs, that are the basic building
                 blocks for the system specification, design, and
                 implementation using the ADV approach. These schemas
                 describe the structural, static, and dynamic features
                 of each system object, and include the specification of
                 the concurrent operation of system components.
                 Additionally, such schemas can be seen as an underlying
                 structure to support the development of a specification
                 language that describes the interconnection between
                 interface and application components.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Jeng:1995:SMS,
  author =       "Jun-Jang Jeng and Betty H. C. Cheng",
  title =        "Specification matching for software reuse: a
                 foundation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "97--105",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211817",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Using formal specifications to represent software
                 components facilitates the determination of reusability
                 because they more precisely characterize the
                 functionality of the software, and the well-defined
                 syntax makes processing amenable to automation. We
                 present specification matching as a method for
                 classification, retrieval, and modification of reusable
                 components. A software component is specified in terms
                 of order-sorted predicate logic. For both components
                 and methods, we consider not only exact match, but also
                 relaxed match and logical match for performing
                 specification matching over a library of reusable
                 software components.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Caplan:1995:LFS,
  author =       "Joshua E. Caplan and Mehdi T. Harandi",
  title =        "A logical framework for software proof reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "106--113",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211821",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe a logical framework PR for verification of
                 reusable software components. Within our system,
                 developers can employ the advantages traditionally
                 associated with software reuse to reduce the cost of
                 software verification by reusing abstract proofs and
                 specifications. One can construct an algorithm with
                 parameters, a specification with parameters, and a
                 proof that the algorithm satisfies the specification
                 provided the parameters satisfy certain conditions.
                 Proofs in PRwill themselves contain parameters for
                 subproofs concerning those conditions. In this
                 framework, typing, type checking, and proof checking
                 are decidable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Jarzabek:1995:RLE,
  author =       "Stan Jarzabek",
  title =        "From reuse library experiences to application
                 generation architectures",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "114--122",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211823",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Reuse through application generators has been
                 successful in the area of programming language systems.
                 We analyzed three language system projects that
                 realized transition from the initial ad hoc programs,
                 through libraries of reusable modules to application
                 generator solutions. We tried to understand the
                 underlying thinking process and technical factors that
                 made such a transition possible. Based on this study,
                 we generalized reuse experiences gained in the language
                 system domain and formulated a reuse implementation
                 framework. Our framework is to facilitate transition
                 from component-based reuse to application generators in
                 other domains. Ultimately, we hope our framework will
                 offer reuse implementation guidelines for companies to
                 realize such a transition. Initial findings are
                 described in this paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Schappert:1995:ASS,
  author =       "Albert Schappert and Peter Sommerlad and Wolfgang
                 Pree",
  title =        "Automated support for software development with
                 frameworks",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "123--127",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211824",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This document presents some of the results of an
                 industrial research project on automation of software
                 development. The project's objective is to improve
                 productivity and quality of software development. We
                 see software development based on frameworks and
                 libraries of prefabricated components as a step in this
                 direction. An adequate development style consists of
                 two complementary activities: the creation of
                 frameworks and new components for functionality not
                 available and the composition and configuration of
                 existing components. Just providing adequate frameworks
                 and components does not necessarily yield automation
                 and efficiency of software development. We developed
                 the concept of relations between software components as
                 a foundation for abstraction, reuse and automatic code
                 generation for component interrelationship. Furthermore
                 we suggest to supplement frameworks with an active
                 cookbook consisting of active recipes which guide the
                 software developer in the use of framework elements. In
                 this paper our concept of using relations among
                 software components is presented and the active
                 cookbook is illustrated as a means for developer
                 guidance. We created a prototype to demonstrate these
                 concepts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Sugiyama:1995:OMT,
  author =       "Yasuhiro Sugiyama",
  title =        "Object make: a tool for constructing software systems
                 from existing software components",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "128--136",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211826",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Dusink:1995:RD,
  author =       "Liesbeth Dusink and Jan van Katwijk",
  title =        "Reuse dimensions",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "137--149",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211828",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In recent years, there have been much publications on
                 reuse. In order to bet an overview of the whole field
                 and also a good impression of the state of the reuse
                 art, we studied reuse literature of the last few years.
                 As basis for comparison, we classified literature
                 according to four (more or less orthogonal) dimensions,
                 based on the actions and knowledge of the reuser, i.e.
                 the software engineer. The dimensions are: actions to
                 be taken to get an existing reusable item; knowledge to
                 be applied to find an existing reusable item; actions
                 to be taken to build the complete system needed;
                 knowledge to be applied to get the complete system
                 needed. The survey shows that research on reuse from
                 the viewpoint of needed system, receives far less
                 attention than research from the viewpoint of reusable
                 artifacts. We expect reuse to live up to its promise if
                 this topic is addressed was well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Fowler:1995:PWR,
  author =       "Glenn S. Fowler and David G. Korn and Kiem-Phong Vo",
  title =        "Principles for writing reusable libraries",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "150--159",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211834",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Over the past 10 years, the Software Engineering
                 Research Department in AT\&T has been engaging in a
                 research program to build a collection of highly
                 portable advanced software tools known as Ast, Advanced
                 Software Technology. A recent monograph, ``Practical
                 Reusable UNIX Software'' (John Wiley \& Sons, Inc.,
                 1995), summarizes the philosophy and components of this
                 research program. A major component of this program is
                 a collection of portable, and reusable libraries
                 servicing a wide range of functions, from a porting
                 base to all known UNIX platforms, to efficient buffered
                 I/O, memory allocation, data compression, and
                 expression evaluation. The libraries currently stand at
                 about 150,000 non-commented lines of C code. They are
                 developed and maintained independently by different
                 researchers. Yet they work together seamlessly ---
                 largely because of a collection of library design
                 principles and conventions developed to help
                 maintaining interface consistency and reducing needless
                 or overlapped work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Poulin:1995:MSA,
  author =       "Jeffrey S. Poulin and Keith J. Werkman",
  title =        "Melding structured abstracts and World Wide {Web} for
                 retrieval of reusable components",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "160--168",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211841",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Reusable Software Libraries (RSLs) often suffer from
                 poor interfaces, too many formal standards, high levels
                 of training required for their use, and most of all, a
                 high cost to build and maintain. Hence, RSLs have
                 largely failed to return the reuse benefits promised by
                 their developers. This paper first describes an RSL
                 implementation using the World Wide Web (WWW) browser
                 Mosaic and shows how it meets most RSL needs, avoids
                 most RSL pitfalls, and costs only a fraction of the
                 cost for the average commercial RSL. Second, the paper
                 describes a way to quickly assess the important aspects
                 of a piece of software so programmers can decide
                 whether or not to reuse it. Using the observation that
                 when programmers discuss software they tend to convey
                 the same key information in a somewhat predictable
                 order, this paper describes a method to automatically
                 mimic this activity using a Structured Abstract of
                 reusable components. Structured Abstracts provide a
                 natural, easy to use way for developers to (1) search
                 for components, (2) quickly assess the component for
                 use, and (3) submit components to the RSL.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Lung:1995:ACD,
  author =       "Chung-Horng Lung and Joseph E. Urban",
  title =        "An approach to the classification of domain models in
                 support of analogical reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "169--178",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211842",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents an approach to classify domain
                 models in order to facilitate reuse through analogy.
                 Domain analysis plays a critical role for systematic
                 reuse, but domain analysis is difficult to perform,
                 especially for new application areas. Analogical
                 approach to reuse can support the domain analysis
                 process by providing software products in a different
                 but analogous domain. In order to achieve this goal,
                 domain models need to be classified. This paper
                 proposes a classification method for domain models. The
                 method is an integration of the enumerative hierarchy
                 and faceted scheme. The classification approach can
                 help the domain analyst to locate an analogous domain
                 to perform the modeling and analysis process. Moreover,
                 the approach is more flexible and more descriptive than
                 conventional classification methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Browne:1995:LIN,
  author =       "Shirley Browne and Jack Dongarra and Stan Green and
                 Keith Moore and Theresa Pepin and Tom Rowan and Reed
                 Wade",
  title =        "Location-independent naming for virtual distributed
                 software repositories",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "179--185",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211843",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A location-independent naming system for network
                 resources has been designed to facilitate organization
                 and description of software components accessible
                 through a virtual distributed repository. This naming
                 system enables easy and efficient searching and
                 retrieval, and it addresses many of the consistency,
                 authenticity, and integrity issues involved with
                 distributed software repositories by providing
                 mechanisms for grouping resources and for authenticity
                 and integrity checking. This paper details the design
                 of the naming system, describes how the system fits
                 into the development of the National HPCC Software
                 Exchange, an virtual software repository that has the
                 goal of providing access to reusable software
                 components for high-performance computing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Henninger:1995:DDK,
  author =       "Scott Henninger",
  title =        "Developing domain knowledge through the reuse of
                 project experiences",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "186--195",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211844",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software development is no longer a homogenous field.
                 Software is being developed for an increasingly diverse
                 set of applications and user populations, each with
                 different characteristics and development constraints.
