%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "2.28",
%%%     date            = "18 March 2014",
%%%     time            = "06:14:48 MST",
%%%     filename        = "spell.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "30543 11178 52865 512424",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography, orthography, phonography,
%%%                        spell, spelling",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This bibliography records publications on
%%%                        computer-based spelling error detection and
%%%                        correction.
%%%
%%%                        At version 2.28, the year coverage looked
%%%                        like this:
%%%
%%%                             1960 (   1)    1978 (   3)    1996 (   2)
%%%                             1961 (   0)    1979 (   1)    1997 (   1)
%%%                             1962 (   1)    1980 (   4)    1998 (   1)
%%%                             1963 (   0)    1981 (  18)    1999 (   0)
%%%                             1964 (   1)    1982 (  26)    2000 (   0)
%%%                             1965 (   0)    1983 (  24)    2001 (   1)
%%%                             1966 (   1)    1984 (  24)    2002 (   0)
%%%                             1967 (   1)    1985 (  16)    2003 (   1)
%%%                             1968 (   0)    1986 (  21)    2004 (   2)
%%%                             1969 (   1)    1987 (  28)    2005 (   3)
%%%                             1970 (   1)    1988 (  12)    2006 (   0)
%%%                             1971 (   0)    1989 (   8)    2007 (   2)
%%%                             1972 (   1)    1990 (  16)    2008 (   0)
%%%                             1973 (   1)    1991 (  11)    2009 (   1)
%%%                             1974 (   2)    1992 (  29)    2010 (   0)
%%%                             1975 (   3)    1993 (  26)    2011 (   3)
%%%                             1976 (   1)    1994 (  38)    2012 (   2)
%%%                             1977 (   3)    1995 (  16)    2013 (   2)
%%%                             19xx (   1)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        202
%%%                             Book:            20
%%%                             InBook:           1
%%%                             InCollection:     6
%%%                             InProceedings:   66
%%%                             MastersThesis:    2
%%%                             Misc:             1
%%%                             Proceedings:     59
%%%                             TechReport:       4
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  361
%%%
%%%                        This bibliography has been collected from
%%%                        bibliographies in the author's personal
%%%                        files, from several OCLC databases, from
%%%                        the Compendex databases (1970--1996), from
%%%                        the IEEE INSPEC CD ROM databases
%%%                        (1989--1995), from the computer graphics
%%%                        bibliography archive at ftp.siggraph.org,
%%%                        and from the computer science bibliography
%%%                        collection on ftp.ira.uka.de in
%%%                        /pub/bibliography to which many people of
%%%                        have contributed.  The snapshot of this
%%%                        collection was taken on 5-May-1994, and it
%%%                        consists of 441 BibTeX files, 2,672,675
%%%                        lines, 205,289 entries, and 6,375
%%%                        <at>String{} abbreviations, occupying
%%%                        94.8MB of disk space.
%%%
%%%                        Numerous errors in the sources noted above
%%%                        have been corrected.  Spelling has been
%%%                        verified with the UNIX spell and GNU ispell
%%%                        programs using the exception dictionary
%%%                        stored in the companion file with extension
%%%                        .sok.
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen as
%%%                        name:year:abbrev, where name is the family
%%%                        name of the first author or editor, year is a
%%%                        4-digit number, and abbrev is a 3-letter
%%%                        condensation of important title
%%%                        words. Citation tags were automatically
%%%                        generated by software developed for the
%%%                        BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted
%%%                        first by ascending year, and within each
%%%                        year, alphabetically by author or editor,
%%%                        and then, if necessary, by the 3-letter
%%%                        abbreviation at the end of the BibTeX
%%%                        citation tag, using the bibsort -byyear
%%%                        utility. Year order has been chosen to make
%%%                        it easier to identify the most recent work
%%%                        in this collection.
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
%%%                        count) utility output of lines, words, and
%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================

@Preamble{
  "\hyphenation{
                Faw-throp
                Go-pal-a-krish-nan
                Za-mora
  }"
}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-fm  =   "Frank Mittelbach,
                    e-mail: \path|mittelbach@mzdmza.zdv.uni-mainz.de|"}

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Institution abbreviations:

@String{inst-APPL-FORTH-RES     = "Institute for Applied FORTH Research"}

@String{inst-APPL-FORTH-RES:adr = "Rochester, NY, USA"}

@String{inst-CORNELL            = "Cornell University"}

@String{inst-CORNELL:adr        = "Ithaca, NY, USA"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-A-PLUS                = "A+"}

@String{j-ACTA-INFO             = "Acta Informatica"}

@String{j-AEDS                  = "AEDS J"}

@String{j-ASLIB-PROC            = "ASLIB Proceedings"}

@String{j-BEHAV-INF-TECH        = "Behav. Inf. Technol"}

@String{j-BYTE                  = "Byte Magazine"}

@String{j-C-JET                 = "C: JET, Communication: journalism education
                                  today"}

@String{j-CACM                  = "Communications of the Association for
                                  Computing Machinery"}

@String{j-CD-ROM-WORLD          = "CD-ROM World"}

@String{j-CGF                   =   "Com{\-}pu{\-}ter Graphics Forum"}

@String{j-COGNITION             = "Cognition"}

@String{j-COMP-BULL             = "The Computer Bulletin"}

@String{j-COMP-HUM              = "Comput. Hum."}

@String{j-COMP-INTELL           = "Computational Intelligence"}

@String{j-COMP-J                = "The Computer Journal"}

@String{j-COMP-LANG-MAG         = "Computer Language Magazine"}

@String{j-COMP-SURV             = "ACM Computing Surveys"}

@String{j-COMPUT-AND-BIOMED-RES = "Computers and Biomedical Research"}

@String{j-COMPUT-HUM-BEHAV      = "Computers in Human Behavior"}

@String{j-CPE                   = "Concurrency: Prac\-tice and Experience"}

@String{j-CREATIVE-COMP         = "Creative Comput"}

@String{j-CRYPTOLOGIA           = "Cryptologia"}

@String{j-CUJ                   = "C Users Journal"}

@String{j-DATAMATION            = "Datamation"}

@String{j-DDJ                   = "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools"}

@String{j-DISCRETE-APPL-MATH    = "Discrete Applied Mathematics"}

@String{j-ELECTRONIC-LIBRARY    = "Electronic Library"}

@String{j-EPODD                 = "Electronic Publishing---Origination,
                                  Dissemination, and Design"}

@String{j-HEWLETT-PACKARD-J     = "Hew\-lett-Pack\-ard Journal: technical
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                                  Hew\-lett-Pack\-ard Company"}

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@String{j-IBM-SYS-J             = "IBM Systems Journal"}

@String{j-IBM-TDB               = "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin"}

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@String{j-IEEE-INT-SYMP-INF-THEORY = "IEEE International Symposium on
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@String{j-IEEE-SOFTWARE         = "IEEE Software"}

@String{j-IEEE-SPECTRUM         = "IEEE Spectrum"}

@String{j-IEEE-TRANS-COMM       = "IEEE Transactions on Communications"}

@String{j-IEEE-TRANS-KNOWL-DATA-ENG = "IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data
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                                  Analysis and Machine Intelligence"}

@String{j-IEEE-TRANS-PROF-COMM  = "IEEE Transactions on Professional
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@String{j-INFO-CTL              = "Information and Control"}

@String{j-INFO-PROC-LETT        = "Information Processing Letters"}

@String{j-INFO-PROC-MAN         = "Information Processing and Management"}

@String{j-INFOWORLD             = "InfoWorld"}

@String{j-INT-J-COMP-PROC-ORIENTAL-LANG = "International Journal of Computer
                                  Processing of Oriental Languages (IJCPOL)"}

@String{j-INT-J-COMPUT-INF-SCI  = "International Journal of Computer and
                                  Information Sciences"}

@String{j-INT-J-IMAGE-GRAPHICS = "International Journal of Image and Graphics
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@String{j-INT-J-MAN-MACHINE-STUDIES = "International Journal of Man-Machine
                                  Studies"}

@String{j-INTEGRATION-VLSI-J    = "Integration, the VLSI journal"}

@String{j-J-ACM                 = "Journal of the ACM"}

@String{j-J-AM-SOC-INF-SCI      = "Journal of the American Society for
                                  Information Science"}

@String{j-J-COMP-BASED-INST     = "Journal of Computer-Based Instruction"}

@String{j-J-DOC                 = "Journal of Documentation"}

@String{j-J-EDU-RESEARCH        = "The Journal of Educational Research"}

@String{j-J-EXP-PSYCH-GEN       = "Journal of Experimental Psychology:
                                  General"}

@String{j-J-EXP-PSYCH-LMC       = "Journal of Experimental Psychology:
                                  Learning, Memory, and Cognition"}

@String{j-J-INF-PROCESS         = "Journal of Information Processing"}

@String{j-J-INST-ELEC-TELECOMM-ENG = "Journal of the Institution of
                                  Electronics and Telecommunication Engineers"}

@String{j-J-PAS-ADA-MOD         = "Journal of Pascal, Ada and Modula-2"}

@String{j-JDIQ                  = "Journal of Data and Information
                                  Quality (JDIQ)"}

@String{j-LAWYERS-PC            = "The Lawyer's PC"}

@String{j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI   = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science"}

@String{j-LINUX-J               = "Linux Journal"}

@String{j-MEM-COG               = "Memory and Cognition"}

@String{j-NAMS                  = "Notices of the American Mathematical
                                  Society"}

@String{j-OFF-OUR-BACKS         = "Off our backs"}

@String{j-ONLINE                = "Online"}

@String{j-PAT-REC-LETT          = "Pattern Recognition Letters"}

@String{j-PATTERN-RECOGN        = "Pattern Recognition"}

@String{j-PC-MAGAZINE           = "PC Magazine"}

@String{j-PC-PUB                = "PC Publishing"}

@String{j-PC-WORLD              = "PC World"}

@String{j-PERS-COMP             = "Personal Computing"}

@String{j-POP-COMP              = "Popular Computing"}

@String{j-PROBL-INF-TRANSM      = "Problems of Information Transmission"}

@String{j-PROBL-PEREDA-INF      = "Problemy Peredachi Informatsii"}

@String{j-PROC-ACM-SYMP-APPL-COMPUTING = "Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on
                                  Applied Computing"}

@String{j-PROC-ASIS-AM          = "Proceedings of the ASIS annual meeting"}

@String{j-PROC-ICASSP           = "Proceedings of the International Conference
                                  on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing"}

@String{j-PROC-IEEE-CONF-SYST-MAN-CYBERN = "Proceedings of the IEEE
                                  International Conference on Systems, Man and
                                  Cybernetics"}

@String{j-PROG-COMP-SOFT        = "Programming and Computer Software;
                                  translation of Programmirovaniye (Moscow,
                                  USSR) Plenum"}

@String{j-PROLOGUE              = "Prologue: the journal of the National
                                  Archives"}

@String{j-SIGMOD                = "SIGMOD Record (ACM Special Interest
                                  Group on Management of Data)"}

@String{j-SIGPLAN               = "SIGPLAN Notices"}

@String{j-SPE                   = "Soft{\-}ware\emdash Prac{\-}tice and
                                  Experience"}

@String{j-SPEECH                = "Speech"}

@String{j-SPEECH-COMM           = "Speech Communication"}

@String{j-TALIP                 = "ACM Transactions on Asian Language
                                  Information Processing"}

@String{j-TOCHI                 = "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human
                                  Interaction"}

@String{j-TODS                  = "ACM Transactions on Database Systems"}

@String{j-TOIS                  = "ACM Transactions on Information Systems"}

@String{j-TOOIS                 = "ACM Transactions on Office Information
                                  Systems"}

@String{j-TRANS-INFO-PROCESSING-SOC-JAPAN = "Transactions of the Information
                                  Processing Society of Japan"}

@String{j-TSLP                  = "ACM Transactions on Speech and Language
                                  Processing (TSLP)"}

@String{j-TUGBOAT               = "TUGboat"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Publishers and their addresses:

@String{pub-ABLEX               = "Ablex Publishing Corp."}
@String{pub-ABLEX:adr           = "Norwood, NJ, USA"}

@String{pub-ACM                 = "ACM Press"}
@String{pub-ACM:adr             = "New York, NY 10036, USA"}

@String{pub-AFIPS               = "AFIPS Press"}
@String{pub-AFIPS:adr           = "Arlington, VA, USA"}

@String{pub-AP                  = "Academic Press"}
@String{pub-AP:adr              = "New York, NY, USA"}

@String{pub-APA                 = "American Psychological Association"}
@String{pub-APA:adr             = "Washington, DC, USA"}

@String{pub-ASLIB               = "Aslib"}
@String{pub-ASLIB:adr           = "London, UK"}

@String{pub-ASTM                = "ASTM"}
@String{pub-ASTM:adr            = "Philadelphia, PA, USA"}

@String{pub-ATT-BTL             = "Bell Telephone Laboratories"}
@String{pub-ATT-BTL:adr         = "Murray Hill, NJ, USA"}

@String{pub-AW                  = "Ad{\-d}i{\-s}on-Wes{\-l}ey"}
@String{pub-AW:adr              = "Reading, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-CSP                 = "Computer Science Press"}
@String{pub-CSP:adr             = "11 Taft Court, Rockville, MD 20850,
                                  USA"}

@String{pub-ENH                 = "Elsevier North-Holland, Inc."}
@String{pub-ENH:adr             = "New York, NY, USA"}

@String{pub-ERLBAUM             = "Erlbaum"}
@String{pub-ERLBAUM:adr         = "New York, NY, USA, and London, UK"}

@String{pub-EUUG                = "European UNIX Users Group"}
@String{pub-EUUG:adr            = "Buntingford, Herts, UK"}

@String{pub-HALSTED             = "Halsted Press"}
@String{pub-HALSTED:adr         = "New York, USA"}

@String{pub-IEEE                = "IEEE Computer Society Press"}
@String{pub-IEEE:adr            = "1109 Spring Street, Suite 300,
                                  Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA"}

@String{pub-KLUWER              = "Kluwer Academic Publishers Group"}
@String{pub-KLUWER:adr          = "Norwell, MA, USA, and Dordrecht, The
                                  Netherlands"}

@String{pub-LEARNED-INF         = "Learned Information"}
@String{pub-LEARNED-INF:adr     = "Medford, NJ, USA"}

@String{pub-LITTLE-BROWN        = "Little, Brown and Co."}
@String{pub-LITTLE-BROWN:adr    = "Boston, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-MIT                 = "MIT Press"}
@String{pub-MIT:adr             = "Cambridge, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-NH                  = "North-Hol{\-}land Publishing Co."}
@String{pub-NH:adr              = "Amsterdam, The Netherlands"}

@String{pub-NIST                = "National Institute for Standards and
                                    Technology"}
@String{pub-NIST:adr            = "Gaithersburg, MD, USA"}

@String{pub-ORA-MEDIA           = "O'Reilly Media, Inc."}
@String{pub-ORA-MEDIA:adr       = "1005 Gravenstein Highway North,
                                  Sebastopol, CA 95472, USA"}

@String{pub-OXFORD              = "Oxford University Press"}
@String{pub-OXFORD:adr          = "Walton Street, Oxford OX2 6DP, UK"}

@String{pub-PH                  = "Pren{\-}tice-Hall, Inc."}
@String{pub-PH:adr              = "Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, USA"}

@String{pub-PHI                 = "Prentice-Hall International"}
@String{pub-PHI:adr             = "Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, USA"}

@String{pub-SOS-PRINT           = "SOS Print"}
@String{pub-SOS-PRINT:adr       = "Piscataway, NJ, USA"}

@String{pub-SPIE                = "SPIE Optical Engineering Press"}
@String{pub-SPIE:adr            = "Bellingham, WA, USA"}

@String{pub-SV                  = "Spring{\-}er-Ver{\-}lag, Inc."}
@String{pub-SV:adr              = "Berlin, Germany~/ Heidelberg,
                                   Germany~/ London, UK~/ etc."}

@String{pub-TATA-MCGRAW-HILL    = "Tata McGraw-Hill"}
@String{pub-TATA-MCGRAW-HILL:adr = "New Delhi, India"}

@String{pub-US-GOV-HEW          = "U.S. Department of Health,
                                   Education, and Welfare"}
@String{pub-US-GOV-HEW:adr      = "Washington, DC, USA"}

@String{pub-USENIX              = "USENIX"}
@String{pub-USENIX:adr          = "San Francisco, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-VNR                 = "Van Nostrand Reinhold Co."}
@String{pub-VNR:adr             = "New York, NY, USA"}

@String{pub-WILEY               = "John Wiley and Sons, Inc."}
@String{pub-WILEY:adr           = "New York, NY, USA"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries.

@Article{Blair:1960:PCS,
  author =       "Charles R. Blair",
  title =        "A program for correcting spelling errors",
  journal =      j-INFO-CTL,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "60--67",
  year =         "1960",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 06 14:44:33 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "numerical analysis",
}

@Article{Davidson:1962:RMN,
  author =       "Leon Davidson",
  title =        "Retrieval of Misspelled Names in an Airline Passenger
                 Record System",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "169--171",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1962",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 25 18:19:37 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses the limited problem of
                 recognition and retrieval of a given misspelled name
                 from among a roster of several hundred names, such as
                 the reservation inventory for a given flight of a large
                 jet airliner. A program has been developed and operated
                 on the Telefile (a stored-program core and drum memory
                 solid-state computer) which will retrieve passengers'
                 records successfully, despite significant misspellings
                 either at original entry time or at retrieval time. The
                 procedure involves an automatic scoring technique which
                 matches the names in a condensed form. Only those few
                 names most closely resembling the requested name, with
                 their phone numbers annexed, are presented for the
                 agent's final manual selection. The program has
                 successfully isolated and retrieved names which were
                 subjected to a number of unusual (as well as usual)
                 misspellings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "spelling error detection",
}

@Article{Damerau:1964:TCD,
  author =       "Fred J. Damerau",
  title =        "A technique for computer detection and correction of
                 spelling errors",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "171--176",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1964",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 24 09:33:00 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Book{Hanna:1966:PCC,
  author =       "Paul Robert Hanna and J. S. Hanna and R. E. Hodges and
                 E. H. Rudorf",
  title =        "Phoneme-Grapheme Correspondences as Cues to Spelling
                 Improvement",
  publisher =    pub-US-GOV-HEW,
  address =      pub-US-GOV-HEW:adr,
  pages =        "1716",
  year =         "1966",
  LCCN =         "PE1143.H3",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:29:39 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Alberga:1967:SSM,
  author =       "Cyril N. Alberga",
  title =        "String similarity and misspellings",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "302--313",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1967",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 25 18:20:13 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@TechReport{Morgan:1969:SCS,
  author =       "H. L. Morgan",
  title =        "Spelling Correction and Systems Programming",
  number =       "TR 69-31",
  institution =  inst-CORNELL,
  address =      inst-CORNELL:adr,
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1969",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:29:42 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "(email lmc@cs.cornell.edu)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Morgan:1970:SCS,
  author =       "H. L. Morgan",
  title =        "Spelling correction in systems programs",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "90--94",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 28 09:49:07 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Several specialized techniques are shown for
                 efficiently incorporating spelling correction
                 algorithms in to compilers and operating systems. These
                 include the use of syntax and semantics information,
                 the organization of restricted keyword and symbol
                 tables, and the consideration of a limited class of
                 spelling errors. Sample 360 coding for performing
                 spelling correction is presented. By using systems
                 which perform spelling correction, the number of
                 debugging runs per program has been decreased, saving
                 both programmer and machine time.",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "spelling correction, error correction, debugging,
                 compilers, operating systems, diagnostics, error
                 detection, misspelling, lexical analysis systems
                 programming, computer science and automata",
}

@MastersThesis{Heinselman:1972:CDC,
  author =       "Russell Craig Heinselman",
  title =        "Computerized detection and correction of spelling
                 errors in {FORTRAN} programs",
  type =         "Thesis (M.S.)",
  school =       "University of Minnesota",
  address =      "Minneapolis, MN, USA",
  pages =        "76",
  year =         "1972",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 27 13:40:57 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "{Fortran} (Computer program language)",
}

@Article{Rickman:1973:SIO,
  author =       "J. Rickman and W. E. Walden",
  title =        "Structures for an interactive on-line thesaurus",
  journal =      j-INT-J-COMPUT-INF-SCI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "115--127",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "IJCIAH",
  ISSN =         "0091-7036",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 26 12:20:22 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6120 (File organisation); C7240 (Information
                 analysis and indexing)",
  corpsource =   "Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA, USA",
  fjournal =     "International Journal of Computer and Information
                 Sciences",
  keywords =     "data structure; data structures; display formats; file
                 blocking; file structure; hashing function;
                 interactive; online; partial spellings; plant
                 pathology; sequential searches; thesauri; thesaurus;
                 user command language",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Wagner:1974:OCR,
  author =       "R. A. Wagner",
  title =        "Order-$n$ Correction for Regular Languages",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 28 14:35:14 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A method is presented for calculating a string B,
                 belonging to a given regular language L, which is
                 ``nearest'' (in number of edit operations) to a given
                 input string $a$. $B$ is viewed as a reasonable
                 ``correction'' for the possibly erroneous string $a$,
                 where a was originally intended to be a string of $L$.
                 \par

                 The calculation of $B$ by the method presented requires
                 time proportional to $ |a| $, the number of characters
                 in $a$. The method should find applications in
                 information retrieval, artificial intelligence, and
                 spelling correction systems.",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "error correction, regular languages, regular events,
                 finite state automata, compiler error recovery,
                 spelling correction, string best match problem,
                 correction, corrector, errors, nondeterministic
                 finite-state automata",
}

@Article{Wagner:1974:SSC,
  author =       "Robert A. Wagner and Michael J. Fischer",
  title =        "The String-to-String Correction Problem",
  journal =      j-J-ACM,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "168--173",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "JACOAH",
  ISSN =         "0004-5411 (print), 1557-735X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0004-5411",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 18:12:53 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Misc/protein.pattern.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The string-to-string correction problem is to
                 determine the distance between two strings as measured
                 by the minimum cost sequence of ``edit operations''
                 needed to change the one string into the other. The
                 edit operations investigated allow changing one symbol
                 of a string into another single symbol, deleting one
                 symbol from a string, or inserting a single symbol into
                 a string. An algorithm is presented which solves this
                 problem in the time proportional to the product of the
                 lengths of the two strings. Possible applications are
                 to the problems of automatic spelling correction and
                 determining the longest subsequence of characters
                 common to two strings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  comment =      "A dynamic programming algorithm is presented to find
                 the minimum distance between two strings. A good
                 definition of distance is presented. The algorithm runs
                 in $\Theta(|m| \cdot |n|)$ time. A special case to find
                 the longest common subsequence is presented.",
  fjournal =     "Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J401",
  journalabr =   "J Assoc Comput Mach",
  keywords =     "computer programming",
}

@Article{Gibbs:1975:ESA,
  author =       "A. T. Gibbs and J. P. McCarthy and D. Whelpton",
  title =        "Electronic Spelling Aid for Use in Speech Therapy",
  journal =      "Medical and Biological Engineering",
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "742--745",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "MBENAU",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A device was produced to assist in the treatment of
                 aphasia. The effects of this disorder, generally caused
                 by damage to brain tissue, are well documented, and are
                 usually considered to be an inability to construct
                 words, or sentences from their component letters, both
                 in spoken or written languages. It was considered that
                 an electronic spelling device offering a minimal
                 `reward' at each stage would perhaps assist in the
                 treatment of such patients in general and children in
                 particular. Accordingly it was decided to use a system
                 in which the word was illuminated letter by letter as
                 the patient operated a keyboard, on which switches were
                 arranged in alphabetical order. On the successful
                 completion of the spelling, it was arranged that a
                 picture illustrating the word would be illuminated.
                 This spelling aid has been received with great
                 enthusiasm by the speech therapists and there is every
                 indication that it will prove highly useful and
                 reliable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "461; 462; 751",
  journalabr =   "Med Biol Eng",
  keywords =     "biomedical engineering; speech; speech therapy",
}

@Article{Morris:1975:CDT,
  author =       "Robert Morris and Lorinda L. Cherry",
  title =        "Computer Detection of Typographical Errors",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-PROF-COMM,
  volume =       "PC-18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "54--56",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "IEPCBU",
  ISSN =         "0361-1434",
  ISSN-L =       "0361-1434",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 16 08:30:04 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A program written for the UNIX time-sharing system
                 reduces by several orders of magnitude the task of
                 finding words in a document which contain typographical
                 errors. The program is adaptive in the sense that it
                 uses statistics from the document itself for its
                 analysis. In a first pass through the document, a table
                 of digram and trigram frequencies is prepared. The
                 second pass through the document breaks out individual
                 words and compares the digrams and trigrams in each
                 word with the frequencies from the table. An index is
                 given to each world which reflects the hypothesis that
                 the trigrams in the given word were produced from the
                 same source that produced the trigram table. The words
                 are sorted in decreasing order of their indices and
                 printed. Appendices containing 2,726 common technical
                 English words, possible typo's and spelling errors are
                 included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 745; 901",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Trans Prof Commun",
  keywords =     "information dissemination --- Publishing;
                 typesetting",
}

@TechReport{Schek:1975:TFK,
  author =       "H.-J. Schek",
  title =        "Tolerating Fuzzyness in Keywords By Similarity
                 Searches",
  institution =  "University of Heidelberg (??)",
  address =      "Heidelberg, Germany",
  year =         "1975",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:29:55 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Definition of similarity
                 2.1. Intuitive requirements for similarity 2.2. Formal
                 similarity with maximal common substrings 2.3. Formal
                 similarity with syllabic matching 3. Preprocessing,
                 preselection, list ordering 3.1. Preprocessing 3.2.
                 Preselection 3.3. Similarity ordering for minimization
                 of list-block-accesses 4. Implementations 4.1.
                 Detection of misspellings 4.2. Structure of the
                 similarity search 5. Practical experience one feature
                 of a user-friendly system is the capability to tolerate
                 fuzzyness in names or keywords. This report describes
                 how the word context can be used to define similarity
                 measures which model the intuitive human-like notion of
                 similarity. These measures are based on maximal common
                 substrings and abstract syllables. In order to obtain
                 an efficient computation of this formal similarity in
                 large lists, a preselection method is given which uses
                 a simple distance between strings and a precomputed
                 binary relation between character-pairs and keywords.",
  descriptor =   "Informationssystem, Datenbank, Datenbanksystem,
                 Dokumentationssystem, Software-technologie",
}

@Article{Litecky:1976:SEE,
  author =       "Charles R. Litecky and Gordon B. Davis",
  title =        "Study of Errors, Error-Proneness, and Error Diagnosis
                 in {Cobol}",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "33--37",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 06:59:25 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm19.html#LiteckyD76;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper provides data on Cobol error frequency for
                 correction of errors in student-oriented compilers,
                 improvement of teaching, and changes in programming
                 language. Cobol was studied because of economic
                 importance, widespread usage, possible error-inducing
                 design, and lack of research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming); C6140D (High
                 level languages); C6150G (Diagnostic, testing,
                 debugging and evaluating systems)",
  classification = "723",
  corpsource =   "Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "COBOL; computer programming languages; error
                 diagnosis; errors; misspellings; program diagnostics;
                 programming",
  oldlabel =     "LiteckyD76",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/LiteckyD76",
}

@Article{Bourne:1977:FIS,
  author =       "Charles P. Bourne",
  title =        "Frequency and Impact of Spelling Errors in
                 Bibliographic Data Bases",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--12",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Using a composite sample of over 3600 index terms
                 drawn from 11 different machine-readable bibliographic
                 data bases, estimates were made of the spelling error
                 frequencies of each of these data bases, as well as the
                 frequency of posting to misspelled terms. The terms
                 studied included assigned index terms as well as some
                 terms from titles and abstracts. The frequency of index
                 term misspellings ranged from a high of almost 23\% for
                 one data base to a low of less than one-half \% for
                 another data base. The frequency of posting to
                 misspelled terms ranged from about one posting in 8000
                 citations for one data base, to about one posting in
                 160 citations in another data base. The impact of these
                 error rates is di for the tape supplier, tape user and
                 end user. Some suggestions are given regarding search
                 strategy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
  journalabr =   "Inf Process Manage",
  keywords =     "data base systems; information retrieval systems;
                 information services",
}

@Article{Ullmann:1977:BGT,
  author =       "J. R. Ullmann",
  title =        "A binary $n$-gram technique for automatic correction
                 of substitution, deletion, insertion and reversal
                 errors in words",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "141--147",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/comjnl/20.2.141",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 13:51:56 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_02/;
                 Misc/protein.pattern.bib",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_02/tiff/141.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_02/tiff/142.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_02/tiff/143.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_02/tiff/144.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_02/tiff/145.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_02/tiff/146.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_02/tiff/147.tif",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6130 (Data handling techniques)",
  comment =      "An $n$-gram is an $n$-character subset of a word.
                 Techniques that are already well known use $n$-grams
                 for detecting and correcting spelling errors in words.
                 This paper offers three basic contributions to $n$-gram
                 technology. First, a method of reducing storage
                 requirements by readom superimposed coding. Second, an
                 $n$-gram method for correcting up to two substitutions,
                 insertions, deletions and reversal errors without doing
                 a separate computation for every possible pair of
                 errors.",
  corpsource =   "Div. of Computer Sci., Nat. Phys. Lab., Teddington,
                 UK",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "automatic correction; binary n-gram technique; data
                 handling; deletion; error correction; errors;
                 insertion; reversal; substitution; words",
  treatment =    "T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@Article{Wang:1977:SMD,
  author =       "C. H. C. Wang and P. C. Mitchell and J. S. Rugh and B.
                 W. Basheer",
  title =        "Statistical Method for Detecting Spelling Errors in
                 Large Data Bases",
  journal =      "Digest of Papers --- IEEE Computer Society
                 International Conference",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "124--128",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "DCSIDU",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Existing computer-assisted methods for detecting
                 spelling errors are prevented from treating very large
                 data bases due to their requirement for large amounts
                 of computation time and\slash or storage. A practical
                 approach is described that combines an automatic
                 statistical detection method with a manual verification
                 procedure. The method is currently used to detect
                 spelling errors in natural language, full-text data
                 bases. Words containing N-grams with relatively low
                 frequencies of occurrence in the text are flagged as
                 spelling error candidates. Misspelled words can be
                 identified from this reduced list via quick
                 proof-reading. Experiments indicate that a
                 quadrigram-matching method is capable of detecting over
                 ninety percent of spelling errors in very large data
                 bases of legal documents.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  conference =   "Dig Pap IEEE Comput Soc Int Conf 14th",
  keywords =     "data base systems",
  meetingaddress = "San Francisco, CA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Feb 28--Mar 3 1977",
  meetingdate2 = "02/28--03/03/77",
}

@Article{Greanias:1978:ASV,
  author =       "E. C. Greanias and W. S. Rosebaum",
  title =        "Automatic Spelling Verification: Towards a System
                 Solution of the Office",
  journal =      "Tsement",
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "225--231",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1978",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The Automatic Spelling Verification system is a method
                 for automatic spelling verification in a realtime
                 interactive word processing environment. It consists of
                 an extremely compact dictionary and an algorithm for
                 looking up words. The dictionary and the programmed
                 algorithm are stored in a mini-processor taking less
                 than 20K bytes of memory. The secretary or typist
                 simply types her best rendition of a given text onto
                 magnetic cards. The magnetic cards are then read
                 directly into the processor. A dictionary look-up is
                 made for each word and the entire text is printed out.
                 Each word not found in the dictionary is underlined as
                 it is printed. The printout is then returned to the
                 author for proofing, and the underlined words are
                 checked by the author and corrected in the subsequent
                 text revision. Underlined words will be either
                 misspelled words or correctly spelled words that are
                 not in the dictionary. The correctly spelled words not
                 in the dictionary are referred to as False Alarms.
                 Tests have shown that a properly constituted dictionary
                 of only 10,000 words can maintain a False Alarm rate of
                 less than 0. 5\%.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 745",
  conference =   "Proc of the Jerusalem Conf on Inf Technol, 3rd
                 (JCIT3)",
  keywords =     "business machines; data processing, business; word
                 processing",
  meetingaddress = "Haifa, Isr",
  meetingdate =  "Aug 6--9 1978",
  meetingdate2 = "08/06--09/78",
}

@Article{Hendrix:1978:DNL,
  author =       "Gary G. Hendrix and Earl D. Sacerdoti and Daniel
                 Sagalowicz and Jonathan Slocum",
  title =        "Developing a Natural Language Interface to Complex
                 Data",
  journal =      j-TODS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "105--147",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "ATDSD3",
  ISSN =         "0362-5915 (print), 1557-4644 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-5915",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:34:48 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "Ai/Ai.misc.bib; Compendex database;
                 Database/Graefe.bib; http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tods/1978-3-2/p105-hendrix/p105-hendrix.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tods/1978-3-2/p105-hendrix/",
  abstract =     "Aspects of an intelligent interface that provides
                 natural language access to a large body of data
                 distributed over a computer network are described. The
                 overall system architecture is presented, showing how a
                 user is buffered from the actual database management
                 systems (DBMSs) by three layers of insulating
                 components. These layers operate in series to convert
                 natural language queries into calls to DBMSs at remote
                 sites. Attention is then focused on the first of the
                 insulating components, the natural language system. A
                 pragmatic approach to language access that has proved
                 useful for building interfaces to databases is
                 described and illustrated by examples. Special language
                 features that increase system usability, such as
                 spelling correction, processing of incomplete inputs,
                 and run-time system personalization, are also
                 discussed. The language system is contrasted with other
                 work in applied natural language processing, and the
                 system's limitations are analyzed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Database Systems",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J777",
  keywords =     "data base systems; database access; human engineering;
                 intelligent access semantic grammar human engineering
                 run-time personalization, computer interfaces;
                 intelligent interface; natural language; Natural
                 Language, Intelligent Interface, Database Access,
                 Semantic Grammar, Human Engineering, Runtime
                 Personalization; run-time personalization; semantic
                 grammar",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Database Management ---
                 Languages (H.2.3); Information Systems --- Database
                 Management --- Physical Design (H.2.2): {\bf Access
                 methods}",
}

@Article{Lyon:1978:PST,
  author =       "Gordon Lyon",
  title =        "Packed Scatter Tables",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "857--865",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 07:00:30 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm21.html#Lyon78;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Scatter tables for open addressing benefit from
                 recursive entry displacements, cutoffs for unsuccessful
                 searches, and auxiliary cost functions. Compared with
                 conventional methods, the new techniques provide
                 substantially improved tables that resemble
                 exact-solution optimal packings. The displacements are
                 depth-limited approximations to an enumerative
                 (exhaustive) optimization, although packing costs
                 remain linear --- O(n) --- with table size n. The
                 techniques are primarily suited for important fixed
                 (but possibly quite large) tables for which reference
                 frequencies may be known: op-code tables, spelling
                 dictionaries, access arrays. Introduction of frequency
                 weights further improves retrievals, but the
                 enhancement may degrade cutoffs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6130 (Data handling techniques)",
  classification = "723",
  corpsource =   "Nat. Bur. of Stand., Washington, DC, USA",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "computer systems programming; costs; data handling;
                 open addressing; optimal packings; packed scatter
                 tables; packing; recursion; reference frequencies;
                 scatter tables",
  oldlabel =     "Lyon78",
  treatment =    "G General Review",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Lyon78",
}