                 As a consequence, researchers and practitioners have
                 begun to realize the importance of identifying and
                 understanding the characteristics and special
                 development needs of application domains. This paper
                 presents a method for developing and refining knowledge
                 about application domains by creating a repository of
                 project experiences. Subsequent projects can then
                 benefit from these experiences by locating similar
                 projects and reusing the knowledge accumulated in the
                 repository. We develop a framework for a system to
                 capture relationships between development projects and
                 resources for developing software, including process
                 models, methods, technologies, and tools. We then show
                 how this information can be reused to improve the
                 productivity and quality of software development
                 efforts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Simos:1995:ODM,
  author =       "Mark A. Simos",
  title =        "Organization domain modeling {(ODM)}: formalizing the
                 core domain modeling life cycle",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "196--205",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211845",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Researchers and practitioners are looking for
                 systematic ways of comparing domain analysis (DA)
                 methods. Comparisons have often focused on linkage
                 between DA methods and related technologies such as
                 systems modeling. Less attention has been paid to
                 comparing DA methods in terms of certain core
                 methodological issues, including problems of scoping,
                 contextualizing, descriptive vs. prescriptive modeling,
                 and formalized models of variability. This paper
                 presents key aspects of Organization Domain Modeling
                 (ODM), a systematic domain analysis method structured
                 in terms of a core domain modeling life cycle directly
                 addressing these methodological concerns.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{France:1995:ADA,
  author =       "Robert B. France and Thomas B. Horton",
  title =        "Applying domain analysis and modeling: an industrial
                 experience",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "206--214",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211846",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we describe our experience in applying
                 domain analysis within a company that develops personal
                 electronic devices. We describe how we tailored the
                 DSSA method to suit our needs and then present the
                 process and representations that we found most useful
                 for this situation. The conclusions and lessons learned
                 are useful because few studies published at this time
                 provide details about applications of domain
                 engineering in commercial development environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Bhansali:1995:HAS,
  author =       "Sanjay Bhansali",
  title =        "A hybrid approach to software reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "215--218",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211847",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe a hybrid approach to software reuse in an
                 ongoing project that addresses a challenging software
                 engineering task. The approach is driven by an
                 architectural design and makes use of both code
                 components and program synthesis technology. We
                 describe criteria that were used in choosing the reuse
                 strategy for different parts of the application and
                 argue that to be successful a reuse strategy must be
                 driven by the needs of an application program instead
                 of adapting a software development strategy around a
                 reuse program.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Wasmund:1995:SIR,
  author =       "Michael Wasmund",
  title =        "The spin-off illusion: reuse is not a by-product",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "219--221",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211848",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Based on the desire of enterprise management to find a
                 smooth, low-risk way of introducing reuse methodology,
                 this paper discusses several approaches taken. The
                 illusion of using the by-product of software
                 development to obtain reusable assets is the subject of
                 the second approach. The third successful approach
                 follows the software factory paradigm and has been
                 successfully implemented at several IBM sites.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Fraser:1995:PTD,
  author =       "Steven Fraser and Deborah Leishman and Robert
                 McLellan",
  title =        "Patterns, teams and domain engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "222--224",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211849",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Gall:1995:RDS,
  author =       "Harald Gall and Mehdi Jazayeri and Ren{\'e}
                 Kl{\"o}sch",
  title =        "Research directions in software reuse: where to go
                 from here?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "225--228",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211850",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software reuse is no longer in its infancy. We are
                 able to look back at more than 15 years of research and
                 should use the opportunity of such a symposium to
                 critically evaluate the past research in order to
                 identify promising future research areas in software
                 reuse. In this paper, we give a broader view of reuse
                 and some of the so far less-considered areas, which we
                 believe may support software reuse to get off the
                 ground. We mention our ongoing research in software
                 reuse, discussing reuse experiments in the areas of
                 long-term software evolution and component programming.
                 Furthermore, we indicate the critical importance of
                 interactions among the reuse and related communities
                 within software engineering, such as the
                 object-oriented and the software maintenance
                 communities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Gacek:1995:EDA,
  author =       "Cristina Gacek",
  title =        "Exploiting domain architectures in software reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "229--232",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211851",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper provides motivation towards the use of
                 domain specific repositories and DSSA's. It shows many
                 of the positive side-effects this usage brings about.
                 An extension to the faceted approach to components
                 classification [Prieto-Diaz and Freeman 1987] is
                 introduced. Our extension suggests a natural way of
                 further benefiting from the use of domain specific
                 repositories.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Ransom:1995:SSR,
  author =       "Keith J. Ransom and Chris D. Marlin",
  title =        "Supporting software reuse within an integrated
                 software development environment (position paper)",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "233--237",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211852",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Significant gains in programmer productivity have been
                 achieved through the use of simple abstraction
                 mechanisms that enhance the reuse of code. There are
                 other useful forms of abstraction (over arbitrary
                 identifier bindings, for example) which could further
                 increase reuse rates, but are not well supported by
                 programming languages; such forms may be better
                 expressed by exploiting mechanisms provided by an
                 integrated programming environment. This paper outlines
                 ongoing work which aims to provide programming
                 environment mechanisms that support the reuse of code
                 via various forms of abstraction that complement those
                 traditionally provided by programming languages. The
                 concept of derivation-based reuse is also defined, and
                 a generic framework for its support is outlined. In
                 addition, a collection of environment mechanisms,
                 intended to fit within this framework, are outlined.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Dai:1995:DRE,
  author =       "W. Dai",
  title =        "Development of reusable expert system components:
                 preliminary experience",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "238--246",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211853",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper addresses the metrics of expert system
                 reusability through practical experience obtained in
                 developing and using a previously implemented system
                 called INDEX. It presents a principled approach in
                 defining expert system component granularity,
                 transparency, and a specification methodology in
                 identifying and building reusable expert system
                 skeletons and components to allow them to be used in
                 most conventional software environments. The adoption
                 of such an approach has led to the production of
                 reusable expert system components for different expert
                 system development projects. The preliminary experience
                 in reusing INDEX facilities has been presented. Two
                 applications are chosen to show the effectiveness of
                 such an approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Voas:1995:STE,
  author =       "J. Voas and J. Payne and R. Mills and J. McManus",
  title =        "Software testability: an experiment in measuring
                 simulation reusability",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "247--255",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211854",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Software reuse can be more readily enabled if the
                 testing of the code in the previous environment is
                 still applicable to the new environment. The
                 reusability of previous verification efforts is an
                 important parameter is assessing the ``immediate''
                 reusability of the code; in this paper, the
                 verification technique that we are focusing on is
                 software testing. This paper presents the use of a
                 software testability measure, sensitivity analysis, as
                 a quantitative assessment of the reusability of
                 previous verification. The ability to reuse
                 verification is a factor to consider in determining the
                 reusability of code. We have applied this technique to
                 a large NASA supersonic software simulation, High Speed
                 Civil Transport (HSCT), and the reusability results of
                 that application suggest a possible concern about the
                 sufficiency of the original verification.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Gomaa:1995:DMM,
  author =       "Hassan Gomaa",
  title =        "Domain modeling methods and environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "256--258",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211855",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Bieman:1995:CRO,
  author =       "James M. Bieman and Byung-Kyoo Kang",
  title =        "Cohesion and reuse in an object-oriented system",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "259--262",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211856",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We define and apply two new measures of
                 object-oriented class cohesion to a reasonably large
                 C++ system. We find that most of the classes are quite
                 cohesive, but that the classes that are reused more
                 frequently via inheritance exhibit clearly lower
                 cohesion.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Paredes:1995:RRS,
  author =       "Carlos Paredes and Jos{\'e} Luiz Fiadeiro",
  title =        "Reuse of requirements and specifications: a formal
                 framework",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "263--266",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211857",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "It is claimed that requirements engineering, as a
                 problem of formalization and agreement, can benefit
                 from raising the level of reusability up to functional
                 requirements elicitation and specification levels. At
                 these levels, it is important to support incomplete
                 information in a declarative, reusable and refineable
                 form. For that purpose, a model is proposed which is
                 based on temporal theories, in the logical sense,
                 together with a set of incremental specification
                 techniques formalized through categorial constructions
                 on theories.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Henninger:1995:SPS,
  author =       "Scott Henninger",
  title =        "Supporting the process of satisfying information needs
                 with reusable software libraries: an empirical study",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "267--270",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/223427.211858",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:04 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Retrieval tools for component-based software reuse
                 libraries face two interrelated problems. The first is
                 the ill-defined nature of information needs. The second
                 is that large repositories will often use unfamiliar
                 and esoteric vocabulary to describe software
                 components. CodeFinder, a retrieval system designed to
                 help developers locate software components for reuse,
                 addresses these issues through an innovative
                 combination of retrieval by reformulation and spreading
                 activation. An empirical study comparing CodeFinder
                 with two other systems showed evidence that subjects
                 using CodeFinder with ill-defined tasks or mismatching
                 vocabulary performed better than subjects using the
                 other systems. The study confirmed the utility of
                 spreading activation and retrieval by reformulation
                 techniques for satisfying information needs of the kind
                 encountered in software design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
  remark =       "SSR '95 Proceedings of the 1995 Symposium on Software
                 reusability.",
}

@Article{Notkin:1996:LEC,
  author =       "David Notkin",
  title =        "Letter from the executive committee",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381791",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Leciston:1996:LE,
  author =       "David John Leciston",
  title =        "Letter to the editor",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2--5",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381793",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Howell:1996:SNS,
  author =       "Chuck Howell",
  title =        "Surfing the net for {{\booktitle{Software Engineering
                 Notes}}}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6--10",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381794",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kitchenham:1996:ESEa,
  author =       "Barbara Ann Kitchenham",
  title =        "Evaluating software engineering methods and tool part
                 1: The evaluation context and evaluation methods",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11--14",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381795",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In the last five issues of SIGSOFT Notes, Shari
                 Lawrence Pfleeger has discussed the use of formal
                 experiments to evaluate software engineering methods
                 and tools [1]. Shari's articles were based on work she
                 performed for the U.K. DESMET project which aimed to
                 develop a methodology for evaluating software
                 engineering methods and tools. The DESMET project
                 identified a number of useful evaluation methods in
                 addition to formal experiments, and Shari asked me to
                 continue this column by describing some of other
                 methods. As a starting point, I will give an overview
                 of the scope of the DESMET methodology in this article
                 and describe the nine different evaluation methods
                 DESMET identified. In the next few articles I will
                 discuss criteria for selecting a specific method in
                 particular circumstances. Later I will present the
                 DESMET guidelines for performing quantitative case
                 studies and feature analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sitaraman:1996:ISR,
  author =       "Murali Sitaraman",
  title =        "4th international software reuse conference overview",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15--15",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381796",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1996:IRP,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Illustrative risks to the public in the use of
                 computer systems and related technology",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "16--30",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381797",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pohl:1996:WSS,
  author =       "Klaus Pohl and Peter Peters",
  title =        "Workshop summary {Second International Workshop on
                 Requirements Engineering: Foundation of Software
                 Quality}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--34",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381798",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "As achieving high quality means the realization of
                 customers needs, requirements engineering (RE) is the
                 most crucial phase within software development. During
                 RE not only the functional requirements but also the
                 so-called 'non-functional' requirements of the planned
                 software system have to be elicited from the customer
                 and represented in a requirements document in order to
                 provide the software designer with a complete and
                 correct specification. Conventional RE methods normally
                 support only parts of this process or help stating only
                 specific kinds of requirements. These methodological
                 problems are the prime motivation for the REFSQ
                 workshop series held in conjunction with the CAiSE
                 Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering.
                 In order to find solutions which handle the described
                 deficiencies it is the goal of this workshop series to
                 improve the understanding of the relations between RE
                 and software quality. This year's workshop, REFSQ'95,
                 was held in conjunction with CAiSE'95 in Jyvaskyla,
                 Finland on June 12th and 13th 1995. After the reviewing
                 process we accepted 12 out of the 18 papers submitted.
                 Finally, 11 full and position papers were presented at
                 REFSQ'95 and discussed with the 15 participants
                 (including the organizers). The participants came from
                 9 different countries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Benner:1996:OSR,
  author =       "Kevin Benner",
  title =        "{``The Organization''} (or Software Reuse in a
                 Business Environment)",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--39",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565660",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Latour:1996:WAW,
  author =       "Larry Latour and Kevin Wentzel",
  title =        "{WISR'95: 7th Annual Workshop on Software Reuse}
                 summary and working group reports",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--54",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381799",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bailin:1996:DPE,
  author =       "Sid Bailin",
  title =        "Domain Processes and Engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "39--42",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565661",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Simos:1996:DMR,
  author =       "Mark Simos",
  title =        "Domain Modeling Representation Strategies: Towards a
                 Comparative Framework",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "42--46",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565663",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Frakes:1996:RP,
  author =       "Bill Frakes",
  title =        "The Reuse of Processes",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "46",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565674",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Edwards:1996:MAS,
  author =       "Steve Edwards",
  title =        "Micro-Architecture of Software Components and The Need
                 For Good Mental Models of Software Subsystems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "46--50",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565664",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Because of similar interests, these two groups
                 initially met together, and then decided to jointly
                 pursue both topics. From the micro-architecture
                 perspective, the group was interested in the details of
                 both the structure and the behavior of software
                 component interfaces and on the implementations of
                 individual components, sets of components, and how they
                 compose and ``interoperate'' with each other. From the
                 mental models perspective the group was interested in
                 exploring the methods by which humans develop good
                 mental models of generic software subsystems, the
                 methods by which one can design software interfaces
                 that ``project'' easy-to-assimilate mental models, and
                 how existing programming languages support/hinder these
                 efforts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Griss:1996:SOR,
  author =       "Martin L. Griss",
  title =        "Systematic {OO} Reuse --- a Tale Of Two Cultures",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "50--52",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565675",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Davis:1996:BIU,
  author =       "Margaret J. Davis",
  title =        "Barriers to Institutionalizing Using Current Tools and
                 Environments",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52--54",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565677",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Svoboda:1996:SWS,
  author =       "Frank Svoboda and Fred Maymir-Ducharme and Jeff
                 Poulin",
  title =        "{SRI} workshop summary: ``domain analysis in the
                 {DoD}''",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "55--67",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381800",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Workshop on ``Domain Analysis in the DoD,''
                 sponsored by the Software Reuse Initiative (SRI) and
                 Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA), was held at
                 MITRE Corporation, in McLean, Virginia on 26 --- 27
                 September 1995. The primary purpose of the workshop was
                 to discuss issues related to identifying and scoping
                 domains with emphasis on product lines and to assess
                 the usefulness of the strawman SRI Domain Scoping
                 Framework as a proposed basis for this scoping
                 activity. To this end, two specific objectives were
                 identified:1. to identify the barriers facing Program
                 Executive Offices (PEOs) and Program Managers (PMs) in
                 incorporating domain analysis technology in their
                 organizations and programs and2. to recommend a range
                 of solutions and/or approaches to address and overcome
                 these barriers. Many DoD and Industry programs can
                 benefit from the application of domain analysis
                 technology (concepts, processes, methods, and tools).
                 However, PEOs/PMs rarely have enough information
                 regarding why, when, or how to use domain analysis on
                 their programs. A more basic question is whether there
                 are sufficient reuse benefits within an
                 organization/domain to warrant the associated
                 investment in domain engineering --- does a product
                 line exist that justifies reuse costs? The solution to
                 this problem involves bringing together leading domain
                 analysis experts and PEO/PM representatives and
                 managers to discuss a framework, currently under
                 development by the DoD SRI, to guide DoD managers in
                 applying domain analysis in their organizations and
                 programs. The workshop brought together over fifty
                 representatives from DoD, commercial, and academic
                 organizations, with varied interests and perspectives
                 on Domain Analysis, including those of methodologist,
                 practitioner, management, and customer. The workshop
                 approach included a Program Management panel, Domain
                 Analysis Experts panel, a follow-up plenary discussion
                 session and two working group sessions. In the working
                 groups, the attendees were divided into 5 color-coded
                 teams: Blue, Green, Gold, Orange, and Red, and were
                 instructed to (1) identify issues in performing domain
                 scoping, using the SRI Domain Scoping Framework as a
                 ``strawman''; and (2) make recommendations for
                 improving the framework and applying its principles in
                 real-world situations. The teams were chosen to provide
                 a diversified mix of view-points. Each team included a
                 facilitator/rapporteur (responsible for keeping the
                 discussion activities relevant to the task at hand) and
                 a Framework expert (who served as the technical
                 authority on issues relating to framework content). The
                 general team approach involved focusing on issues and
                 actions within the individual teams and then looking
                 across teams for common threads in the plenary
                 sessions. The ultimate goal was to build consensus and
                 move ahead with implementation recommendations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garg:1996:FCS,
  author =       "Pankaj K. Garg and Sriram Sankar",
  title =        "Fifth {California} software symposium",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "68--70",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381801",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The California Software Symposium (CSS), which was
                 held this year on March 30 at the University of
                 California, Irvine, is the fifth in a series of
                 symposia held annually in southern California.
                 Previously, it was called the Irvine Software
                 Symposium, and was organized by the University of
                 California, Irvine. Starting this year, the event is
                 co-organized by University of California, Irvine; and
                 University of Southern California, Los Angeles (hence
                 the name change). The symposium will be located
                 alternately at the two organizing sites --- the next
                 will be at the University of Southern California in
                 April 1996. The purpose of this symposium is to bring
                 together researchers and practitioners to share ideas
                 and experiences in areas of software engineering. This
                 year, a successful tools fair organized by IRUS (Irvine
                 Research Unit in Software) was co-located with the
                 symposium. The participating vendors were: Atria,
                 Cadre, Continuus, IDE, Intersolv, Mark V, Rational,
                 Softool, and Sun. The symposium is slowly gaining
                 momentum and there has been a noticeable increase in
                 the number of papers submitted and in participation. We
                 anticipate further growth in the coming years. The
                 symposium was co-chaired this year by Barry Boehm
                 (USC), and Debra Richardson (UCI). The program
                 committee consisted of 22 people, with a good mixture
                 of academic and industrial representatives. For further
                 information on the upcoming CSS or for any other
                 related information, please contact Debra Brodbeck
                 (714-824-2260, [email protected]) or Sandra Lapis
                 (213-740-5703, [email protected]).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Nourani:1996:MAO,
  author =       "Cyrus F. Nourani",
  title =        "Multi-agent object level {AI} validation and
                 verification",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "70--72",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381802",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A Methodology for validation and verification of AI
                 systems in aerospace is presented. The approach is
                 applicable to both systems that are already coded and
                 to those that are to be designed. Design methods are
                 proposed that can be applied to (reverse projected
                 from) AI systems that are designed in the field and
                 already coded. We note that there are well-developed
                 software validation and verification methods that can
                 be applied to the AI systems if an appropriate
                 methodology is applied for validation of AI systems.
                 Thus rather than reinventing methods for AI validation,
                 we only invent methods to allow us to reduce to known
                 problems in software validation and verification
                 methodologies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Wartik:1996:SYR,
  author =       "Steve Wartik",
  title =        "Slow down, you read too fast",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--74",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381803",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Carey:1996:SQI,
  author =       "Dick Carey",
  title =        "Is Software Quality Intrinsic, Subjective, or
                 Relational?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "74--75",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565678",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bruce:1996:IAM,
  author =       "Michael Bruce",
  title =        "{Internet} agility\slash Maturity model survey for the
                 software industry call for participation",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "75--76",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381804",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This project is the first phase of M.S. thesis
                 research performed by Michael Bruce, a graduate student
                 at the Information Networking Institute of Carnegie
                 Mellon University. This work is being done in
                 conjunction with INSTEP, Inc., a strategic development
                 firm located in Northern Virginia. The goal of the
                 thesis is to evaluate the Internet's pervasiveness in
                 the software industry, while creating a framework which
                 enables a software firm to strategically and
                 successfully increase its Internet presence. Towards
                 this end, we are distributing a questionnaire entitled
                 the Internet Agility/Maturity Model Survey for the
                 Software Industry. The Internet Agility/Maturity Model
                 (IAMM) survey elicits Internet usage trends with the
                 software industry in each of the following five areas:
                 * Background Information on Corporate Internet Use:
                 Queries regarding the initial Internet connectivity
                 planning and establishment phases. * Internet Presence
                 Management: Queries regarding resources committed to
                 on-going support and administration of the
                 corporation's Internet presence * Internet ROI /
                 Business Process Integration: Queries regarding which
                 functions use Internet services, the tools employed to
                 do so, and the value of an organization's presence in
                 terms of its ROI * Internet Utilization Issues: Queries
                 regarding future issues and current difficulties
                 pertaining to the corporation's Internet presence *
                 Agile Competitors and Virtual Organizations: Queries
                 regarding the knowledge of and the concepts
                 incorporated into the Iacocca Institute's agility
                 model. A summary of our findings will be submitted for
                 publication in a future issue of Software Engineering
                 Notes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Raccoon:1996:LCP,
  author =       "L. B. S. Raccoon",
  title =        "A learning curve primer for software engineers",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "77--86",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381805",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "I believe that many software engineers have heard of
                 learning curves. We know that new skills take time to
                 learn, that developers take a while to ramp up on a new
                 project, and that improvement slows as time goes on. I
                 also believe that we share many misconceptions about
                 learning curves. We don't assume that learning curves
                 are relevant to our software projects and we don't use
                 them in our processes. In this paper, I want to raise
                 the level of understanding of learning curves within
                 the Software Engineering community. This paper is for
                 managers and developers who want to better understand
                 learning curves. Learning curves are much more than a
                 hurdle to full productivity. They are both a metaphor
                 and a specific set of equations that describe the most
                 common patterns of improvement within stable processes.