@Article{Sidorov:1979:AWS,
  author =       "A. A. Sidorov",
  title =        "Analysis of Word Similarity in Spelling Correction
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-PROG-COMP-SOFT,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "274--277",
  month =        jul # "--" # aug,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "PCSODA",
  ISSN =         "0361-7688 (print), 1608-3261 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0361-7688",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "English translation of Russian article in {\em
                 Programmirovanie} 1979, No.4, 65-68 (1979).",
  abstract =     "Automatic spelling correction in programming systems
                 is considered. A measure of word similarity is
                 introduced and an algorithm for computing this measure
                 is proposed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "Programming and Computer Software; translation of
                 Programmirovaniye (Moscow, USSR) Plenum",
  journalabr =   "Program Comput Software",
  keywords =     "automatic spelling correction; computer operating
                 systems; computer programming; word similarity",
}

@Article{Peterson:1980:CPD,
  author =       "James Lyle Peterson",
  title =        "Computer Programs for Detecting and Correcting
                 Spelling Errors",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "676--687",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Sun Feb 04 16:47:16 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/datacompression.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "See remarks
                 \cite{Dunlavey:1981:LES,Miller:1981:LES,Nix:1981:ESE,Peterson:1981:LES}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Book{Peterson:1980:CPS,
  author =       "James Lyle Peterson",
  title =        "Computer Programs For Spelling Correction",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "vi + 213",
  year =         "1980",
  ISBN =         "3-540-10259-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-540-10259-5",
  LCCN =         "QA76.6 .P474",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:30:05 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "The automatic detection and correction of spelling
                 errors by computers has been a subject of interest for
                 a long time. (Our literature search revealed work as
                 early as 1957.) There have been several papers
                 investigating various algorithms and showing their
                 application to various tasks, generally data entry.
                 Now, however, with the increased interest in computer
                 based text processing (word processing) and the storage
                 of large amounts of textual information in computers
                 (data bases), we suggest that spelling correction will
                 become commonplace. This volume brings together the
                 diverse and scattered work on this topic and shows how
                 it can be applied to create a real general purpose
                 spelling corrector.",
  descriptor =   "Fehlererkennung, Fehlerkorrektur, Orthographie,
                 Programmentwicklung, Programmsystem, Rechtschreibung,
                 Textbearbeitung, Textverarbeitung",
}

@Book{Sippl:1980:ECD,
  author =       "Charles J. Sippl and JoAnn Coffman Mayer",
  title =        "The Essential Computer Dictionary and Speller for
                 Secretaries, Managers, and Office Personnel",
  publisher =    pub-PH,
  address =      pub-PH:adr,
  pages =        "v + 258",
  year =         "1980",
  ISBN =         "0-13-284364-1 (hardcover), 0-13-284356-0 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-13-284364-5 (hardcover), 978-0-13-284356-0
                 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "QA76.15 .S514",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:30:09 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$13.95 (hardcover), US\$6.95 (paperback)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "{\ldots} A ten-page prolog provides a survey of
                 state-of-the-art developments written in reasonably
                 everyday language. {\ldots} What follows is a 250-page
                 glossary of terms.{\ldots}",
  bydate =       "CG",
  byrev =        "Le",
  date =         "11/05/81",
  descriptors =  "Reference;",
  enum =         "2909",
  language =     "English",
  location =     "RWTH-AC-DFV: Bibl.",
  references =   "0",
  revision =     "21/04/91",
}

@Article{Zamora:1980:ADC,
  author =       "Antonio Zamora",
  title =        "Automatic Detection and Correction of Spelling Errors
                 in a Large Data Base",
  journal =      j-J-AM-SOC-INF-SCI,
  volume =       "31",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--57",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "AISJB6",
  ISSN =         "0002-8231 (print), 1097-4571 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0002-8231",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This article describes the techniques used to detect
                 and correct spelling errors in the data base of
                 Chemical Abstracts Service. A computer program for
                 spelling error detection achieves a high level of
                 performance using hashing techniques for dictionary
                 look-up and compression. Heuristic procedures extend
                 the dictionary and increase the proportion of
                 misspelled words in the words flagged. Automatic
                 correction procedures are applied only to words which
                 are known to be misspelled; other corrections are
                 performed manually during the normal editorial cycle.
                 The constraints imposed on the selection of a spelling
                 error detection technique by a complex data base, human
                 factors, and high-volume production are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "Journal of the American Society for Information
                 Science",
  journalabr =   "J Am Soc Inf Sci",
  keywords =     "data base systems --- Control; information science;
                 spelling-error correction; spelling-error detection",
}

@InProceedings{Abramovich:1981:FIM,
  author =       "Israel Abramovich and Shimon Hochbaum and Reuven
                 Zilber",
  title =        "First Intelligent Microprocessored Dictionary that
                 Corrects Spelling Errors",
  crossref =     "Baal-Schem:1981:OAK",
  year =         "1981",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  conference =   "Electrotechnology for Development, Proceedings of
                 MELECON '81, 1st Mediterranean Electrotechnical
                 Conference.",
  keywords =     "correction; dictionaries; memory organization;
                 microprocessors; spelling errors; translating machines;
                 translation; word organization",
  meetingaddress = "Tel Aviv, Isr",
  pagecount =    "2",
  sponsor =      "IEEE, New York, NY, USA",
}

@InProceedings{Cannon:1981:OAK,
  author =       "Theodore W. Cannon",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Johns Hopkins 1st National Search
                 for Applications of Personal Computing to Aid the
                 Handicapped",
  title =        "Optically Actuated Keyboard System",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "186--189",
  year =         "1981",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Serv Cent. Piscataway, NJ, USA.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "461; 717; 722; 723",
  keywords =     "actuation of keyboards; aiming of light beam; cerebral
                 palsied children; optical interface applications;
                 programmed optical board; speak and spell control;
                 telecommunication links, optical",
  meetingaddress = "Baltimore, Md, USA",
  sponsor =      "IEEE Comput Soc, Los Alamitos, Calif, USA; IEEE Tech
                 Comm on Comput and the Handicap, New York, NY, USA",
}

@InProceedings{Cherry:1981:CAW,
  author =       "L. Cherry",
  key =          "Cherry",
  title =        "Computer Aids for Writers",
  crossref =     "ACM:1981:ASS",
  pages =        "61--67",
  year =         "1981",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:30:12 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "For many people, writing is painful and editing one's
                 own prose is difficult, tedious, and errorprone. It is
                 often hard to see which parts of a document are
                 difficult to read or how to transform a wordy sentence
                 into a more concise one. It is even harder to discover
                 that one overuses a particular linguistic construct.
                 The system of programs described here helps writers to
                 evaluate documents and to produce better written and
                 more readable prose. The system consists of programs to
                 measure surface features of text that are important to
                 good writing style as well as programs to do some of
                 the tedious jobs of a copy editor. Some of the surface
                 features measured are readability, sentence and word
                 length, sentence type, word usage, and sentence
                 openers. The copy editing programs find spelling
                 errors, wordy phrases, bad diction, some punctuation
                 errors, double words, and split infinitives.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Dunlavey:1981:LES,
  author =       "Michael R. Dunlavey",
  title =        "Letter to the {Editor}: On Spelling Correction and
                 Beyond",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "608--608",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Sun Feb 04 16:48:13 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/datacompression.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Peterson:1980:CPD,Miller:1981:LES,Nix:1981:ESE,Peterson:1981:LES}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@InProceedings{Huston:1981:VVC,
  author =       "Thomas J. Huston",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Johns Hopkins 1st National Search
                 for Applications fo Personal Computing to Aid the
                 Handicapped",
  title =        "{VCATS 80}: a Visual Computer Augmented Teaching
                 System for the 80's",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  year =         "1981",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Serv Cent. Piscataway, NJ, USA.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 741; 752; 762; 901",
  keywords =     "animated finger spelling; computer-aided teaching
                 systems; education of hearing impaired; hearing aids;
                 individualized learning paths; instruction of visually
                 impaired; interactive graphic animation",
  meetingaddress = "Baltimore, Md, USA",
  pagecount =    "61",
  sponsor =      "IEEE Comput Soc, Los Alamitos, Calif, USA; IEEE Tech
                 Comm on Comput and the Handicap, New York, NY, USA",
}

@Article{Johnson:1981:MWS,
  author =       "J. Johnson",
  title =        "Making {WP} smarter",
  journal =      j-DATAMATION,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "58--62",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "DTMNAT",
  ISSN =         "0011-6963",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:03:39 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Datamation",
  keywords =     "design; performance",
  subject =      "H.3.4 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Systems and Software, Question-answering
                 (fact retrieval) systems \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing, Languages
                 \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ H.4.1 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation,
                 Equipment \\ H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Word
                 processing",
}

@Book{Kernighan:1981:STP,
  author =       "Brian W. Kernighan and P. J. Plauger",
  title =        "Software Tools in {Pascal}",
  publisher =    pub-AW,
  address =      pub-AW:adr,
  pages =        "ix + 366",
  year =         "1981",
  ISBN =         "0-201-10342-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-201-10342-7",
  LCCN =         "QA76.6 .K493",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 25 16:01:52 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$13.95",
  annote =       "Page 133 of this book contains a short sketch of a
                 Unix pipeline for finding spelling exceptions; see
                 \cite{Bentley:1985:PPS,Bentley:1986:PP} for details.",
}

@Article{Krause:1981:LGN,
  author =       "W. Krause and G. Willee",
  title =        "Lemmatizing {German} newspaper texts with the aid of
                 an algorithm",
  journal =      j-COMP-HUM,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--113",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "COHUAD",
  ISSN =         "0010-4817",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4817",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 12 21:45:11 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: ``Lemmatization is
                 defined as `the (automatic) reduction of word-forms
                 that are related by the morphology of their inflection
                 to a normalized spelling.' Compound words (typical for
                 the German language) are treated as separate
                 lemmata.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computers and the Humanities",
  keywords =     "algorithms",
  review =       "ACM CR 39669",
  subject =      "I.7 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing \\ J.5 Computer Applications, ARTS AND
                 HUMANITIES, Linguistics",
}

@Article{Miller:1981:LES,
  author =       "Lance A. Miller",
  title =        "Letter to the {Editor}: On Spelling Correction and
                 Beyond",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "608--609",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Sun Feb 04 16:49:22 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/datacompression.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Peterson:1980:CPD,Dunlavey:1981:LES,Nix:1981:ESE,Peterson:1981:LES}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Article{Nix:1981:ESE,
  author =       "Robert P. Nix",
  title =        "Experience With a Space Efficient Way to Store a
                 Dictionary",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "297--298",
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/358645.358654",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 26 12:46:16 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm24.html#Nix81;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/subjects/acc-stab-num-alg.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/datacompression.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-ds # " and " # ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  mynote =       "Computing Practices, Note",
  oldlabel =     "Nix81",
  rawdata =      "Nix, R. (1981) ``Experience With a Space Efficient Way
                 to Store a Dictionary,'' {\it Communications of the
                 ACM}, {\bf24}(5):297--298.",
  remark =       "Comment on \cite{Peterson:1981:LES}",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Nix81",
}

@InProceedings{Pain:1981:CAS,
  author =       "Helen Pain",
  title =        "Computer Aid for Spelling Error Classification in
                 Remedial Teaching",
  crossref =     "Lewis:1981:CEP",
  pages =        "297--302",
  year =         "1981",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  conference =   "Computers in Education: Proceedings of the IFIP-TC3
                 3rd World Conference on Computers in Education --- WCCE
                 81.",
  journalabr =   "Computers in Education, Proceedings of the IFIP World
                 Conference 3rd.",
  keywords =     "computer aided learning; computer program; education;
                 remedial teaching; spelling error classification",
  meetingaddress = "Lausanne, Switz",
  sponsor =      "IFIP, Geneva, Switz",
}

@Article{Peterson:1981:LES,
  author =       "James L. Peterson",
  title =        "Letter to the {Editor}: On Spelling Correction and
                 Beyond",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "609--609",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Sun Feb 04 16:49:21 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/datacompression.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Peterson:1980:CPD,Dunlavey:1981:LES,Miller:1981:LES,Nix:1981:ESE}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Article{Robinson:1981:ASC,
  author =       "P. Robinson and D. Singer",
  title =        "Another spelling correction program",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "24",
  pages =        "296--297",
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  mynote =       "Computing Practices, Note",
}

@InProceedings{Terpenning:1981:CTH,
  author =       "Joseph L. Terpenning",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Johns Hopkins 1st National Search
                 for Applications of Personal Computing to Aid the
                 Handicapped",
  title =        "`Computer-Tutor' for the Handicapped",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "74--75",
  year =         "1981",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Serv Cent. Piscataway, NJ, USA.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "461; 723; 901",
  keywords =     "category of math problems; computer assisted learning;
                 education; improvement of spelling; increase of reading
                 sped; learning of disabled children; remediation and
                 drill program",
  meetingaddress = "Baltimore, Md, USA",
  sponsor =      "IEEE Comput Soc, Los Alamitos, Calif, USA; IEEE Tech
                 Comm on Comput and the Handicap, New York, NY, USA",
}

@InProceedings{Turba:1981:CST,
  author =       "T. N. Turba",
  title =        "Checking for spelling and typographical errors in
                 computer-based text",
  crossref =     "ACM:1981:ASS",
  pages =        "101--113 (or 51--60??)",
  year =         "1981",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 22 23:06:27 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "design; languages",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ I.2.8 Computing Methodologies,
                 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Problem Solving, Control
                 Methods, and Search, Graph and tree search strategies
                 \\ D.2.2 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Tools and
                 Techniques, User interfaces",
}

@Article{Asimov:1982:QS,
  author =       "I. Asimov",
  title =        "A question of spelling",
  journal =      j-POP-COMP,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "106--107",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1982",
  ISSN =         "0279-4721",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:03:39 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Popular Computing (Peterborough)",
  keywords =     "languages",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling",
}

@Article{Bomberger:1982:PPS,
  author =       "Alan Bomberger",
  title =        "A poor person's spelling checker",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42--53",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 2 09:09:39 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
  keywords =     "performance",
  subject =      "K Computing Milieux, PERSONAL COMPUTING \\ I.7.1
                 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling",
}

@Article{Comer:1982:HBS,
  author =       "Douglas Comer and Vincent Y. Shen",
  title =        "Hash-Bucket Search --- a Fast Technique for Searching
                 an {English} Spelling Dictionary",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "669--682",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "When a document is prepared using a computer system,
                 it can be checked for spelling errors automatically and
                 efficiently. Ths study reviews and compares several
                 methods for searching an English spelling dictionary.
                 It also presents a new technique, hash-bucket search,
                 for searching a static table in general, and a
                 dictionary in particular. Analysis shows that with only
                 a small amount of space beyond that required to store
                 the keys, the hash-bucket search method has many
                 advantages over existing methods. Experimental results
                 with a sample dictionary using double hashing and the
                 hash-bucket techniques are presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  journalabr =   "Software Pract Exper",
  keywords =     "computer programming",
}

@Article{Edmonds:1982:SCI,
  author =       "James D. {Edmonds, Jr.}",
  title =        "Speed-Spelling: Could It Work in the Twenty-First
                 Century?",
  journal =      "Speculations in Science and Technology",
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "375--378",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "SPSTDD",
  ISSN =         "0155-7785",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Speculation is advanced as to whether it is possible
                 for the spelling of the English language to be changed,
                 and such change to be widely accepted. Minicomputers
                 seem to be the key to making such an innovation now
                 possible. Since English has become (for all practical
                 purposes) the international language, billions of
                 persons for generations to come could be directly
                 benefited.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 751; 901",
  journalabr =   "Speculations Sci Technol",
  keywords =     "changes in English language spelling; information
                 science; speech --- Computer Applications;
                 speed-spelling",
}

@InCollection{Ehrenreich:1982:AAS,
  author =       "S. L. Ehrenreich and T. Porcu",
  title =        "Abbreviations for automated systems: teaching
                 operators the rules",
  crossref =     "Badre:1982:DHC",
  pages =        "111--135",
  year =         "1982",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:57:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "One way to improve performance on abbreviations is to
                 inform operators of the rules used to generate the
                 abbreviations. This was tested in a series of rating,
                 encoding, and decoding experiments which compared the
                 benefits of truncation versus contraction and fixed
                 versus variable length abbreviations. In addition, the
                 advisability of representing common suffixes (ING, ED,
                 S) in abbreviations was tested along with a technique
                 for dealing with the problem of a simple rule
                 generating the same abbreviation for more than one
                 word. Based upon the results of these experiments,
                 guidelines for generating abbreviations are
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors",
  review =       "ACM CR 40340",
  subject =      "D.m Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems \\ H.1 Information Systems,
                 DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Languages, Query languages \\
                 H.2.3 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ I.7.1",
}

@Article{Frantz:1982:DCH,
  author =       "G. A. Frantz and R. H. Wiggins",
  title =        "Design case history: speak and spell learns to talk",
  journal =      j-IEEE-SPECTRUM,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "45--49",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "IEESAM",
  ISSN =         "0018-9235 (print), 1939-9340 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9235",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:03:39 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Spectrum",
  keywords =     "design; documentation; human factors",
  subject =      "I.6 Computing Methodologies, SIMULATION AND MODELING,
                 Applications \\ K.3.1 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND
                 EDUCATION, Computer Uses in Education,
                 Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) \\ K.2 Computing
                 Milieux, HISTORY OF COMPUTING, Software",
}

@InCollection{Kernighan:1982:UDP,
  author =       "B. W. Kernighan and M. E. Lesk",
  title =        "{UNIX} document preparation",
  crossref =     "Nievergelt:1982:DPS",
  pages =        "1--20",
  year =         "1982",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 12 21:45:03 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: ``{\ldots} introduces
                 {\tt ed}, {\tt nroff}\slash {\tt troff}, {\tt eqn},
                 {\tt tbl}, {\tt refer}, and {\tt pic}, and touches on
                 {\tt spell}, {\tt style}, and {\tt diction}.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "documentation; languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 40430",
  subject =      "D.4.0 Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, General, UNIX \\
                 I.7 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing \\ I.7 Computing Methodologies, TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Document Preparation",
}

@Article{McIlroy:1982:DSL,
  author =       "M. Douglas McIlroy",
  title =        "Development of a Spelling List",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-COMM,
  volume =       "COM-30",
  number =       "1 pt 1",
  pages =        "91--99",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "IECMBT",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TCOM.1982.1095395",
  ISSN =         "0096-1965",
  ISSN-L =       "0090-6778",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The work list used by the UNIX spelling checker,
                 SPELL, was developed from many sources over several
                 years. As the spelling checker may be used on
                 minicomputers, it is important to make the list as
                 compact as possible. Stripping prefixes and suffixes
                 reduces the list below one third of its original size,
                 hashing discards 60 percent of the bits that remain,
                 and data compression halves it once again. This paper
                 tells how the spelling checker works, how the words
                 were chosen, how the spelling checker was used to
                 improve itself, and how the (reduced) list of 30,000
                 English words was squeezed into 26,000 16-bit machine
                 words.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "721; 723; 901",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Communications",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Trans Commun",
  keywords =     "automata theory; data processing --- Word Processing;
                 information science --- Vocabulary Control; UNIX
                 spelling checker, spell",
}

@Article{McWilliams:1982:W,
  author =       "P. McWilliams",
  title =        "Word",
  journal =      j-POP-COMP,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "120--121",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1982",
  ISSN =         "0279-4721",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:03:39 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Popular Computing (Peterborough)",
  keywords =     "design; documentation; human factors",
  subject =      "K Computing Milieux, PERSONAL COMPUTING \\ I.7.1
                 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling",
}

@Article{Mor:1982:HCM,
  author =       "M. Mor and A. S. Fraenkel",
  title =        "A Hash Code Method for Detecting and Correcting
                 Spelling Errors",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "935--940 (or 935--938??)",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The most common spelling errors are one extra letter,
                 one missing letter, one wrong letter, or the
                 transposition of two letters. Deletion, exchange, and
                 rotation operators are defined which detect and
                 ``mend'' such spelling errors and thus permit retrieval
                 despite the errors. These three operators essentially
                 delete a letter of a word, exchange two adjacent
                 letters, and rotate a word cyclically. Moreover, the
                 operators can be used in conjunction with hashing, thus
                 permitting very fast retrieval. Results of experiments
                 run on large databases in Hebrew and in English are
                 briefly indicated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "algorithms; information science; performance",
  review =       "ACM CR 40850",
  subject =      "E.2 Data, DATA STORAGE REPRESENTATIONS, Hash-table
                 representations \\ H.3.1 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and
                 Indexing, Dictionaries \\ H.3.3 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Information Search
                 and Retrieval, Search process \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling",
}

@InProceedings{Mor:1982:REF,
  author =       "Moshe Mor and Aviezri S. Fraenkel",
  title =        "Retrieval in an Environment of Faulty Texts or Faulty
                 Queries",
  crossref =     "Scheuermann:1982:PSI",
  pages =        "405--425",
  year =         "1982",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  conference =   "Improving Database Usability and Responsiveness.",
  journalabr =   "Proc Int Conf Datab",
  keywords =     "deletion operator; exchange operator; faulty queries;
                 faulty texts; information systems; rotation operator;
                 spelling errors",
  meetingaddress = "Jerusalem, Isr",
  sponsor =      "Hebrew Univ of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Isr; Information
                 Processing Assoc of Israel, Isr; Northwestern Univ,
                 Evanston, Ill, USA; ACM, New York, NY, USA",
}

@InProceedings{Peterson:1982:UWS,
  author =       "J. L. Peterson",
  title =        "Use of Webster's Seventh Collegiate Dictionary to
                 Construct a Master Hyphenation List",
  crossref =     "Morgan:1982:NCC",
  pages =        "665--670",
  year =         "1982",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 12 21:44:55 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "languages",
  subject =      "I.7.2 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING,
                 Document Preparation, Format and notation \\ I.2
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Natural Language Processing \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling",
}

@Article{Pollock:1982:ASE,
  author =       "Joseph J. Pollock and Antonio Zamora",
  title =        "Automatic Spelling Error Detection and Correction in
                 Textual Databases",
  journal =      j-PROC-ASIS-AM,
  volume =       "19",
  pages =        "236--238",
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "PAISDQ",
  ISBN =         "0-86729-038-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-86729-038-7",
  ISSN =         "0044-7870",
  LCCN =         "Z699.A1 .A5 1982",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  conference =   "Information Interaction, Proceedings of the 45th ASIS
                 Annual Meeting.",
  fjournal =     "Proceedings of the ASIS annual meeting",
  journalabr =   "Proc ASIS Annu Meet",
  keywords =     "automatic spelling; correction algorithms; dictionary
                 words; error detection/correction; information science;
                 misspellings; textual databases",
  meetingaddress = "Columbus, OH, USA",
  sponsor =      "ASIS, Washington, DC, USA",
}

@Article{Pollock:1982:SED,
  author =       "J. J. Pollock",
  title =        "Spelling Error Detection and Correction by Computer:
                 Some Notes and a Bibliography",
  journal =      j-J-DOC,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "282--291",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "JDOCAS",
  ISSN =         "0022-0418 (print), 1758-7379 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-0418",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This note attempts to provide a comprehensive
                 bibliography of papers in English on the major aspects
                 of spelling error detection and correction of English
                 text.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  comment =      "interesting bibliography",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Documentation",
  journalabr =   "J Doc",
  keywords =     "information science; performance",
  subject =      "J.5 Computer Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES,
                 Literature \\ H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Word
                 processing \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling A General
                 Literature, REFERENCE",
}

@InProceedings{Rosenthal:1982:SCC,
  author =       "Eric S. Rosenthal",
  title =        "Spelling Checkers, Compound Words, and Variant
                 Spellings",
  crossref =     "USENIX:1982:UAS",
  pages =        "315--322",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1982",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:30:22 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Stultz:1982:WPH,
  author =       "R. A. Stultz",
  title =        "The word processing handbook",
  publisher =    pub-PH,
  address =      pub-PH:adr,
  pages =        "237",
  year =         "1982",
  ISBN =         "0-13-963454-1, 0-13-963447-9 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-13-963454-3, 978-0-13-963447-5 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "HF5548.115 .S78",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:38:39 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$17.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "management",
  review =       "ACM CR 38951",
  subject =      "H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Word processing \\ I.7
                 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Miscellaneous
                 \\ J.1 Computer Applications, ADMINISTRATIVE DATA
                 PROCESSING, Business \\ K.6 Computing Milieux,
                 MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS,
                 Installation Management",
}

@Article{Terrell:1982:EEL,
  author =       "C. D. Terrell and O. Linyard",
  title =        "Evaluation of Electronic Learning Aids: {Texas
                 Instruments' ``Speak Spell''}",
  journal =      j-INT-J-MAN-MACHINE-STUDIES,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--67",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "IJMMBC",
  ISSN =         "0020-7373",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "An evaluation of an electronic learning aid, the Texas
                 Instruments ``Speak Spell'' is described. This machine
                 is marketed as a spelling aid. Spelling performance was
                 monitored for two groups of normal 12-year-old girls, a
                 control group and a treatment group. The treatment
                 group used the ``Speak Spell'' machine in their own
                 homes for a period of 14 days. A significant increase
                 in the spelling of words in the machine's lexicon was
                 observed for the treatment group but this appeared to
                 be only a transitory increase because spelling
                 performance on these words began to drop to pre-machine
                 exposure levels once the opportunity to use the machine
                 was removed. No improvement was observed in the
                 spelling of words not in the machine's lexicon.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "International Journal of Man-Machine Studies",
  journalabr =   "Int J Man Mach Stud",
  keywords =     "documentation; education; human factors; measurement",
  subject =      "K.3.1 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION,
                 Computer Uses in Education, Computer-assisted
                 instruction (CAI)",
}

@InProceedings{Thimbleby:1982:BUE,
  author =       "H. Thimbleby",
  title =        "Basic User Engineering Principles for Display
                 Editors",
  crossref =     "Williams:1982:PIS",
  pages =        "537--541",
  year =         "1982",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 22 23:14:42 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "design; human factors; theory",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Languages \\ D.2.2 Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Tools and Techniques, User interfaces \\
                 D.4.7 Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Organization and
                 Design, Interactive systems \\ H.4.1 Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office
                 Automation, Word processing \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling",
}

@Article{Turba:1982:LSL,
  author =       "T. N. Turba",
  title =        "Length-segmented lists",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "522--526",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; languages",
  subject =      "D.4.3 Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, File Systems
                 Management, Access methods \\ D.4.3 Software, OPERATING
                 SYSTEMS, File Systems Management, Directory structures
                 \\ H.2.2 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Physical Design, Access methods \\ H.3.1 Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Content
                 Analysis and Indexing, Dictionaries \\ E.1 Data, DATA
                 STRUCTURES, Lists \\ E.1 Data, DATA STRUCTURES, Tables
                 \\ E.2 Data, DATA STORAGE REPRESENTATIONS, Contiguous
                 representations \\ H.3.1 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and
                 Indexing, Indexing methods \\ H.4.1 Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office
                 Automation, Word processing \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling",
}

@Book{Weiss:1982:WSE,
  author =       "E. H. Weiss",
  title =        "The writing system for engineers and scientists",
  publisher =    pub-PH,
  address =      pub-PH:adr,
  pages =        "xiv + 274",
  year =         "1982",
  ISBN =         "0-13-971606-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-13-971606-5",
  LCCN =         "T11 .W44",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:38:32 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$16.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "management",
  review =       "ACM CR 39208",
  subject =      "I.7 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Document
                 Preparation \\ K.6 Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF
                 COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Miscellaneous K
                 Computing Milieux, MISCELLANEOUS",
}

@Article{Angell:1983:ASC,
  author =       "Richard C. Angell and George E. Freund and Peter
                 Willett",
  title =        "Automatic Spelling Correction Using a Trigram
                 Similarity Measure",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "255--261",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A nearest neighbor search procedure is described for
                 the automatic correction of misspellings. The procedure
                 involves the replacement of a misspelt word by that
                 word in a dictionary which best matches the
                 misspelling, the degree of match being calculated using
                 a similarity coefficient based on the number of
                 trigrams common to the two words.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
  journalabr =   "Inf Process Manage",
  keywords =     "documentation; experimentation; information science;
                 languages",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling",
}

@Article{Arceneaux:1983:PMS,
  author =       "C. D. Arceneaux",
  title =        "A poor man's spelling checker",
  journal =      j-CREATIVE-COMP,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "228--236",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1983",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "verification",
  subject =      "D.3.2 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, BASIC K Computing Milieux, PERSONAL
                 COMPUTING \\ H.3.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing,
                 Dictionaries \\ J.5 Computer Applications, ARTS AND
                 HUMANITIES, Literature",
}

@Article{Arnold:1983:DD,
  author =       "T. A. Arnold",
  title =        "Dictionary disk",
  journal =      j-A-PLUS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "142--144",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "AAAAE6",
  ISSN =         "0740-1590",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "A+",
  keywords =     "documentation; human factors",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ K.8 Computing Milieux, PERSONAL
                 COMPUTING, Apple \\ H.3.1 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and
                 Indexing, Dictionaries",
}

@Article{Durham:1983:SCU,
  author =       "Ivor Durham and David A. Lamb and James B. Saxe",
  title =        "Spelling Correction in User Interfaces",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "764--773",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The feasibility of providing a spelling corrector as a
                 part of interactive user interfaces is demonstrated.
                 The issues involved in using spelling correction in a
                 user interface are examined, and a simple correction
                 algorithm is described. The results of an experiment in
                 which the corrector is incorporated into a heavily used
                 interactive program are described. More than one
                 quarter of the errors made by users during the
                 experiment were corrected using the simple mechanisms
                 presented here. From this it is concluded that there
                 are considerable benefits and few obstacles to
                 providing a spelling corrector in almost any
                 interactive user interface.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "algorithms; computer interfaces; human factors",
  subject =      "D.1 Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, General \\ D.2.2
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Tools and Techniques,
                 Software libraries \\ D.2.2 Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Tools and Techniques, User interfaces \\
                 H.1.2 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human factors",
}

@Book{Gonnet:1983:UDB,
  author =       "Gaston H. Gonnet",
  title =        "Unstructured Data Bases or Very Efficient Text
                 Searching",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "117--124",
  year =         "1983",
  ISBN =         "0-89791-097-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-89791-097-2",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 25 17:38:12 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "ACM (order n 475830). Baltimore, MD, USA.",
  abstract =     "Several algorithms are presented for searching data
                 bases that consist of text. The algorithms apply mostly
                 to very large data bases that are difficult to
                 structure. Algorithms are described which search the
                 original data base without transformation and hence
                 could be used as general text searching algorithms.
                 Also described are algorithms requiring pre-processing,
                 the best of them achieving a logarithmic behaviour.
                 These efficient algorithms solve the `plagiarism'
                 problem among n papers. The problem of misspellings,
                 ambiguous spellings, simple errors, endings, positional
                 information, etc. is treated using signature
                 functions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Waterloo, Dep of Computer Science,
                 Waterloo, Ont, Can",
  classification = "722; 723; 901",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the Second ACM SIGACT-SIGMOD Symposium
                 on Principles of Database Systems.",
  keywords =     "computer programming --- Algorithms; computer systems,
                 digital --- On Line Operation; data processing --- Data
                 Handling; database systems; Design; full text search;
                 hashing; information retrieval systems --- Online
                 Searching; pattern matching; string searching; text
                 searching algorithms; unstructured data bases",
  meetingaddress = "Atlanta, GA, USA",
  sponsor =      "ACM, Special Interest Group for Automata \&
                 Computability Theory, New York, NY, USA; ACM, Special
                 Interest Group for the Management of Data, New York,
                 NY, USA",
}

@Misc{Grimes:1983:DDE,
  author =       "Gary J. Grimes",
  title =        "Digital Data Entry Glove Interface Device",
  type =         "United States Patent 4414537",
  publisher =    pub-ATT-BTL,
  address =      pub-ATT-BTL:adr,
  month =        nov # " 8",
  year =         "1983",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:30:30 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "(Keywords: human interface, finger spelling)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Hickey:1983:KSS,
  author =       "Bob Hickey",
  title =        "{Kaypro} Steps up its Software",
  journal =      "Microcomputing",
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "70--73",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "MIRCDC",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A new assortment of Kaypro software is introduced to
                 be used with Kaypro 10 microcomputer to take advantage
                 of its 10 megabyte of hard disk memory. The bundled
                 software includes a word processor, spelling
                 checker\slash corrector, a menu driven financial
                 planning program, a modem program, and three other
                 software business applications in BASIC. Structured
                 BASIC keywords for Pascal-like environment are also
                 considered.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  journalabr =   "Microcomputing",
  keywords =     "computer programming languages --- basic; computer
                 software; computers, microprocessor --- Applications;
                 data processing --- Financial Applications; data
                 processing, business --- Word Processing; data storage,
                 magnetic --- Disk; financial planning; hard disk
                 memory; Kaypro 10 microcomputer; modem program;
                 spelling checker/corrector",
}

@Article{Ito:1983:HFO,
  author =       "Tetsuro Ito and Makoto Kizawa",
  title =        "Hierarchical File Organization and its Application to
                 Similar-String Matching",
  journal =      j-TODS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "410--433",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "ATDSD3",
  ISSN =         "0362-5915 (print), 1557-4644 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-5915",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:34:48 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database; Database/Graefe.bib;
                 Database/Wiederhold.bib; http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/string-matching.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tods.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/unix.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tods/1983-8-3/p410-ito/p410-ito.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tods/1983-8-3/p410-ito/",
  abstract =     "The automatic correction of misspelled inputs is
                 discussed from a viewpoint of similar-string matching.
                 First a hierarchical file organization based on a
                 linear ordering of records is presented for retrieving
                 records highly similar to any input query. Then the
                 spelling problem is attacked by constructing a
                 hierarchical file for a set of strings in a dictionary
                 of English words. The spelling correction steps proceed
                 as follows: (1) find one of the best-match strings
                 which are most similar to a query, (2) expand the
                 search area for obtaining the good-match strings, and
                 (3) interrupt the file search as soon as the required
                 string is displayed. Computational experiments verify
                 the performance of the proposed methods for
                 similar-string matching under the UNIX time-sharing
                 system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "A spelling checker to provide possible correct
                 spellings for all possible words. Results are quite
                 sketchy",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Database Systems",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J777",
  keywords =     "best match; data processing, algorithms;
                 experimentation; file organization; good match;
                 hierarchical clustering; linear ordering; measurement;
                 office automation; performance; similar-string;
                 similarity; spelling correction; text editor; theory;
                 verification",
  review =       "ACM CR 8408-0665",
  subject =      "I.2 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Natural Language Processing \\ I.5.4 Computing
                 Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION, Applications, Text
                 processing \\ E.5 Data, FILES, Organization/structure
                 \\ H.3.2 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Information Storage, File organization \\
                 H.3.3 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Information Search and Retrieval, Search
                 process \\ H.3.3 Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Information Search and
                 Retrieval, Selection process \\ H.4 Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office
                 Automation",
}