                 Learning curves explain why the productivity of a
                 stable process changes the way that it does, why
                 productivity is lowest at the start of a project and
                 highest at the end of a project. Learning curves
                 explain that though the improvements diminish
                 throughout the process, the improvements continue
                 adding up. And, we can use learning curves to predict
                 future productivity. This paper is laid out as follows.
                 In the first section, I define learning curves,
                 describe their history, and argue that they apply to
                 Software Engineering. In the second section, I describe
                 the need to both stabilize and improve a process. Our
                 concept of process influences how we try to improve it,
                 so I discuss the implications of two different concepts
                 of process. Learning curves denote the relationship
                 between stability and improvement. In the third
                 section, I discuss the implications of learning curves
                 on staffing a project. Specifically, I show that
                 Brooks's observations about man-months can be explained
                 in terms of learning curves and that we need to keep
                 teams together on long-term projects. And in the fourth
                 section, I comment on several technical issues one
                 might encounter when applying learning curves to
                 software development. I describe the equations one
                 might use to model a process as well as the affect
                 learning curves typically have on software engineering
                 projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Veryard:1996:ICM,
  author =       "Richard Veryard",
  title =        "Information coordination --- the management of
                 information model, systems, and organizations",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "87--89",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.381806",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Burstler:1996:PLF,
  author =       "Jurgen Burstler",
  title =        "Pattern Languages o f Program Design",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "88--89",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565679",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Finkbine:1996:MMS,
  author =       "Ronald B. Finkbine and Ph. D.",
  title =        "Metrics and Models in Software Quality Engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "89",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/381790.565681",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:06 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Poore:1996:HMP,
  author =       "Jesse H. Poore",
  title =        "{Harlan Mills}' Passing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.773577",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Doernhoefer:1996:SNSa,
  author =       "Mark Doernhoefer",
  title =        "Surfing the net for {{\booktitle{Software Engineering
                 Notes}}}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7--10",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227532",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kitchenham:1996:ESEb,
  author =       "Barbara Ann Kitchenham",
  title =        "Evaluating software engineering methods and tool ---
                 part 2: selecting an appropriate evaluation method ---
                 technical criteria",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11--15",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227533",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In the previous article about the DESMET evaluation
                 methodology, I identified nine different types of
                 evaluation:1. Quantitative Experiments2. Quantitative
                 Case Studies3. Quantitative Surveys4. Feature Analysis
                 --- Screening mode5. Feature Analysis --- Case Study6.
                 Feature Analysis --- Experiment7. Feature Analysis ---
                 Survey8. Qualitative Effects Analysis9. Benchmarking.
                 This article considers the way in which different
                 evaluation requirements and organisation capabilities
                 affect your choice of evaluation method. Your
                 particular choice of evaluation method will be affected
                 by your evaluation goals, the characteristics of the
                 object you want to evaluate, the characteristics of the
                 organisation you work in, and the limitations and
                 constraints placed on the evaluation exercise. These
                 different factors interact in complicated ways, so it
                 is difficult to identify which evaluation method is the
                 most appropriate. The specific criteria that the DESMET
                 methodology uses to determine your circumstances are:1.
                 The evaluation context.2. The nature of the expected
                 impact of using the method/tool.3. The nature of the
                 object (i.e., method/tool/generic method) to be
                 evaluated.4. The scope of impact of the method/tool.5.
                 The maturity of the method/tool.6. The learning curve
                 associated with the method/tool.7. The measurement
                 capability of the organisation undertaking the
                 evaluation. These issues are discussed in the following
                 sections.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Neumann:1996:RPCa,
  author =       "Peter G. Neumann",
  title =        "Risks to the public in computers and related systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16--22",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227534",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{McManus:1996:PMK,
  author =       "Joe McManus and Renaat Vergruggen",
  title =        "A proposed methodology for knowledge based systems
                 development",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "22--31",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227535",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper proposes a new methodology for the
                 development of Knowledge Based Systems (KBS). The key
                 characteristics of knowledge based systems are
                 examined, with particular emphasis on those aspects of
                 developing such systems which differentiate them from
                 more conventional development approaches. Existing KBS
                 development methodologies are considered, and some of
                 the important aspects of these methodologies are
                 adopted/adapted within the new methodology, which seeks
                 to define a methodological approach which satisfies the
                 key requirements of knowledge-based systems
                 development, while ensuring that the key managerial
                 aspects of a methodological approach are also catered
                 for. The proposed methodology is then assessed in the
                 light of the particular difficulties of the paradigm
                 which it seeks to address.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pillai:1996:FMI,
  author =       "Krish Pillai",
  title =        "The fountain model and its impact on project
                 schedule",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "32--38",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227536",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "A software life-cycle is defined as ``[the activity
                 related to the software during] the period of time
                 beginning when the software product is conceived and
                 ending when the resultant software products are no
                 longer available for use [7].'' A software development
                 life-cycle can be broadly divided into phases, each
                 phase being characterized by a well-defined set of
                 activities associated with it. A model to represent
                 such a life-cycle helps team members define their tasks
                 more precisely. It helps managers track the project
                 schedule and aids verification of requirements
                 specification as the product evolves. Traditionally,
                 software development has been based on the
                 ``Waterfall'' model, shown in figure 1, or its
                 variations. There is a natural tendency among designers
                 to proceed in a highly sequential, linear, and
                 non-iterative manner. Designers tend to adhere to the
                 old adage ``Well begun is half done,'' by trying to
                 make the analysis and design of the product as complete
                 and precise as possible, before even embarking on its
                 implementation. Every iteration, if any, to refine the
                 design is viewed as an indicator of an insufficiency in
                 the design. Tampering with the original conceptual
                 design is discouraged, and though designers do iterate,
                 they do so with a feeling of ``guilt/incompetence.''
                 Conventionally, the different phases in a life-cycle
                 were classified as follows: * {\em Requirements
                 Definition and Analysis Phase} --- This phase is
                 characterized by review and analysis of a functional
                 document that describes the product. Requirements are
                 reviewed and analyzed and requirements based test-cases
                 are also generated at this stage. * {\em Design Phase}
                 --- Design drafts are reviewed and finalized. Test
                 cases for design integrity are also generated at this
                 stage. * {\em Implementation and Testing Phase} --- All
                 test cases are finalized. The implementation is tested,
                 first at the unit level, then following integration. *
                 {\em Installation Phase} --- The system is accepted for
                 release to customers during this phase. This may
                 involve some minimal final acceptance level testing. *
                 {\em Maintenance Phase} --- Regression testing,
                 software evaluations and specifications for evolving
                 the software are generated during this phase. The
                 waterfall model does not have a well defined method of
                 prototyping. It should be noted that a methodology such
                 as the one above, provides hardly any latitude for
                 iteration either. The stress is on refining the output
                 of each phase to the highest degree possible before the
                 commencement of the succeeding phase. Such an approach
                 may however, not prove feasible under certain
                 circumstances, especially when the product under
                 development is highly complex, and composed of several
                 agencies responsible for tasks of very high
                 specificity. The sheer complexity of the requirements
                 specification can obscure the underlying details so
                 much that, a precise and detailed design is rendered
                 impossible. Another instance is the case with products
                 that involve ``cutting-edge'' technology, where
                 research and development forms an integral part of the
                 developmental life-cycle. The problem with designing
                 ``state-of-the-art'' products is that, usually the most
                 efficient design isn't yet known at the analysis stage.
                 This necessitates an iterative approach to the
                 analysis, design, and implementation stages discernible
                 in a product's developmental life-cycle. However, the
                 necessity of an iterative approach to product
                 development requires basic building blocks that do not
                 undergo drastic mutation over iterations. This is an
                 issue of the choice of the ``Problem representation
                 domain'' in which the model life-cycle is to be
                 represented. The solution to this is to adopt an
                 object-oriented approach since objects are fairly
                 stable building blocks that can be identified at a very
                 early stage in the product life-cycle. In most cases,
                 the analysis, design, and implementation stages can all
                 be mapped into the object-oriented domain without
                 having to make disjoint mappings into the ``Structured
                 Analysis Domain'' [3]. And the ``Fountain model,''
                 employed with much success in object-oriented projects,
                 is ideally suited [5] for modeling such projects. A
                 problem that is seldom addressed in concerned
                 literature is the tendency for projects employing an
                 iterative paradigm to run behind schedule. This paper
                 investigates the most common causes of schedule
                 slippage in a typical project based on the fountain
                 model. Solutions that project team leaders adopt to
                 counter these causes are also mentioned. ``Constraint
                 mechanisms'' that are indicators of possible schedule
                 slippage, are also investigated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Leite:1996:WRS,
  author =       "Julio Cesar Sampaio do Prado Leite",
  title =        "Working results on software re-engineering",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "39--44",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227537",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We view software re-engineering as a new approach to
                 software maintenance. Instead of performing maintenance
                 at the source code of systems, we work on high level
                 abstractions. From these abstractions we proceed in a
                 forward manner reusing the available implementations,
                 when it is the case. As such, we view re-engineering as
                 centered on design recovery. We have been working on
                 methods for re-engineering and applying them to real
                 cases. Our studies are centered on the idea of using
                 JSD [Jackson 83] as a way of casting the recovered
                 design. We worked with two small systems and a complex
                 one. Our objective here is to highlight our approach,
                 report on what has been done and point out what was
                 learned.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Shoemaker:1996:ESE,
  author =       "Dan Shoemaker and Vladan Jovanovic",
  title =        "Educating software executives: a doctorate in software
                 management",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "45--46",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227538",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This presents a model that integrates ``best theory
                 and practice'' into a doctoral program focused on the
                 development of leaders for the software industry. The
                 advantage of a study centered on improvement of the
                 software process should be intuitively obvious. This
                 provides an overview, a model, and a course array.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bernstein:1996:SIS,
  author =       "Lawrence Bernstein",
  title =        "Software investment strategy",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "47--53",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227539",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kokol:1996:TQO,
  author =       "Peter Kokol",
  title =        "Toward quality oriented {IS} design processes using
                 two levelled design",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "53--55",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227540",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The quality of information systems (IS) is strongly
                 related with the quality of the IS design process and
                 both are fundamental issues in successful IS
                 construction and use process. In the paper we present a
                 two-levelled IS design approach aimed to result in both
                 quality oriented information system design processes
                 and quality information systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{George:1996:SMF,
  author =       "Joseph George and Bradley D. Carter",
  title =        "A strategy for mapping from function-oriented software
                 models to object-oriented software models",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "56--63",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227541",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Because of being in transition or because of choice,
                 many software development environments make use of both
                 the function-oriented and object-oriented approaches in
                 their software development process. In some cases,
                 object-oriented and function-oriented approaches are
                 used in the development of the same system, such as
                 when using function-oriented analysis with
                 object-oriented design, necessitating a transition or
                 mapping from one model to the other. This paper reviews
                 the issues involved in mapping from a function-oriented
                 software model to an object-oriented software model and
                 presents a strategy for accomplishing the mapping in a
                 consistent and partially automatable manner. The
                 effectiveness of the strategy is assessed with four
                 different applications drawn from the literature. It is
                 concluded that the mapping strategy is feasible and
                 reasonably automatable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Johnson:1996:SES,
  author =       "D. M. Johnson",
  title =        "The systems engineer and the software crisis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "64--73",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227542",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This report examines the software crisis from a
                 systems engineer's viewpoint. It analyses the key areas
                 of requirements specification, verification and
                 validation and software re-use. It assesses some of the
                 solutions to the crisis proposed by the software
                 engineering community and highlights some of their
                 problems and limitations from the systems engineer's
                 perspective. The report describes how, through the use
                 of computer-aided symbolic specification techniques and
                 simulation, and with an understanding of the software
                 development process, the skilled systems engineer can
                 contribute to the resolution of the software crisis.
                 The skilled systems engineer, can through the use of
                 these techniques and by the application of systems
                 engineering methods and project management skills,
                 reduce the demands placed on software engineers, hence
                 reducing the software engineering effort and also
                 reducing the total development cost.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kelsey:1996:BFC,
  author =       "Robert Bruce Kelsey",
  title =        "Bad fixes, change specifications, and linguistic
                 constraints on problem diagnosis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "74--78",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227543",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Analyzing, diagnosing, and proposing fixes to problems
                 in complex software is essentially a linguistic
                 activity: we think in languages such as C and English,
                 we analyze written problem reports, we read listings.
                 In cognitive psychology and interpretation theory, the
                 linguistic constraints upon cognition are well
                 established; but with the exception of those authors
                 working within the field of Speech Act Theory, little
                 has been said about how these constraints affect
                 software problem diagnosis or what we can do to
                 overcome these constraints. This paper examines some of
                 the linguistic aspects of software problem analysis,
                 showing how these may contribute to the bad fix, and
                 then describes a change specification procedure
                 specifically designed to help development teams
                 overcome some of the liabilities of interpreting
                 complex software failures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Swartz:1996:AAB,
  author =       "A. John Swartz",
  title =        "{Airport 95}: automated baggage system?",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "79--83",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227544",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The Denver International Airport automated baggage
                 system was a major news story spanning the years
                 1994-95. Reconstruction of the events of the project
                 management of this system serves as an example of
                 project summary reporting, which is stipulated in every
                 project management methodology, but which is seldom or
                 never done. The author provides sufficient detail to
                 enable simulation of the design approach alternatives.
                 If other projects are reported in the same format, it
                 will be possible to compare projects on a design phase
                 and/or event-by-event basis. The author recommends
                 establishment and maintenance of a knowledge base of
                 specific causes for failed software development
                 projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pitts:1996:WWR,
  author =       "David R. Pitts and Barbara H. Miller",
  title =        "The wild-west revisited",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "84--86",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227545",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In 1985 Mark Spinrad and Curt Abraham published; ``
                 The Wild West Lifecycle (WILI) '' [1] which, although
                 written with a slightly irreverent tongue-in-cheek
                 style, introduced a significant metaphor for the
                 software engineering lifecycle. In this paper we will
                 discuss briefly the importance of software metaphors in
                 general, and then revisit and expand the Wild West
                 analogy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Rine:1996:SDO,
  author =       "David Rine",
  title =        "Structural defects in object-oriented programming",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "86--88",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227546",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Garcia:1996:PM,
  author =       "Manuel J. Barranco Garc{\'\i}a and Juan Carlos Granja
                 Alvarez",
  title =        "Productive maintainability",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "89--91",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.227547",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "It is obvious the existence of a powerful connection
                 between quality and productivity in the software
                 projects. Normally, an increase of quality bring to a
                 greater productivity. Maintainability is a very
                 important factor of quality, considering the enormous
                 consumption of resources that is carried out during the
                 maintenance stage. We comment in this article the
                 relation between maintainability and productivity, and
                 when the maintainability result productive and when
                 not.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Ayers:1996:BRI,
  author =       "Michael Ayers",
  title =        "Book Review: {{\booktitle{Information Modeling --- An
                 Object-Oriented Approach}} by Haim Kilov and James
                 Ross}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "91--92",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.773578",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Leciston:1996:BRP,
  author =       "David John Leciston",
  title =        "Book Review: {{\booktitle{PCTE: The Standard for Open
                 Repositories}} by Lois Wakeman and Jonathan Jowett}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "92",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/227531.773579",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:08 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Tracz:1996:TAS,
  author =       "Will Tracz",
  title =        "Test and analysis of software architectures",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "1--3",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226296",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Some DoD programs now require prospective contractors
                 to demonstrate the superiority of their software
                 architectures for new weapons systems. This acquisition
                 policy provides new software engineering challenges
                 that focus heavily on the test and analysis of software
                 architectures in order to determine the ``best''
                 architecture in terms of its implementability,
                 affordability, extendability, scalability,
                 adaptability, and maintainability --- not overlooking
                 whether or not it will meet the functional requirements
                 of the system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kang:1996:ESS,
  author =       "Inhye Kang and Insup Lee",
  title =        "An efficient state space generation for analysis of
                 real-time systems",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "4--13",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226297",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "State explosion is a well-known problem that impedes
                 analysis and testing based on state-space exploration.
                 This problem is particularly serious in real-time
                 systems because unbounded time values cause the state
                 space to be infinite. In this paper, we present an
                 algorithm that produces a compact representation of
                 reachable state space of a real-time system. The
                 algorithm yields a small state space, but still retains
                 enough timing information for analysis. To avoid the
                 state explosion which can be caused by simply adding
                 time values to states, our algorithm first uses history
                 equivalence and transition bisimulation to collapse
                 states into equivalent classes. In this approach,
                 equivalent states have identical observable events
                 although transitions into the states may happen at
                 different times. The algorithm then augments the
                 resultant state space with timing relations that
                 describe time distances between transition executions.
                 For example, the relation @(tr 1) + 3 \leq @(tr 2) \leq
                 @(tr 1) + 5 means that transition tr 2 is taken 3 to 5
                 time units before transition tr 2 is taken. This is
                 used to analyze timing properties such as minimum and
                 maximum time distances between events. To show the
                 effectiveness of our algorithm, we have implemented the
                 algorithm and are currently comparing it to other
                 existing techniques which generate state space for
                 real-time systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Koppol:1996:IAS,
  author =       "Pramod V. Koppol and Kuo-Chung Tai",
  title =        "An incremental approach to structural testing of
                 concurrent software",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14--23",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226298",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Structural testing of a concurrent program P involves
                 the selection of paths of P according to a
                 structure-based criterion. A common approach is to
                 derive the reachability graph (RG) of P, select a set
                 of paths of P, derive one or more inputs for each
                 selected path, and force deterministic executions of P
                 according to the selected paths and their inputs. The
                 use of RG(P) for test path selection has the state
                 explosion problem, since the number of states of RG(P)
                 is an exponential function of the number of processes
                 in P. In this paper, we present a new incremental
                 approach to structural testing of P. Based on the
                 hierarchy of processes in P, our incremental testing
                 approach is to integrate processes in P in a
                 bottom-to-top manner. When a set S of processes in P at
                 the same level are integrated, we construct a reduced
                 RG for S such that the reduced RG contains all
                 synchronizations involving the processes in S and some
                 of the synchronizations involving processes at lower
                 levels in order to connect synchronizations involving
                 processes in S. Based on the reduced RG for S, we can
                 select test paths to focus on the detection of
                 interface faults involving processes in S. After the
                 selection of paths, RG(S) is further reduced in order
                 to retain only some of the synchronizations involving
                 processes in S that are needed in order to connect
                 synchronizations between S and other processes in P.
                 Our incremental approach alleviates the state explosion
                 problem and offers other advantages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Chamillard:1996:IAP,
  author =       "A. T. Chamillard and Lori A. Clarke",
  title =        "Improving the accuracy of {Petri} net-based analysis
                 of concurrent programs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "24--38",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226299",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Spurious results are an inherent problem of most
                 static analysis methods. These methods, in an effort to
                 produce conservative results, overestimate the
                 executable behavior of a program. Infeasible paths and
                 imprecise alias resolution are the two causes of such
                 inaccuracies. In this paper we present an approach for
                 improving the accuracy of Petri net-based analysis of
                 concurrent programs by including additional program
                 state information in the Petri net. We present
                 empirical results that demonstrate the improvements in
                 accuracy and, in some cases, the reduction in the
                 search space that result from applying this approach to
                 concurrent Ada programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Morasca:1996:GFT,
  author =       "Sandro Morasca and Angelo Morzenti and Pieluigi
                 SanPietro",
  title =        "Generating functional test cases in-the-large for
                 time-critical systems from logic-based specifications",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "39--52",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226300",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We address the problem of generating functional test
                 cases for complex, highly structured time-critical
                 systems starting from a modularized logic-based
                 specification written in the TRIOR$^+$ language, an
                 object-oriented extension of the temporal logic TRIO.