@Article{Jackel:1983:CSF,
  author =       "Manfred Jackel",
  title =        "Context sensitive formatting",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "65--68",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 28 16:17:05 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6130 (Data handling techniques)",
  corpsource =   "EWH Rheinland-Pfalz, Koblenz, West Germany",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "context-sensitive formatting; data handling;
                 identifiers; parser; PASCAL; spelling table; table
                 lookup",
  treatment =    "T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@Article{Parrott:1983:SDI,
  author =       "R. D. Parrott",
  title =        "Spelling Dictionary Incorporating Word Association",
  journal =      j-IBM-TDB,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "11B",
  pages =        "6246--6247",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "IBMTAA",
  ISSN =         "0018-8689",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A technique is described for enhancing a spelling
                 dictionary utilized in a word processing device for
                 checking the correct spelling of words within a
                 document. It includes a word association feature,
                 thereby allowing the dictionary to act as a thesaurus
                 identifying synonyms and antonyms for each word of the
                 dictionary.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin",
  journalabr =   "IBM Tech Discl Bull",
  keywords =     "data processing",
}

@Article{Pollock:1983:CCS,
  author =       "J. J. Pollock and A. Zamora",
  title =        "Collection and Characterization of Spelling Errors in
                 Scientific and Scholarly Text",
  journal =      j-J-AM-SOC-INF-SCI,
  volume =       "34",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--58",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "AISJB6",
  ISSN =         "0002-8231 (print), 1097-4571 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0002-8231",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The SPEEDCOP (SPElling Error Detection COrrection
                 Project) project recently completed at Chemical
                 Abstracts Service extracted over 50,000 misspellings
                 from approximately 25,000,000 words of text from seven
                 scientific and scholarly databases. The misspellings
                 were automatically classified and the error types
                 analyzed. The results, which were consistent over the
                 different databases, showed that the expected incidence
                 of misspelling is 0. 2\%, that 90-95\% of spelling
                 errors have only a single mistake, that substitution is
                 homogeneous while transposition is heterogeneous, that
                 omission is the commonest type of misspelling, and that
                 inadvertent doubling of a letter is the most important
                 cause of insertion errors. The more frequently a letter
                 occurs in the text, the more likely it is to be
                 involved in a spelling error. Most misspellings
                 collected by SPEEDCOP are of the type colloquially
                 referred to as `typos' and approximately 90\% are
                 unlikely to be repeated in normal spans of text. 20
                 rfs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "Journal of the American Society for Information
                 Science",
  journalabr =   "J Am Soc Inf Sci",
  keywords =     "engineering writing; languages; spelling errors",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling",
}

@InProceedings{Radue:1983:DIS,
  author =       "Jon Radue",
  title =        "On the Design of an Interactive Spelling Dictionary
                 for Personal Computers",
  crossref =     "ACM:1983:ACP",
  pages =        "197--199",
  year =         "1983",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 09:55:25 1994",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "ACM (Order n 609830). Baltimore, MD, USA.",
  abstract =     "The major spelling error detection techniques are
                 briefly reviewed. The virtual hashing technique is
                 described, and results indicate that it could be an
                 efficient way of storing and searching an interactive
                 dictionary on a personal computer.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Brock Univ, Dep of Computer Science \& Information
                 Processing, St. Catharines, Ont, Can",
  affiliationaddress = "Brock Univ, Dep of Computer Science \&
                 Information Processing, St. Catharines, Ont, Can",
  classification = "722; 723; 901",
  conference =   "1983 ACM Conference on Personal and Small Computers.",
  journalabr =   "SIGPC Notes (ACM Special Interest Group on Personal
                 Computing)",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital; data processing --- Word
                 Processing; design; dictionary lookup; error correction
                 facilities; human factors; information retrieval field;
                 Interactive Operation; text string valid work
                 determination; virtual hashing technique",
  meetingaddress = "San Diego, CA, USA",
  sponsor =      "ACM, Special Interest Group on Personal Computing, New
                 York, NY, USA; ACM, Special Interest Group on Small
                 Computing Systems \& Applications, New York, NY, USA",
  subject =      "K Computing Milieux, PERSONAL COMPUTING \\ I.7.1
                 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling \\ H.1.2 Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human factors",
}

@Article{Robinson:1983:EWM,
  author =       "D. Robinson",
  title =        "{Electric Webster}: much more than a spelling
                 checker",
  journal =      j-CREATIVE-COMP,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "108--112",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1983",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "performance",
  subject =      "H.3.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing, Dictionaries
                 \\ H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Word processing K
                 Computing Milieux, PERSONAL COMPUTING \\ J.5 Computer
                 Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES, Literature \\ K.6.3
                 Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Software Management, Software
                 selection",
}

@Article{Smith:1983:SDL,
  author =       "M. W. A. Smith",
  title =        "Stylometry: the detection of literary authorship",
  journal =      j-COMP-BULL,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "35",
  pages =        "8--9, 11",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1983",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "design; languages",
  subject =      "J.5 Computer Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES,
                 Literature \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Text Editing, Languages \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling
                 \\ I.2.7 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Natural Language Processing, Text
                 analysis",
}

@InProceedings{Smith:1983:UWW,
  author =       "C. R. Smith and K. E. Kiefer",
  title =        "Using the Writer's Workbench programs at Colorado
                 State University",
  crossref =     "Burton:1983:SIC",
  pages =        "672--684",
  year =         "1983",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 12 21:44:43 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: ``The Writer's
                 Workbench programs described include: ORGANIZATION;
                 DEVELOPMENT; FINDBE; DICTION; SUGGEST; SPELL;
                 PUNCTUATION; GRAMMAR; STYLE; PROSE; ABSTRACT;
                 VAGUENESS; and CHECK. The latter two programs were
                 developed at CSU for inclusion in the package. In
                 combination, the thirteen programs produce some five to
                 six pages of analysis to aid students in revision
                 before their papers are handed in for marking.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "documentation; experimentation; human factors;
                 languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 8405-0410",
  subject =      "I.7 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing \\ J.5 Computer Applications, ARTS AND
                 HUMANITIES, Literature \\ K.3 Computing Milieux,
                 COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION, Computer Uses in Education",
}

@Article{Srihari:1983:IDK,
  author =       "S. N. Srihari and J. J. Hull and R. Choudhari",
  title =        "Integrating diverse knowledge sources in text
                 recognition",
  journal =      j-TOOIS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "68--87",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "ATOSDO",
  ISSN =         "0734-2047",
  ISSN-L =       "0734-2047",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       "Res. Contributions",
  abstract =     "A new algorithm for text recognition that corrects
                 character substitution errors in words of text is
                 presented. The search for a correct word effectively
                 integrates three knowledge sources: channel
                 characteristics, bottom-up context, and top-down
                 context. Channel characteristics are used in the form
                 of probabilities that observed letters are corruptions
                 of other letters; bottom-up context is in the form of
                 the probability of a letter when the previous letters
                 of the word are known; and top-down context is in the
                 form of a lexicon. A one-pass algorithm is obtained by
                 merging a previously known dynamic programming
                 algorithm to compute the maximum a posteriori
                 probability string (known as the Viterbi algorithm)
                 with searching a lexical trie. Analysis of the
                 computational complexity of the algorithm and results
                 of experimentation with a PASCAL implementation are
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Office Information Systems",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Algorithms; Applications; Artificial
                 intelligence; Control methods and search; Dynamic
                 programming; experimentation; Graph and tree search
                 strategies; Knowledge integration; Office automation;
                 Pattern recognition; Problem solving; Spelling; Text
                 editing; Text processing; Theory; theory; TOOIS TOIS
                 Inf. systems applications; Word processing",
  review =       "ACM CR 40355",
  subject =      "H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Word processing \\
                 I.2.8 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search, Dynamic
                 programming \\ I.2.8 Computing Methodologies,
                 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Problem Solving, Control
                 Methods, and Search, Graph and tree search strategies
                 \\ I.5.4 Computing Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION,
                 Applications, Text processing \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling",
}

@Article{Thomas:1983:DDE,
  author =       "R. Thomas and B. Gustafson",
  title =        "The design, development and evaluation of a low-cost
                 computer-managed spelling system",
  journal =      j-AEDS,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "168--176",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1983",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "human factors; management",
  subject =      "K.3.1 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION,
                 Computer Uses in Education, Computer-managed
                 instruction (CMI)",
}

@InProceedings{VanPelt:1983:AAU,
  author =       "W. V. Van Pelt",
  title =        "Another approach to using Writer's Workbench programs:
                 small class applications",
  crossref =     "Burton:1983:SIC",
  pages =        "725--729",
  year =         "1983",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 09:59:52 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "documentation; human factors; languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 8405-0411",
  subject =      "I.7 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing \\ J.5 Computer Applications, ARTS AND
                 HUMANITIES, Literature \\ K.3 Computing Milieux,
                 COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION, Computer Uses in Education",
}

@Article{Witten:1983:RKN,
  author =       "Ian H. Witten and John G. Cleary and John J. Darragh",
  title =        "Reactive Keyboard: a New Technology for Text Entry",
  journal =      "Proceedings --- Canadian Information Processing
                 Society",
  pages =        "151--156",
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "PCISE7",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "716; 721; 722; 723; 745",
  conference =   "Proceedings --- Canadian Information Processing
                 Society: Converging Technologies.",
  journalabr =   "Proc Can Inf Proc Soc",
  keywords =     "adaptive models; reactive keyboards; spelling; syntax
                 checkers; text entries; typewriters; vocabulary",
  meetingaddress = "Ottawa, Ont, Can",
  sponsor =      "Canadian Information Processing Soc, Toronto, Ont,
                 Can",
}

@Article{Wright:1983:PTS,
  author =       "P. Wright and A. Lickorish",
  title =        "Proof-reading texts on screen and paper",
  journal =      j-BEHAV-INF-TECH,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "227--235",
  month =        jul # "--" # sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "BEITD5",
  ISSN =         "0144-929X",
  ISSN-L =       "0144-929X",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Behaviour \& information technology",
  keywords =     "economics; experimentation; human factors",
  review =       "ACM CR 8405-0404",
  subject =      "H.1.2 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human information processing \\
                 I.7 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Document
                 Preparation \\ I.7 Computing Methodologies, TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Text Editing",
}

@Article{Yannakoudakis:1983:ISE,
  author =       "E. J. Yannakoudakis and D. Fawthrop",
  title =        "An intelligent spelling error corrector",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--108",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "An intelligent spelling error correction system for
                 use in a word processing environment is described. The
                 system employs a dictionary of 93,769 words and
                 provided the intended work is in the dictionary it
                 identifies 80 to 90\% of spelling and typing errors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
  journalabr =   "Inf Process Manage",
  keywords =     "computer programming --- Algorithms; data processing
                 --- Word Processing; design; documentation; information
                 science; intelligent spelling-error corrector; spelling
                 errors",
  subject =      "H.3.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing, Linguistic
                 processing \\ H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Word
                 processing \\ H.3.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing,
                 Dictionaries",
}

@Article{Yannakoudakis:1983:RSE,
  author =       "E. J. Yannakoudakis and D. Fawthrop",
  title =        "The rules of spelling errors",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "87--99 (or 87--100??)",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "It is demonstrated that the vast majority of spelling
                 errors follow specific rules which are based on
                 phonological and sequential considerations. It
                 introduces and describes three categories of spelling
                 errors (consonantal, vowel and sequential) and presents
                 the results of the analysis of 1377 spelling error
                 forms. All results established are empirical and define
                 the nature of spelling errors algorithmically.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
  journalabr =   "Inf Process Manage",
  keywords =     "algorithms; computer programming --- Algorithms;
                 information science; languages; spelling errors",
  subject =      "H.3.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing, Linguistic
                 processing \\ H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Word
                 processing \\ H.3.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing,
                 Dictionaries",
}

@Article{Adams:1984:SC,
  author =       "Russ Adams",
  title =        "String Computer",
  journal =      "Robotics Age",
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "22, 24--25",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "ROAGD2",
  ISSN =         "0197-1905",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Introduced is a VLSI chip designed to bring computer
                 technology one step closer to duplicating human
                 intelligence. The PF474 is a VLSI integrated circuit
                 that can perform a powerful string comparison function
                 at speeds as high as 40,000 comparisons per second for
                 8-character strings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723; 731; 912",
  journalabr =   "Rob Age",
  keywords =     "computers, microprocessor; integrated circuits, VLSI;
                 intelligence chip; proximity pf474; spelling-checking
                 algorithms; string computer; systems science and
                 cybernetics --- Artificial Intelligence",
}

@Book{Anonymous:1984:PMA,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  key =          "APA",
  title =        "Publication Manual of the American Psychological
                 Association",
  publisher =    pub-APA,
  address =      pub-APA:adr,
  edition =      "third",
  pages =        "208",
  year =         "1984",
  ISBN =         "0-912704-57-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-912704-57-9",
  LCCN =         "BF76.7 .P83 1983",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 1 11:52:52 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-fm,
  annote =       "The book contains style guidelines known as the APA
                 style. This ranges from spelling conventions to table
                 formatting. The guidelines assume that papers are
                 produced using a typewriter. The book itself shows a
                 very unpleasant design making reading are hard task.",
  bibliography = "yes",
  index =        "yes",
  keywords =     "document preparation guidelines, style guidelines,
                 communications in psychology, psychology authorship,
                 American Psychological Association, publication manual,
                 writing",
}

@InProceedings{Arhar:1984:ETC,
  author =       "M. Arhar and C. Beverstock",
  title =        "The effect of two computer spelling programs on the
                 attitude and achievement of sixth-grade students",
  crossref =     "Camuse:1984:MEC",
  pages =        "1--6",
  year =         "1984",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:03:11 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "K.3.1 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION,
                 Computer Uses in Education, Computer-assisted
                 instruction (CAI)",
}

@Book{Beddoes:1984:PAL,
  author =       "M. P. Beddoes and H. Garudadri",
  title =        "Possible Application of {LPC}: Spelling Correction",
  publisher =    "Canadian Medical \& Biological Engineering Soc",
  address =      "Gloucester, Ont, Can",
  pages =        "116--117",
  year =         "1984",
  ISBN =         "0-919529-18-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-919529-18-2",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A basic feature of the Linear Prediction Coder (LPC)
                 is its ability to predict the next sample from the
                 previous ten to fifty samples. The application of LPC
                 to letter prediction through a letter-to-number look-up
                 table is described. Repeating the letter samples is
                 effective in reducing the prediction error. An error
                 indicator for testing miss-spelling is also
                 described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of British Columbia, Dep of Electrical
                 Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Can",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of British Columbia, Dep of Electrical
                 Engineering, Vancouver, BC, Can",
  classification = "461; 723; 922",
  conference =   "Proceedings of 10th Canadian Medical \& Biological
                 Engineering Conference: Biomedical Engineering --- The
                 Future of Health Care.",
  keywords =     "biomedical engineering --- Computer Applications;
                 codes, symbolic; error indicator; irregular spelling;
                 linear prediction coder; minimum error testing;
                 misspelling",
  meetingaddress = "Ottawa, Ont, Can",
  sponsor =      "Medical Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ont, Can;
                 Health \& Welfare Canada, Bur of Medical Devices,
                 Ottawa, Ont, Can; Commercial \& Industrial Development
                 Corp of Ottawa-Carleton, Ottawa, Ont, Can; City of
                 Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont, Can; Honeywell, Medical
                 Electronics Div, Mississauga, Ont, Can; et al",
}

@Article{Chin:1984:ASG,
  author =       "David Chin",
  title =        "Analysis of Scripts Generated in Writing Between Users
                 and Computer Consultants",
  journal =      "AFIPS Conference Proceedings",
  volume =       "53",
  pages =        "637--642",
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "AFPGBT",
  ISBN =         "0-88283-043-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-88283-043-8",
  ISSN =         "0095-6880",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  conference =   "AFIPS Conference Proceedings, 1984 National Computer
                 Conference.",
  journalabr =   "AFIPS Conference Proceedings",
  keywords =     "computer consultant program; computers; controlled
                 experiment; grammatically ill-formed constructions;
                 indirect speech; speaking to computer; spelling
                 errors",
  meetingaddress = "Las Vegas, NV, USA",
  sponsor =      "AFIPS, Reston, Va, USA",
}

@Article{Garrison:1984:USS,
  author =       "D. A. Garrison and C. S. Himelstein and R. J.
                 Urquhart",
  title =        "Unfold Skipping for Spelling Correction Function",
  journal =      j-IBM-TDB,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "10B",
  pages =        "5642--5643",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "IBMTAA",
  ISSN =         "0018-8689",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A method is described for increasing the efficiency of
                 a spelling correction function by using a filter to
                 eliminate the need to `unfold' sections of logical
                 records. The variable field dictionary structure
                 requires unfolding of each nibble ( one-half byte) of a
                 logic record during processing. This constitutes a
                 major part of the time spent. This method eliminates
                 50\% to 60\% of the unfold time depending on the number
                 of words in the dictionary.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin",
  journalabr =   "IBM Tech Discl Bull",
  keywords =     "character recognition equipment; spelling correction",
}

@InProceedings{Goodenough-Trepagnier:1984:ESP,
  author =       "Cheryl Goodenough-Trepagnier",
  booktitle =    "{Ecrire}: System Pour la Communication Non-Verbale
                 Fran{\c{{}{}{}{}ca}}ise en Orthographe Standard",
  title =        "{Ecrire}: System Pour la Communication Non-Verbale
                 Fran{\c{{}{}{}{}ca}}ise en Orthographe Standard",
  publisher =    "Rehabilitation Engineering Soc of North America",
  address =      "Bethesda, MD, USA",
  pages =        "343--344",
  year =         "1984",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A language representation system for use in French
                 communication devices is described. This system,
                 ECRIRE, is similar to the English system, WRITE, in
                 that it allows production of correctly spelled text
                 with a minimum number of selection gestures per word,
                 as few as 1. 7 for ECRIRE-400 in direct selection
                 mode.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Tufts-New England Medical Cent, Boston, MA,
                 USA",
  classification = "461; 462; 723; 901",
  conference =   "Second International Conference on Rehabilitation
                 Engineering, Combined with the RESNA 7th Annual
                 Conference. Proceedings.",
  keywords =     "biomedical equipment; communication aids; display
                 devices; health care; human engineering; human factors;
                 nonvocal communication systems; nonvocal motor
                 handicapped; optical communication equipment; personnel
                 --- Handicapped Persons; rehabilitation engineering",
  language =     "French",
  meetingaddress = "Ottawa, Ont, Can",
  sponsor =      "Natl Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ont, Can;
                 Rehabilitation Engineering Soc of North America,
                 Bethesda, MD, USA; Canadian Medical \& Biological
                 Engineering Soc, Can",
}

@Book{James:1984:DD,
  author =       "Geoffrey James",
  title =        "Document databases",
  publisher =    pub-VNR,
  address =      pub-VNR:adr,
  pages =        "xiii + 184",
  year =         "1984",
  ISBN =         "0-442-28185-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-442-28185-4",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.D3 J35 1985",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:41:26 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$28.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "design; documentation; economics; human factors;
                 performance; reliability",
  review =       "ACM CR 8711-0902",
  subject =      "D.2.7 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Distribution and
                 Maintenance, Documentation \\ H.3.0 Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, General \\
                 H.2.8 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Database applications \\ H.4.0 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, General \\ K.4.3
                 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND SOCIETY,
                 Organizational Impacts \\ C.4 Computer Systems
                 Organization, PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS, Reliability,
                 availability, and serviceability \\ K.6.3 Computing
                 Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND INFORMATION
                 SYSTEMS, Software Management, Software maintenance",
}

@Article{Kashyap:1984:SCU,
  author =       "R. L. Kashyap and B. J. Oommen",
  title =        "Spelling correction using probabilistic methods",
  journal =      j-PAT-REC-LETT,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "147--154",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1984",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; image; performance; reliability;
                 symbol",
  subject =      "G.3 Mathematics of Computing, PROBABILITY AND
                 STATISTICS, Probabilistic algorithms (including Monte
                 Carlo) \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling \\ H.4.1 Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office
                 Automation, Word processing",
}

@Article{Krantz:1984:R,
  author =       "Donald G. Krantz",
  title =        "{RESORT}",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "88--93",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "DDJSDM",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "RESORT, a user dictionary program with a spelling
                 checker in alphabetical order. It permits the user to
                 read through a document after spelling corrections,
                 strip the speller's flag (a leading tilde), and add
                 correction words unknown to the master dictionary to
                 the user dictionary. I used the sorting technique from
                 the C Programming Language by Kernighan and Ritchie
                 (Prentice Hall, 1978): the lowly binary tree. This is
                 my favorite sorter, as it is easily implemented in C.
                 The program takes the input document filename from the
                 command line, opens it for input, and creates a
                 temporary file for output. The input file is scanned
                 for tildes, which flag unrecognized words. When a tilde
                 is found, the word following is converted to upper case
                 and added to a binary tree. The program shell can be
                 modified easily to do other tasks unrelated to
                 spelling. For example, it would be a matter of adding a
                 few lines of code to do word frequency counts. Few
                 changes are made to produce an index generator.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
  journalabr =   "Dr Dobb's J",
  keywords =     "computer programs; data processing --- Word
                 Processing; spelling checker; user dictionary; word
                 correction",
}

@Article{Lucassen:1984:ITA,
  author =       "J. M. Lucassen and R. L. Mercer",
  title =        "Information Theoretic Approach to the Automatic
                 Determination of Phonemic Baseforms",
  journal =      j-PROC-ICASSP,
  volume =       "3",
  pages =        "42. 5. 1--42. 5. 4",
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "IPRODJ",
  ISSN =         "0736-7791",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Service Cent. Piscataway, NJ, USA.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "751",
  conference =   "Proceedings --- ICASSP 84, IEEE International
                 Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal
                 Processing.",
  fjournal =     "Proceedings of the International Conference on
                 Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing",
  journalabr =   "Proceedings - ICASSP, IEEE International Conference on
                 Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing 1984",
  keywords =     "aligned dictionary entries; feature selection;
                 information-theoretic method; phoneme recognizer;
                 phonemic baseform identification; speech;
                 spelling-to-baseform channel model",
  meetingaddress = "San Diego, CA, USA",
  sponsor =      "IEEE Acoustics, Speech, \& Signal Processing Soc, New
                 York, NY, USA",
}

@Article{Newman:1984:SAB,
  author =       "P. W. Newman and Barry R. Horowitz",
  title =        "Spelling Aid for the Blind",
  journal =      "Conference Proceedings --- IEEE SOUTHEASTCON",
  pages =        "558--562",
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CPISDM",
  ISSN =         "0734-7502",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Service Cent. Piscataway, NJ, USA.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "462",
  conference =   "Conference Proceedings --- IEEE SOUTHEASTCON '84.",
  journalabr =   "Conf Proc IEEE Southeastcon",
  keywords =     "biomedical equipment; design considerations;
                 enhancements for blind user; functional requirements;
                 hardware design; software overview",
  meetingaddress = "Louisville, KY, USA",
  sponsor =      "IEEE, New York, NY, USA",
}

@Article{Pollock:1984:ASC,
  author =       "J. J. Pollock and A. Zamora",
  title =        "Automatic spelling correction in scientific and
                 scholarly text",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "358--368",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "algorithms",
  subject =      "H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Word processing \\
                 I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling",
}

@Article{Pollock:1984:SDD,
  author =       "Joseph J. Pollock and Antonio Zamora",
  title =        "System Design for Detection and Correction of Spelling
                 Errors in Scientific and Scholarly Text",
  journal =      j-J-AM-SOC-INF-SCI,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "104--109",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "AISJB6",
  ISSN =         "0002-8231 (print), 1097-4571 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0002-8231",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The SPEEDCOP project recently completed at Chemical
                 Abstracts Service (CAS) extracted over 50,000
                 misspellings from approximately 25,000,000 words of
                 text from seven scientific and scholarly databases. The
                 misspellings were automatically classified and analyzed
                 and the results used to design and implement a program
                 that proved capable of correcting most such errors.
                 Analysis of the performance of the spelling error
                 detection and correction programs highlighted the
                 features that should be incorporated into a powerful
                 and user-friendly interactive system suitable for
                 nonprogrammers. These include document level thresholds
                 for mispelling detection, automatic reuse of user
                 decisions, and user verification and control of
                 correction. An advantage of the proposed design is that
                 the system automatically customizes itself to its
                 environment. This article is primarily concerned with
                 system design, not implementation details.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 901",
  fjournal =     "Journal of the American Society for Information
                 Science",
  journalabr =   "J Am Soc Inf Sci",
  keywords =     "computer programming --- Applications; computer
                 systems, digital --- Interactive Operation; information
                 science; spelling-error correction; spelling-error
                 detection",
}

@Article{Pournelle:1984:R,
  author =       "J. Pournelle",
  title =        "On the road",
  journal =      j-BYTE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "363--382",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "BYTEDJ",
  ISSN =         "0360-5280 (print), 1082-7838 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-5280",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "BYTE Magazine",
  keywords =     "design; languages; security",
  subject =      "C.5 Computer Systems Organization, COMPUTER SYSTEM
                 IMPLEMENTATION, Minicomputers \\ D.4.1 Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, Process Management, Concurrency \\
                 H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Word processing \\
                 K.5.1 Computing Milieux, LEGAL ASPECTS OF COMPUTING,
                 Software Protection, Copyrights \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing, Languages
                 \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ I.2.1 Computing Methodologies,
                 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Applications and Expert
                 Systems, Games",
}

@Article{Sinha:1984:PCS,
  author =       "R. M. K. Sinha and K. S. Sigh",
  title =        "A program for correction of single spelling errors in
                 {Hindi} words",
  journal =      j-J-INST-ELEC-TELECOMM-ENG,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "249--251",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "JIETAU",
  ISSN =         "0377-2063",
  ISSN-L =       "0377-2063",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of the Institution of Electronics and
                 Telecommunication Engineers",
  keywords =     "languages",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ J.5 Computer Applications, ARTS
                 AND HUMANITIES, Linguistics \\ I.7.2 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Document Preparation,
                 Languages \\ I.2 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Natural Language Processing",
}

@Article{Teague:1984:UCI,
  author =       "G. V. Teague and R. M. Wilson and M. G. Teague",
  title =        "Use of computer-assisted instruction to improve
                 spelling proficiency of low achieving first graders",
  journal =      j-AEDS,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "30--35",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1984",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "K.3.1 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION,
                 Computer Uses in Education, Computer-assisted
                 instruction (CAI)",
}

@Article{Teitelman:1984:TTC,
  author =       "W. Teitelman",
  title =        "A tour through Cedar",
  journal =      j-IEEE-SOFTWARE,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "44--73",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "IESOEG",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MS.1984.234050",
  ISSN =         "0740-7459 (print), 0740-7459 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0740-7459",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 13:27:28 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: ``Cedar reduces many
                 good ideas to practice, including such philosophical
                 dicta as The Law of Least Astonishment (user experience
                 should correctly predict system behavior), Do What I
                 Mean (interaction mistakes, e.g., spelling errors,
                 should be automatically corrected in context), and
                 Unlimited Undo (every action should be reversible).''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Software",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/magazines/software",
  review =       "ACM CR 8612-1083",
  subject =      "D.2 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Programming
                 Environments",
}

@Article{Urquhart:1984:FSC,
  author =       "R. J. Urquhart",
  title =        "Filter for Spelling Correction Function",
  journal =      j-IBM-TDB,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "10B",
  pages =        "5637--5638",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "IBMTAA",
  ISSN =         "0018-8689",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A method is described for increasing throughput in a
                 spelling correction function by providing a cross-match
                 filter between a limited number of characters of the
                 input word and dictionary words. The filter examines
                 the second, third, and fourth characters of both the
                 input (I) word, presented for spelling correction, and
                 candidate dictionary (D) words, looking for particular
                 mismatch patterns.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin",
  journalabr =   "IBM Tech Discl Bull",
  keywords =     "character recognition equipment; spelling correction",
}

@Article{Volpano:1984:EIC,
  author =       "D. Volpano and H. Dunsmore",
  title =        "Empirical investigation of {COBOL} features",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1/2",
  pages =        "277--291",
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 13:27:25 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: ``{\ldots} (6) COBOL
                 compilers can help solve some problems by: (a) Coercing
                 edited numeric data items in arithmetic expressions, as
                 does FORTRAN. (b) Automatically correcting simple
                 spelling errors with known techniques. (c) Better and
                 more accurate diagnostics in compilers which are
                 deficient in these areas.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors; languages;
                 measurement",
  review =       "ACM CR 8503-0190",
  subject =      "D.3.2 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, COBOL \\ D.2 Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Metrics \\ D.2 Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Management \\ D.m",
}

@Article{Wilson:1984:DSI,
  author =       "Heather Wilson and Michael J. Shaw",
  title =        "Designing Software for the International Market",
  journal =      j-HEWLETT-PACKARD-J,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "31--35",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "HPJOAX",
  ISSN =         "0018-1153",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 14:12:15 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The adaptation of word-processing office software for
                 use in different countries or environments is
                 considered. Software products are presented that are
                 designed with localization in mind. Message lengths,
                 character sets, time and data formats, and the syntax
                 of commands are all taken into account. All of these
                 and more easy to change without having to touch the
                 source code of the product.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Hewlett Packard Co, Office Productivity Div, Reading,
                 Engl",
  affiliationaddress = "Hewlett Packard Co, Office Productivity Div,
                 Reading, Engl",
  classcodes =   "C6100 (Software techniques and systems)",
  classification = "723; 901",
  corpsource =   "Hewlett--Packard Co., Colorado Springs, CO, USA",
  fjournal =     "Hewlett-Packard Journal: technical information from
                 the laboratories of Hewlett-Packard Company",
  journalabr =   "Hewlett Packard J",
  keywords =     "character sets; computer software; data processing,
                 business --- Word Processing; Design; HP Application
                 Centres; HP software products; information science ---
                 Language Translation and Linguistics; international
                 applications; localization; menus; message lengths;
                 office software; representation standard; Roman 8
                 European character; software engineering; software
                 localization; source code; spelling; syntax; user
                 interfaces",
  treatment =    "G General Review; P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Wolff:1984:ILS,
  author =       "J. G. Wolff and S. G. C. Lawrence",
  title =        "Inductive Learning of Spelling-To-Phoneme Rules by
                 Data Reduction",
  crossref =     "OShea:1984:AAI",
  pages =        "506--507",
  year =         "1984",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes work in progress on a method of
                 creating spelling-to-phoneme rules automatically, using
                 some of the principles of data reduction and grammar
                 discovery discussed in Wolff (forthcoming). The method
                 is being developed as part of a project on the
                 synthesis of speech from text.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Dundee, Scotl",
  classification = "723; 912",
  conference =   "ECAI-84: Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference
                 on Artificial Intelligence.",
  keywords =     "artificial intelligence; automatic rule abstraction;
                 clusters of contiguous symbols; data processing ---
                 Data Reduction and Analysis; hill-climbing search;
                 inductive learning; Learning Systems;
                 spelling-to-phoneme rules; systems science and
                 cybernetics",
  meetingaddress = "Pisa, Italy",
  sponsor =      "AICA; AISB",
}

@Article{Anon:1985:DDS,
  author =       "Anon",
  title =        "Dynamic Dictionary Supplement for Spell Check Tasks",
  journal =      j-IBM-TDB,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "2334--??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "IBMTAA",
  ISSN =         "0018-8689",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "An arrangement is described for reducing the access
                 time required to reference the storage media containing
                 the dictionary when a spell check task is being done in
                 a text processing system. This access time can become
                 significant, especially in a multi workstation
                 environment, where each workstation is sharing a common
                 dictionary which is accessed through an interface
                 involving communicating protocols. Where the medium is
                 a diskette employing contact recording, an excessive
                 number of accesses will shorten the life of the medium
                 and adversely affect the reliability of the system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "721; 722; 723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin",
  journalabr =   "IBM Tech Discl Bull",
  keywords =     "access time; data processing --- Word Processing; data
                 storage, digital; dynamic dictionary supplement; multi
                 workstation; spell check tasks; Testing; text
                 processing",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1985:A,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  key =          "Anonymous85aa",
  title =        "Advertisement",
  journal =      j-INFOWORLD,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "44",
  pages =        "28",
  month =        nov # " 4",
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "INWODU",
  ISSN =         "0199-6649",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:30:37 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Advertisement for AI:Typist which is a \$79.00 word
                 processing system that has a spelling corrector that
                 checks words as they are entered. Billed as ``AIRUS--A
                 technology is so new, it's still baffling the
                 experts.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "InfoWorld",
}

@Article{Barth:1985:SSS,
  author =       "Wilhelm Barth and Heinrich Nirschl",
  title =        "{Sichere Sinnentsprechende Silbentrennung f{\"u}r die
                 Deutsche Sprache}",
  journal =      "Angewandte Informatik, Applied Informatics",
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "152--159",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "AWIFA7",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 25 17:38:12 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a simple method for hyphenation
                 in German agreeing with the natural linguistic
                 instinct. The principles are: simple words are
                 hyphenated according to rules about sequences of vowels
                 and consonants; compound words and words with prefixes
                 are split into their components. The algorithm
                 distinguishes main hyphenation points between
                 independent parts of the compound and minor points
                 within these components. Some words may be split in
                 more than one way; every such ambiguity is discovered.
                 By refusing these `unsafe' words, the algorithm becomes
                 resistant against wrong hyphenation. The method uses a
                 table of all roots of words.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Technische Univ Wien, Inst fuer Praktische
                 Informatik, Vienna, Austria",
  classification = "723; 901",
  journalabr =   "Angew Inf Appl Inf",
  keywords =     "data processing --- Word Processing; German language;
                 hashing; hyphenation algorithm; information science;
                 Language Translation and Linguistics; spelling error",
  language =     "German",
}

@Article{Bentley:1985:PPS,
  author =       "J. L. Bentley",
  title =        "Programming Pearls: {A} Spelling Checker",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "456--462",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 12 14:34:34 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "languages",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling",
}