                 First, we present methods for producing test cases for
                 a TRIO$^+$ specification module, referring both to the
                 internal, hidden, portion of the module and to its
                 interface. Then, we discuss criteria to be used in the
                 construction of test cases from a TRIO$^+$
                 specification based on its composing modules and the
                 connections among their interfaces. We formally define
                 the notions related to test case derivation from
                 TRIO$^+$ modules and we introduce an executable
                 language for describing a variety of strategies for
                 constructing test cases for structured TRIO$^+$
                 specifications starting from (parts of) the test cases
                 of the composing modules. This language can be the
                 basis for the implementation of an interactive tool for
                 the semiautomatic construction of functional test cases
                 from complex time-critical systems starting from their
                 TRIO$^+$ specification.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hughes:1996:DSA,
  author =       "Merlin Hughes and David Stotts",
  title =        "{Daistish}: systematic algebraic testing for {OO}
                 programs in the presence of side-effects",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "53--61",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226301",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Daistish is a tool that performs systematic algebraic
                 testing similar to Gannon's DAISTS tool [2]. However,
                 Daistish creates effective test drivers for programs in
                 languages that use side effects to implement ADTs; this
                 includes C++ and most other object-oriented languages.
                 The functional approach of DAISTS does not apply
                 directly in these cases. The approach in our work is
                 most similar to the ASTOOT system of Doong and Frankl
                 [1]; Daistish differs from ASTOOT by using Guttag-style
                 algebraic specs (functional notation), by allowing
                 aliasing of type names to tailor the application of
                 parameters in test cases, and by retaining the
                 abilities of DAISTS to compose new test points from
                 existing ones. Daistish is a Perl script, and is
                 compact and practical to apply. We describe the
                 implementation and our experiments in both Eiffel and
                 C++. Our work has concentrated on solving the
                 semantics-specific issues of correctly duplicating
                 objects for comparison; we have not worked on methods
                 for selecting specific test cases. Daistish consists of
                 a perl script and supporting documentation. The current
                 distribution can be obtained via WWW at URL
                 http://www.cs.unc.edu/~stotts/Daistish/.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Chang:1996:SSB,
  author =       "Juei Chang and Debra J. Richardson and Sriram Sankar",
  title =        "Structural specification-based testing with {ADL}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "62--70",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226302",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a specification-based black-box
                 technique for testing program units. The main
                 contribution is the method that we have developed to
                 derive test conditions, which are descriptions of test
                 cases, from the formal specification of each program
                 unit. The derived test conditions are used to guide
                 test selection and to measure comprehensiveness of
                 existing test suites. Our technique complements
                 traditional code-based techniques such as statement
                 coverage and branch coverage. It allows the tester to
                 quickly develop a black-box test suite. In particular,
                 this paper presents techniques for deriving test
                 conditions from specifications written in the Assertion
                 Definition Language (ADL) [SH94], a predicate
                 logic-based language that is used to describe the
                 relationships between inputs and outputs of a program
                 unit. Our technique is fully automatable, and we are
                 currently implementing a tool based on the techniques
                 presented in this paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Crowley:1996:IFS,
  author =       "J. L. Crowley and J. F. Leathrum and K. A. Liburdy",
  title =        "Issues in the full scale use of formal methods for
                 automated testing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "71--78",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226303",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Experience from a full scale effort to apply formal
                 methods to automated testing in the open systems
                 software arena is described. The formal method applied
                 in this work is based upon the Clemson Automated
                 Testing System (CATS) which includes a formal
                 specification language, a set of guidelines describing
                 how to use the method effectively, and tool support
                 capable of translating formal specifications into
                 executable tests. This method is currently being used
                 to develop a full scale test suite for IEEE's Ada
                 Language Binding to POSIX. Following an overview of
                 CATS, an experience report consisting of results,
                 lessons learned and future directions is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Heimdahl:1996:ELA,
  author =       "Mats P. E. Heimdahl",
  title =        "Experiences and lessons from the analysis of {TCAS
                 II}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "79--83",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226304",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This report highlights some of the experiences
                 gathered while analyzing the requirements specification
                 for a commercial avionics system called TCAS II
                 (Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System II) for
                 consistency and completeness. Completeness in this
                 context is defined as a complete set of requirements,
                 that is, there is a behavior specified for every
                 possible input and input sequence. Under the leadership
                 of Dr. Nancy G. Leveson, the Irvine Safety Research
                 Group has developed a state-based requirements
                 specification language RSML (Requirements State Machine
                 Language) using TCAS II as a testbed [6]. The TCAS
                 requirements specification project was very successful;
                 RSML was well liked by all participants in the project,
                 and the formal specification has been adopted as the
                 official TCAS II requirements. The requirements
                 document has been delivered to the FAA and has
                 undergone an extensive independent validation and
                 verification effort (IV\&V). In a previous
                 investigation, we defined procedures for analyzing
                 state-based requirements specifications for
                 completeness and consistency [5]. To demonstrate that
                 our approach is feasible and is applicable to realistic
                 systems, we have implemented a draft analysis tool and
                 we have applied the analysis to the TCAS II
                 requirements. The initial results from the analysis
                 effort were encouraging [4, 5] and scaled well to a
                 large requirements specification. The most complex
                 parts of the TCAS requirements specification have
                 recently been analyzed. Even though the effort was
                 largely successful, some limitations with the approach
                 have surfaced. Most importantly, the accuracy of the
                 analysis algorithms needs improvement. When analyzing
                 the most complex parts of the TCAS requirements, the
                 number of spurious error reports can occasionally be
                 overwhelming. Furthermore, we discovered that once the
                 analysis has identified problems, it has been
                 unexpectedly difficult to correct some of them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Hamlet:1996:PDT,
  author =       "Dick Hamlet",
  title =        "Predicting dependability by testing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "84--91",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226305",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "In assessing the quality of software, we would like to
                 make engineering judgements similar to those based on
                 statistical quality control. Ideally, we want to
                 support statements like: ``The confidence that this
                 program's result at X is correct is p, '' where X is a
                 particular vector of inputs, and confidence p is
                 obtained from measurements of the software (perhaps
                 involving X). For the theory to be useful, it must be
                 feasible to predict values of p near 1 for many
                 programs, for most values of X. Blum's theory of
                 self-checking/correcting programs has exactly the right
                 character, but it applies to only a few unusual
                 problems. Conventional software reliability theory is
                 widely applicable, but it yields only confidence in a
                 failure intensity, and the measurements required to
                 support a correctness-like failure intensity (say
                 10$^{-9}$ /demand) are infeasible. Voas's sensitivity
                 theory remedies these problems of reliability theory,
                 but his model is too simple to be very plausible. In
                 this paper we combine these ideas: reliability,
                 sensitivity, and self-checking, to obtain new results
                 on ``dependability,'' plausible predictions of software
                 quality.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Morell:1996:UPA,
  author =       "Larry Morell and Branson Murrill",
  title =        "Using perturbation analysis to measure variation in
                 the information content of test sets",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "92--97",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226306",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We define the information content of test set T with
                 respect to a program P to be the degree to which the
                 behavior of P on T approximates the overall behavior of
                 P. Informally, the higher the information content of a
                 test set, the greater the likelihood an error in the
                 data state of a program will be manifested under
                 testing. Perturbation analysis injects errors into the
                 data state of an executing program and traces the
                 impact of those errors on the intervening states and
                 the program's output. The injection is performed by
                 perturbation functions that randomly change the
                 program's data state. Using perturbation analysis we
                 demonstrate that different test sets may satisfy the
                 same testing criterion but have significantly different
                 information content. We believe that ``consistency of
                 information content'' is a crucial measure of the
                 quality of a testing strategy. We show how perturbation
                 analysis may be used to assess individual testing
                 strategies and to compare different testing strategies.
                 The ``coupling effect'' of mutation testing implies
                 that there is little variation among mutation-adequate
                 test sets for a program. This implication is
                 investigated for two simple programs by analyzing the
                 variation among several mutation-adequate test sets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Howden:1996:LSE,
  author =       "W. E. Howden and G. M. Shi",
  title =        "Linear and structural event sequence analysis",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "98--106",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226307",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "An approach to systematic informal program analysis is
                 discussed in which comments that describe hypotheses
                 and assertions about the behavior of programs are
                 analyzed. Event sequence comments analysis methods
                 analyze the consistency of comments that describe
                 events. Two event sequence analysis methods are
                 discussed, one of which uses a linear event sequence
                 model, and which has been applied to the analysis of
                 large data processing systems. The other uses a new
                 approach involving rule-based structural models, and
                 has been applied to the analysis of Ada programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Harrold:1996:SCA,
  author =       "Mary Jean Harrold and Gregg Rothermel",
  title =        "Separate computation of alias information for reuse",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "107--120",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.309037",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Interprocedural dataflow information is useful for
                 many software testing and analysis techniques,
                 including dataflow testing, regression testing, program
                 slicing and impact analysis. For programs with aliases,
                 these testing and analysis techniques can yield invalid
                 results, unless the dataflow information accounts for
                 aliasing effects. Recent research provides algorithms
                 for performing interprocedural dataflow analysis in the
                 presence of aliases; however, these algorithms are
                 expensive, and achieve precise results only on complete
                 programs. This paper presents an algorithm for
                 performing alias analysis on incomplete programs, that
                 lets individual software components such as library
                 routines, subroutines, or subsystems be independently
                 analyzed. The paper also presents an algorithm for
                 reusing the results of this separate analysis when
                 linking the individual software components with calling
                 modules. The primary advantage of our algorithms is
                 that they let us analyze frequently used software
                 components, such as library routines or classes,
                 independently, and reuse the results of that analysis
                 when analyzing calling programs, without incurring the
                 expense of completely reanalyzing each calling
                 program.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{DeMillo:1996:CSS,
  author =       "Richard A. DeMillo and Hsin Pan and Eugene H.