@InCollection{Bub:1985:WWA,
  author =       "D. Bub and A. Cancelliere and A. Kertesz",
  key =          "bub",
  title =        "Whole-word and analytic translation of
                 spelling-to-sound in a non-semantic reader",
  crossref =     "Patterson:1985:SDN",
  year =         "1985",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:30:41 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Dobing:1985:SCB,
  author =       "B. R. Dobing and J. E. Cooke",
  title =        "Spelling Correction Based on User Error Patterns",
  institution =  "University of Saskatchewan (??)",
  address =      "Saskatoon, SK, Canada",
  year =         "1985",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:30:44 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Gibt Ueberblick und Bewertung zu Existierenden
                 Verfahren zur Tipp- und Buchstabierfehlererkennung und
                 Korrektur. die Verfahren Basieren Ueberwiegend auf
                 Fehlermustern und Deren Erkennung.",
  descriptor =   "Fehlererkennung, Fehlerkorrektur, Fehlermuster",
}

@InProceedings{Gordon:1985:IIF,
  author =       "P. Gordon",
  title =        "An introduction to issues in foreign-language computer
                 design",
  crossref =     "Boyanov:1985:NOA",
  pages =        "127--134",
  year =         "1985",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:06:48 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "design; human factors; languages",
  procdate =     "Sept. 25--30, 1984",
  procloc =      "Sofia, Bulgaria",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies,
                 TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing, Languages \\ H.4.1
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS,
                 Office Automation, Word processing",
}

@InProceedings{Ito:1985:OHF,
  author =       "T. Ito and C. T. Yu",
  title =        "Optimization of a hierarchical file organization for
                 spelling correction",
  crossref =     "ACM:1985:RDI",
  pages =        "131--137",
  year =         "1985",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:10:29 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "design",
  subject =      "H.3.2 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Information Storage, File organization \\
                 H.3.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing, Linguistic
                 processing \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling",
}

@InProceedings{Mitchell:1985:SIE,
  author =       "H. Mitchell",
  title =        "Some {IBM} equipment for the translator's office",
  crossref =     "Lawson:1985:TTT",
  pages =        "15--20",
  year =         "1985",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:14:41 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "languages",
  subject =      "J.5 Computer Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES,
                 Language translation \\ I.2.7 Computing Methodologies,
                 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Natural Language Processing,
                 Machine translation \\ H.4.1 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation,
                 Word processing \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling",
}

@Article{Sillery:1985:SIR,
  author =       "B. Sillery",
  title =        "Spelling it right: Webster's new word spelling
                 checker",
  journal =      j-PERS-COMP,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "162",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "PLCMDL",
  ISSN =         "0192-5490",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Personal Computing",
  keywords =     "documentation; economics; performance",
  subject =      "K Computing Milieux, PERSONAL COMPUTING \\ H.4.1
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS,
                 Office Automation, Word processing",
}

@InProceedings{Woods:1985:LPS,
  author =       "W. A. Woods",
  title =        "Language processing for speech understanding",
  crossref =     "Fallside:1985:CSP",
  pages =        "305--334",
  year =         "1985",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:20:03 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "algorithms; languages; theory",
  review =       "ACM CR 8712-1016",
  subject =      "I.2.7 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Natural Language Processing, Speech
                 recognition and understanding \\ F.4.2 Theory of
                 Computation, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND FORMAL LANGUAGES,
                 Grammars and Other Rewriting Systems, Parsing",
}

@InProceedings{Amsler:1986:CLR,
  author =       "Robert A. Amsler",
  editor =       "Addie Mattox",
  booktitle =    "AFIPS Conference Proceedings; vol. 55 1986 National
                 Computer Conference",
  title =        "Computational lexicology: a research program",
  publisher =    pub-AFIPS,
  address =      pub-AFIPS:adr,
  pages =        "397--403",
  year =         "1986",
  ISBN =         "0-88283-049-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-88283-049-0",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  bookpages =    "566",
  keywords =     "documentation; human factors; languages",
  procdate =     "June 16--19, 1986",
  procloc =      "Las Vegas, Nevada",
  subject =      "H.3.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing, Dictionaries
                 \\ J.5 Computer Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES,
                 Linguistics \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling",
}

@Article{Anon:1986:CES,
  author =       "Anon",
  title =        "Concurrent Edit and Spell Check in a Computer System
                 Having Multiple Processors",
  journal =      j-IBM-TDB,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "396--398",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "IBMTAA",
  ISSN =         "0018-8689",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A method is provided for a multiple processor computer
                 system having a text editor to do concurrent editing
                 while providing spell checking, all being done in the
                 foreground. In this method, different processors are
                 utilized within a single editor to concurrently perform
                 the editing and spelling functions. The net result of
                 this sharing allows the user to edit a document, and
                 specify whether this editing should be spell checked.
                 When the user is ready to respond to spelling mistakes,
                 the mistakes can be viewed and corrected without any
                 delay in the request. To accomplish this, one processor
                 performs the preponderence of the editing task. The
                 editing tasks include functions such as basic insertion
                 and deletions, word spelling, margin boundaries, and
                 tabbing functions. These functions are time consuming
                 from an editing standpoint, and if done in one
                 processor, significant time can elapse before
                 communications with another process are required.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin",
  journalabr =   "IBM Tech Discl Bull",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital --- Multiprocessing;
                 concurrent editing; data processing; editing task;
                 spell checking; spelling mistakes; text editor; Word
                 Processing",
}

@Article{Anon:1986:GUS,
  author =       "Anon",
  title =        "Generation of `User Specified' {DOS} Fully Qualified
                 File Specification",
  journal =      j-IBM-TDB,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "4199--4201",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "IBMTAA",
  ISSN =         "0018-8689",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "On DisplayWrite 2, the dictionary program name is
                 stored in the system hardware profile. The data set
                 represented by this program name contains the spelling
                 dictionary words that will be used during spell
                 checking. The dictionary program name is displayed in
                 the `Change Spelling Dictionary Name' and `Change Check
                 Document' menus. The dictionary program dataset always
                 resides in the default program dataset directory.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin",
  journalabr =   "IBM Tech Discl Bull",
  keywords =     "computer programming; data processing; data set;
                 dictionary program; displaywrite 2; File Organization;
                 file specification; spelling dictionary words",
}

@Article{Anon:1986:MDT,
  author =       "Anon",
  title =        "Multi-Language Dictionaries for Text Processing",
  journal =      j-IBM-TDB,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "4310--4311",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "IBMTAA",
  ISSN =         "0018-8689",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A method is described for creating dictionaries which
                 contain more than one language, allowing multi-language
                 documents to be spell checked in one pass. Documents
                 made up of text in more than one language may not
                 currently be spell checked in one pass. The text of
                 each language is manually delimited by end and begin
                 spell check instructions. The operator then runs the
                 document through spelling, using one dictionary,
                 switches the spell check instructions and runs the
                 document through again, using a different dictionary.
                 This is time-consuming. It also does not address the
                 problem of having words of a different language
                 interspersed throughout a document. This method allows
                 new dictionaries to be created by combining supplied
                 dictionaries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin",
  journalabr =   "IBM Tech Discl Bull",
  keywords =     "computer systems programming --- Documentation; data
                 processing; multi-language dictionaries; multi-language
                 documents; spell check; supplied dictionaries; text
                 processing; Word Processing",
}

@Article{Anon:1986:USS,
  author =       "Anon",
  title =        "User-Specified Spelling Supplement Support",
  journal =      j-IBM-TDB,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "3324--3325",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "IBMTAA",
  ISSN =         "0018-8689",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A method is described to permit users on a local area
                 network to maintain individual, protected spelling
                 supplements. Spelling is performed using supplied
                 dictionaries and a dynamic supplement. This supplement
                 usually contains words not found in the main dictionary
                 which are specific to a user's needs. The user may add
                 to or delete from this supplement as needs change. This
                 supplement resides in the dictionary program dataset.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "716; 718; 722; 723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin",
  journalabr =   "IBM Tech Discl Bull",
  keywords =     "computer networks; data processing --- Word
                 Processing; dictionaries; dynamic supplement; local
                 area network; Local Networks; program dataset; spelling
                 supplements",
}

@InProceedings{Baird:1986:COP,
  author =       "Henry S. Baird and Simon Kahan and Theo Pavlidis",
  title =        "Components of an Omnifont Page Reader",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1986:EIC",
  pages =        "344--348",
  year =         "1986",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The current state of development of a system for the
                 recognition of printed text of various fonts and sizes
                 is described. The system combines several techniques in
                 order to improve the overall recognition rate. Thinning
                 and shape extraction are performed directly on a graph
                 of the runlength encoding of a binary image. The
                 resulting strokes and other shapes are mapped, using a
                 shape-clustering approach, into binary features which
                 are then fed into a statistical Bayesian classifier.
                 Certain remaining confusion classes are disambiguated
                 through contour analysis, and characters suspected of
                 being merged are broken and reclassified. Layout and
                 linguistic context are applied.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "AT\&T Bell Lab, Murray Hill, NJ, USA",
  classification = "723; 922",
  conference =   "Eighth International Conference on Pattern Recognition
                 --- Proceedings.",
  journalabr =   "Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern
                 Recognition 8th.",
  keywords =     "Bayesian classifier; character recognition; contour
                 analysis; omnifont page reader; probability; spelling
                 correction; text recognition",
  meetingaddress = "Paris, Fr",
  sponsor =      "Int Assoc for Pattern Recognition, Paris, Fr; Assoc
                 Fran{\c{c}}aise pour la Cybernetique Economique et
                 Technique, Paris, Fr",
}

@Book{Bentley:1986:PP,
  author =       "Jon Louis Bentley",
  title =        "Programming Pearls",
  publisher =    pub-AW,
  address =      pub-AW:adr,
  pages =        "viii + 195",
  year =         "1986",
  ISBN =         "0-201-10331-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-201-10331-1",
  LCCN =         "QA76.6.B453 1986",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 15 08:16:02 1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  annote =       "Chapter 13, A Spelling Checker, discusses the design
                 and implementation of Unix spell, and notes that
                 ``Steve Johnson wrote the first version of {\tt spell}
                 in an afternoon in 1975.''.",
}

@Article{Berghel:1986:ECW,
  author =       "Hal L. Berghel",
  title =        "Extending the Capabilities of Word Processing Software
                 Through {Horn} Clause Lexical Databases",
  journal =      "AFIPS Conference Proceedings",
  volume =       "55",
  pages =        "251--257",
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "AFPGBT",
  ISBN =         "0-88283-049-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-88283-049-0",
  ISSN =         "0095-6880",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "We discuss one of two software utilities under
                 development in our lab which provides collateral text
                 editing support for conventional word processing
                 systems. The utility provides an accurate facility for
                 spelling checking. The kernel ingredient of this
                 program is a lexical database. It is shown that many
                 cumbersome problems associated with spelling correction
                 can be resolved through the use of such databases when
                 the database is in the form proposed. Our databases
                 appear as Horn clauses, and the routines are written in
                 PROLOG. Some familiarity with predicate logic and
                 PROLOG is assumed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA",
  classification = "721; 723",
  conference =   "AFIPS Conference Proceedings, 1986 National Computer
                 Conference.",
  journalabr =   "AFIPS Conference Proceedings",
  keywords =     "automata theory; collateral text editing; computer
                 programming languages; computer software; data
                 processing; horn clause; lexical databases; software
                 utilities; spelling checking; spelling correction; Word
                 Processing",
  meetingaddress = "Las Vegas, NV, USA",
  sponsor =      "AFIPS, Reston, VA, USA; Processing Soc Inc; ACM, New
                 York, NY, USA; Data Processing Management Assoc, Park
                 Ridge, IL, USA; IEEE Computer Soc, Los Alamitos, CA,
                 USA; Soc of Computer Simulation, La Jolla, CA, USA",
}

@Article{Berghel:1986:SVP,
  author =       "H. Berghel",
  title =        "Spelling Verification in {Prolog}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--27",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:30:50 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Describes a system to check words against table and if
                 misspelled to suggest possible correct spellings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "T02",
}

@Article{Dolgopolov:1986:ASC,
  author =       "A. S. Dolgopolov",
  title =        "Automatic Spelling Correction",
  journal =      "Cybernetics (English Translation of Kibernetika)",
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "332--339",
  month =        may # "--" # jun,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CYBNAW",
  ISSN =         "0011-4235",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Implementation of an automatic spelling corrector for
                 natural language texts runs into a severe time
                 obstacle, attributable to the very large size of the
                 dictionary which is needed in order to ensure close to
                 100\% coverage of actual texts (of the order of
                 10**6-10**8 words). This article studies the properties
                 of the probabilistic measure of word closeness and
                 constructs spelling correction algorithms with
                 acceptable time performance on modern computers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  journalabr =   "Cybernetics",
  keywords =     "automatic spelling correction; computer programming
                 --- Algorithms; data processing; natural language text;
                 Word Processing",
}

@InBook{McMahon:1986:STP,
  author =       "L. E. McMahon and L. L. Cherry and R. Morris",
  title =        "Statistical text processing",
  crossref =     "ATT:1986:AUS",
  pages =        "227--244",
  year =         "1986",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "languages; measurement",
  subject =      "I.7.0 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING,
                 General \\ I.5.4 Computing Methodologies, PATTERN
                 RECOGNITION, Applications, Text processing \\ I.7.1
                 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling \\ I.5.1 Computing Methodologies, PATTERN
                 RECOGNITION, Models, Statistical \\ D.4.0 Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, General, UNIX \\ D.4.m Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, Miscellaneous, UNIX",
}

@Article{Peterson:1986:NUT,
  author =       "James L. Peterson",
  title =        "A note on undetected typing errors",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "633--637",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 05 13:17:19 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "documentation; human factors; measurement",
  review =       "ACM CR 8702-0126",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ H.4.1 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation,
                 Word processing \\ H.1.2 Information Systems, MODELS
                 AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human factors",
}

@Book{Pfaffenberger:1986:SPC,
  author =       "Bryan Pfaffenberger",
  title =        "The scholar's personal computing handbook: a practical
                 guide",
  publisher =    pub-LITTLE-BROWN,
  address =      pub-LITTLE-BROWN:adr,
  pages =        "xiii + 359",
  year =         "1986",
  ISBN =         "0-316-70401-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-316-70401-4",
  LCCN =         "QA76.5 .P399 1986",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:41:11 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: ``Spelling checkers to
                 help weed out silly typographical errors, indexing
                 programs to help prepare what may be the most important
                 part of any major written academic work, and so forth,
                 are very well described. Unfortunately, this book has a
                 very skimpy index! It does not provide an alphabetized
                 list naming each of the programs mentioned in the book.
                 One has to hunt for various index terms under which
                 specific programs may be named.''",
  price =        "US\$15.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "human factors; performance",
  review =       "ACM CR 8703-0160",
  subject =      "K.8 Computing Milieux, PERSONAL COMPUTING \\ I.7.0
                 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, General \\
                 H.2.0 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, General
                 \\ C.2.0 Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, General, Data
                 communications \\ K.3.1 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS
                 AND EDUCATION, Computer Uses in Education,
                 Computer-managed instruction (CMI) \\ H.3.5 Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, On-line
                 Information Services \\ H.4.1 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation \\
                 H.4.3 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Communications Applications",
}

@Article{Robertson:1986:ATW,
  author =       "Barbara Robertson",
  title =        "The {AI} Typist: Writing Aid is Fast and Easy, But Bug
                 Plagued",
  journal =      j-INFOWORLD,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "35",
  month =        jan # " 13",
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "INWODU",
  ISSN =         "0199-6649",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:50 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "AI Typist is a word processing system for IBM PC's
                 that ``uses artificial intelligence to provide a
                 real-time typist.'' The program scans a dictionary
                 looking for character-by-character matches while
                 typing. It highlights characters at the point it finds
                 a mismatch. For example, if a user types appearing,
                 highlighting appears as one types the second a since
                 ape matches a word in the dictionary. It doesn't
                 correct the spelling nor allow the user to look at the
                 dictionary. It also had bugs in the basic word
                 processing capability. It received a 2.4 out of 10 with
                 unacceptable ratings under performance and value, poor
                 in documentation, satisfactory in error handling and
                 very good under ease of learning, ease of use and
                 support.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "InfoWorld",
  keywords =     "AT17 AT03 H01 AA15",
}

@Article{Tanaka:1986:HSE,
  author =       "E. Tanaka and T. Toyama and S. Kawai",
  title =        "High speed error correction of phoneme sequences",
  journal =      j-PATTERN-RECOGN,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "407--412",
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "PTNRA8",
  ISSN =         "0031-3203 (print), 1873-5142 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0031-3203",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Pattern Recognition",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors; languages;
                 measurement; verification",
  subject =      "I.2.7 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Natural Language Processing, Speech
                 recognition and understanding \\ I.5 Computing
                 Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling",
}

@InProceedings{Tanaka:1986:HSS,
  author =       "Eiichi Tanaka and Takahiro Kohashiguchi and Kunihiko
                 Shimamura",
  title =        "High Speed String Correction for {OCR}",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1986:EIC",
  pages =        "340--343",
  year =         "1986",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Service Cent. Piscataway, NJ, USA.",
  abstract =     "Two high-speed substitution error-correction methods
                 for optical character recognition (OCR) are described.
                 In experiments using 2755 English words with length 6,
                 the first method obtained 10 35\% higher correction
                 rates than a typical dictionary method and reduced
                 computing time to 1/45 of the dictionary method. The
                 second method obtained 35 40\% higher correction rates
                 than the dictionary method and reduced computing time
                 to 1/5 that of the dictionary method.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Utsunomiya Univ, Jpn",
  classification = "723; 731; 922",
  conference =   "Eighth International Conference on Pattern Recognition
                 --- Proceedings.",
  journalabr =   "Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern
                 Recognition 8th.",
  keywords =     "character recognition, optical; codes, symbolic; Error
                 Correction; error-correction coding; probability;
                 spelling correction",
  meetingaddress = "Paris, Fr",
  sponsor =      "Int Assoc for Pattern Recognition, Paris, Fr; Assoc
                 Fran{\c{c}}aise pour la Cybernetique Economique et
                 Technique, Paris, Fr",
}

@Article{Taylor:1986:WAM,
  author =       "Dave Taylor",
  title =        "Wordz that almost match",
  journal =      j-COMP-LANG-MAG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "47--59",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "COMLEF",
  ISSN =         "0749-2839",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer Language Magazine",
  keywords =     "algorithms; languages",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ D.3.3 Software, PROGRAMMING
                 LANGUAGES, Language Constructs, Data types and
                 structures",
}

@Article{Wiener:1986:EVH,
  author =       "Richard S. Wiener",
  title =        "Efficient Virtual Hash Algorithm for a Spelling
                 Checker",
  journal =      j-J-PAS-ADA-MOD,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "23--29",
  month =        jan # "--" # feb,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "JOPAD5",
  ISSN =         "0735-1232",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper examines a new speed and memory-efficient
                 algorithm for a spelling checker with a dictionary
                 containing about 35,000 English words and its
                 implementation in Modula-2 using a personal computer
                 with a data space constraint of 64,000 bytes. The
                 algorithm is based on virtual hashing and is a
                 variation of a technique suggested by Radue. The
                 algorithm requires no dictionary compression, imposes
                 no limit on the length of English words, and provides
                 access to a dictionary of approximately 35,000 words in
                 an efficient manner. Program listings are presented
                 that contain the interface to the virtual hash table
                 and display it when it is brought from RAM disk into
                 active memory (if not already present there).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Dep of Computer
                 Science, Colorado Springs, CO, USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Dep of
                 Computer Science, Colorado Springs, CO, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Pascal, Ada and Modula-2",
  journalabr =   "J Pascal Ada Modula",
  keywords =     "algorithms; Algorithms; computer programming; computer
                 programs; data storage, digital --- Virtual; design;
                 information science --- Language Translation and
                 Linguistics; languages; measurement; modula-2 language;
                 performance; personal computer-based dictionary;
                 spelling checker; virtual hash algorithm",
  subject =      "D.3.2 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Modula-2 \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling
                 \\ E.2 Data, DATA STORAGE REPRESENTATIONS, Hash-table
                 representations",
}

@Article{Yerkey:1986:TLS,
  author =       "Neil Yerkey",
  title =        "{Turbo Lightning}: Spelling Correction as You Type",
  journal =      j-ELECTRONIC-LIBRARY,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "272--274",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "ELLIDZ",
  ISSN =         "0264-0473",
  ISSN-L =       "0264-0473",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Turbo Lightning is an effective and easy to use
                 package that monitors what the user types, and beeps
                 whenever it thinks a word has been misspelled. It works
                 best if you have a hard disk and 256K or more Ram
                 memory. Users can draw on pull-down lists of
                 `sound-alike words' and a thesaurus to replace
                 incorrect or misspelled words automatically.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "Electronic Library",
  journalabr =   "Electron Libr",
  keywords =     "computer software; data processing; data storage,
                 digital --- Random Access; data storage, magnetic ---
                 Disk; pull-down lists; sound-alike words; spelling
                 correction; turbo lightning; Word Processing",
}

@Article{Berghel:1987:LFC,
  author =       "H. L. Berghel",
  title =        "A logical framework for the correction of spelling
                 errors in electronic documents",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "477--494",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose a method for the correction of spelling
                 errors found in electronic documents which is derived
                 from a logical analysis of the problem. Specifically,
                 set-theoretical definitions are given for similarity
                 relations which describe certain properties which
                 character strings may have in common. These definitions
                 are then directly encoded into a PROLOG program. The
                 advantages and disadvantages of this method are
                 discussed, and some suggestions for further research
                 are made. A detailed literature review is offered in
                 order to place this method in perspective.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 921",
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
  journalabr =   "Inf Process Manage",
  keywords =     "computer software --- Design; data processing;
                 documentation; languages; logic-based spelling
                 correction; management; mathematical techniques --- Set
                 Theory; measurement; pattern recognition (automatic
                 spelling correction); prolog programming language;
                 spelling checkers; verification",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling",
}

@Article{Bickel:1987:ACM,
  author =       "Michael Allen Bickel",
  title =        "Automatic Correction to Misspelled Names: a
                 Fourth-Generation Language Approach",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "224--228",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "To avoid unnecessarily complicated retrieval, a large
                 database application using personal names as part of a
                 key must ensure that these names are spelled in a
                 consistent way. Using an information theoretic likeness
                 measure defined as an inner product on a data space
                 created from a table of valid names, this 4GL procedure
                 searches the database space for the nearest correctly
                 spelled name. The algorithm does not consider the
                 position or order of the letters in a word to be
                 paramount. A permutation of the letters in the
                 misspelled name does not affect the result.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "MITRE",
  annote =       "Letters are assigned weights based on their
                 information value, and a minimum distance function is
                 used to locate their neighbors. 95pct success. Used for
                 NASA space shuttle data on NOMAD2, Distinct from
                 Soundex.",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "automatic correction; computer programming languages;
                 database systems; fourth-generation language; spelling
                 errors",
}

@Article{Caramazza:1987:RGB,
  author =       "Alfonso Caramazza and Gabriele Miceli and Giampiero
                 Villa and Cristina Romani",
  key =          "Caramazza et al.",
  title =        "The Role of the Graphemic Buffer in Spelling: Evidence
                 From a Case of Acquired Dysgraphia",
  journal =      j-COGNITION,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--85",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CGTNAU",
  ISSN =         "0010-0277 (print), 1873-7838 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-0277",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:31:06 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Cognition",
  location =     "CMU Hunt Library",
}

@Article{Cheatham:1987:MDS,
  author =       "Tom Cheatham",
  title =        "Message decryption and spelling checkers",
  journal =      j-CRYPTOLOGIA,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "115--118",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "CRYPE6",
  ISSN =         "0161-1194 (print), 1558-1586 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0161-1194",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Cryptologia",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ucry20",
  keywords =     "security",
  subject =      "E.3 Data, DATA ENCRYPTION \\ D.4.6 Software, OPERATING
                 SYSTEMS, Security and Protection, Cryptographic
                 controls",
}

@Book{Christian:1987:UTP,
  author =       "Kaare Christian",
  title =        "The {UNIX} text processing system",
  publisher =    pub-WILEY,
  address =      pub-WILEY:adr,
  pages =        "xii + 250",
  year =         "1987",
  ISBN =         "0-471-85581-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-471-85581-1",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 C47 1987",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:41:08 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: ``The short closing
                 chapter sketches the use of a few simple tools for
                 checking spelling, checking formatting commands, and
                 previewing output on a terminal. Seven appendices
                 provide useful checklists of commands, options, special
                 characters, and macros.''",
  price =        "US\$24.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "documentation; languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 8806-0406",
  subject =      "I.7.2 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING,
                 Document Preparation \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies,
                 TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing \\ D.4.0 Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, General, UNIX \\ D.4.9 Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, Systems Programs and Utilities",
}

@MastersThesis{Daly:1987:RWT,
  author =       "N. Daly",
  title =        "Recognition of Words from their Spellings: Integration
                 of Multiple Knowledge Sources",
  school =       "Massachusetts Institute of Technology",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1987",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:31:10 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Ditlea:1987:HWD,
  author =       "S. Ditlea",
  title =        "How well do you spell?",
  journal =      j-PERS-COMP,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "91--103",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "PLCMDL",
  ISSN =         "0192-5490",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Personal Computing",
  keywords =     "documentation; human factors; languages;
                 verification",
  subject =      "H.3.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND
                 RETRIEVAL, Content Analysis and Indexing, Dictionaries
                 \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ K.1 Computing Milieux, THE
                 COMPUTER INDUSTRY, Statistics \\ K.1 Computing Milieux,
                 THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY, Suppliers",
}

@Article{Edwards:1987:RU,
  author =       "Jon Edwards",
  title =        "{RAM-resident} Utilities",
  journal =      j-BYTE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "7",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "BYTEDJ",
  ISSN =         "0360-5280 (print), 1082-7838 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-5280",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "In this review, the author compares RAM-resident
                 utilities for the IBM PC and compatibles in a variety
                 of categories: spelling checkers, thesauruses, macro
                 utilities, desktop accessories, and a few special
                 programs. Although this is not an all-inclusive review
                 of such products, the most well-known offerings in each
                 category are generally chosen. Some specific guidance
                 for assembling a well-behaved, yet comprehensive,
                 environment is provided. The environments are assembled
                 on an IBM PC XT with 640K bytes of RAM and a
                 10-megabyte hard disk drive; as a general rule, a full
                 complement of RAM-resident programs will require much
                 more than 256K bytes of RAM, and hard disks are
                 essential to avoid the cumbersome chore of loading in
                 the programs from an assortment of floppies each time
                 you boot up.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Princeton Univ, Princeton, NJ, USA",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "BYTE Magazine",
  journalabr =   "Byte",
  keywords =     "computer software --- Applications; data storage,
                 digital; ram-resident utilities; random access memory
                 (ram); Selection; spelling checkers",
  pagecount =    "12 p between p 103 and 118",
}

@InProceedings{Emirkanian:1987:DCE,
  author =       "Louisette Emirkanian and Lorne H. Bouchard and Sylvie
                 Ratte",
  title =        "La d{\'e}tection et la correction des erreurs
                 d'orthographe: un exemple d'ing{\'e}nieire de la
                 connaissance. [{English}: Detecting and Correcting
                 Spelling Errors, Example of Knowledge Engineering]",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1987:MCC",
  pages =        "48--51",
  year =         "1987",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Service Cent. Piscataway, NJ, USA.",
  abstract =     "Based on the knowledge of French spelling, a great
                 number of rewriting rules can be applied to trying to
                 correct a misspelled word. It is shown how the precise
                 context of error permits efficiently indexing this
                 assembly of rules and how the expectations of the
                 dictionaries can be used to reduce even more the
                 research space. A system is presented which facilitates
                 the systematic grasp, visualization and verification of
                 these rules.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Univ du Quebec a Montreal, Montreal, Que, Can",
  classification = "723; 903",
  conference =   "MONTECH '87 Conferences: COMPINT.",
  keywords =     "Applications; artificial intelligence; French
                 spelling; information science --- Language Translation
                 and Linguistics; spelling errors; spelling rules",
  meetingaddress = "Montreal, Que, Can",
  sponsor =      "IEEE, Region 7, Montreal Section, Montreal, Que, Can",
}

@Article{Floyd:1987:HHS,
  author =       "Edwin T. Floyd",
  title =        "Hashing for High-Performance Searching",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "34--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "DDJTEQ",
  ISSN =         "0888-3076",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 25 17:38:12 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Programs that process symbolic information, such as
                 compilers, interpreters, assemblers, spelling checkers,
                 and text formatters, maintain an internal list of
                 symbols or words --- a symbol table. The speed of the
                 symbol table's search and update operations often
                 determines the performance of these programs. A hashing
                 or scatter storage symbol table is easy to program and
                 nearly always performs much better than a linear list
                 or binary tree. This article describes a technique
                 called open hashing, discusses some of its performance
                 factors, and then introduces a simple modification that
                 can more than double the speed of the technique.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Hughston Sports Medicine Foundation, Columbus, GA,
                 USA",
  affiliationaddress = "Hughston Sports Medicine Foundation, Columbus,
                 GA, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
  journalabr =   "Dr Dobb's J Software Tools",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems; computer programming
                 languages --- Pascal; computer programs; hashing symbol
                 table; open hashing; Pascal source code; Performance;
                 pointer identifier list; search and update operations",
  pagecount =    "5p between p 34 and 41 plus listings",
}

@Book{Goldenberg:1987:ELL,
  author =       "Ernest Paul Goldenberg and Wallace Feurzeig",
  title =        "Exploring language with {LOGO}",
  publisher =    pub-MIT,
  address =      pub-MIT:adr,
  pages =        "xv + 338",
  year =         "1987",
  ISBN =         "0-262-57065-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-262-57065-7",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.L63 G654 1987",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:42:25 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: `` As the foreword
                 tells us, this is an introductory textbook on
                 linguistics and is devoted to the study of structures
                 and patterns in meaning, spelling, sound, and style. An
                 outstanding novel contribution is its systematic
                 utilization of the programming language LOGO as a
                 pedagogical tool, which allows an active learning style
                 that encourages a playful exploration. Well-chosen
                 examples study generative grammars that describe
                 gossip, jokes, poems, new words, business documents,
                 and various other chunks of language. Of course, the
                 main focus is on the English language, but there are
                 also lots of illustrations from other well-known
                 languages such as French, Italian, German and Spanish,
                 and even from less-used ones such as Basque, Estonian,
                 Polish, and Romanian.''",
  price =        "US\$19.95",
  series =       "Explorations in LOGO",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors; languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 8811-0838",
  subject =      "I.2.7 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Natural Language Processing, Language
                 generation \\ I.2.7 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Natural Language Processing, Language
                 models \\ D.3.2 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES,
                 Language Classifications, LOGO \\ J.5 Computer
                 Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES, Linguistics \\ I.2.5
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Programming Languages and Software \\ I.2.5 Computing
                 Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Programming
                 Languages and Software, LOGO",
}

@InProceedings{Huang:1987:LEE,
  author =       "Nai-Kuan Huang",
  title =        "A Learning Experiment on {English} Spelling Rules",
  crossref =     "Caudill:1987:IFI",
  pages =        "II:351--II:358",
  year =         "1987",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Service Cent (catalog number 87TH0191-7).
                 Piscataway, NJ, USA.",
  abstract =     "A letter-to-letter probabilistic model that shows some
                 self-organizing properties in learning the English
                 spelling rules is described. Lengthy English text is
                 modeled as the probabilistic outputs of a five-state
                 Makov chain. The Baum-Welch algorithm is adapted to
                 refined the system parameters through the learning
                 process. The experimental result agrees with common
                 sense rules of spelling.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA",
  classification = "723",
  conference =   "IEEE First International Conference on Neural
                 Networks.",
  keywords =     "artificial intelligence; Baum-Welch algorithm;
                 computer programming --- Algorithms; English spelling
                 rules; letter-to-letter probabilistic model; Markov
                 chain; Neural Nets; self-organizing systems; systems
                 science and cybernetics",
  meetingaddress = "San Diego, CA, USA",
  sponsor =      "IEEE, San Diego Section, San Diego, CA, USA; IEEE,
                 Systems, Man and Cybernetics Soc; IEEE, Control Systems
                 Soc; IEEE, Engineering in Medicine and Biology Soc",
}

@InProceedings{Hurford:1987:EAT,
  author =       "Jeanne M. Hurford",
  title =        "Electronic Authoring Tools",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1987:IEC",
  pages =        "45--46",
  year =         "1987",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Service Cent. Piscataway, NJ, USA.",
  abstract =     "An overview is given of computer-aided-writing tools.
                 These consist of outline processors, spelling checkers,
                 grammar checkers, prose and logic analyzers, and a
                 number of other writing aids. The question of whether
                 these tools are a help or a hinderance is briefly
                 considered.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Los Alamos Natl Lab, NM, USA",
  classification = "723; 903",
  conference =   "IPCC 87 International Professional Communication
                 Conference: Engineering Communication, a Byte into the
                 Future.",
  keywords =     "computer-aided-writing tools; data processing; grammar
                 checkers; information dissemination; outline
                 processors; prose and logic analyzers; spelling
                 checkers; Word Processing",
  meetingaddress = "Winnipeg, Manit, Can",
  sponsor =      "IEEE, Professional Communication Soc, New York, NY,
                 USA",
}

@Article{Kahan:1987:RPC,
  author =       "S. Kahan and T. Pavlidis and H. S. Baird",
  title =        "On the recognition of printed characters of any font
                 and size",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-PATT-ANAL-MACH-INTEL,
  volume =       "PAMI-9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "274--288",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "ITPIDJ",
  ISSN =         "0162-8828",
  ISSN-L =       "0162-8828",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine
                 Intelligence",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=34",
  keywords =     "design; documentation; languages",
  subject =      "I.5.4 Computing Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION,
                 Applications, Computer vision \\ I.5.2 Computing
                 Methodologies, PATTERN RECOGNITION, Design Methodology,
                 Classifier design and evaluation \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing,
                 Spelling",
}

@Article{Khan:1987:RPC,
  author =       "Simon Khan and Theo Pavlidis and Henry S. Baird",
  title =        "On the Recognition of Printed Characters of any Font
                 and Size",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-PATT-ANAL-MACH-INTEL,
  volume =       "PAMI-9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "274--288",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "ITPIDJ",
  ISSN =         "0162-8828",
  ISSN-L =       "0162-8828",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The current state of a system that recognizes printed
                 text of various fonts and sizes for the Roman alphabet
                 is described. The system combines several techniques in
                 order to improve the overall recognition rate. Thinning
                 and shape extraction are performed directly on a graph
                 of the run-length encoding of a binary image. The
                 resulting strokes and other shapes are mapped, using a
                 shape-clustering approach, into binary features which
                 are then fed into a statistical Bayesian classifier.
                 Large-scale trials have shown better than 97\% top
                 choice correct performance on mixtures of six
                 dissimilar fonts, and over 99\% on most single fonts,
                 over a range of point sizes. Certain remaining
                 confusion classes are disambiguated through contour
                 analysis, and characters suspected of being merged are
                 broken and reclassified. Finally, layout and linguistic
                 context are applied. The results are illustrated by
                 sample pages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "AT\&T Bell Lab, Murray Hill, NJ, USA",
  classification = "723; 741; 922",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine
                 Intelligence",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=34",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell",
  keywords =     "Bayesian classifier; character recognition; image
                 processing; reading machines; roman alphabet; spelling
                 correction; statistical methods",
}

@InProceedings{Lenman:1987:NEA,
  author =       "S. Lenman and H. Marmolin",
  title =        "Naming errors and automatic error correction in
                 human-computer interaction",
  crossref =     "Knave:1987:WDU",
  pages =        "838--846",
  year =         "1987",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:34:40 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "algorithms; documentation; experimentation; human
                 factors; management; measurement; performance",
  subject =      "H.1.2 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human factors \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling
                 \\ H.4.1 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation \\ I.2.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Applications
                 and Expert Systems, Office automation",
}

@Article{Mace:1987:RNU,
  author =       "Scott Mace",
  title =        "Revelation Now Uses Proximity-Scan Toolkit: {AI}
                 Technology Flags Errors",
  journal =      j-INFOWORLD,
  month =        feb # " 8",
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "INWODU",
  ISSN =         "0199-6649",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:31:25 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Proximity-Scan, a patented algorithm, rapidly compares
                 a query string to database records and displays the
                 results in order of decreasing similarity, said a
                 Proximity representative. This artificial intelligence
                 technology circumvents problems of misspellings, name
                 variations, or abbreviations, since the query need only
                 be partially right for Proximity-Scan to find the
                 record. {\ldots} The \$149 Revelation toolkit is now
                 shipping from Cybercorp, which includes its own
                 phonetic inquiry utility for Revelation developers.
                 Proximity publishes a kit similar to the Proximity-Scan
                 {\ldots} for use with Ashton-Tate's dBase programming
                 language, and a dBase pop-up search utility called
                 Friendly Finder. Cybercorp, 1 Linden Plaza, Suite 307,
                 Great Neck, NY 11021; (516) 829-5459. Proximity
                 Technology Inc., 3511 N.E. 22nd Ave., Fort Lauderdale,
                 FL 33308; (305) 566-3511.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "InfoWorld",
  keywords =     "Cosmos Revelation Proximity-Scan Cybercorp dBase
                 Friendly-Finder",
}

@Article{Means:1987:CYC,
  author =       "Linda G. Means",
  title =        "Cn Yur Computr Raed Ths?",
  journal =      "Research Publication --- General Motors Research
                 Laboratories",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "GMRLAW",
  ISSN =         "0099-9326",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes strategies for automatic
                 recognition of unknown variants of known words in a
                 natural language processing system. The types of
                 lexical variants which are detectable include
                 inflexional aberrations, ad hoc abbreviations and
                 spelling\slash typographical errors. This technique is
                 independent of any particular grammar or parsing
                 formalism, and can be implemented as a lexical lookup
                 routine which heuristically prunes and orders the list
                 of possible fixes found in the lexicon, then allowing
                 the parser to treat the list of candidates as a set of
                 multiple meanings for a polysemous word.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "GM, Warren, MI, USA",
  classification = "723; 903",
  journalabr =   "Res Publ Gen Mot Res Lab",
  keywords =     "cascaded atn architecture; contraction-type
                 abbreviations; information science; Language
                 Translation and Linguistics; parser; spelling
                 correction; truncation-type abbreviations",
  pagecount =    "9",
}

@Article{Mitton:1987:SCC,
  author =       "Roger Mitton",
  title =        "Spelling checkers,spelling correctors and the
                 misspellings of poor spellers",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "495--505",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
  keywords =     "documentation; languages; management; verification",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling",
}

@Article{Mitton:1987:SCS,
  author =       "Roger Mitton",
  title =        "Spelling Checkers, Spelling Correctors and the
                 Misspellings of Poor Spellers",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "495--505",
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A large corpus of spelling errors taken from free
                 writing is analyzed to assess how great a challenge
                 such errors present for automatic checking and
                 correction. The analysis reveals a high proportion of
                 errors that match dictionary words; these would
                 necessitate the use of context in error detection. Some
                 of these errors are caused by incorrect word-division,
                 a type of error difficult to spot since it calls into
                 question the placing of word boundaries. Misspellings
                 tend to differ from the correct words more than
                 mistypings do. Some knowledge of pronunciation would
                 help in correcting many of the errors, but misspellings
                 do not always reflect pronunciation in a simple way.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723; 903",
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
  journalabr =   "Inf Process Manage",
  keywords =     "automatic checking and correction of spelling; data
                 processing; free writing analysis; information science
                 --- Research; real-word errors (spelling checkers);
                 spelling checkers; syntactical and semantical issues
                 (spelling checkers)",
}

@Article{Prindle:1987:CST,
  author =       "Lucelle Prindle and T. F. McLaughlin",
  title =        "A computer spelling testing program with clerical
                 {English} students: An empirical evaluation",
  journal =      j-J-COMP-BASED-INST,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "146--149",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "JCOID8",
  ISSN =         "0098-597X",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Computer-Based Instruction",
  keywords =     "human factors; languages; measurement; performance",
  subject =      "K.3.1 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION,
                 Computer Uses in Education, Computer-assisted
                 instruction (CAI)",
}

@Book{Slade:1987:PLD,
  author =       "Stephen Slade",
  title =        "The {T} programming language: a dialect of {LISP}",
  publisher =    pub-PH,
  address =      pub-PH:adr,
  pages =        "xiv + 425",
  year =         "1987",
  ISBN =         "0-13-881905-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-13-881905-7",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.T18 S58 1987",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:43:15 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: ``The well-thought-out
                 problems on interesting topics such as spelling
                 correction, cryptography, lazy array space allocation,
                 workspace editor, database management system, etc. are
                 particularly pleasing.''",
  price =        "US\$21.33",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 8710-0822",
  subject =      "D.3.2 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, T \\ D.3.2 Software, PROGRAMMING
                 LANGUAGES, Language Classifications, SCHEME \\ D.3.2
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, LISP \\ D.3.2 Software, PROGRAMMING
                 LANGUAGES, Language Classifications, Applicative
                 languages \\ D.3.4 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES,
                 Processors, Interpreters",
}

@Article{VanOrden:1987:RIR,
  author =       "G. C. Van Orden",
  key =          "vanorden",
  title =        "A {ROWS} is a {ROSE}: spelling, sound and reading",
  journal =      j-MEM-COG,
  volume =       "15",
  pages =        "181--198",
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "MYCGAO",
  ISSN =         "0090-502X",
  ISSN-L =       "0090-502X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:31:31 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Memory and Cognition",
}

@Article{Yannakoudakis:1987:EFS,
  author =       "E. J. Yannakoudakis",
  title =        "Efficient File Structure for Specialized Dictionaries
                 and Other `Lumpy' Data",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "563--571",
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "There are many cases where it is necessary to store
                 sets of data that are variable in length, and to search
                 these in order to satisfy requests for subsets with a
                 common characteristic. This article presents a file
                 structure that holds an integrated English dictionary
                 used to locate clusters of words for presentation to an
                 intelligent spelling error correction system. Although
                 the emphasis has been on misspelling, the structure
                 presented is capable of handling any other types of
                 lumpy data provided the characteristics used in search
                 requests can be translated into a set of integer
                 numbers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Bradford, Bradford, Engl",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
  journalabr =   "Inf Process Manage",
  keywords =     "data processing; Data Structures; dictionaries
                 (specialized)/file structures; knowledge-based systems;
                 lumpy data; spelling error correction systems",
}

@InProceedings{Berghel:1988:TPE,
  author =       "H. Berghel and C. Andreu",
  title =        "{TALISMAN}: a Prototype Expert System for Spelling
                 Correction",
  crossref =     "ACM:1988:APS",
  pages =        "107--113",
  year =         "1988",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:37:49 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "design; performance",
  subject =      "K.6.3 Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF COMPUTING AND
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Software Management, Software
                 development \\ C.5.3 Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION, Microcomputers \\ I.2.1
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Applications and Expert Systems",
}

@InCollection{Beyls:1988:ASF,
  author =       "Pascal Beyls",
  booktitle =    "EUUG Newsletter",
  title =        "An Adaptation of Spell To {French}",
  volume =       "8(1)",
  publisher =    pub-EUUG,
  address =      pub-EUUG:adr,
  pages =        "11--14",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1988",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 18:52:08 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Cribbs:1988:WLS,
  author =       "Margaret A. Cribbs",
  title =        "What to look for in a spelling checker--an essential
                 tool for the micro",
  journal =      j-ONLINE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "45--48",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "ONLIDN",
  ISSN =         "0146-5422",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Online",
  keywords =     "design; documentation; human factors; languages;
                 management",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling \\ H.4.1 Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation,
                 Equipment \\ K.6.2 Computing Milieux, MANAGEMENT OF
                 COMPUTING AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS, Installation
                 Management, Computer selection",
}

@Article{Dolgopolov:1988:SDCa,
  author =       "A. S. Dolgopolov",
  title =        "Sequential decoding in a channel with spelling
                 errors",
  journal =      j-PROBL-INF-TRANSM,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--24",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "PRITA9",
  ISSN =         "0032-9460 (print), 1608-3253 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0032-9460",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The article examines automatic error correction in
                 man-machine communication channels. A model of a
                 channel with spelling errors is proposed and decoding
                 rules are developed for comma codes in these channels.
                 The speedup achieved by the application of sequential
                 decoding is considered and some applied findings are
                 reported.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "718; 731; 922",
  fjournal =     "Problems of Information Transmission",
  journalabr =   "Probl Inf Transm",
  keywords =     "Codes, Symbolic; Comma Codes; Data Transmission ---
                 Mathematical Models; Decoding Organization; Decoding
                 Rules; Error Correction; Information Theory ---
                 Communication Channels; Probability --- Mathematical
                 Models; Sequential Decoding; Spelling Error Correction;
                 Systems Science and Cybernetics --- Man Machine
                 Systems; Transmission Errors",
}

@Article{Dolgopolov:1988:SDCb,
  author =       "A. S. Dolgopolov",
  title =        "Sequential decoding in a channel with spelling
                 mistakes",
  journal =      j-PROBL-PEREDA-INF,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "25--42",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "PPDIA5",
  ISSN =         "0555-2923",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 06 14:36:53 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Problemy Peredachi Informatsii",
}

@Article{Ehrenfeucht:1988:NDM,
  author =       "A. Ehrenfeucht and D. Haussler",
  title =        "A new distance metric on strings computable in linear
                 time",
  journal =      j-DISCRETE-APPL-MATH,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "191--203",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "DAMADU",
  ISSN =         "0166-218X (print), 1872-6771 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0166-218X",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 05 13:32:27 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Discrete Applied Mathematics",
  keywords =     "documentation; languages; measurement; theory;
                 verification",
  subject =      "F.2.2 Theory of Computation, ANALYSIS OF ALGORITHMS
                 AND PROBLEM COMPLEXITY, Nonnumerical Algorithms and
                 Problems, Pattern matching \\ I.7.1 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling
                 \\ G.2.m Mathematics of Computing, DISCRETE
                 MATHEMATICS, Miscellaneous",
}

@Article{Flynn:1988:HPI,
  author =       "Laurie Flynn",
  title =        "{\ldots} Hypercard Programs Includes Spelling Checker,
                 Utility, Icon Builder",
  journal =      j-INFOWORLD,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "32",
  month =        feb # " 15",
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "INWODU",
  ISSN =         "0199-6649",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:31:42 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A line of Hypercard programs from Hyperpress
                 Publishing includes a spelling checker and a
                 script-building utility. {\ldots} The company also
                 announced Icon Factory, a program that allows users to
                 develop custom button icons. {\ldots} The company has
                 acquired an expert tool that it intends to publish as
                 an adjunct to Hypercard. Hyperspell: \$79.95. Script
                 Expert: \$79.95. Icon Editor: \$49.95. Hyperpress
                 Publishing Corp., P.O. Box 8243, Foster City, CA 94404;
                 (415) 345-4620. [dh:88-02-26]",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "InfoWorld",
  keywords =     "Hyperpress Hypertalk Hyperspell Icon Factory Script
                 Expert",
}

@Article{Frisch:1988:SAC,
  author =       "Rudolf Frisch and Antonio Zamora",
  title =        "Spelling Assistance for Compound Words",
  journal =      j-IBM-JRD,
  volume =       "32",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "195--200",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "IBMJAE",
  ISSN =         "0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-8646",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a method for providing spelling
                 assistance for Germanic compound words. The technique
                 analyzes an unknown word to determine its components,
                 using a dictionary which associates word components
                 with codes that describe their compounding
                 characteristics. Language-specific morphological
                 transformations are used to take into consideration
                 common intraword elision patterns. Special dictionary
                 entries, heuristic rules, and lexical distance measures
                 are used to provide the best possible replacement
                 compound words. The method is fast and provides
                 spelling assistance and hyphenation support in an
                 interactive environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "721; 723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
  journalabr =   "IBM J Res Dev",
  keywords =     "algorithms; automata theory; compound words; data
                 processing; dictionary; documentation; languages;
                 morphological transformations; spelling assistance;
                 unknown word; verification; Word Processing",
  subject =      "I.7.1 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Text
                 Editing, Spelling",
}

@Article{Hoenig:1988:WTP,
  author =       "Alan Hoenig and Mitch Pfeffer",
  title =        "{Writers' tools I: PC spelling and grammar checkers}",
  journal =      j-TUGBOAT,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "46--47",
  month =        Apr,
  year =         "1988",
  ISSN =         "0896-3207",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:31:46 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "TUGboat",
}

@InProceedings{Kukich:1988:BPT,
  author =       "Karen Kukich",
  title =        "Back-propagation topologies for sequence generation",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1988:IIC",
  pages =        "301--308",
  year =         "1988",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The problem of generating the correct spelling of an
                 incorrectly spelled name was used to explore the
                 effectiveness of various back-propagation network
                 topologies for sequential generation. Two sequential
                 architectures, a Jordan net and a counter net, learned
                 much more slowly than a standard parallel net. Best
                 results were obtained when the task was decoupled into
                 two separate nets, one to generate unordered letters
                 and another to reorder the letters. The first net was
                 trained independently, and the second net was trained
                 by recoupling the two nets so that the output of the
                 first served as input to the second.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "721; 731",
  conference =   "IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks",
  conferenceyear = "1988",
  keywords =     "Automata Theory--Sequential Machines; Back-Propagation
                 Network Topologies; Correct Spelling Generation;
                 Counter Net; Jordan Net; Learning Systems; Sequential
                 Generation; Systems Science and Cybernetics",
  meetingabr =   "IEEE Int Conf on Neural Networks",
  meetingaddress = "San Diego, CA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jul 24--27 1988",
  meetingdate2 = "07/24--27/88",
  sponsor =      "IEEE, San Diego Section, San Diego, CA, USA; IEEE,
                 Technical Activities Board Neural Networks Committee,
                 New York, NY, USA",
}

@Article{Artigas:1989:CMS,
  author =       "Robert {Artigas, Jr.}",
  title =        "{CUG248} --- Micro Spell",
  journal =      j-CUJ,
  volume =       "7",
  type =         "CUG Library Update",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "104--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1989",
  ISSN =         "0898-9788",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 30 16:52:23 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.cuj.com/cbklist.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "C Users Journal",
}

@InProceedings{Auernheimer:1989:NNM,
  author =       "Brent Auernheimer and Alison Butler",
  title =        "Neural net model of the neuropsychology of spelling
                 processes",
  crossref =     "ACM:1989:SAA",
  pages =        "430--??",
  year =         "1989",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The neural network (or `brain-style') approach to
                 computing is useful for developing systems to perform
                 tasks humans traditionally do well and that computers
                 do not. Neural network systems are particularly suited
                 for pattern matching and categorization applications
                 such as recognizing visual or auditory data. This
                 research is concerned with representing the human
                 spelling processes. Because spoken language is our
                 primary mode of communication, neuropsychologists have
                 for the most part overlooked the spelling and writing
                 processes. Recently, interest in orthographic processes
                 has grown. This research is an attempt to translate a
                 theory of the cognitive processes of spelling into a
                 neural network. An initial goal of this research is to
                 test the model's learning and performance against
                 normal subjects' spelling. After the model is validated
                 for normal subjects, the neural network will be
                 `lesioned', and the results compared to the performance
                 of brain-damaged patients.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "California State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Fresno, CA, USA",
  classification = "461; 723",
  conference =   "Seventeenth Annual ACM Computer Science Conference",
  conferenceyear = "1989",
  keywords =     "Cognitive Processes; Human Engineering--Research;
                 Neural Nets; Neuropsychology; Spelling; Summary Only;
                 Systems Science and Cybernetics",
  meetingabr =   "Seventeenth Annu ACM Comput Sci Conf",
  meetingaddress = "Louisville, KY, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Feb 21--23 1989",
  meetingdate2 = "02/21--23/89",
}

@InCollection{Carroll:1989:MPB,
  author =       "J. Carroll and J. Abaitua",
  title =        "A morphological parser for {Basque} verbs'
                 inflection",
  crossref =     "Campbell:1989:PAI",
  pages =        "77--85",
  year =         "1989",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:57:50 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "From {\em Computing Reviews\/}: `` The authors briefly
                 describe feature-value pairs based on LFG, a rewrite
                 grammar, spelling rules, feature specifications and
                 co-occurrences restrictions (FCRs), and rewrite
                 rules.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "design; languages",
  review =       "ACM CR 9007-0608",
  subject =      "I.2.7 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Natural Language Processing, Language
                 parsing and understanding \\ J.5 Computer Applications,
                 ARTS AND HUMANITIES, Linguistics \\ F.4.2 Theory of
                 Computation, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND FORMAL LANGUAGES,
                 Grammars and Other Rewriting Systems, Parsing \\ I.2.5
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Programming Languages and Software, Prolog",
}

@Article{ElSadany:1989:AMS,
  author =       "T. A. El-Sadany and M. A. Hashish",
  title =        "An {Arabic} morphological system",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "600--612",
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 15 05:52:45 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Nowadays, computers are used in every field in the
                 Arab countries of the Middle East. Software systems
                 developed for the European languages are not convenient
                 for the use of Arabic because of the nature of the
                 language and its writing system. Problems arise when
                 trying to use existing software systems, such as
                 spelling checkers and business and office systems, with
                 the Arabic language. These problems are attributable to
                 the fact that the difference between Arabic and the
                 European languages exists not only in character shapes
                 and direction of writing, but also in language
                 structure. In order to successfully use Arabic in
                 software systems, one must analyze the Arabic language
                 word structure-that is, carry out a morphological
                 analysis. Most of the written Arabic texts are
                 non-vowelized, which may lead to ambiguity in meaning
                 or mispronunciation. Moreover, vowelization cannot be
                 avoided in many applications, such as speech synthesis
                 by machines and educational books for children. A
                 two-way Arabic morphological system
                 (analysis/generation) capable of dealing with
                 vowelized, semi-vowelized, and nonvowelized Arabic
                 words was developed at the IBM Cairo Scientific Center.
                 The system also has the ability to vowelize
                 nonvowelized words. this system consists of three
                 separate modules: computational lexicon, Arabic grammar
                 model module, and analyzer/generator module. The
                 grammar module contains, among others, morphophonemic
                 and morphographemic rules formulated using the
                 conventional generative grammar. Moreover, the
                 developed system covers all of the Arabic language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Egypt, Cairo Sci. Centre, Giza, Egypt",
  classification = "C7820 (Humanities)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Ambiguity; Analyzer/generator module; Arabic language;
                 Arabic morphological system; Character shapes;
                 Computational lexicon; Generative grammar; Grammar
                 model; Language structure; Mispronunciation;
                 Morphographemic rules; Morphological analysis;
                 Morphophonemic rules; Speech synthesis; Vowelization;
                 Word structure; Writing system",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "Character sets; Grammars; Languages; Linguistics",
}

@Article{Furuta:1989:IES,
  author =       "R. Furuta and V. Quint and J. Andre",
  title =        "Interactively editing structured documents",
  journal =      j-EPODD,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--44",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "EPODEU",
  ISSN =         "0894-3982",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jul 24 09:09:04 MDT 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Electronic Pub\-lish\-ing\emdash{}Orig\-i\-na\-tion,
                 Dissemination, and Design",
  keywords =     "design; documentation; performance",
  subject =      "I.7.2 Computing Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING,
                 Document Preparation \\ I.7.1 Computing Methodologies,
                 TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing, Spelling",
}

@Article{Altman:1990:VSC,
  author =       "R. Altman",
  title =        "{VP}-to-the-Max: {A} spell checker for Ventura--and
                 more",
  journal =      j-PC-PUB,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "35--38",
  year =         "1990",
  ISSN =         "0896-8209",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 15 11:21:47 1995",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "PC Publishing",
}

@Article{Angus:1990:JGS,
  author =       "Jeff Angus",
  title =        "{Jake Geller}'s {SpellCode}",
  journal =      j-COMP-LANG-MAG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "105--??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "COMLEF",
  ISSN =         "0749-2839",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 08:04:25 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer Language Magazine",
}

@InProceedings{Cha:1990:KCM,
  author =       "Sang K. Cha and Gio Wiederhold",
  title =        "Kaleidoscope: a cooperative menu-guided query
                 interface",
  crossref =     "Garcia-Molina:1990:PAS",
  pages =        "387--387",
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 25 12:40:13 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/sigmod_pods/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/mod/93597/p387-cha/p387-cha.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/mod/93597/p387-cha/",
  abstract =     "Querying databases to obtain information requires the
                 user's knowledge of query language and underlying data.
                 However, because the knowledge in human long-term
                 memory is imprecise, incomplete, and often incorrect,
                 user queries are subject to various types of failure.
                 These may include spelling mistakes, the violation of
                 the syntax and semantics of a query language, and the
                 misconception of the entities and relationships in a
                 database. \par

                 Kaleidoscope is a cooperative query interface whose
                 knowledge guides users to avoid most failure during
                 query creation. We call this type of cooperative
                 behavior {\em intraquery guidance}. To enable this
                 early, active engagement in the user's process of query
                 creation, Kaleidoscope reduces the granularity of
                 user-system interaction via a context-sensitive menu.
                 The system generates valid query constituents as menu
                 choices step-by-step by interpreting a language
                 grammar, and the user creates a query following this
                 menu guidance[2]. For instance, it takes four steps to
                 create the following query [Q1] Who/ {\em 1\/}
                 authored/ {\em 2\/} `Al'/ {\em 3\/} journal papers/
                 {\em (3+)\/} in `Postquery COOP'/ {\em 4\/} \par

                 At each of such steps, as the user selects one of menu
                 choices, the system updates its partial query status
                 window. If a choice is unique as in {\em (3+)}, it is
                 taken automatically. To guide the user's entry of
                 values, the system provides a pop-up menu for each
                 value domain. \par

                 With Kaleidoscope's process of choice generation
                 tightly controlled by the system's knowledge of query
                 language and underlying data, users need not remember
                 the query language and the underlying database
                 structure but merely recognize or identify the
                 constituents coming one after another that match their
                 intended query. The system provides additional guidance
                 for users to avoid creating semantically inconsistent
                 queries. It informs the user of any derived predicates
                 on the completion of a user-selected predicate. To
                 illustrate this, consider a partially constructed SQL
                 query [Q2] SELECT * FROM professor p\#1 WHERE p\#1 dept
                 = `CS' AND p\#1 salary 40000 \par

                 Suppose that the system has an integrity constraint
                 [IC] FROM professor p IF p dept = `CS' AND p salary
                 45000 THEN p rank = `Assistant' \par

                 This rules states that a CS professor whose salary is
                 less than 45000 is an assistant professor. With the
                 replacement of rule variable p in IC by Q2's range
                 variable p\#1, IC's leading two predicates subsume Q2's
                 query condition, producing p\#1 rank = `Assistant'.
                 Because this derived predicate is not subsumed by Q2's
                 query condition, the system suspects that the user may
                 not know of it and presents it to the user.
                 \par

                 Derived predicates, together with user-selected ones,
                 constrain the user's further conjunctive extension of
                 the partial query condition. For example, the system
                 prunes the field rank (as well as the field dept) in
                 the conjunctive extension of Q2, because the derived
                 condition restricts the value of this field to a
                 constant. \par

                 As shown in examples, we apply Kaleidoscope's approach
                 to two linear-syntax languages in different levels of
                 abstraction SQL[1] and a query language whose syntax
                 and semantics cover a subset of {\em wh\/} -queries. To
                 implement the intraquery guidance, we extend
                 context-free grammar by associating context variables
                 with each grammar symbol and attaching several types of
                 procedural decorations to grammar rules. This extension
                 enables the system to capture the semantic constraints
                 and its user-guiding actions in a domain-independent
                 grammar. As the grammar is interpreted, the
                 database-specific information is fed from the system's
                 lexicon and knowledge base. The current implementation
                 of Kaleidoscope runs on a XEROX-1186 LISP machine with
                 a SUN server configured with a relational DBMS.
                 \par

                 The approach of Kaleidoscope is based on the normative
                 system assumption. The system presents its capability
                 transparent",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  generalterms = "Design; Languages",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Database Management ---
                 Systems (H.2.4): {\bf Query processing}; Information
                 Systems --- Database Management --- Languages (H.2.3):
                 {\bf SQL}; Software --- Programming Languages ---
                 Formal Definitions and Theory (D.3.1)",
}

@InProceedings{Cherkassky:1990:CAM,
  author =       "Vladimir Cherkassky and Nikolaos Vassilas and Gregory
                 L. Brodt",
  title =        "Conventional and associative memory-based spelling
                 checkers",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1990:PII",
  pages =        "138--144",
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 90CH2915-7.",
  abstract =     "The authors review conventional and emerging neural
                 approaches to fault-tolerant data retrieval when the
                 input keyword and\slash or database itself may contain
                 noise (errors). Spelling checking is used as a primary
                 example to illustrate various approaches and to
                 contrast the difference between conventional
                 (algorithmic) techniques and research methods based on
                 neural associative memories. Recent research on
                 associative spelling checkers is summarized and some
                 original results are presented. It is concluded that
                 most neural models do not provide a viable solution for
                 robust data retrieval, due to saturation and scaling
                 problems. However, a combination of conventional and
                 neural approaches is shown to have excellent error
                 correction rates and low computational costs; hence, it
                 can be a good choice for robust data retrieval in large
                 databases.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept of EE, Univ of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA",
  classification = "722; 723",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE Conference
                 on Tools for Artificial Intelligence",
  conferenceyear = "1990",
  keywords =     "Applications; Computer Systems, Digital--Fault
                 Tolerant Capability; Data Storage,
                 Digital--Associative; Database Systems; Neural
                 Networks; Spelling Checkers",
  meetingabr =   "Proc 2 Int IEEE Conf Tools Artif Intell",
  meetingaddress = "Herndon, VA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Nov 6--9 1990",
  meetingdate2 = "11/06--09/90",
  publisherinfo = "IEEE Service Center",
  sponsor =      "IEEE Computer Soc",
}

@InProceedings{Deffner:1990:RWC,
  author =       "R. Deffner and H. Geiger and R. Kahler and T. Krempl
                 and W. Brauer",
  title =        "Recognizing words with connectionistic architectures",
  crossref =     "INNC:1990:IPI",
  institution =  "Kratzer Autom. GmbH",
  address =      "Munchen, West Germany",
  pages =        "196",
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:31:50 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Summary form only given. As a first step to natural
                 language understanding with neural networks an
                 associative system for recognizing words has been
                 implemented. By using a combination of
                 context-independent and context-sensitive coding of
                 words the system is able to recognize words, even if
                 they are only partly known to the knowledge base. Thus
                 it also achieves correct responses to typing and
                 spelling errors including missing and/or superfluous
                 characters. Recognizing words in this context is
                 defined as associating an (un)known search pattern
                 (word) to one or more known words stored in a
                 lexicon.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C1250B (Character recognition), C1230 (Artificial
                 intelligence), C6180N (Natural language processing)",
  indexnumber =  "3800038 C91007879",
  keywords =     "Context independent coding, ASCII character
                 recognition, Words recognition, Connectionistic
                 architectures, Natural language understanding, Neural
                 networks, Associative system, Context-sensitive coding,
                 Search pattern, Lexicon",
  thesaurus =    "Character recognition, Encoding, Natural languages,
                 Neural nets, Parallel architectures",
  treatment =    "Experimental",
}

@Article{Fraser:1990:LTE,
  author =       "C. W. Fraser and B. Krishnamurthy",
  title =        "Live text (editing)",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "851--858",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 30 06:13:54 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Describes a software package that allows the user to
                 edit the output of several common software tools and to
                 cause the changes to be written back to the input
                 files. For example, it is possible to edit the output
                 of a spelling checker and have the changes propagated
                 back to the source files. This technique makes some
                 corrections simpler and more direct. A trial
                 implementation is embedded in Emacs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ, USA",
  classification = "C6115 (Programming support); C6130 (Data handling
                 techniques)",
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  keywords =     "Corrections; Edit; Emacs; Input files; Live text;
                 Software package; Software tools; Written back
                 changes",
  pubcountry =   "UK",
  thesaurus =    "Software packages; Software tools; Text editing",
}

@Article{Furugori:1990:ISC,
  author =       "Teiji Furugori",
  title =        "Improving spelling checkers for {Japanese} users of
                 {English}",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-PROF-COMM,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "138--142",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "IEPCBU",
  ISSN =         "0099-9474",
  ISSN-L =       "0361-1434",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The author discusses typical spelling errors that the
                 Japanese make when writing in English. An improved
                 spelling checker for Japanese users that takes their
                 linquistic idiosyncracies into consideration is
                 described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept of Comput Sci, Univ of Electro-Commun, Tokyo,
                 Japan",
  classification = "723; 903",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Trans Prof Commun",
  keywords =     "Data Processing --- Word Processing; Information
                 Science; Language Translation and Linguistics; Spelling
                 Checkers; Spelling Errors",
}

@InProceedings{Miller:1990:WNM,
  author =       "A. Richard Miller",
  title =        "What's in a Name? An {MMSFORTH} Implementation of the
                 Russell-Soundex Method",
  crossref =     "Hess:1990:RFC",
  pages =        "101--103",
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:31:52 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The Russell Definitive Index, a.k.a. Soundex method,
                 which programmers still use to select a last name by
                 its sound despite various spellings, was developed by
                 Robert C. Russell of Pittsburgh about ninety years ago.
                 Until this paper, Mr. Russell's name had become lost to
                 users of Soundex. This presentation describes the
                 history of Soundex, its method and some of its modern
                 competition, and it lists a Soundex implementation in
                 MMSFORTH.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  checked =      "19931205",
  keywords =     "source",
  sjb =          "Contains citations to Russell's original work
                 including the patent applications.",
}

@Article{Mullin:1990:TTS,
  author =       "James K. Mullin and Daniel J. Margoliash",
  title =        "A Tale of Three Spelling Checkers",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "6",
  publisher =    pub-WILEY,
  address =      pub-WILEY:adr,
  pages =        "625--630",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.4380200607",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes three spelling checkers
                 implemented at the University of Western Ontario. The
                 first is interesting for its functionality and high
                 compression of its dictionary; the second for its
                 unexpected failure and the third for using the lesson
                 of the previous to good advantage. The principal
                 contributions of this work are a compressed dictionary
                 structure at 12 bits per dictionary token; and the
                 ability to offer suggested corrections from a structure
                 without the words explicitly stored.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Western Ontario",
  affiliationaddress = "London, Ont, Can",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  journalabr =   "Software Pract Exper",
  keywords =     "Automata Theory; Bloom Filter; Computational
                 Linguistics; Computer Metatheory --- Programming
                 Theory; Computer Programming --- Algorithms;
                 Dictionary; Spellers",
}

@InProceedings{Sekar:1990:SDS,
  author =       "R. C. Sekar and Shaunak Pawagi and I. V.
                 Ramakrishnan",
  title =        "Small Domains Spell Fast Strictness Analysis",
  crossref =     "ACM:1990:CRS",
  pages =        "169--183",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:31:57 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Takahashi:1990:SCM,
  author =       "H. Takahashi and N. Itoh and T. Amano and A.
                 Yamashita",
  title =        "A spelling correction method and its application to an
                 {OCR} system",
  journal =      j-PATTERN-RECOGN,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3-4",
  pages =        "363--377",
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "PTNRA8",
  ISSN =         "0031-3203 (print), 1873-5142 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0031-3203",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a method of spelling correction
                 consisting of two steps: selection of candidate words,
                 and approximate string matching between the input word
                 and each candidate word. Each word is classified and
                 multi-indexed according to combinations of a constant
                 number of characters in the word. Candidate words are
                 selected fast and accurately, regardless of error
                 types, as long as the number of errors is below a
                 threshold. We applied this method to the
                 post-processing of a printed alphanumeric OCR on a
                 personal computer, thus making our OCR more reliable
                 and user-friendly.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Japan Ltd",
  affiliationaddress = "Tokyo, Jpn",
  classification = "722; 723; 741",
  comment =      "Some criteria are explained and used to find correct
                 spellings of misspelled words. The candidate words must
                 start with the same letter and be within 3 of the same
                 length. This method requires that the first character
                 be correct -- this is a bad requirement. They develop a
                 method that orders the characters in the word least
                 frequently to most frequently and then searches a
                 dictionary ordered in a similar way.",
  fjournal =     "Pattern Recognition",
  journalabr =   "Pattern Recognit",
  keywords =     "Applications; Character Recognition Equipment;
                 Character Recognition, Optical; Learning Systems;
                 Machine Learning; Optical Scanners; Pattern Matching;
                 Pattern Recognition; Spelling Correction; Text
                 Processing",
}