                 Spafford",
  title =        "Critical slicing for software fault localization",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "121--134",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226310",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Developing effective debugging strategies to guarantee
                 the reliability of software is important. By analyzing
                 the debugging process used by experienced programmers,
                 we have found that four distinct tasks are consistently
                 performed: (1) determining statements involved in
                 program failures, (2) selecting suspicious statements
                 that might contain faults, (3) making hypotheses about
                 suspicious faults (variables and locations), and (4)
                 restoring program state to a specific statement for
                 verification. This research focuses support for the
                 second task, reducing the search domain for faults,
                 which we refer to as fault localization. We explored a
                 new approach to enhancing the process of fault
                 localization based on dynamic program slicing and
                 mutation-based testing. In this new approach, we have
                 developed the technique of Critical Slicing to enable
                 debuggers to highlight suspicious statements and thus
                 to confine the search domain to a small region. The
                 Critical Slicing technique is partly based on
                 ``statement deletion'' mutant operator of the
                 mutation-based testing methodology. We have explored
                 properties of Critical Slicing, such as the
                 relationship among Critical Slicing, Dynamic Program
                 Slicing, and Executable Static Program Slicing; the
                 cost to construct critical slices; and the
                 effectiveness of Critical Slicing. Results of
                 experiments support our conjecture as to the
                 effectiveness and feasibility of using Critical Slicing
                 for fault localization. This paper explains our
                 technique and summarizes some of our findings. From
                 these, we conclude that a debugger equipped with our
                 proposed fault localization method can reduce human
                 interaction time significantly and aid in the debugging
                 of complex software.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Marx:1996:PWA,
  author =       "Delia I. S. Marx and Phyllis G. Frankl",
  title =        "The path-wise approach to data flow testing with
                 pointer variables",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "135--146",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226311",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a new approach to performing data
                 flow testing on programs that use pointer variables and
                 a tool based on this approach. Our technique is based
                 on the observation that, under certain reasonable
                 assumptions, we can determine which dereferenced
                 pointers are aliased whenever control reaches a given
                 program point via a particular path. Furthermore, we
                 can group together paths which behave similarly and
                 represent them by regular expressions. The resulting
                 test requirements demand that the test data execute
                 representatives of particular sets of paths between
                 variable definitions and uses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Marre:1996:UDT,
  author =       "Martina Marr{\'e} and Antonia Bertolino",
  title =        "Unconstrained duals and their use in achieving
                 all-uses coverage",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "147--157",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226312",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Testing takes a considerable amount of the time and
                 resources spent on producing software. It would
                 therefore be useful to have ways (1) to reduce the cost
                 of testing and (2) to estimate this cost. In
                 particular, the number of tests to be executed is an
                 important and useful attribute of the entity ``testing
                 effort''. All-uses coverage is a data flow testing
                 strategy widely researched in recent years. In this
                 paper we present spanning sets of duas for the all-uses
                 coverage criterion. A spanning set of duas is a minimum
                 set of duas (definition-use associations) such that a
                 set of test paths covering them covers every dua in the
                 program. We give a method to find a spanning set of
                 duas using the relation of subsumption between duas.
                 Intuitively, there exists a natural ordering between
                 the duas in a program: some duas are covered more
                 easily than others, since coverage of the former is
                 automatically guaranteed whenever the latter are
                 covered. Those duas that are the most difficult to be
                 covered according to this ordering are called
                 unconstrained. A spanning set of duas is composed of
                 unconstrained duas. Our results are useful for reducing
                 the cost of testing, since the generation of test paths
                 can be targeted to cover the smaller spanning set of
                 duas, rather than all those in a program. On the other
                 hand, assuming that a different path is taken to cover
                 each dua in a spanning set, the cardinality of spanning
                 sets can be used to estimate the cost of testing. Other
                 interesting uses of spanning sets of duas are also
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Daran:1996:SEA,
  author =       "Murial Daran and Pascale Th{\'e}venod-Fosse",
  title =        "Software error analysis: a real case study involving
                 real faults and mutations",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "158--171",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226313",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "The paper reports on a first experimental comparison
                 of software errors generated by real faults and by
                 1st-order mutations. The experiments were conducted on
                 a program developed by a student from the industrial
                 specification of a critical software from the civil
                 nuclear field. Emphasis was put on the analysis of
                 errors produced upon activation of 12 real faults by
                 focusing on the mechanisms of error creation, masking,
                 and propagation up to failure occurrence, and on the
                 comparison of these errors with those created by 24
                 mutations. The results involve a total of 3730 errors
                 recorded from program execution traces: 1458 errors
                 were produced by the real faults, and the 2272 others
                 by the mutations. They are in favor of a suitable
                 consistency between errors generated by mutations and
                 by real faults: 85\% of the 2272 errors due to the
                 mutations were also produced by the real faults.
                 Moreover, it was observed that although the studied
                 mutations were simple faults, they can create erroneous
                 behaviors as complex as those identified for the real
                 faults. This lends support to the representativeness of
                 errors due to mutations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pezze:1996:GMF,
  author =       "Mauro Pezz{\`e} and Michal Young",
  title =        "Generation of multi-formalism state-space analysis
                 tools",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "172--179",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226314",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "As software evolves from early architectural sketches
                 to final code, a variety of representations are
                 appropriate. Moreover, at most points in development,
                 different portions of a software system are at
                 different stages in development, and consequently in
                 different representations. State-space analysis
                 techniques (reachability analysis, model checking,
                 simulation, etc.) have been developed for several
                 representations of concurrent systems, but each tool or
                 technique has typically been targeted to a single
                 design or program notation. We describe an approach to
                 constructing space analysis tools using a core set of
                 basic representations and components. Such a tool
                 generation approach differs from translation to a
                 common formalism. We need not map every supported
                 design formalism to a single internal form that
                 completely captures the original semantics; rather, a
                 shared ``inframodel'' represents only the essential
                 information for interpretation by tool components that
                 can be customized to reflect the semantics of each
                 formalism. This results in more natural and compact
                 internal representations, and more efficient analysis,
                 than a purely translational approach. We illustrate the
                 approach by applying the prototype tool to a small
                 example problem, coordination of access to a coffee
                 machine. The coffee machine is controlled by an Ada
                 program, and the protocol of human users is modeled
                 with Petri nets. Nets and process graph models are
                 represented in the common internal form, and their
                 composite behavior is analyzed by the prototype tool.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Sloane:1996:BTP,
  author =       "Anthony M. Sloane and Jason Holdsworth",
  title =        "Beyond traditional program slicing",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "180--186",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226315",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Traditional program slices are based on variables and
                 statements. Slices consist of statements that
                 potentially affect (or are affected by) the value of a
                 particular variable at a given statement. Two
                 assumptions are implicit in this definition: (1) that
                 variables and statements are concepts of the
                 programming language in which the program is written,
                 and (2) that slices consist solely of statements.
                 Generalised slicing is an extension of traditional
                 slicing where variables are replaced by arbitrary named
                 program entities and statements by arbitrary program
                 constructs. A model of generalised slicing is presented
                 that allows the essence of any slicing tool to be
                 reduced to a node marking process operating on a
                 program syntax tree. Slicing tools can thus be
                 implemented in a straight-forward way using tree-based
                 techniques such as attribute grammars.A variety of
                 useful program decompositions are shown to be instances
                 of generalised slicing including: call graph
                 generation, interface extraction, slicing of
                 object-oriented inheritance hierarchies and slices
                 based on type dependences. Examples are also given of
                 how slicing can enhance understanding of formal
                 compiler specifications and aid the creation of subset
                 language specifications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Callahan:1996:AVV,
  author =       "John R. Callahan and Todd L. Montgomery",
  title =        "An approach to verification and validation of a
                 reliable multicasting protocol",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "187--194",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226316",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography1990.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the process of implementing a
                 complex communications protocol that provides reliable
                 delivery of data in multicast-capable, packet-switching
                 telecommunication networks. The protocol, called the
                 Reliable Multicasting Protocol (RMP), was developed
                 incrementally using a combination of formal and
                 informal techniques in an attempt to ensure the
                 correctness of its implementation. Our development
                 process involved three concurrent activities: (1) the
                 initial construction and incremental enhancement of a
                 formal state model of the protocol machine; (2) the
                 initial coding and incremental enhancement of the
                 implementation; and (3) model-based testing of
                 iterative implementations of the protocol. These
                 activities were carried out by two separate teams: a
                 design team and a V\&V team. The design team built the
                 first version of RMP with limited functionality to
                 handle only nominal requirements of data delivery. In a
                 series of iterative steps, the design team added new
                 functionality to the implementation while the V\&V team
                 kept the state model in fidelity with the
                 implementation. This was done by generating test cases
                 based on suspected errant or off-nominal behaviors
                 predicted by the current model. If the execution of a
                 test was different between the model and
                 implementation, then the differences helped identify
                 inconsistencies between the model and implementation.
                 The dialogue between both teams drove the co-evolution
                 of the model and implementation. Testing served as the
                 vehicle for keeping the model and implementation in
                 fidelity with each other. This paper describes (1) our
                 experiences in developing our process model; and (2)
                 three example problems found during the development of
                 RMP.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Offutt:1996:SMP,
  author =       "A. Jefferson Offutt and J. Huffman Hayes",
  title =        "A semantic model of program faults",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--200",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226317",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Program faults are artifacts that are widely studied,
                 but there are many aspects of faults that we still do
                 not understand. In addition to the simple fact that one
                 important goal during testing is to cause failures and
                 thereby detect faults, a full understanding of the
                 characteristics of faults is crucial to several
                 research areas in testing. These include fault-based
                 testing, testability, mutation testing, and the
                 comparative evaluation of testing strategies. In this
                 workshop paper, we explore the fundamental nature of
                 faults by looking at the differences between a
                 syntactic and semantic characterization of faults. We
                 offer definitions of these characteristics and explore
                 the differentiation. Specifically, we discuss the
                 concept of ``size'' of program faults --- the
                 measurement of size provides interesting and useful
                 distinctions between the syntactic and semantic
                 characterization of faults. We use the fault size
                 observations to make several predictions about testing
                 and present preliminary data that supports this model.