@InProceedings{Anonymous:1991:SAS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Speller: an alternative spelling correction system",
  crossref =     "Presperin:1991:TNA",
  pages =        "103--104",
  year =         "1991",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Cole:1991:SIN,
  author =       "R. A. Cole and M. Fanty and M. Gopalakrishnan and R.
                 D. T. Janssen",
  booktitle =    "ICASSP 91: 1991 International Conference on Acoustics,
                 Speech, and Signal Processing, May 14--17, 1991, The
                 Sheraton Centre Hotel and Towers, Toronto, Ontario,
                 Canada",
  title =        "Speaker-Independent Name Retrieval from Spellings
                 using a Database of 50,000 Names",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  year =         "1991",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 18:47:06 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Hart:1991:HRC,
  author =       "Horace Hart",
  title =        "{Hart}'s Rules; For Compositors and Readers at the
                 {University Press, Oxford}",
  publisher =    pub-OXFORD,
  address =      pub-OXFORD:adr,
  edition =      "39th",
  pages =        "182",
  year =         "1991",
  ISBN =         "0-19-212983-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-19-212983-3",
  LCCN =         "Z254 .H37 1983",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "UK\pounds8",
  abstract =     "In printing and publishing houses Hart is a household
                 word. First printed in 1893, specifically for
                 Compositors and readers at the University Press,
                 Oxford, and first published (in its 15th edition) in
                 1904, this little book of Rules has become
                 indispensable to all professionals, and widely useful
                 to others concerned with the business of putting words
                 into print --- which includes such matters as
                 alternative spellings, punctuation, capitalization,
                 italicization, abbreviations, and many other details.",
  acknowledgement = ack-fm,
  annote =       "This book and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and
                 Editors together give the house style of OUP at its
                 best. (CHe)",
  bibliography = "yes",
  glossary =     "no",
  history =      "Originally compiled by Horace Hart, MA Printer to the
                 University, 1883--1915. First edition, 1893. Fifteenth
                 edition (the first for general sale), 1904.
                 Thirty-eighth edition 1978. Thirty-ninth edition 1983,
                 reprinted 1989 with corrections.",
  index =        "yes",
  inprint =      "yes",
  keywords =     "typesetting",
  printermarks = "yes",
}

@InProceedings{Heideman:1991:ADN,
  author =       "Michael {Heideman, T.}",
  title =        "Automated detection of naming errors in a street
                 network database",
  crossref =     "ASPRS:1991:GLP",
  pages =        "724--729 (vol. 2)",
  year =         "1991",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Digitization of a street network database requires
                 entry of street names at some stage. Regardless of the
                 entry process, naming errors will occur. We have
                 identified several distinct types of common naming
                 errors and developed procedures for automatically
                 detecting many of them. Some of these procedures
                 attempt to verify individual street names, whereas
                 others attempt to correlate with nearby names.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Etak, Inc",
  affiliationaddress = "Menlo Park, CA, USA",
  classification = "405; 406; 723; 731; 741",
  conference =   "Proceedings of GIS\slash LIS '91",
  conferenceyear = "1991",
  journalabr =   "GIS LIS 91 Proc",
  keywords =     "Applications; Character Recognition, Optical; Codes,
                 Symbolic --- Error Detection; Database Systems; Maps
                 and Mapping --- Computer Applications; Maps and Mapping
                 --- Quality Control; Roads and Streets; Street Names;
                 Street Network Database; Trigraph Spelling Checker",
  meetingaddress = "Atlanta, GA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Oct 28--Nov 1 1991",
  meetingdate2 = "10/28--11/01/91",
  sponsor =      "American Congress on Surveying \& Mapping; American
                 Soc for Photogrammetry \& Remote Sensing; Assoc of
                 American Geographers; Urban \& Regional Information
                 Systems Assoc; AM/FM Int",
}

@Article{Iverson:1991:PVA,
  author =       "K. E. Iverson",
  title =        "A personal view of {APL}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "582--593",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A personal view is given of the development of several
                 influential dialects of APL: APL2 and J. The discussion
                 traces the evolution of the treatment of arrays,
                 functions, and operators, as well as function
                 definition, grammar, terminology, and spelling.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming); C6120
                 (File organisation); C6140D (High level languages)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "APL; APL2; Arrays; Function definition; Functions;
                 Grammar; J; Operators; Spelling; Terminology",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "APL; Data structures; Programming",
}

@Article{Jared:1991:DWI,
  author =       "Debra Jared and Mark S. Seidenberg",
  title =        "Does Word Identification Proceed From Spelling to
                 Sound to Meaning?",
  journal =      j-J-EXP-PSYCH-GEN,
  volume =       "120",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "358--394",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "JPGEDD",
  ISSN =         "0096-3445 (print), 1939-2222 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0096-3445",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 12 21:44:22 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General",
  location =     "CMU Hunt Library",
}

@Article{Mays:1991:CBS,
  author =       "Eric Mays and Fred J. Damerau and Robert L. Mercer",
  title =        "Context Based Spelling Correction",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-MAN,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "517",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IPMADK",
  ISSN =         "0306-4573 (print), 1873-5371 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0306-4573",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:13 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Information Processing and Management",
}

@Article{Yannakoudakis:1991:GSR,
  author =       "E. J. Yannakoudakis",
  title =        "Generation of spelling rules from phonemes and their
                 implications for large dictionary speech recognition",
  journal =      j-SPEECH-COMM,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "381--394",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "SCOMDH",
  ISSN =         "0167-6393",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-6393",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents the results of a statistical and
                 deterministic analysis of two phonemic lexicons, with
                 respect to the storage and generation of spelling rules
                 using graphemes. The aim of this paper is to
                 demonstrate the feasibility of generating correctly
                 spelled words for the English language using
                 phoneme-to-grapheme rules. an algorithm for generating
                 the rules is presented. A set of spelling rules were
                 identified by the analysis of two differently sized
                 lexicons, 96,939 words and 11.638 words, the smaller
                 lexicon being a subset of the larger. These rules were
                 then tested for their general usability. 62.3\% of all
                 words in the 96.939 word lexicon could be spelled
                 correctly utilising rules alone. A smaller lexicon
                 which consisted of many of the more frequently
                 occurring words plus a selection of less common words
                 showed that 84.5\% of this lexicon could be spelled
                 correctly using rules generated by the analysis of its
                 own lexicon. However, only 62.3\% of this dictionary
                 could be spelled correctly using rules generated from
                 the lexicon of 96.939 words. It was also shown that
                 phoneme-to-grapheme mappings are between 63\% and 69\%
                 alphabetic, depending on the size of dictionary used.
                 59 general default rules were identified, unfortunately
                 only 22.6\% of the smaller dictionary could be spelled
                 correctly by using these rules.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Athens Univ of Economics and Business",
  affiliationaddress = "Athens, Greece",
  classification = "723; 751; 922",
  fjournal =     "Speech Communication",
  journalabr =   "Speech Commun",
  keywords =     "Computer Programs; Large Dictionary Speech
                 Recognition; Phonemetographeme Conversion; Recognition;
                 Speech; Spelling Rules Generation; Statistical
                 Methods--Applications",
}

@Article{Yoon:1991:SCI,
  author =       "Hee Lee Yoon and Martha Evens and Joel A. Michael and
                 Allen A. Rovick",
  title =        "Spelling Correction for an Intelligent Tutoring
                 System",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "??",
  number =       "507",
  pages =        "77--83",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 17:16:08 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@InProceedings{Anonymous:1992:IPW,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "An Integrated Predictive Wordprocessing and Spelling
                 Correction System",
  crossref =     "Presperin:1992:TCI",
  pages =        "369--370",
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Anonymous:1992:RLD,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Reclaiming lost disk space; extending computer life;
                 and spelling-checker problems",
  journal =      j-BYTE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "295--??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "BYTEDJ",
  ISSN =         "0360-5280 (print), 1082-7838 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-5280",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 2 10:01:41 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "BYTE Magazine",
}

@InProceedings{Ben-Hamadou:1992:SCA,
  author =       "A. Ben-Hamadou",
  title =        "Spelling correction of {Arabic} texts from a robust
                 affix analysis of the affected strings",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1992:AIE",
  pages =        "55--68",
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Calha:1992:SBP,
  author =       "M. J. Calha and I. C. Teixeira",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings Euro ASIC '92, Paris, France June 1--5,
                 1992",
  title =        "Speller board for personal computer",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "250--255 (of xii + 423)",
  year =         "1992",
  ISBN =         "0-8186-2845-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8186-2845-0",
  LCCN =         "TK 7874.6 E97 1992",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 15 11:24:35 1995",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Cost effective ASICs should be designed for easy
                 integration at system level, and with the possibility
                 of being part of a range of products, targeted at
                 different markets. In this contribution, a Personal
                 Computer (PC) extension board that implements, in
                 hardware, a spell environment for any natural language
                 is presented. The PC board design is based upon the use
                 of an ASIC, a searching processor that allows the
                 searching of a binary word at each clock cycle,
                 therefore making the process of finding a given word
                 much faster than when a software package is used. The
                 domains of application of this board can easily be
                 extended to include translation among different
                 languages, and to other domains then those related with
                 text processing. In fact, work is already being done in
                 the area of health care and medical terms
                 standardization.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Cole:1992:TSD,
  author =       "R. Cole and K. Roginski and M. Fanty",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the International Conference on Spoken
                 Language Processing",
  title =        "A Telephone Speech Database of Spelled and Spoken
                 Names",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:14 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Du:1992:MFA,
  author =       "M. W. Du and S. C. Chang",
  title =        "A Model and a Fast Algorithm for Multiple Errors
                 Spelling Correction",
  journal =      j-ACTA-INFO,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "281--302",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "AINFA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-5903 (print), 1432-0525 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-5903",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A new model for multiple errors spelling correction is
                 proposed. The model handles insert, delete, change, and
                 transpose errors. In the new model, we put constraints
                 on possible editing sequences to reflect the error
                 occurrence phenomenon in spelling, resulting in an
                 error measure different from the traditional editing
                 distance error measure. Properties of the ``error
                 distance matrix'' between two character strings are
                 studied under the assumptions of the new model. A
                 cut-off criterion has been discovered, which can detect
                 whether the error distance between two character
                 strings is greater than a prespecified value during the
                 calculation. Based on this cut-off criterion, a fast
                 algorithm has been developed to find the nearest
                 neighbors of a given character string in a dictionary.
                 Experiments have been conducted with results showing
                 that the cut-off criterion can greatly cut down the
                 computation time needed for the nearest neighbor
                 searching.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "GTE Lab Inc",
  affiliationaddress = "Waltham, MA, USA",
  classification = "721; 723; 921",
  fjournal =     "Acta Informatica",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.springerlink.com/content/0001-5903",
  journalabr =   "Acta Inf",
  keywords =     "Automata Theory --- Mathematical Models; Character
                 Strings; Codes, Symbolic; Codes, Symbolic --- Error
                 Detection; Computer Programming --- Algorithms; Data
                 Processing --- Word Processing; Error Correction; Error
                 Distance Matrix; Error Occurrence; Mathematical
                 Techniques --- Error Analysis; Multiple Errors Spelling
                 Correction; Nearest Neighbors",
}

@Article{Ebihara:1992:KSC,
  author =       "Yoshihiko Ebihara",
  title =        "Knowledge-Based Spelling Correction in {Unix} Command
                 Names",
  journal =      j-J-INF-PROCESS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "394--399",
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "JIPRDE",
  ISSN =         "0387-6101",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Misspelling error correction in Unix commands and its
                 measured data is presented as a prerequisite study for
                 man-intelligent machine interface. An I-shell
                 (Intelligent-shell) has been developed as part of the
                 C-shell in the Unix system to correct misspellings. The
                 I-shell incorporates knowledge-based dictionaries
                 representing the characteristics of a user's
                 keyboarding habits and performs knowledge acquisition
                 of these characteristics for correct command prognosis.
                 In practice, the I-shell corrected approximately 83.0\%
                 of the command misspellings and predicted the correct
                 command on 97.3\% of occasions when the correct command
                 was among the 5 candidate commands with the highest
                 priority.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Tsukuba",
  affiliationaddress = "Tsukuba, Jpn",
  classification = "722.2; 722.4; 723.1; 723.3; 723.4; 723.4.1",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Information Processing",
  journalabr =   "J Inf Process",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Artificial intelligence; Computer
                 keyboards; Computer programming; Database systems;
                 Error correction; Intelligent shell (I-shell);
                 Interactive computer systems; Interactive processing
                 systems; Knowledge based dictionaries; Knowledge based
                 systems; Man machine systems; Misspelling error
                 correction; UNIX; Unix commands; User interfaces;
                 User's keyboarding habits",
}

@Article{Friedman:1992:TSE,
  author =       "Carol Friedman and Robert Sideli",
  title =        "Tolerating Spelling Errors during Patient Validation",
  journal =      j-COMPUT-AND-BIOMED-RES,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "5",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CBMRB7",
  ISSN =         "0010-4809 (print), 1090-2368 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4809",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:17 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "a longest string matching algorithm outperforms
                 SOUNDEX and SOUNDMEX.",
  fjournal =     "Computers and Biomedical Research",
}

@Article{Holden:1992:GTE,
  author =       "E. J. Holden and G. G. Roy",
  title =        "The graphical translation of {English} text into
                 {Signed English} in the hand sign translator system",
  journal =      j-CGF,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "C357--C366",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CGFODY",
  ISSN =         "0167-7055 (print), 1467-8659 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-7055",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 14 10:23:20 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6130B (Graphics techniques); C7850 (Assistance for
                 the handicapped)",
  conflocation = "Cambridge, UK; 7-11 Sept. 1992",
  conftitle =    "European Association for Computer Graphics 13th Annual
                 Conference. EUROGRAPHICS 92",
  corpsource =   "Dept. of Comput. Sci., Univ. of Western Australia
                 Nedlands, WA, Australia",
  fjournal =     "Com{\-}pu{\-}ter Graphics Forum",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1467-8659/",
  keywords =     "animation; Animation process; computer animation;
                 English text; English-Sign Dictionary; fingerspelling;
                 Fingerspelling; fingerspelling; hand sign translator
                 system; Hand sign translator system; handicapped aids;
                 in-between poses; In-between poses; input environment;
                 Input environment; interpretation of English; keyframe
                 images; Keyframe images; keyframe images; kinematic
                 data; Kinematic data; kinematic data; language
                 translation; manual; Manual interpretation of English;
                 process; Signed English; skeleton models; Skeleton
                 models; skin; Skin; smooth animation; Smooth animation
                 technique; technique; text analysis; Text analysis;
                 text analysis; translation process; Translation
                 process; two-handed; Two-handed animation; volume
                 models; Volume models",
  thesaurus =    "Computer animation; Handicapped aids; Language
                 translation",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
}

@Article{Kreiner:1992:RTM,
  author =       "David S. Kreiner",
  key =          "Kreiner",
  title =        "Reaction Time Measures of Spelling: Testing a
                 Two-Strategy Model of Skilled Spelling",
  journal =      j-J-EXP-PSYCH-LMC,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "765--776",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "JEPCEA",
  ISSN =         "0278-7393",
  ISSN-L =       "0278-7393",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:18 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory,
                 and Cognition",
  location =     "CMU Hunt Library",
}

@Article{Kukich:1992:SCT,
  author =       "Karen Kukich",
  title =        "Spelling correction for the telecommunications network
                 for the deaf",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "80--90",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A first step toward making the telephone network
                 accessible to people with hearing impairments was the
                 introduction of a Telecommunications Device for the
                 Deaf (TDD) and deaf relay service centers. The goal of
                 Bellcore's Telecommunications Network for the Deaf
                 (TND) project is to improve telephone services
                 available for speech and hearing impaired
                 individuals.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Bellcore",
  affiliationaddress = "Morristown, NJ, USA",
  classification = "718; 718.1; 912.4",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "Communication aids for nonvocal persons; Hearing aids;
                 Operator multiplexing; Speech pass-through;
                 Telecommunication services; Telecommunication systems;
                 Telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD);
                 Telecommunications network for the deaf (TND);
                 Telephone exchanges",
}

@Article{Kukich:1992:TAC,
  author =       "Karen Kukich",
  title =        "Techniques for Automatically Correcting Words in
                 Text",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "377--439",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Ai/cmubib.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Research aimed at correcting words in text has focused
                 on three progressively more difficult problems: (1)
                 nonword error detection; (2) isolated-word error
                 correction; and (3) context-dependent word correction.
                 In response to the first problem, efficient pattern
                 matching and $n$-gram analysis techniques have been
                 developed for detecting strings that do not appear in a
                 given word list. In response to the second problem, a
                 variety of general and application-specific spelling
                 correction techniques have been developed. Some of them
                 were based on detailed studies of spelling error
                 patterns. In response to the third problem, a few
                 experiments using natural-language-processing tools or
                 statistical-language models have been carried out. This
                 article surveys documented findings on spelling error
                 patterns, provides descriptions of various nonword
                 detection and isolated-word error correction
                 techniques, reviews the state of the art of
                 context-dependent word correction techniques, and
                 discusses research issues related to all three areas of
                 automatic error correction in text.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Bellcore",
  affiliationaddress = "Morristown, NJ, USA",
  classification = "723.1.1; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  journalabr =   "ACM Comput Surv",
  keywords =     "$n$-gram analysis; Automatic error correction;
                 Computer programming languages; context-dependent
                 spelling correction; Error correction; Error detection;
                 Error patterns; experimentation; grammar checking;
                 human factors; Isolated words;
                 natural-language-processing models; neural net
                 classifiers; Optical Character Recognition (OCR);
                 Pattern recognition; performance; spell checking;
                 Spelling correction; spelling error detection; spelling
                 error patterns; statistical-language models; Word
                 correction; Word processing; word recognition and
                 correction",
  subject =      "I.2.6 [Artificial Intelligence]: Learning\emdash
                 connectionism and neural nets; I.2.7 [Artificial
                 Intelligence]: Natural Language Processing\emdash
                 language models; language parsing and understanding;
                 text analysis; I.5.1 [Pattern Recognition]:
                 Models\emdash neural nets; statistical; I.5.4 [Pattern
                 Recognition]: Applications\emdash text processing;
                 I.7.1 [Text Processing]: Text Editing\emdash spelling",
}

@InProceedings{Lavenier:1992:HPS,
  author =       "Dominique Lavenier",
  title =        "High performance systolic chip for spelling
                 correction",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1992:EAP",
  pages =        "381--384",
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents a fully integrated co-processor
                 for accelerating the character string comparison
                 involved in the spelling correction process. The chip
                 we present is based on a truncated 2-D systolic array
                 of 69 processors and is able to perform up to 1.3 Gops.
                 Real time spelling correction is possible on very large
                 vocabularies since dictionaries of 200,000 items can be
                 processed in only 0.1 second.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IRISA\slash CNRS",
  affiliationaddress = "Rennes, Fr",
  classification = "714.2; 716.1; 723.1; 723.2; 723.3",
  conference =   "Proceedings Euro ASIC '92",
  conferenceyear = "1992",
  keywords =     "Character recognition; Character string comparison;
                 Data processing; Database systems; Error correction;
                 Error detection; High performance systolic chip;
                 Information theory; Microprocessor chips; Spelling
                 correction",
  meetingabr =   "Proc Euro ASIC 92",
  meetingaddress = "Paris, Fr",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 1--5 1992",
  meetingdate2 = "06/01--05/92",
  publisherinfo = "IEEE Service Center",
  sponsor =      "IEEE Computer Soc",
}

@Article{Lawrence:1992:CMV,
  author =       "Daniel Lawrence",
  title =        "{CUG374} --- {MicroSpell v2.0}",
  journal =      j-CUJ,
  volume =       "10",
  type =         "CUG New Release",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "121--??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  ISSN =         "0898-9788",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 30 16:52:23 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.cuj.com/cbklist.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "C Users Journal",
}

@Article{Laxon:1992:NNF,
  author =       "Veronica Laxon and Jackie Masterson and Maggie Pool
                 and Corriene Keating",
  key =          "Laxon et al.",
  title =        "Nonword Naming: Further Exploration of the
                 Pseudohomophone Effect in Terms of Orthographic
                 Neighborhood Size, Graphemic Changes, Spelling-Sound
                 Consistency, and Reader Accuracy",
  journal =      j-J-EXP-PSYCH-LMC,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "730--748",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "JEPCEA",
  ISSN =         "0278-7393",
  ISSN-L =       "0278-7393",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:19 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory,
                 and Cognition",
  location =     "CMU Hunt Library",
}

@Article{Lefevre:1992:MMF,
  author =       "J.-P. Lefevre and S. M. Hiller and E. Rooney and J.
                 Laver and M.-G. Di Benedetto",
  key =          "pronunciation",
  title =        "Macro and micro features for automated pronunciation
                 improvement in the {SPELL} system",
  journal =      j-SPEECH,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--44",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:22 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Speech",
}

@InProceedings{Loosemore:1992:NNM,
  author =       "Richard P. W. Loosemore and Gordon D. A. Brown and
                 Frances L. Watson",
  title =        "A neural net model of normal and dyslexic spelling",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1992:ISI",
  pages =        "231--236",
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The authors describe a connectionist model of the
                 development of alphabetic spelling, and show that its
                 performance resembles that of dyslexic spellers if its
                 computational resources are restricted during learning.
                 They then describe the results of an experiment which
                 tests the predictions of the model on normal and
                 dyslexic spellers. Results suggest that dyslexic
                 children show a similar pattern of result relative to
                 normal children of equivalent spelling age in the
                 spelling of single words. Broad agreement is found
                 between the behavior of the simulation and the
                 performance of human subjects. The fact that the neural
                 network model provides a good characterization of the
                 spelling process in dyslexic children suggests that a
                 dyslexic's difficulty can be simply characterized as
                 one of difficulty in mastering the mappings from sound
                 to spelling in English, rather than in terms of
                 qualitatively distinct processing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "461; 723",
  conference =   "International Joint Conference on Neural Networks ---
                 IJCNN-91-Seattle Part 2 (of 2)",
  conferenceyear = "1992",
  keywords =     "Artificial Neural Networks; Biomedical Engineering ---
                 Neurophysiology; Cognitive Systems; Dyslexic Spellers;
                 Learning Systems; Machine Learning; Neural Networks;
                 Neuroscience; Spelling; Systems Science and
                 Cybernetics",
  meetingabr =   "Int Jt Conf Neural Networks IJCNN 91 Seattle",
  meetingaddress = "Seattle, WA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jul 8--12 1991",
  meetingdate2 = "07/08--12/91",
  publisherinfo = "IEEE Service Center",
  sponsor =      "IEEE Technical Activities Board Council; Int Neural
                 Network Soc",
}

@Article{McAuley:1992:CAC,
  author =       "S. M. McAuley and T. F. McLaughlin",
  title =        "Comparison of {Add-A-Word} and {Compu Spell} Programs
                 With Low-Achieving Students",
  journal =      j-J-EDU-RESEARCH,
  volume =       "85",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "362",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "JEDRAP",
  ISSN =         "0022-0671",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-0671",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 17:53:13 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Educational Research",
}

@Article{McCullough:1992:CU,
  author =       "William McCullough",
  title =        "{CUG360} --- Uspell",
  journal =      j-CUJ,
  volume =       "10",
  type =         "CUG New Release",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "118--??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1992",
  ISSN =         "0898-9788",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 30 16:52:23 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.cuj.com/cbklist.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "C Users Journal",
}

@Article{Monsell:1992:LST,
  author =       "Stephen Monsell and Karalyn E. Patterson and Andrew
                 Graham and Claire H. Hughes and Robert Milroy",
  key =          "Monsell et al.",
  title =        "Lexical and Sublexical Translation of Spelling to
                 Sound: Strategic Anticipation of Lexical Status",
  journal =      j-J-EXP-PSYCH-LMC,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "452--467",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "JEPCEA",
  ISSN =         "0278-7393",
  ISSN-L =       "0278-7393",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:24 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory,
                 and Cognition",
  location =     "CMU Hunt Library",
}

@Article{Nicolson:1992:SRD,
  author =       "R. I. Nicolson and A. J. Fawcett",
  title =        "Spelling Remediation for Dyslexic Children Using the
                 Selfspell Programs",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "602",
  pages =        "503--??",
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 13 11:46:24 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@InProceedings{Oflazer:1992:PAW,
  author =       "K. Oflazer",
  title =        "Parsing Agglutinative Word Structures and its
                 Application to Spelling Checkers in {Turkish}",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1992:CIC",
  pages =        "39--45",
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Robertson:1992:SHW,
  author =       "Alexander M. Robertson and Peter Willett",
  title =        "Searching for historical word-forms in a database of
                 17th-century {English} text using spelling-correction
                 methods",
  crossref =     "Belkin:1992:SPF",
  pages =        "256--265",
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses the application of algorithmic
                 spelling-correction techniques to the identification of
                 those words in a database of 17th century English text
                 that are most similar to a query word in modern
                 English. The experiments have used n-gram matching,
                 non-phonetic coding and dynamic programming methods for
                 spelling correction, and have demonstrated that
                 high-recall searches can be carried out, although some
                 of the searches are very demanding of computational
                 resources. The methods are, in principle, applicable to
                 historical texts in many languages and from many
                 different periods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Sheffield",
  affiliationaddress = "Sheffield, Engl",
  classification = "723.1; 723.3; 903.1; 903.3; 921; 921.6",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual International ACM
                 SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in
                 Information Retrieval --- SIGIR '92",
  conferenceyear = "1992",
  journalabr =   "SIGIR Forum",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Confilation; Database systems; Dynamic
                 programming; English text; Information analysis;
                 Information retrieval systems; Linguistics; Spelling
                 corrections; Spelling-correction methods",
  meetingabr =   "Proc Fifteenth Annu Int ACM SIGIR Conf Res Dev Inf
                 Retr SIGIR 92",
  meetingaddress = "Copenhagen, Den",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 21--24 1992",
  meetingdate2 = "06/21--24/92",
  publisherinfo = "Fort Collins Computer Center",
  sponsor =      "Royal School of Librarianship; ACM SIGIR; AICA-GLIR;
                 BCS-IRSG; DD; et al",
}

@InProceedings{Aduriz:1993:MAB,
  author =       "I. Aduriz and E. Agirre and I. Alegria and X. Arregi",
  title =        "A Morphological Analysis Based Method for Spelling
                 Correction",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1993:ECA",
  pages =        "463--??",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Akin:1993:SCC,
  author =       "H. L. Akin and S. Kuru and T. Guengor and I.
                 Hamzaoglu",
  title =        "A Spelling Checker and Corrector for {Turkish}",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1993:TAI",
  pages =        "113--120",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Anonymous:1993:LSC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Legal-Specific Spell Checking",
  journal =      j-LAWYERS-PC,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "6",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  ISSN =         "0740-0942",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 17:53:13 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "The Lawyer's PC",
}

@TechReport{Breen:1993:JED,
  author =       "J. W. Breen",
  title =        "A {Japanese} Electronic Dictionary Project (Part 1:
                 The Dictionary Files)",
  number =       "93-13",
  institution =  "Monash University",
  address =      "Clayton, Victoria, Australia",
  pages =        "25",
  month =        nov # " 30",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 24 19:54:18 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Available via anonymous ftp in
                 \path=pub/techrports/RDT/93-13.ps.Z= from
                 \path=ftp.rdt.monash.edu.au=.",
  abstract =     "Electronic multi-lingual dictionaries have seen
                 considerable development in the last decade. The
                 standardization of coding systems for the orthography
                 of many Asian languages in the same period, combined
                 with the increased availability of low-cost
                 micro-electronic storage and display systems has opened
                 up considerable demand and potential for dictionary
                 systems in these languages. This report describes an
                 on-going project to develop and maintain a
                 comprehensive electronic Japanese-English dictionary
                 capable of use within a variety of search-and-display,
                 electronic-text reading support, and machine
                 translation environments. The project files are being
                 developed in the public domain. The dictionary files
                 have, at the time of writing, attained the status of
                 being the major freely available electronic repository
                 of Japanese-English dictionary material in the world.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "dictionary lexicography Japan JIS WNN SKK kanji
                 hiragana katakana Unicode",
}

@InProceedings{Buchan:1993:VT,
  author =       "Ronald L. Buchan",
  title =        "Variant terminology",
  crossref =     "Strehlow:1993:STB",
  pages =        "95--105",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The richness of variant terminology is such that it
                 can enhance vocabulary, as in the case of synonyms, or
                 can complicate information retrieval, as in the case of
                 variant spellings. Variant terminology is defined as
                 consisting of relational variants such as synonyms and
                 quasisynonyms and format variants such as spelling and
                 capitalization. Format variants more specifically
                 include British and American spelling variants,
                 misspellings, transliteration variants, and
                 capitalization. Many varieties of English spelling,
                 particularly British and American spelling variants,
                 often hinder retrieval of information. A `variant
                 terminology switching (VTS)' system is proposed to
                 provide computer-aided British to American spellings
                 and vice versa. This system is also adaptable to
                 recognize common misspellings and to regularize the
                 spelling of computerized input or output for specific
                 audiences. The solutions to problems raised by variant
                 terminology can come about by utilizing techniques
                 brought out in this paper. Development of authorities
                 such as dictionaries and thesauri should result in more
                 standardized terminology. Actual examples of
                 computer-aided lexicography at the NASA Center for
                 AeroSpace Information are also presented and show how
                 computer access to variants enhances terminology
                 understanding and retrieval by giving structure to
                 varieties of variant terminology. The reader will find
                 a sweeping treatment of the topic `variant terminology'
                 as well as an extensive bibliography on the subject.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "NASA",
  affiliationaddress = "Washington, DC, USA",
  classification = "901.1; 902.2; 903.1",
  conference =   "Symposium on Standardizing Terminology for Better
                 Communication: Practice, Applied Theory, and Results",
  conferenceyear = "1993",
  journalabr =   "ASTM Spec Tech Publ",
  keywords =     "American spelling; British spelling; Capitalization;
                 Computer aided lexicography; Controlled vocabulary;
                 Homonyms; Indexing (of information); Linguistics;
                 Standardization; Synonyms; Terminology; Text retrieval;
                 Variant terminology; Vocabulary control",
  meetingaddress = "Cleveland, OH, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 12--14 1991",
  meetingdate2 = "06/12--14/91",
  sponsor =      "ASTM",
}

@Article{Carpenter:1993:GNU,
  author =       "Bruce Carpenter",
  title =        "Genealogy Notes: Using Soundex Alternatives:
                 Enumeration Districts, 1880-1920",
  journal =      j-PROLOGUE,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1993",
  ISSN =         "0033-1031",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 18:02:40 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Prologue: the journal of the National Archives",
}

@InProceedings{Cojocary:1993:RSC,
  author =       "S. Cojocary and M. Evstiunin and V. Ufnarovski",
  title =        "Romanian spelling checker",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1993:CSC",
  pages =        "123--136",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Hiller:1993:SAS,
  author =       "S. Hiller and E. Rooney and J. Laver and M. Jack",
  title =        "{SPELL}: An automated system for computer-aided
                 pronunciation teaching",
  journal =      j-SPEECH-COMM,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "463--474",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SCOMDH",
  ISSN =         "0167-6393",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-6393",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 17:53:13 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Speech Communication",
}

@InProceedings{Imasaki:1993:FAN,
  author =       "N. Imasaki and T. Yamaguchi and D. Montgomery and T.
                 Endo",
  title =        "Fuzzy artificial network and its application to a
                 command spelling corrector",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1993:SII",
  pages =        "635--640",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper proposes a Fuzzy Artificial Network (FAN)
                 which utilizes associative memories and is constructed
                 by a method which makes it easy to represent to modify
                 fuzzy rule sets. While conventional fuzzy inference
                 methods induce much fuzziness on multi-layered fuzzy
                 rule sets, the associative memory based FAN results in
                 inferences which fit human sense better. We call this
                 type of fuzzy inference `associative inference'. For
                 memorizing fuzzy rule sets, the proposed F A N system
                 employs a correlation matrix which is constructed from
                 a nominal correlation matrix, a bias matrix, and a
                 scale parameter, so that it is easy to carry out
                 refinement and cut-and-paste operations for rule sets.
                 Using a FAN development system, we compose a command
                 spelling corrector which uses a multi-layered fuzzy
                 rule set. The spelling corrector application shows the
                 eligibility of associative inference for multi-layered
                 fuzzy rule sets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "TOSHIBA Corp",
  affiliationaddress = "Kawasaki, Jpn",
  classification = "721.1; 723.4; 921.4",
  conference =   "Second IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy
                 Systems",
  conferenceyear = "1993",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Associative inference;
                 Associative storage; Command spelling corrector; Formal
                 logic; Fuzzy artificial network; Fuzzy sets; Inductive
                 learning; Learning systems",
  meetingabr =   "Second IEEE Int Conf Fuzzy Syst",
  meetingaddress = "San Francisco, CA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Mar 28--Apr 1 1993",
  meetingdate2 = "03/28--04/01/93",
  publisherinfo = "IEEE Service Center",
  sponsor =      "IEEE",
}

@Article{Jouvet:1993:SSR,
  author =       "D. Jouvet and A. Laine and J. Monne and C. Gagnoulet",
  booktitle =    "Speech Processing (Apr 27--30 1993: Minneapolis, MN,
                 USA)",
  title =        "Speaker-independent spelling recognition over the
                 telephone",
  journal =      j-PROC-ICASSP,
  volume =       "2",
  pages =        "II-235--II-238",
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "IPRODJ",
  ISBN =         "0-7803-0946-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7803-0946-3",
  ISSN =         "0736-7791",
  LCCN =         "TK 7882 S65 I16 1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 93CH3252-4.",
  abstract =     "This paper investigates speaker independent spelling
                 recognition over the telephone using a Markov modeling
                 at two levels: one for the recognition of connected
                 letter sequences and one for the retrieval of the word
                 from a known list. A connected-word speech recognizer
                 must be used in order to deal with natural spellings.
                 And the retrieval procedure has to take into account
                 the insertion and deletion errors as well as the
                 substitution errors. The speech database, recorded from
                 about 180 speakers, contained 6000 sequences (average
                 length of 7 letters) corresponding to the spelling of
                 city names, proper names and random sequences. On the
                 city names test set, before retrieval, the letter error
                 rate was 15.9\%. Several retrieval procedures are
                 presented and compared. A Markov modeling approach
                 leads to the best performance with a retrieval error
                 rate of 4.3\% for a list of 1000 possible names and
                 12.4\% for a list of 30000 town and city names.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "CNET",
  affiliationaddress = "Lannion, Fr",
  classification = "718.1; 723.1; 723.3; 751.5; 921.5; 922",
  conference =   "1993 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics,
                 Speech and Signal Processing",
  conferenceyear = "1993",
  fjournal =     "Proceedings of the International Conference on
                 Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing",
  journalabr =   "Proc ICASSP IEEE Int Conf Acoust Speech Signal
                 Process",
  keywords =     "Database systems; Dynamic programming; Information
                 retrieval; Markov modeling; Mathematical models;
                 Natural language processing systems; Speaker
                 independent spelling recognition; Speech analysis;
                 Speech database; Speech processing; Speech recognition;
                 Statistical methods; Telephone systems",
  meetingaddress = "Minneapolis, MN, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Apr 27--30 1993",
  meetingdate2 = "04/27--30/93",
  publisherinfo = "IEEE Service Center",
  sponsor =      "IEEE; Signal Processing Society",
}

@Article{Lavenier:1993:ISA,
  author =       "Dominique Lavenier",
  title =        "An integrated {2D} systolic array for spelling
                 correction",
  journal =      j-INTEGRATION-VLSI-J,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "97--111",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "IVJODL",
  ISSN =         "0167-9260",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-9260",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper introduces a fully integrated spelling
                 co-processor for speeding up the character string
                 comparison process. The chip we present is
                 architectured around a truncated 2-D systolic array of
                 69 processors and is able to process more than 2
                 million of words per second. The high regularity of the
                 chip has been exploited for investigating a design
                 methodology based on the automated generation of
                 representative subcircuit; the kernel.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IRISA\slash CNRS",
  affiliationaddress = "Rennes, Fr",
  classification = "713.5; 723",
  fjournal =     "Integration, the VLSI journal",
  journalabr =   "Integr VLSI J",
  keywords =     "Integrated circuits; Microprocessor chips; Spelling
                 correction; Truncated two-dimensional systolic array",
}

@InProceedings{Liang:1993:STC,
  author =       "S. Liang and M. Ahmadi and M. Shridhard",
  title =        "Segmentation of touching characters in printed
                 document recognition",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1993:PSI",
  pages =        "569--572",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "EE Dept., Windsor Univ., Ont., Canada",
  classification = "C5260B (Computer vision and image processing
                 techniques); C6130D (Document processing techniques)",
  keywords =     "Character segmentation; Contextual information;
                 Discrimination function; Dynamic recursive segmentation
                 algorithm; Incorrect recognition; Pixel projection;
                 Printed document recognition; Profile projection;
                 Recognition accuracy; Spelling checker; Touching
                 characters",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Document handling; Document image processing; Image
                 segmentation; Optical character recognition",
}

@Article{Lucchesi:1993:AFA,
  author =       "Claudio L. Lucchesi and Tomasz Kowaltowski",
  title =        "Applications of finite automata representing large
                 vocabularies",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15--30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The construction of minimal acyclic deterministic
                 partial finite automata to represent large natural
                 language vocabularies is described. Applications of
                 such automata include spelling checkers and advisers,
                 multilanguage dictionaries, thesauri, minimal perfect
                 hashing and text compression.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Universidade Estadual de Campinas",
  affiliationaddress = "Campinas, Braz",
  classification = "721.1; 723.1; 723.2; 903.1",
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  journalabr =   "Software Pract Exper",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Data compression; Dictionaries; Finite
                 acyclic automata; Finite automata; Minimal perfect
                 hashing; Spelling checkers; Terminology; Text
                 compression; Vocabularies; Vocabulary control",
}

@Article{Marzal:1993:CNE,
  author =       "Andres Marzal and Enrique Vidal",
  title =        "Computation of normalized edit distance and
                 applications",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-PATT-ANAL-MACH-INTEL,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "926--932",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ITPIDJ",
  ISSN =         "0162-8828",
  ISSN-L =       "0162-8828",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Given two strings X and Y over a finite alphabet, the
                 normalized edit distance between X and Y, d(X,Y) is
                 defined as the minimum of W(P)/L(P), where P is an
                 editing path between X and Y,W(P) is the sum of the
                 weights of the elementary edit operations of P, and
                 L(P) is the number of these operations (length of P).
                 In this paper, it is shown that in general, d(X,Y)
                 cannot be computed by first obtaining the conventional
                 (unnormalized) edit distance between X and Y and then
                 normalizing this value by the length of the
                 corresponding editing path. In order to compute
                 normalized edit distances, a new algorithm that can be
                 implemented to work in O(m\$DOT@n${}^2$ ) time and
                 O(n${}^2$ ) memory space is proposed, where m and n are
                 the lengths of the strings under consideration, and
                 m\$GREQ@n. Experiments in hand-written digit
                 recognition are presented, revealing that the
                 normalized edit distance consistently provides better
                 results than both unnormalized or post-normalized
                 classical edit distances.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Universidad Politecnica de Valencia",
  affiliationaddress = "Valencia, Spain",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 741.2; 921.3; 921.4; 921.5",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine
                 Intelligence",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=34",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Computational complexity; Editing; Error
                 correction; Graph theory; Levenshtein distance;
                 Mathematical models; Mathematical transformations;
                 Normalized edit distance; Optical character
                 recognition; Optimization; Pattern recognition; Speech
                 recognition; Spelling correction; String correction",
}

@Article{Mikami:1993:SCE,
  author =       "I. Mikami and H. Maeda",
  title =        "Spelling check of {English} science papers using a
                 software for text formatter",
  journal =      "Engineering and Technology",
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "115--121",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "KTGIAR",
  ISSN =         "0454-1405",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6155 (Computer communications software); C7106
                 (Word processing); C7400 (Engineering computing)",
  keywords =     "ATF; English science papers; File transfer; M-780
                 computer; Misspelt words; Software package; Spelling
                 check; Text files; Text formatter",
  language =     "Japanese",
  pubcountry =   "Japan",
  thesaurus =    "Computer communications software; Engineering
                 computing; Software packages; Spelling aids",
}

@Article{Sennhauser:1993:IRA,
  author =       "Ren{\'e} Sennhauser",
  title =        "Improving the recognition accuracy of text recognition
                 systems using typographical constraints",
  journal =      j-EPODD,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "273--282",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "EPODEU",
  ISSN =         "0894-3982",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 24 09:51:48 1996",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/epodd.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Spelling correction techniques can be used to improve
                 the recognition accuracy of text recognition systems.
                 In this paper a new spelling-error model is proposed
                 that is especially suited to the correction of
                 recognition errors occurring during the recognition of
                 printed documents. An implementation of this model is
                 described that exploits typographical constraints
                 derived from character shapes. In particular, the fact
                 is used that vertical strokes in character images are
                 seldom misrecognised. Experimental results show: (1)
                 that the sizes of candidate word sets are substantially
                 reduced; and (2) that the probability that the wrong
                 candidate word is chosen is reduced by an average
                 factor of approximately 2 when compared to spelling
                 correction techniques without the use of typographical
                 constraints.",
  fjournal =     "Electronic Pub\-lish\-ing\emdash{}Orig\-i\-na\-tion,
                 Dissemination, and Design",
  keywords =     "Text recognition, Recognition accuracy, Spelling
                 correction, Typographical constraints, Stem matching,
                 Typographical distance measure",
}

@InProceedings{Tsunoda:1993:CRA,
  author =       "T. Tsunoda and T. Shiraishi and H. Tanaka",
  title =        "Character recognition by associative completion on
                 words",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1993:IPI",
  pages =        "1135--1138 vol.2",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept. of Electr. Eng., Tokyo Univ., Japan",
  classification = "C5260B (Computer vision and image processing
                 techniques); C5290 (Neural computing techniques)",
  keywords =     "Ambiguity resolutions; ART type neural network;
                 Associative completion; Character recognition;
                 Free-association function; Inference; Learning; Logical
                 word completion system; PDAI and CD architecture; Spell
                 checker; Symbolic logic",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "ART neural nets; Character recognition; Inference
                 mechanisms; Learning [artificial intelligence]",
}

@Article{Wothke:1993:MBA,
  author =       "K. Wothke",
  title =        "Morphologically based automatic phonetic
                 transcription",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "32",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "486--511",
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "G321-5522.",
  abstract =     "A system is described that automatically generates
                 phonetic transcriptions for German orthographic words.
                 The entire generative process consists of two main
                 steps. In the first step, the system segments the words
                 into their morphs, or prefixes, stems, and suffixes.
                 This segmentation is very important for the
                 transcription of German words, because the
                 pronunciation of the letters depends also on their
                 morphological environment. In the second step, the
                 system transcribes the morphologically segmented words.
                 Several transcriptions can be generated per word, thus
                 permitting the system to take pronunciation variants
                 into account. This feature results from the application
                 area of the system, which is the provision of phonetic
                 reference units for an automatic large-vocabulary
                 speech recognition system. Statistical evaluations show
                 that the transcription system has an excellent
                 linguistic performance: more than 99 percent of the
                 segmented words obtain a correct segmentation in the
                 first step, and more than 98 percent of the words
                 receive a correct phonetic transcription in the second
                 step.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Heidelberg Sci. Center, Germany",
  classification = "B6130 (Speech analysis and processing techniques);
                 C5260S (Speech processing); C6180N (Natural language
                 processing)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Automatic large-vocabulary speech recognition system;
                 German orthographic words; Linguistic performance;
                 Morphologically based automatic phonetic transcription;
                 Morphs; Phonetic reference units; Prefixes; Stems;
                 Suffixes",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "Speech analysis and processing; Speech recognition",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1994:SI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Spell It 3",
  journal =      j-CD-ROM-WORLD,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "86",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "CDWOEV",
  ISSN =         "1066-274X",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 17:53:13 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "CD-ROM World",
}

@Article{Arbabi:1994:AAN,
  author =       "M. Arbabi and S. M. Fischthal and V. C. Cheng and E.
                 Bart",
  title =        "Algorithms for {Arabic} name transliteration",
  journal =      j-IBM-JRD,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "183--193",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "IBMJAE",
  ISSN =         "0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-8646",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 3 14:24:13 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.almaden.ibm.com/journal/rd38-2.html",
  abstract =     "An Arabic name can be written in English with many
                 different spellings. For example, the name Sulayman is
                 written only one way in Arabic. In English, this name
                 is written in as many as forty different ways, such as
                 Salayman, Seleiman, Solomon, Suleiman, and Sylayman.
                 Currently, Arabic linguists manually transliterate
                 these names --- a slow, laborious, error-prone, and
                 time-consuming process. We present a hybrid algorithm
                 which automates this process in real time using neural
                 networks and a knowledge-based system to vowelize
                 Arabic. A supervised neural network filters out
                 unreliable names, passing the reliable names on to the
                 knowledge-based system for romanization. This approach,
                 developed at the IBM Federal Systems Company, is
                 applicable to a wide variety of purposes, including
                 visa processing and document processing by border
                 patrols.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Federal Syst. Co., Gaithersburg, MD, USA",
  classification = "C5290 (Neural computing techniques); C6170 (Expert
                 systems); C7820 (Humanities)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
  keywords =     "Arabic linguists; Arabic name transliteration; Border
                 patrols; Document processing; Hybrid algorithm;
                 Knowledge-based system; Real-time automatic process;
                 Romanization; Spellings; Supervised neural network;
                 Unreliable names; Visa processing; Vowelization",
  thesaurus =    "Knowledge based systems; Linguistics; Neural nets;
                 Real-time systems",
}

@InProceedings{Besling:1994:HSM,
  author =       "S. Besling",
  title =        "Heuristical and statistical methods for
                 grapheme-to-phoneme conversion",
  crossref =     "Trost:1994:KVN",
  pages =        "23--31",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Philips GmbH Forschungslab., Aachen, Germany",
  classification = "B6130 (Speech analysis and processing techniques);
                 C1140 (Probability and statistics); C1260 (Information
                 theory); C5260S (Speech processing techniques)",
  keywords =     "Bayes' decision rule; Grapheme-to-phoneme conversion;
                 Heuristical method; Most likely phonetic transcription;
                 Statistical methods",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Bayes methods; Speech synthesis; Statistical
                 analysis",
}

@Article{Boian:1994:AWP,
  author =       "E. Boian and A. Danilchenco and L. Topal",
  title =        "Automation of word-forming process in the {Romanian}
                 language",
  journal =      "Studies in Informatics and Control",
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "43--52",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1994",
  ISSN =         "1220-1766",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Inst. of Math., Acad. of Sci., Kishinev, Moldova",
  classification = "C4210L (Formal languages and computational
                 linguistics); C6130D (Document processing techniques);
                 C7820 (Humanities computing)",
  keywords =     "Adjective declination; Automatic word inflexion
                 system; Natural language processing; Noun declination;
                 Romanian language; Romanian text spelling checker;
                 ROMSP; Verb conjugation; Word forming process",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "Romania",
  thesaurus =    "Linguistics; Natural languages; Word processing",
}

@Article{Bos:1994:EDT,
  author =       "Edwin Bos",
  title =        "Error diagnosis in a tutoring system for the
                 conjugation and spelling of {Dutch} verbs",
  journal =      j-COMPUT-HUM-BEHAV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "33--49",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "CHBEEQ",
  ISSN =         "0747-5632",
  ISSN-L =       "0747-5632",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A flexible knowledge-based tutoring system for the
                 conjugation and spelling of Dutch verbs is described.
                 The program, called Het Spelraam, is intended to
                 communicate procedural knowledge about the spelling of
                 verb forms to students with elementary spelling
                 knowledge. The student has to fill in gapped sentences.
                 If an incorrect answer is entered, the system locates
                 the point where the student deviated from the path
                 through the spelling algorithm that is leading to the
                 correct answer. From that particular point the student
                 is guided through the spelling algorithm. The error
                 diagnosis techniques applied are described in detail.
                 Het Spelraam is a commercial product which is used in
                 both schools and language-training institutes. Results
                 from initial evaluations are promising.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Nijmegen",
  classification = "723.1; 723.5; 901.2; 921",
  fjournal =     "Computers in Human Behavior",
  journalabr =   "Comput Hum Behav",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Computer aided instruction; Computer
                 program listings; Dutch verbs; Education; Error
                 diagnosis; Errors; Het Spelraam computer program;
                 Intelligent tutorial systems (its); Interactive
                 computer systems; Knowledge based systems;
                 Knowledge-based tutorial system; User interfaces",
}

@InProceedings{Cavnar:1994:NTF,
  author =       "W. B. Cavnar",
  title =        "{N}-gram-based text filtering for {TREC}-2",
  crossref =     "Harman:1994:STR",
  pages =        "171--179",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Environ. Res. Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
  classification = "C7250R (Information retrieval techniques)",
  keywords =     "Document retrieval; Effectiveness; N-gram-based text
                 filtering; Queries; Routing tasks; Speed; Text
                 filtering systems; Text retrieval systems; TREC-2;
                 Word",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Information retrieval; Information retrieval systems",
}

@Article{Chang:1994:PSA,
  author =       "Chao-Huang Chang",
  title =        "A pilot study on automatic {Chinese} spelling error
                 correction",
  journal =      "Communications of COLIPS",
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "143--149",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "CIPSE9",
  ISSN =         "0218-7019",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:14:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Ind. Technol. Res. Inst., Hsinchu, Taiwan",
  classification = "C6130D (Document processing techniques); C6180N
                 (Natural language processing); C7106 (Word processing);
                 C7820 (Humanities computing)",
  keywords =     "Automatic Chinese spelling error correction; Character
                 shape; Class-based language model; Confusing character
                 substitution; Input keystrokes; Language model
                 evaluation method; Meaning; Precision rate;
                 Pronunciation; Sentence hypotheses; Similar characters;
                 Spelling checking; Spelling error detection",
  language =     "Chinese",
  pubcountry =   "Singapore",
  thesaurus =    "Error correction; Natural languages; Spelling aids",
}

@Article{Cojocaru:1994:RS,
  author =       "S. Cojocaru and M. Evstiunin and V. Ufnarovski",
  title =        "{Romanian} spelling-checker",
  journal =      "Studies in Informatics and Control",
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--58",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1994",
  ISSN =         "1220-1766",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Inst. of Math., Acad. of Sci., Kishinev, Moldova",
  classification = "C4210L (Formal languages and computational
                 linguistics); C6130D (Document processing techniques);
                 C7106 (Word processing); C7820 (Humanities computing)",
  keywords =     "Implementation details; Romanian spelling checker;
                 Romanian spelling-checker; ROMSP; Similar word
                 recognition; Vocabulary; Vocabulary decomposition",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "Romania",
  thesaurus =    "Linguistics; Natural languages; Pattern recognition;
                 Spelling aids",
}

@Article{Cox:1994:NCT,
  author =       "Kevin Cox and Robert Hoffman and Ernest Jordan",
  title =        "New computer tool for writers and readers",
  journal =      j-IEEE-INT-PROFL-COMM-CONF,
  pages =        "272--277",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 94CH3442-1.",
  abstract =     "Today's writing takes place on word processors, or,
                 more precisely, on personal computers using word
                 processing software. This environment offers
                 opportunities to think anew about the way in which
                 writing is done and the ways in which it can be
                 enhanced. One recently discovered data structure for
                 representing text is the PAT array. This paper
                 describes a tool based on the structure and how the it
                 might evolve into a standard feature of word processing
                 packages, taking its place with the spelling checker
                 and thesaurus as a tool for writers and readers. We
                 show how writers might index, summarise and analyse
                 their texts for evidence of cliches, repetition, and
                 over-used phrases; or evaluate the proportion of
                 content language to the issues of the message.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "City Polytechnic of Hong Kong",
  affiliationaddress = "Kowloon, Hong Kong",
  classification = "722.4; 723.1; 723.2; 903.1; 903.2",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the IEEE International Professional
                 Communications Conference",
  fjournal =     "IEEE International Professional Communications
                 Conference",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Int Prof Commun Conf",
  keywords =     "Abstracting; Cliches; Computer software; Computer
                 tool; Content language; Data structures; Indexing (of
                 information); Message; Over used phrases; pat array;
                 Personal computers; Repetition; Spelling checker;
                 Technical writing; Vocabulary control; Word
                 processing",
  meetingaddress = "Banff, Alberta, Can",
  meetingdate =  "Sep 28--Oct 1 1994",
  meetingdate2 = "09/28--10/01/94",
}

@Article{Cunningham:1994:MII,
  author =       "George P. Cunningham",
  title =        "Multiculturalism: Is It the Spell Checker, or Is It
                 Just Me?",
  journal =      "The Journal of the Midwest Modern Language
                 Association",
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "70",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1994",
  ISSN =         "0742-5562",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 17:53:13 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{DasGupta:1994:SCB,
  author =       "S. {Das Gupta} and V. Sridhar",
  title =        "Spelling Correction Based on Hidden {Markov} Models",
  crossref =     "Balakrishnan:1994:CSE",
  pages =        "163--173",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept. of Comput. Sci., Mount Carmel Coll., Bangalore,
                 India",
  classification = "C1140Z (Other topics in statistics); C7106 (Word
                 processing); C7810C (Computer-aided instruction); C7820
                 (Humanities computing)",
  keywords =     "Hidden Markov models; Language tutoring systems;
                 Spelling correction module; Tutoring systems",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Hidden Markov models; Intelligent tutoring systems;
                 Linguistics; Spelling aids",
}

@Article{deHaan:1994:SRS,
  author =       "Ab {de Haan} and Tinus Oppenhuizen",
  title =        "{SPELLER}. {A} reflexive {ITS} to support the learning
                 of second language spelling",
  journal =      j-COMPUT-HUM-BEHAV,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "21--31",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "CHBEEQ",
  ISSN =         "0747-5632",
  ISSN-L =       "0747-5632",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article we describe a normative approach
                 towards knowledge-based tutoring. The normative
                 approach resembles the `meaning is use' attitude
                 present in the pragmatic analyses of natural language
                 meaning. It exhibits the common projective, empathic
                 attitude towards knowledge modelling as just one
                 interaction game amongst others and not the most
                 profitable one to use in human-computer interaction.
                 The normative approach is the basis of the cooperative
                 RITS (reflexive intelligent tutoring system)
                 methodology that interprets human-computer interaction
                 as regulated by social contracts to which partners in
                 the interaction have to be committed. The approach is
                 demonstrated by a description of the SPELLER system for
                 use in instruction in primary second language spelling.
                 The system is able to diagnose spelling errors, to
                 explain these errors to the learner, and to cooperate
                 with the learner in solving spelling problems. The
                 interaction between the learner and the computer is not
                 based on domain or genetic knowledge specified
                 beforehand. Relevant knowledge is generated through
                 conversational interaction game activities between the
                 system and the user. Finally, some observations are
                 made with respect to the use of SPELLER as a
                 remediation tool in a clinical site at our research
                 institute.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Groningen",
  classification = "723.1; 723.5; 901.2",
  fjournal =     "Computers in Human Behavior",
  journalabr =   "Comput Hum Behav",
  keywords =     "Computer aided instruction; Computer program listings;
                 Education; Human-computer interaction; Instructional
                 interaction systems; Intelligent tutorial system (its);
                 Interactive computer systems; Knowledge based systems;
                 Knowledge-based tutoring; Man machine systems;
                 Normative approach; Reflexive intelligent tutorial
                 system (RITS); Second language spelling; speller
                 computer program; User interfaces",
}

@Article{Devlin:1994:CMc,
  author =       "Keith Devlin",
  title =        "Computers and Mathematics",
  journal =      j-NAMS,
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "772--??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "AMNOAN",
  ISSN =         "0002-9920 (print), 1088-9477 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0002-9920",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 5 09:33:30 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "George Gratzer leads off this month's column with the
                 fourth in his series of articles on TEX. Then Eugene
                 Lehman describes a method of solving quartic equations
                 on a pocket calculator. Next Edward Spitznagerl looks
                 at the group theory package GAP; Eric Schweitzer
                 reports on jspell, a {\TeX}-compatible spell checker;
                 and AMAaurine Bautista reviews the software HiQ 2.02.
                 The column concludes with a commentary by W. A. Beyer
                 on a previous Macsyma review and a note regarding an
                 update of Mathematica Help Stack.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Notices of the American Mathematical Society",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.ams.org/notices/",
}

@Article{Haralambous:1994:TK,
  author =       "Yannis Haralambous",
  title =        "Typesetting {Khmer}",
  journal =      j-EPODD,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "197--215",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "EPODEU",
  ISSN =         "0894-3982",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/epodd.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Because of the complexity of Khmer script, up to now
                 there has been neither a typesetting system nor
                 standard encoding for the Khmer language. Presented in
                 this paper are: (a) a complete typesetting system for
                 Khmer based on {\TeX}, {\MF} and an ANSI~C
                 preprocessor, as well as (b) a proposal for an 8-bit
                 encoding table for Khmer information interchange.
                 Problems of phonic input, subscript and superscript
                 positioning, collating order, spelling reforms and
                 hyphenation are solved, and their solutions described.
                 Finally an alternative solution using~16-bit output
                 font tables is briefly sketched.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C4210L (Formal languages and computational
                 linguistics); C6130D (Document processing techniques);
                 C6180N (Natural language processing); C7230 (Publishing
                 and reproduction); C7820 (Humanities computing)",
  fjournal =     "Electronic Pub\-lish\-ing\emdash{}Orig\-i\-na\-tion,
                 Dissemination, and Design",
  keywords =     "16 Bit output font tables; 8 Bit encoding table; ANSI
                 C preprocessor; Austroasiatic languages; Cambodian
                 Republic; Collating order; Hyphenation; Khmer
                 information interchange; Khmer language; Khmer script;
                 METAFONT; Mon-Khmer group; Phonic input; Spelling
                 reforms; Standard encoding; Subscript; Superscript
                 positioning; Typesetting system; {\TeX}",
  pubcountry =   "UK",
  thesaurus =    "Computer controlled typesetting; Electronic
                 publishing; Encoding; Natural languages; Word
                 processing",
}

@InProceedings{Kim:1994:PMA,
  author =       "Deok-Bong Kim and Key-Sun Choi",
  title =        "A predictive morphological analysis of {Korean}
                 without backtracking",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1994:PPP",
  pages =        "712--717 vol.2",
  month =        "1994 2 vol. xi+",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept. of Comput. Sci., Korea Adv. Inst. of Sci. and
                 Technol., Seoul, South Korea",
  classification = "C1180 (Optimisation techniques); C4240C
                 (Computational complexity); C6130 (Data handling
                 techniques); C7820 (Humanities computing)",
  keywords =     "Deterministic model; Dynamic programming; Fast
                 processing; Feasible morpheme sequences; Input word;
                 Korean; Korean corpus; Morphological analysis
                 algorithm; Predictive morphological analysis;
                 Predictive rule application; Random word selection;
                 Reliable processing; Spelling rule interpretation; Time
                 bound",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Computational complexity; Dynamic programming;
                 Linguistics; Natural languages",
}

@InProceedings{Desmarais:1994:OCL,
  author =       "L. Desmarais and J. R. Roy",
  title =        "{ORTHO}-{DIDAC}: courseware for learning {French}
                 spelling",
  crossref =     "Borchardt:1994:CAS",
  pages =        "75--77",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:14:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C7106 (Word processing); C7810C (Computer-aided
                 instruction); C7820 (Humanities computing)",
  keywords =     "Adult learners; Computer-assisted instruction;
                 Educators; French spelling; General competence;
                 Learning; Office work tool; ORTHO-DIDAC courseware;
                 Parents; Social organization leaders; Spell checker;
                 Spelling skills improvement; Teaching strategy",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Courseware; Languages; Spelling aids; Teaching",
}

@Article{Du:1994:ADV,
  author =       "M.-W. Du and S. C. Chang",
  title =        "Approach to designing very fast approximate string
                 matching algorithms",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-KNOWL-DATA-ENG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "620--633",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ITKEEH",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/69.298177",
  ISSN =         "1041-4347",
  ISSN-L =       "1041-4347",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "An approach to designing very fast algorithms for
                 approximate string matching in a dictionary is
                 proposed. Multiple spelling errors corresponding to
                 insert, delete, change, and transpose operations on
                 character strings are considered in the fault model.
                 The design of very fast approximate string matching
                 algorithms through a four-step reduction procedure is
                 described. The final and most effective step uses
                 hashing techniques to avoid comparing the given word
                 with words at large distances. The technique has been
                 applied to a library book catalog textbase. The
                 experiments show that performing approximate string
                 matching for a large dictionary in real-time on an
                 ordinary sequential computer under our multiple fault
                 model is feasible.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "GTE Lab Inc",
  affiliationaddress = "Waltham, MA, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 722.4; 723.1; 723.2; 903.1; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=69",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Trans Knowl Data Eng",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Character recognition; Character strings;
                 Computational linguistics; Data reduction; Data
                 structures; Error correction; Errors; Hashing
                 techniques; Information retrieval; Interactive computer
                 systems; Man machine systems; Multiple spelling errors;
                 Nearest neighbor search; Terminology; Textbase; Very
                 fast approximate string matching algorithms",
}

@InProceedings{Fournier:1994:SUW,
  author =       "J.-P. Fournier",
  title =        "Searching for unknown words with docile agents",
  crossref =     "Trost:1994:KVN",
  pages =        "112--120",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Language and Cognition Group, CNRS, Orsay, France",
  classification = "C6170 (Expert systems); C6180N (Natural language
                 processing); C7240 (Information analysis and indexing);
                 C7250R (Information retrieval techniques)",
  keywords =     "Adjustment method; Distributed artificial
                 intelligence; Docile agent paradigm; Docile agents;
                 Large lexicons; Misspelled word correcting systems;
                 Misspelled words; Natural language processing systems;
                 Unknown word searching",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Cooperative systems; Glossaries; Information
                 retrieval; Natural languages; Software agents; Spelling
                 aids",
}

@Article{Iida:1994:MAK,
  author =       "T. Iida and Y. Nakamura",
  title =        "A method to accept katakana variants",
  journal =      j-TRANS-INFO-PROCESSING-SOC-JAPAN,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "2276--2282",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "JSGRD5",
  ISSN =         "0387-5806",
  ISSN-L =       "0387-5806",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "NTT Commun. Sci. Labs., Japan",
  classification = "C6180N (Natural language processing); C7240
                 (Information analysis and indexing); C7820 (Humanities
                 computing)",
  fjournal =     "Transactions of the Information Processing Society of
                 Japan",
  keywords =     "Conversion rules; Electronic dictionary; Japanese
                 katakana; Katakana character conversion; Prohibition
                 rules; Pronunciation; Romaji reading; Rules; Spelling;
                 Vocabulary words",
  language =     "Japanese",
  pubcountry =   "Japan",
  thesaurus =    "Glossaries; Linguistics; Natural languages;
                 Vocabulary",
}

@InProceedings{JunWu:1994:CSU,
  author =       "Jun Wu and Zuoying Wang and Jiasong Sun and Jin Guo",
  title =        "{Chinese} speech understanding and spelling-word
                 translation based on the statistics of corpus",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1994:IIC",
  pages =        "207--210",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:14:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept. of Electron. Eng., Tsinghua Univ., Beijing,
                 China",
  classification = "B6130 (Speech analysis and processing techniques);
                 C1140Z (Other topics in statistics); C4210L (Formal
                 languages and computational linguistics); C5260S
                 (Speech processing techniques); C6130D (Document
                 processing techniques); C6180N (Natural language
                 processing); C7820 (Humanities computing)",
  keywords =     "Accuracy rate; Acoustic recognition errors; Chinese
                 speech understanding; Chinese words; Corpus statistics;
                 Natural language processing approach; Spelling word
                 translation; Spelling-word translation; THED-919
                 Chinese speech recognition system; Unrestricted text",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Language translation; Natural language interfaces;
                 Natural languages; Speech recognition; Statistical
                 analysis; Word processing",
}

@Article{Manber:1994:AAM,
  author =       "Udi Manber and Sun Wu",
  title =        "Algorithm for approximate membership checking with
                 application to password security",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-LETT,
  volume =       "50",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "191--197",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "IFPLAT",
  ISSN =         "0020-0190 (print), 1872-6119 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0020-0190",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a large set of words W, we want to be able to
                 determine quickly whether a query word q is close to
                 any word in the set. A new data structure is presented
                 that allows such queries to be answered very quickly
                 even for huge sets if the words are not too long and
                 the query is quite close. The major application is in
                 limiting password guessing by verifying, before a
                 password is approved, that the password is not too
                 close to a dictionary word. Other applications include
                 spelling correction of bibliographic files and
                 approximate matching.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Arizona",
  affiliationaddress = "Tucson, AZ, USA",
  classification = "723.2; 723.3",
  fjournal =     "Information Processing Letters",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00200190",
  journalabr =   "Inf Process Lett",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Approximate string matching; Bibliographic
                 files; Bloom filters; Codes (symbols); Cryptography;
                 Data structures; Password security; Query languages;
                 Security of data; Spell checking",
}

@InProceedings{Oflazer:1994:SCA,
  author =       "K. Oflazer and C. Guezey",
  title =        "Spelling Correction in Agglutinative Languages",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1994:FCA",
  pages =        "194--195",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Ramshaw:1994:CRS,
  author =       "Lance A. Ramshaw",
  title =        "Correcting real-word spelling errors using a model of
                 the problem-solving context",
  journal =      j-COMP-INTELL,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "185--211",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "COMIE6",
  ISSN =         "0824-7935",
  ISSN-L =       "0824-7935",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper explores the application of a rich model of
                 pragmatic context to the problem of identifying and
                 correcting real-word spelling errors. Results suggest
                 that such a model can be useful for generating and
                 ranking a list of possible corrections according to
                 their contextual relevance. In the domain of expert
                 consultation discourse, a model of pragmatic context
                 must represent not only the user's domain plans, but
                 also the problem-solving processes that explore
                 alternative plans, refining and instantiating the
                 intended plan, and the connections between those
                 problem-solving moves and their resulting discourse
                 manifestations. In the model presented, metaplans are
                 used to represent these problem-solving and discourse
                 levels, while heuristics that take into account the
                 user's problem-solving strategies and world knowledge
                 serve to rank the relative likelihood of different
                 possible next queries. An implementation of this model
                 has been used to suggest pragmatically coherent
                 interpretations that can be matched against a partial
                 parse of the input in order to generate possible
                 corrections for real-word spelling errors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Bowdoin Coll",
  affiliationaddress = "Brunswick, ME, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 723.4.1; 723.5; 921.6",
  fjournal =     "Computational Intelligence",
  journalabr =   "Comput Intell",
  keywords =     "Computational linguistics; Computer simulation;
                 Constraint theory; Discourse modeling; Error
                 correction; Error identification; Expert consultation
                 discourse; Expert systems; Heuristic methods; Ill
                 formedness; Mathematical models; Natural language
                 processing systems; Pragmatics; Problem solving; Real
                 word spelling error; Rich model; Spelling correction;
                 Systems analysis",
}

@Article{Schulz:1994:FSS,
  author =       "U. Schulz",
  title =        "Fault-tolerant structure of search processes in
                 {OPACs}",
  journal =      "ABI-Technik",
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "299--310",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ABITD7",
  ISSN =         "0720-6763",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Fachhochschule Hamburg, Germany",
  classification = "C7240 (Information analysis and indexing); C7250R
                 (Information retrieval techniques)",
  keywords =     "Automatic spelling correction; Automatic stemming;
                 Co-terms; Database contents; End-users; Fault-tolerant
                 structure; German OPAC; Help-functions; Hints;
                 Incomprehensible options; OPAC; OPAC user research;
                 Orientation; Relevance; Relevance feedback; Relevance
                 ranking; Search processes; Software-based activities",
  language =     "German",
  pubcountry =   "Germany",
  thesaurus =    "Cataloguing; Information retrieval; Library
                 automation; Relevance feedback",
}

@InProceedings{Trenkle:1994:DSC,
  author =       "John M. Trenkle and Robert C. {Vogt, III}",
  title =        "Disambiguation and spelling correction for a neural
                 network-based character recognition system",
  crossref =     "Vincent:1994:DRC",
  pages =        "322--333",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Various approaches have been proposed over the years
                 for using contextual and linguistic information to
                 improve the recognition rates of existing OCR systems.
                 However, there is an intermediate level of information
                 that is currently underutilized for this task:
                 confidence measures derived from the recognition
                 system. This paper describes a high-performance
                 recognition system that utilizes identification of
                 field type coupled with field-level disambiguation and
                 a spell-correction algorithm to significantly improve
                 raw recognition outputs. This paper details the
                 implementation of a high-accuracy machine-print
                 character recognition system based on backpropagation
                 neural networks. The system makes use of neural net
                 confidences at every stage to make decisions and
                 improve overall performance. It employs disambiguation
                 rules and a robust spell-correction algorithm to
                 enhance recognition. These processing techniques have
                 led to substantial improvements of recognition rates in
                 large scale tests on images of postal addresses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Environmental Research Inst. of Michigan, Ann Arbor,
                 MI, USA",
  classification = "723.2; 723.4; 741.3; 921",
  conference =   "Document Recognition",
  conferenceyear = "1994",
  journalabr =   "Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng",
  keywords =     "Backpropagation neural networks; Disambiguation rules;
                 Image processing; Imaging systems; Neural net
                 confidences; Neural networks; Optical character
                 recognition; Postal addresses; Spelling correction",
  meetingaddress = "San Jose, CA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Feb 9--10 1994",
  meetingdate2 = "02/09--10/94",
  sponsor =      "IS\&T --- Soc for Imaging Science and Technology,
                 Springfield, VA USA; SPIE --- Int Soc for Opt
                 Engineering, Bellingham, WA USA",
}

@Article{Vagelatos:1994:SCS,
  author =       "A. Vagelatos and T. Triantopoulou and C. Tsalidis and
                 D. Christodoulakis",
  title =        "A spelling correction system for {Modern Greek}",
  journal =      "International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools
                 [Architectures, Languages, Algorithms]",
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "429--450",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "IAITEL",
  ISSN =         "0218-2130",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:14:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept. of Comput. Eng., Patras Univ., Greece",
  classification = "C7106 (Word processing); C7820 (Humanities
                 computing)",
  keywords =     "Computer engineering; Interactive spelling checking
                 system; Modern Greek; Morphology; MS-DOS based
                 computers; Optimal engineering quality; Optimal
                 linguistic performance; Software tools; Spelling
                 correction system",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "Singapore",
  thesaurus =    "Languages; Linguistics; Microcomputer applications;
                 Spelling aids",
}