                 We also use the model to offer explanations about
                 several questions that have intrigued testing
                 researchers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Yang:1996:TSL,
  author =       "Cheer-Sun D. Yang and Lori L. Pollock",
  title =        "Towards a structural load testing tool",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "201--208",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226318",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Load sensitive faults cause a program to fail when it
                 is executed under a heavy load or over a long period of
                 time, but may have no detrimental effect under small
                 loads or short executions. In addition to testing the
                 functionality of these programs, testing how well they
                 perform under stress is very important. Current
                 approaches to stress, or load, testing treat the system
                 as a black box, generating test data based on
                 parameters specified by the tester within an
                 operational profile. In this paper, we advocate a
                 structural approach to load testing. There exist many
                 structural testing methods; however, their main goal is
                 generating test data for executing all statements,
                 branches, definition-use pairs, or paths of a program
                 at least once, without consideration for executing any
                 particular path extensively. Our initial work has
                 focused on the identification of potentially load
                 sensitive modules based on a static analysis of the
                 module's code, and then limiting the stress testing to
                 the regions of the modules that could be the potential
                 causes of the load sensitivity. This analysis will be
                 incorporated into a testing tool for structural load
                 testing which takes a program as input, and
                 automatically determines whether that program needs to
                 be load tested, and if so, automatically generates test
                 data for structural load testing of the program.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Korel:1996:ATD,
  author =       "Bogdan Korel",
  title =        "Automated test data generation for programs with
                 procedures",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "209--215",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226319",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Test data generation in program testing is the process
                 of identifying a set of test data that satisfies a
                 selected testing criterion, such as, statement coverage
                 or branch coverage. The existing methods of test data
                 generation are limited to unit testing and may not
                 efficiently generate test data for programs with
                 procedures. In this paper we present an approach for
                 automated test data generation for programs with
                 procedures. This approach builds on the current theory
                 of execution-oriented test data generation. In this
                 approach, test data are derived based on the actual
                 execution of the program under test. For many programs,
                 the execution of the selected statement may require
                 prior execution of some other statements that may be
                 part of some procedures. The existing methods use only
                 control flow information of a program during the search
                 process and may not efficiently generate test data for
                 these types of programs because they are not able to
                 identify statements that affect execution of the
                 selected statement. Our approach uses data dependence
                 analysis to guide the process of test data generation.
                 Data dependence analysis automatically identifies
                 statements (or procedures) that affect the execution of
                 the selected statement and this information is used to
                 guide the search process. The initial experiments have
                 shown that this approach may improve the chances of
                 finding test data.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Pomakis:1996:RAF,
  author =       "Keith P. Pomakis and Joanne M. Atlee",
  title =        "Reachability analysis of feature interactions: a
                 progress report",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "216--223",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226320",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Features are added to an existing system to add
                 functionality. A new feature interacts with an existing
                 feature if the behavior of the existing feature is
                 changed by the presence of the new feature. Our
                 research group has started to investigate how to detect
                 feature interactions during the requirements phase of
                 feature development. We have adopted a layered
                 state-transition machine model that prioritizes
                 features and avoids interactions due to
                 non-determinism. We have a tabular notation for
                 specifying behavioral requirements of services and
                 features. Specifications are composed into a
                 reachability graph, and the graph is searched for
                 feature interactions. This paper demonstrates how
                 reachability analysis has been used to automatically
                 detect known control interactions, data interactions,
                 and resource contentions among telephony features.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Bultan:1996:CVM,
  author =       "Tevfik Bultan and Jeffrey Fischer and Richard Gerber",
  title =        "Compositional verification by model checking for
                 counter-examples",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "224--238",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226321",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Many concurrent systems are required to maintain
                 certain safety and liveness properties. One emerging
                 method of achieving confidence in such systems is to
                 statically verify them using model checking. In this
                 approach an abstract, finite-state model of the system
                 is constructed; then an automatic check is made to
                 ensure that the requirements are satisfied by the
                 model. In practice, however, this method is limited by
                 the state space explosion problem. We have developed a
                 compositional method that directly addresses this
                 problem in the context of multi-tasking programs. Our
                 solution depends on three key space-saving ingredients:
                 (1) checking for counter-examples, which leads to
                 simpler search algorithms; (2) automatic extraction of
                 interfaces, which allows a refinement of the finite
                 model --- even before its communicating partners have
                 been compiled; and (3) using propositional
                 ``strengthening assertions'' for the sole purpose of
                 reducing state space. In this paper we present our
                 compositional approach, and describe the software tools
                 that support it.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Jackson:1996:ESA,
  author =       "Daniel Jackson and Craig A. Damon",
  title =        "Elements of style: analyzing a software design feature
                 with a counterexample detector",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "239--249",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226322",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We illustrate the application of Nitpick, a
                 specification checker, to the design of a style
                 mechanism for a word processor. The design is cast,
                 along with some expected properties, in a subset of Z.
                 Nitpick checks a property by enumerating all possible
                 cases within some finite bounds, displaying as a
                 counterexample the first case for which the property
                 fails to hold. Unlike animation or execution tools,
                 Nitpick does not require state transitions to be
                 expressed constructively, and unlike theorem provers,
                 operates completely automatically without user
                 intervention. Using a variety of reduction mechanisms,
                 it can cover an enormous number of cases in a
                 reasonable time, so that subtle flaws can be rapidly
                 detected.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Corbett:1996:CAM,
  author =       "James C. Corbett",
  title =        "Constructing abstract models of concurrent real-time
                 software",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "250--260",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226323",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "Concurrent real-time software is used in many
                 safety-critical applications. Assuring the quality of
                 such software requires the use of formal methods.
                 Before a program can be analyzed formally, however, we
                 must construct a mathematical model that captures the
                 aspects of the program we want to verify. In this
                 paper, we show how to construct mathematical models of
                 concurrent real-time software that are suitable for
                 analyzing the program's timing properties. Our approach
                 differs from schedulability analysis in that we do not
                 assume that the software has a highly restricted
                 structure (e.g., a set of periodic tasks). Also, unlike
                 most more abstract models of real-time systems, we
                 account for essential properties of real
                 implementations, such as resource constraints and
                 run-time overhead.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Godefroid:1996:UPO,
  author =       "Patrice Godefroid and Doron Peled and Mark
                 Staskauskas",
  title =        "Using partial-order methods in the formal validation
                 of industrial concurrent programs",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "261--269",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226324",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "We have developed a formal validation tool that has
                 been used on several projects that are developing
                 software for AT\&T's 5ESS$^{{\TM }}$ telephone
                 switching system. The tool uses Holzmann's supertrace
                 algorithm to check for errors such as deadlock and
                 livelock in networks of communicating processes. The
                 validator invariably finds subtle errors that were
                 missed during thorough simulation and testing; however,
                 the brute-force search it performs can result in
                 extremely long running times, which can be frustrating
                 to users. Recently, a number of researchers have been
                 investigating techniques known as partial-order methods
                 that can significantly reduce the running time of
                 formal validation by avoiding redundant exploration of
                 execution scenarios. In this paper, we describe the
                 design of a partial-order algorithm for our validation
                 tool and discuss its effectiveness. We show that a
                 careful compile-time static analysis of process
                 communication behavior yields information that can be
                 used during validation to dramatically improve its
                 performance. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our
                 partial-order algorithm by presenting the results of
                 experiments with actual industrial examples drawn from
                 a variety of 5ESS$^{{\TM }}$ application domains,
                 including call processing, signalling, and switch
                 maintenance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Barjaktarovic:1996:FSV,
  author =       "Milica Barjaktarovic and Shiu-Kai Chin and Kamal
                 Jabbour",
  title =        "Formal specification and verification of the kernel
                 functional unit of the {OSI} session layer protocol and
                 service using {CCS}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "270--279",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226325",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes an application of formal methods
                 to protocol specification, validation and verification.
                 Formal methods can be incorporated in protocol design
                 and testing so that time and resources are saved on
                 implementation, testing, and documentation. In this
                 paper we show how formal methods can be used to write
                 the control sequence, i.e. pseudo code, which can be
                 formally tested using automated support. The formal
                 specification serves as a blueprint for a correct
                 implementation with desired properties. As a formal
                 method we chose a process algebra called ``plain''
                 Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS). Our specific
                 objectives were to: (1) build a CCS model of the Kernel
                 Functional Unit of OSI session layer service: (2)
                 obtain a session protocol specification through
                 stepwise refinement of the service specification; and
                 (3) verify that the protocol specification satisfies
                 the service specification. We achieved all of our
                 objectives. Verification and validation were
                 accomplished by using the CCS's model checker, the
                 Edinburgh Concurrency Workbench (CWB). We chose plain
                 CCS because of its succinct, abstract, and modular
                 specifications, strong mathematical foundation which
                 allows for formal reasoning and proofs, and existence
                 of the automated support tool which supports temporal
                 logic. The motivation for this work is: (1) testing the
                 limits of CCS's succinct notation; (2) combining CCS
                 and temporal logic; and (3) using a model-checker on a
                 real-life example.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Atlee:1996:LMS,
  author =       "Joanne M. Atlee and Michael A. Buckley",
  title =        "A logic-model semantics for {SCR} software
                 requirements",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "280--292",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226326",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents a simple logic-model semantics for
                 Software Cost Reduction (SCR) software requirements.
                 Such a semantics enables model-checking of native SCR
                 requirements and obviates the need to transform the
                 requirements for analysis. The paper also proposes
                 modal-logic abbreviations for expressing conditioned
                 events in temporal-logic formulae. The Symbolic Model
                 Verifier (SMV) is used to verify that an SCR
                 requirements specification enforces desired global
                 requirements, expressed as formulae in the enhanced
                 logic. The properties of a small system (an automobile
                 cruise control system) are verified, including an
                 invariant property that could not be verified
                 previously. The paper concludes with a discussion of
                 how other requirements notations for
                 conditioned-event-driven systems could be similarly
                 checked.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Denney:1996:WSA,
  author =       "Richard Denney and Dick Kemmerer and Nancy Leveson and
                 Alberto Savoia",
  title =        "Why state-of-the-art is not state-of-the-practice
                 (panel)",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "293",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/226295.226327",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:10 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Doernhoefer:1996:SNSb,
  author =       "Mark Doernhoefer",
  title =        "Surfing the net for {{\booktitle{Software Engineering
                 Notes}}}",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "6--9",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/232069.232074",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948 (print), 1943-5843 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 1 17:13:12 MDT 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigsoft1990.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGSOFT Software Engineering Notes",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J728",
}

@Article{Kitchenham:1996:ESEc,
  author =       "Barbara Ann Kitchenham",
  title =        "Evaluating software engineering methods and tool ---
                 part 3: selecting an appropriate evaluation method ---
                 practical issues",
  journal =      j-SIGSOFT,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "9--12",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  DOI =          "