@Article{Willis:1994:SCF,
  author =       "Tony Willis and Rhett Skubis",
  title =        "Spell Checks Not Foolproof",
  journal =      j-C-JET,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14",
  month =        "Fall",
  year =         "1994",
  ISSN =         "0198-6554",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 17:53:13 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "C: JET, Communication: journalism education today",
}

@Article{Adriaens:1995:SEG,
  author =       "G. Adriaens",
  title =        "Simplified {English} grammar and style correction in
                 an {MT} framework: the {LRE} {SECC} project",
  journal =      j-ASLIB-PROC,
  volume =       "47",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "73--82",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ASLPAO",
  ISSN =         "0001-253X (print), 1758-3748 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-253X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Siemens Nixdorf Software Centre, Liege, Belgium",
  classification = "C6130D (Document processing techniques); C6180N
                 (Natural language processing); C7820 (Humanities
                 computing)",
  fjournal =     "ASLIB Proceedings",
  keywords =     "Lingware; LRE SECC project; LRE-2; Machine
                 translation; MT framework; Simplified English grammar;
                 Simplified English Grammar and Style Checker/Corrector;
                 Software tool; Style correction; User interface; Word
                 processing; Writing tool",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "UK",
  thesaurus =    "Error correction; Grammars; Language translation;
                 Natural languages; Spelling aids; Text editing; Word
                 processing",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1995:SCR,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Spell Check Reject",
  journal =      j-OFF-OUR-BACKS,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "14",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1995",
  ISSN =         "0030-0071",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 17:53:13 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "A word on updating lexicons and vocabulary.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Off our backs",
}

@Article{Bass:1995:SNN,
  author =       "S. Bass and S. Dunn",
  title =        "Software for next to nothing",
  journal =      j-PC-WORLD,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "118--124, 126",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "PCWDDV",
  ISSN =         "0737-8939 (print), 1944-9143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0737-8939",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "D2010 (Business and professional); D2080
                 (Information services and database systems); D4000
                 (Office automation - communications); D5000 (Office
                 automation - computing)",
  fjournal =     "PC World",
  keywords =     "Applications enhancements; Calculator; Communications
                 add-ons; Comset; Cyberspace; Desktop publisher; Desktop
                 publishing; Fill-in-the-Blank correspondence; Fonts;
                 How to Write a Business Plan; Jody's Tenkey 3.0;
                 Mosaic; Personal information managers; Portacall; PR
                 Kit; Rites for Writing Right; Shareware; Software;
                 Spell Check 3.1b; Utilities; Wincode; Word processing
                 add ons",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "Business communication; Buyer's guides; Character
                 sets; Desktop publishing; Electronic calculators;
                 Internet; Personal information systems; Public domain
                 software; Software reviews; Utility programs; Word
                 processing",
}

@InProceedings{Betz:1995:LMS,
  author =       "M. Betz and H. Hild",
  title =        "Language models for a spelled letter recognizer",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1995:ICA",
  pages =        "856--859 vol.1",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1995",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:14:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Karlsruhe Univ., Germany",
  classification = "B6130 (Speech analysis and processing techniques);
                 C5260S (Speech processing techniques); C5585 (Speech
                 recognition and synthesis equipment); C6180N (Natural
                 language processing); C7106 (Word processing)",
  keywords =     "Bigrams; Continuously spelled last names; Hypothesis
                 mapping; Language models; Legal string; Memory bounds;
                 N-best lists; Search process; Search space; Sentences;
                 Speech recognition applications; Spelled letter
                 recognizer; Spelling task; String accuracy; Telephone
                 book; Time bounds",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Grammars; Natural languages; Search problems; Speech
                 recognition; Spelling aids",
}

@Article{Church:1995:CAN,
  author =       "Kenneth W. Church and Lisa F. Rau",
  title =        "Commercial applications of natural language
                 processing",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "71--79",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Vast quantities of text are becoming available in
                 electronic form, ranging from published documents to
                 private databases, to personal email and faxes. With
                 media attention reaching all-time highs, hardly a day
                 goes by without a new article on the National
                 Information Infrastructure, digital libraries,
                 networked services, digital convergence or intelligent
                 agents. This attention is moving natural language
                 processing along the critical path for all kinds of
                 novel application. This paper presents a number of
                 successful application of natural language processing.
                 Word processing and information management are of the
                 better examples, though there have been many others,
                 both large and small.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "AT\&T Bell Lab",
  affiliationaddress = "Murray Hill, NJ, USA",
  classification = "723.1; 723.2; 723.3; 723.5; 903.2; 903.3",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; Categorization; Commercial
                 applications; Computer aided language translation;
                 Computer software; Data processing; Database systems;
                 Desktop publishing; Grammar checking; Information
                 management; Information retrieval systems; Information
                 technology; Internationalization; Localization; Machine
                 translation; Natural language processing systems;
                 Spelling correction; Terminology; Word processing",
}

@Article{Hatakeyama:1995:IEJ,
  author =       "T. Hatakeyama and H. Kakuda",
  title =        "The implementation and evaluation of a {Japanese}
                 editor utilizing pronunciation-information",
  journal =      j-TRANS-INFO-PROCESSING-SOC-JAPAN,
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "119--128",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "JSGRD5",
  ISSN =         "0387-5806",
  ISSN-L =       "0387-5806",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6130 (Data handling techniques)",
  fjournal =     "Transactions of the Information Processing Society of
                 Japan",
  keywords =     "Editor cursor; English text; Evaluation; I-search;
                 Incremental search; Japanese editor; Japanese text;
                 JEM; Kana-kanji conversion; Multi-layered text
                 structure; Phrase boundaries; Pronunciation
                 information; Pronunciation spellings",
  language =     "Japanese",
  pubcountry =   "Japan",
  thesaurus =    "Character sets; Text editing",
}

@InProceedings{Junqua:1995:NSD,
  author =       "J.-C. Junqua and S. Valente and D. Fohr and J.-F.
                 Mari",
  title =        "An {N}-best strategy, dynamic grammars and selectively
                 trained neural networks for real-time recognition of
                 continuously spelled names over the telephone",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1995:ICA",
  pages =        "852--855 vol.1",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1995",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:14:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Speech Technol. Lab., Panasonic Technol. Inc., Santa
                 Barbara, CA, USA",
  classification = "B0240Z (Other topics in statistics); B6130 (Speech
                 analysis and processing techniques); B6210D
                 (Telephony); C1140Z (Other topics in statistics);
                 C5260S (Speech processing techniques); C5290 (Neural
                 computing techniques); C5585 (Speech recognition and
                 synthesis equipment); C6180N (Natural language
                 processing)",
  keywords =     "Continuously spelled names; Dictionary; Dynamic
                 grammars; Feature sets; First-order HMM; N-best
                 multi-pass recognition; N-best strategy; Name
                 recognition rate; Real-time implementation; Real-time
                 prototype; Real-time recognition; Second-order HMM;
                 Selectively trained neural networks; Smartspell;
                 Speaker-independent algorithm; Speech representation;
                 Telephone; Workstation",
  language =     "English",
  thesaurus =    "Grammars; Hidden Markov models; Learning [artificial
                 intelligence]; Neural nets; Real-time systems; Speech
                 processing; Speech recognition; Telephony",
}

@Article{Liang:1995:RTC,
  author =       "Rung-Huei Liang and Ming Ouhyoung",
  title =        "A Real-time Continuous Alphabetic Sign Language to
                 Speech Conversion {VR} System",
  journal =      j-CGF,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "C/67--C/76",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "CGFODY",
  ISSN =         "0167-7055 (print), 1467-8659 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-7055",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 18 14:10:18 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5260B (Computer vision and image processing
                 techniques); C5260S (Speech processing techniques);
                 C5540B (Interactive-input devices); C6130B (Graphics
                 techniques); C6180 (User interfaces); C7850 (Computer
                 assistance for persons with handicaps)",
  conflocation = "Maastricht, Netherlands; 18 Aug.-1 Sept. 1995",
  conftitle =    "EUROGRAPHICS '95",
  corpsource =   "Dept. of Comput. Sci. and Inf. Eng., Nat. Taiwan
                 Univ., Taipei, Taiwan",
  fjournal =     "Com{\-}pu{\-}ter Graphics Forum",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1467-8659/",
  keywords =     "American; American Sign Language; ASL; contact point;
                 Contact point; contact point; conversion system; data;
                 Data glove; data gloves; flex information; Flex
                 information; flex information; Gesture; gesture;
                 gesture recognition system; Gesture recognition system;
                 gesture recognition system; glove; glove cover; Glove
                 cover; glove cover; handicapped aids; hearing impaired
                 people; Hearing impaired people; hearing impaired
                 people; Human-computer communication; human-computer
                 communication; image recognition; impaired people;
                 intrinsic ambiguities; Intrinsic ambiguities; intrinsic
                 ambiguities; real-time; real-time continuous alphabetic
                 sign language to speech; Real-time continuous
                 alphabetic sign language to speech conversion system;
                 recognition strategy; reconfigured continuous alphabet
                 flow; Reconfigured continuous alphabet flow;
                 reconfigured continuous alphabet flow; Sign Language;
                 speaking; Speaking impaired people; Speech synthesis;
                 speech synthesis; spelling; systems; tact switches;
                 Tact switches; tact switches; user interfaces; virtual
                 reality; Virtual reality system; virtual reality
                 system; windowed template matching; Windowed template
                 matching recognition strategy; word; Word spelling",
  thesaurus =    "Data gloves; Handicapped aids; Image recognition;
                 Real-time systems; Speech synthesis; User interfaces;
                 Virtual reality",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Miller:1995:RAC,
  author =       "John W. Miller",
  title =        "Random access from compressed datasets with perfect
                 value hashing",
  journal =      j-IEEE-INT-SYMP-INF-THEORY,
  pages =        "454--??",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "PISTFZ",
  ISSN =         "0271-4655",
  ISSN-L =       "0271-4655",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 95CB35738.",
  abstract =     "A representation technique is presented allowing for
                 quick access of individual records from a static
                 compressed dataset. Given a collection of key-record
                 pairs, the representation allows the appropriate short
                 record to be returned for any given key. The approach
                 is a generalization of Perfect Address Hashing. The new
                 approach, called Perfect Value Hashing, uses a
                 carefully chosen pseudo-random number generator to
                 directly produce the correct record for any key in the
                 dataset. This contrasts with Address Hashing where the
                 random number provides an address which is then used to
                 recover the record from a separate table. Value Hashing
                 doesn't have the theoretical limitations of Address
                 Hashing, and in practice is more space efficient for
                 records of size less than 36 bits. Value Hashing has
                 the added benefit (important when the records are
                 encoded for compression) that variable length records
                 can be represented without an increase in the size of
                 the encoded records. This new technique was used to
                 provide random access from a highly compressed spelling
                 dictionary.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "One Microsoft Way",
  affiliationaddress = "Redmond, WA, USA",
  classification = "723.2; 921.6; 922.2",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Symposium
                 on Information Theory",
  fjournal =     "IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Int Symp Inf Theor Proc",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Data compression; Data processing; Data
                 sets; Data structures; Encoding (symbols); File
                 organization; Perfect address hashing; Perfect value
                 hashing; Random number generation; Spelling
                 dictionary",
  meetingaddress = "Whistler, BC, Can",
  meetingdate =  "Sep 17--22 1995",
  meetingdate2 = "09/17--22/95",
  sponsor =      "IEEE",
}

@Article{Oommen:1995:PRS,
  author =       "B. J. Oommen and R. K. S. Loke",
  title =        "Pattern recognition of strings containing traditional
                 and generalized transposition errors",
  journal =      j-PROC-IEEE-CONF-SYST-MAN-CYBERN,
  volume =       "2",
  pages =        "1154--1159",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "PICYE3",
  ISSN =         "0884-3627",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 95CB35767.",
  abstract =     "We study the problem of recognizing a string Y which
                 is the noisy version of some unknown string X* chosen
                 from a finite dictionary, H. The traditional case which
                 has been extensively studied in the literature is the
                 one in which Y contains substitution, insertion and
                 deletion (SID) errors. Although some work has been done
                 to extend the traditional set of edit operations to
                 include the straightforward transposition of adjacent
                 characters [LW75] the problem is unsolved when the
                 transposed characters are themselves subsequently
                 substituted, as is typical in cursive and typewritten
                 script, in molecular biology and in noisy chain-coded
                 boundaries. In this paper we present the first reported
                 solution to the analytic problem of editing one string
                 X to another, Y using these four edit operations. A
                 scheme for obtaining the optimal edit operations has
                 also been given. Both these solutions are optimal for
                 the infinite alphabet case. Using these algorithms we
                 present a syntactic pattern recognition scheme which
                 corrects noisy text containing all these types of
                 errors. The paper includes experimental results
                 involving subdictionaries of the most common English
                 words which demonstrate the superiority of our system
                 over existing methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Carleton Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Ottawa, Ont, Can",
  classification = "723; 723.2; 723.5; 903.3",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the 1995 IEEE International Conference
                 on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Part 2 (of 5)",
  fjournal =     "Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on
                 Systems, Man and Cybernetics",
  journalabr =   "Proc IEEE Int Conf Syst Man Cybern",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Deletion errors; Error correction; Errors;
                 Finite dictionary; Image processing; Information
                 retrieval; Insertion errors; Noisy keywords; Pattern
                 recognition; Spelling correction; Substitution errors;
                 Text editing; Word processing",
  meetingaddress = "Vancouver, BC, Can",
  meetingdate =  "Oct 22--25 1995",
  meetingdate2 = "10/22--25/95",
  sponsor =      "IEEE",
}

@Article{Prosise:1995:TNM,
  author =       "Jeff Prosise",
  title =        "Tutor --- No Matter How You Spell It, Soundex Finds
                 It",
  journal =      j-PC-MAGAZINE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "261",
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "PCMGEP",
  ISSN =         "0888-8507",
  ISSN-L =       "0888-8507",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 25 17:53:13 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "PC Magazine",
}

@Article{Vagelatos:1995:ULS,
  author =       "A. Vagelatos and T. Triantopoulou and C. Tsalidis and
                 D. Christodoulakis",
  title =        "Utilization of a lexicon for spelling correction in
                 {Modern Greek}",
  journal =      j-PROC-ACM-SYMP-APPL-COMPUTING,
  pages =        "267--271",
  year =         "1995",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper we present an interactive spelling
                 correction system for Modern Greek (M.G.). The entire
                 system is based on a morphological lexicon. Emphasis is
                 given to the development of the lexicon, especially as
                 far as storage economy, speed efficiency and dictionary
                 coverage are concerned. Extensive research was
                 conducted from both the computer engineering and
                 linguistic fields, in order to describe inflectional
                 morphology as economically as possible.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Patras",
  affiliationaddress = "Greece",
  classification = "722.1; 722.4; 903.1",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the 1995 ACM Symposium on Applied
                 Computing",
  fjournal =     "Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied
                 Computing",
  journalabr =   "Proc ACM Symp Appl Computing",
  keywords =     "Data storage equipment; Efficiency; Error correction;
                 Inflectional morphology; Interactive computer systems;
                 Interactive spelling correction; Linguistics; Modern
                 Greek; Morphological lexicon; Speed efficiency; Storage
                 economy",
  meetingaddress = "Nashville, TN, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Feb 26--28 1995",
  meetingdate2 = "02/26--28/95",
}

@Article{Vidal:1995:FCN,
  author =       "Enrique Vidal and Andres Marzal and Pablo Aibar",
  title =        "Fast computation of normalized edit distances",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-PATT-ANAL-MACH-INTEL,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "899--902",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ITPIDJ",
  ISSN =         "0162-8828",
  ISSN-L =       "0162-8828",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The Normalized Edit Distance (NED) between two strings
                 X and Y is defined as the minimum quotient between the
                 sum of weights of the edit operations required to
                 transform X into Y and the length of the editing path
                 corresponding to these operations. An algorithm for
                 computing the NED has recently been introduced by
                 Marzal and Vidal that exhibits O(mn${}^2$ ) computing
                 complexity, where m and n are the lengths of X and Y.
                 We propose here an algorithm that is observed to
                 require in practice the same O(mn) computing resources
                 as the conventional unnormalized Edit Distance
                 algorithm does. The performance of this algorithm is
                 illustrated through computational experiments with
                 synthetic data, as well as with real data consisting of
                 OCR chain-coded strings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Universidad Politecnica de Valencia",
  classification = "721.1; 723.5; 921.5; 921.6",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine
                 Intelligence",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=34",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell",
  keywords =     "Algorithms; Calculations; Character recognition;
                 Computational complexity; Fast algorithms; Fractional
                 programming; Levenslatein distance; Normalized edit
                 distance; Optical character recognition; Optimization;
                 Pattern recognition; Speech recognition; Spelling
                 correction; String correction",
}

@Article{Yares:1995:ARL,
  author =       "Evan Yares",
  title =        "{AutoCAD R13} looks to the future",
  journal =      "CAE, Computer-Aided Engineering",
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "CCAEDJ",
  ISSN =         "0733-3536",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "AutoCAD Release 13 (R13) is probably the most
                 ambitious revision of the product in its lifetime. Its
                 modern object-oriented underpinnings and inherently
                 extensible architecture will provide a foundation for
                 more capable AutoCAD releases. In this software review,
                 R13 is evaluated and compared with previous releases in
                 terms of performance, design and drafting tools
                 contained, image resolution and enhancement
                 capabilities, interoperability, and features offered.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Design Automation Systems",
  affiliationaddress = "Phoenix, AZ, USA",
  classification = "722.1; 722.2; 723.1; 723.3; 723.5; 902.2",
  journalabr =   "CAE Comput Aided Eng",
  keywords =     "Computational geometry; Computer aided design;
                 Computer software; Database systems; Design aids;
                 Dimensioning; dos; Drafting tools; Drawing (graphics);
                 Geometric tolerance; Graphical user interfaces;
                 Interoperability; Performance; Product design; Random
                 access storage; Software Package autocad R13; Solid
                 modeling; Spell checker; Standards; Three dimensional",
  pagecount =    "3",
}

@Article{Zobel:1995:FAM,
  author =       "J. Zobel and P. Dart",
  title =        "Finding approximate matches in large lexicons",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "331--345",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept. of Comput. Sci., R. Melbourne Inst. of Technol.,
                 Vic., Australia",
  classification = "C1250 (Pattern recognition); C6130D (Document
                 processing techniques); C7250R (Information retrieval
                 techniques)",
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  keywords =     "Approximate matches; Approximate string matching;
                 Compressed inverted files; Index size; Large lexicons;
                 Lexicon indexes; Lexicon indexing techniques; N-grams;
                 Pattern matching; Permuted lexicons; Personal name
                 matching; Phonetic coding; Phonetic codings; Retrieval
                 effectiveness; Retrieval time; Soundex; Spelling
                 correction; String distance measures; String similarity
                 measures",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "UK",
  thesaurus =    "Indexing; Information retrieval; Pattern matching;
                 String matching; Word processing",
}

@Article{Sengupta:1996:MPI,
  author =       "P. Sengupta and B. B. Chaudhuri",
  title =        "Morphological processing of {Indian} languages for
                 lexical interaction with application to spelling error
                 correction",
  journal =      "Sadhana --- Academy Proceedings in Engineering
                 Sciences",
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "pt 3",
  pages =        "363--380",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SAPSER",
  ISSN =         "0256-2499",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "An NLP system for Indian languages should have a
                 lexical subsystem that is driven by a morphological
                 analyzer. Such an analyzer should be able to parse a
                 word into its constituent morphemes and obtain lexical
                 projection of the word as a unification of the
                 projections of the constituent morphemes. Lexical
                 projections considered here are f-structures of the
                 Lexical Functional Grammar (LFG). A formalism has been
                 proposed, by which the lexicon writer may specify the
                 lexicon in four levels. The specifications are compiled
                 into a stored lexical knowledge base on one hand and a
                 formulation of derivational morphology called Augmented
                 Finite State Automata (AFSA) on the other to achieve a
                 compact lexical representation. The aspects of AFSA,
                 especially its power of morphological parsing of words
                 in a computationally attractive manner, has been
                 discussed. An additional utility of the AFSA, in the
                 form of spelling error corrector, has also been
                 discussed. Bangla, or Bengali is considered as a case
                 study. Implementation notes based on object-oriented
                 programming principles has been provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Indian Statistical Inst",
  affiliationaddress = "Calcutta, India",
  classification = "721; 722.4; 723.1.1; 723.2; 723.3; 751.5",
  journalabr =   "Sadhana",
  keywords =     "Augmented finite state automata; Error correction;
                 Finite automata; Formal languages; Indian languages;
                 Knowledge based systems; Knowledge representation;
                 Lexical functional grammar; Lexical interaction;
                 Lexical representation; Morphemes; Morphological
                 analyzer; Natural language processing systems; Object
                 oriented programming; Speech processing; Spelling
                 corrector; Spelling error correction",
}

@Article{Seni:1996:GED,
  author =       "Giovanni Seni and V. Kripasundar and Rohini K.
                 Srihari",
  title =        "Generalizing edit distance to incorporate domain
                 information: handwritten text recognition as a case
                 study",
  journal =      j-PATTERN-RECOGN,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "405--414",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "PTNRA8",
  ISSN =         "0031-3203 (print), 1873-5142 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0031-3203",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 12:19:41 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper the Damerau-Levenshtein string
                 difference metric is generalized in two ways to more
                 accurately compensate for the types of errors that are
                 present in the script recognition domain. First, the
                 basic dynamic programming method for computing such a
                 measure is extended to allow for merges, splits and
                 two-letter substitutions. Second, edit operations are
                 refined into categories according to the effect they
                 have on the visual `appearance' of words. A set of
                 recognizer-independent constraints is developed to
                 reflect the severity of the information lost due to
                 each operation. These constraints are solved to assign
                 specific costs to the operations. Experimental results
                 on 2335 corrupted strings and a lexicon of 21,299 words
                 show higher correcting rates than with the original
                 form.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "CEDAR\slash SUNY at Buffalo",
  affiliationaddress = "Buffalo, NY, USA",
  classification = "721.1; 723.2; 723.5; 921.5",
  fjournal =     "Pattern Recognition",
  journalabr =   "Pattern Recognit",
  keywords =     "Calculations; Character recognition; Constraint
                 theory; Damerau-Levenshtein metric; Dynamic
                 programming; Error correction; Image segmentation; Post
                 processing; Script recognition; Spelling error
                 correction; String distance; String matching; Text
                 editing; Word recognition",
}

@Article{Fidanova:1997:LAS,
  author =       "Stefka Fidanova",
  title =        "Linear array for spelling correction",
  journal =      j-CPE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "967--973",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "CPEXEI",
  ISSN =         "1040-3108",
  ISSN-L =       "1040-3108",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 7 06:06:35 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1040-3108/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract?ID=13811;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=13811&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Concurrency, practice and experience",
}

@Article{Richardson:1998:TCI,
  author =       "Marjorie Richardson",
  title =        "Take Command: {\tt ispell}: Spelling Checker",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "46",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 9 08:35:26 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://noframes.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue46/index.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
}

@InProceedings{Kline:19xx:CRL,
  author =       "E. A. Kline",
  booktitle =    "????",
  title =        "Computer-aided review lessons in {English} grammar and
                 spelling",
  publisher =    "????",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "329--332",
  year =         "19xx",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 29 18:19:53 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  info =         "CHUM6",
  keywords =     "human factors; languages",
  subject =      "J Computer Applications, ARTS AND HUMANITIES \\ K.3.1
                 Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND EDUCATION, Computer
                 Uses in Education, Computer-assisted instruction
                 (CAI)",
  xxnote =       "Is CHUM6 the 6th International Conference on Computing
                 in the Humanities?? I find the 3rd (1977, Waterloo,
                 Ontario), and 5th (1981, Ann Arbor, MI), in the Library
                 of Congress and Stanford RLIN system, but no entry for
                 the 6th.",
}

@Article{Ciura:2001:HSL,
  author =       "Marcin G. Ciura and Sebastian Deorowicz",
  title =        "How to squeeze a lexicon",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "31",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "1077--1090",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.402",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:28:46 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0038-0644;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/85004330/START;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=85004330&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
}

@Article{Lewis:2003:DVS,
  author =       "J. R. Lewis and P. M. Commarford",
  title =        "Developing a voice-spelling alphabet for {PDAs}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "42",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "624--638",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 29 15:40:02 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/",
  URL =          "http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/424/lewis.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
}

@Article{Hughes:2004:CSS,
  author =       "Elliott Hughes",
  title =        "Checking spelling in source code",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "39",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "32--38",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 09:38:14 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Kwon:2004:SKW,
  author =       "Hyuk-Chul Kwon and Mi-Young Kang and Sung-Ja Choi",
  title =        "Stochastic {Korean} Word-Spacing with Smoothing Using
                 {Korean} Spelling Checker",
  journal =      j-INT-J-COMP-PROC-ORIENTAL-LANG,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "239--??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "0219-4279",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 22 10:20:40 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://ejournals.wspc.com.sg/ijcpol/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "International Journal of Computer Processing of
                 Oriental Languages (IJCPOL)",
}

@Article{Cook:2005:HCE,
  author =       "Robert P. Cook",
  title =        "Heuristic compression of an {English} word list",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "577--581",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.648",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 16 07:26:39 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0038-0644;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  abstract =     "The goal of the project was to design and implement an
                 English word-list representation suitable for
                 spell-checking in space-constrained environments. The
                 compression algorithm was derived by statistically
                 analyzing the word list. A compression ratio of 18\%
                 was achieved through a combination of prefix and suffix
                 encoding. The compressed file can be randomly accessed
                 by prefix marker positions. A simple spell-checker
                 based on the encoding was implemented and tested in
                 Java.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  keywords =     "compression; English word list; spell checking",
  onlinedate =   "16 Feb 2005",
}

@Article{Galletta:2005:DSC,
  author =       "Dennis F. Galletta and Alexandra Durcikova and Andrea
                 Everard and Brian M. Jones",
  title =        "Does spell-checking software need a warning label?",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "48",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "82--86",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 23 11:44:05 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Book{Robbins:2005:CSS,
  author =       "Arnold Robbins and Nelson H. F. Beebe",
  title =        "Classic Shell Scripting",
  publisher =    pub-ORA-MEDIA,
  address =      pub-ORA-MEDIA:adr,
  pages =        "xxii + 534",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "0-596-00595-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-596-00595-5",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 R633 2005",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 12 16:13:16 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Chapter 12 develops a compact, flexible, and powerful
                 multilingual spellchecker, and compares it to early
                 software implementations.",
  URL =          "http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/shellsrptg/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Pirkola:2007:FBI,
  author =       "Ari Pirkola and Jarmo Toivonen and Heikki Keskustalo
                 and Kalervo J{\"a}rvelin",
  title =        "Frequency-based identification of correct translation
                 equivalents {(FITE)} obtained through transformation
                 rules",
  journal =      j-TOIS,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATISET",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1292591.1292593",
  ISSN =         "1046-8188",
  ISSN-L =       "0734-2047",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 12 16:52:26 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tois/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "We devised a novel statistical technique for the
                 identification of the translation equivalents of source
                 words obtained by transformation rule based translation
                 (TRT). The effectiveness of the technique called
                 frequency-based identification of translation
                 equivalents ( FITE ) was tested using biological and
                 medical cross-lingual spelling variants and
                 out-of-vocabulary (OOV) words in Spanish--English and
                 Finnish-English TRT. The results showed that, depending
                 on the source language and frequency corpus, FITE-TRT
                 (the identification of translation equivalents from
                 TRT's translation set by means of the FITE technique)
                 may achieve high translation recall. In the case of the
                 Web as the frequency corpus, translation recall was
                 89.2\%--91.0\% for Spanish--English FITE-TRT. For both
                 language pairs FITE-TRT achieved high translation
                 precision: 95.0\%--98.8\%. The technique also reliably
                 identified native source language words: source words
                 that cannot be correctly translated by TRT.
                 Dictionary-based CLIR augmented with FITE-TRT performed
                 substantially better than basic dictionary-based CLIR
                 where OOV keys were kept intact. FITE-TRT with Web
                 document frequencies was the best technique among
                 several fuzzy translation/matching approaches tested in
                 cross-language retrieval experiments. We also discuss
                 the application of FITE-TRT in the automatic
                 construction of multilingual dictionaries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS)",
  keywords =     "Cross-language information retrieval; fuzzy matching;
                 OOV words; transformation rules; transliteration",
}

@Article{Ringlstetter:2007:ATC,
  author =       "Christoph Ringlstetter and Klaus U. Schulz and Stoyan
                 Mihov",
  title =        "Adaptive text correction with {Web}-crawled
                 domain-dependent dictionaries",
  journal =      j-TSLP,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1289600.1289602",
  ISSN =         "1550-4875",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:23:20 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "For the success of lexical text correction, high
                 coverage of the underlying background dictionary is
                 crucial. Still, most correction tools are built on top
                 of static dictionaries that represent fixed collections
                 of expressions of a given language. When treating texts
                 from specific domains and areas, often a significant
                 part of the vocabulary is missed. In this situation,
                 both automated and interactive correction systems
                 produce suboptimal results. In this article, we
                 describe strategies for crawling Web pages that fit the
                 thematic domain of the given input text. Special
                 filtering techniques are introduced to avoid pages with
                 many orthographic errors. Collecting the vocabulary of
                 filtered pages that meet the vocabulary of the input
                 text, dynamic dictionaries of modest size are obtained
                 that reach excellent coverage values. A tool has been
                 developed that automatically crawls dictionaries in the
                 indicated way. Our correction experiments with crawled
                 dictionaries, which address English and German document
                 collections from a variety of thematic fields, show
                 that with these dictionaries even the error rate of
                 highly accurate texts can be reduced, using completely
                 automated correction methods. For interactive text
                 correction, more sensible candidate sets for correcting
                 erroneous words are obtained and the manual effort is
                 reduced in a significant way. To complete this picture,
                 we study the effect when using word trigram models for
                 correction. Again, trigram models from crawled corpora
                 outperform those obtained from static corpora.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Speech and Language Processing
                 (TSLP)",
  keywords =     "Adaptive techniques; dictionaries; domains; error
                 correction; Web crawling",
}

@Article{Dembitz:2011:AOS,
  author =       "{\v{S}}andor Dembitz and Mirko Randi{\'c} and Gordan
                 Gledec",
  title =        "Advantages of online spellchecking: a {Croatian}
                 example",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "1203--1231",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.1037",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 29 14:49:13 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Online spellchecking is commonly regarded as an
                 auxiliary way of performing spellchecking. However, it
                 offers a unique opportunity to constantly improve
                 spellchecker linguistic functionality through
                 interaction with the community of spellchecker users.
                 Such a possibility is crucial for spellchecking in
                 non-central and under-resourced languages, in order to
                 overcome gaps in NLP tools between them and central
                 languages. The paper describes Hascheck, a Croatian
                 online spellchecker able to learn words from texts it
                 receives. It started as the first Croatian
                 spellchecker, hence as a basic NLP tool for an
                 under-resourced language, but due to its learning
                 ability it demonstrates linguistic functionality
                 comparable to that of conventional central-language
                 spellcheckers. Based on these experiences we also
                 discuss the future of online spellchecking in the
                 context of global NLP tasks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  onlinedate =   "12 Dec 2010",
}

@InCollection{Dembitz:2009:S,
  author =       "{\v{S}}andor Dembitz and Gordan Gledec and Mirko
                 Randi{\'c}",
  editor =       "Benjamin W. Wah",
  booktitle =    "Wiley Encyclopedia of Computer Science and
                 Engineering",
  title =        "Spellchecker",
  publisher =    pub-WILEY,
  address =      pub-WILEY:adr,
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2009",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470050118.ecse414",
  ISBN =         "0-471-38393-7 (set), 0-470-05012-8 (v. 1),
                 0-470-05013-6 (v. 2), 0-470-05014-4 (v. 3),
                 0-470-05015-2 (v. 4), 0-470-05016-0 (v. 5)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-471-38393-2 (set), 978-0-470-05012-5 (v. 1),
                 978-0-470-05013-2 (v. 2), 978-0-470-05014-9 (v. 3),
                 978-0-470-05015-6 (v. 4), 978-0-470-05016-3 (v. 5)",
  LCCN =         "QA76.15 .W545 2009",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 29 15:06:48 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  abstract =     "Spellchecking is a basic natural language-processing
                 capability that can be applied to a text. This article
                 introduces the basic concepts of the field, presents a
                 short history of early spellchecking, and elaborates
                 the main research areas in the domain of proofing tool
                 development. The proliferation of spellchecking into
                 languages other than English is also described, as well
                 as contemporary approaches to the implementation of
                 spellchecking capabilities. The conclusion focuses on
                 possible directions for development in the future.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  bookpages =    "xviii + 3223 (5 volumes)",
}

@Article{Rytting:2011:SCD,
  author =       "C. Anton Rytting and David M. Zajic and Paul Rodrigues
                 and Sarah C. Wayland and Christian Hettick and Tim
                 Buckwalter and Charles C. Blake",
  title =        "Spelling Correction for Dialectal {Arabic} Dictionary
                 Lookup",
  journal =      j-TALIP,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1929908.1929911",
  ISSN =         "1530-0226 (print), 1558-3430 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1530-0226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Mar 16 18:07:50 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The ``Did You Mean...?'' system, described in this
                 article, is a spelling corrector for Arabic that is
                 designed specifically for L2 learners of dialectal
                 Arabic in the context of dictionary lookup. The authors
                 use an orthographic density metric to motivate the need
                 for a finer-grained ranking method for candidate words
                 than unweighted Levenshtein edit distance. The Did You
                 Mean...? architecture is described, and the authors
                 show that mean reciprocal rank can be improved by
                 tuning operation weights according to sound confusions,
                 and by anticipating likely spelling variants.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Asian Language Information
                 Processing",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?&idx=J820",
}

@Article{Suraj:2011:RPC,
  author =       "M. G. Suraj and D. S. Guru and S. Manjunath",
  title =        "Recognition of Postal Codes from Fingerspelling Video
                 Sequence",
  journal =      j-INT-J-IMAGE-GRAPHICS,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "21--41",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S021946781100397X",
  ISSN =         "0219-4678",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 8 10:11:09 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://ejournals.wspc.com.sg/ijig/ijig.shtml;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "International Journal of Image and Graphics (IJIG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.worldscientific.com/worldscinet/ijig",
}

@Article{Dalbis:2012:PSC,
  author =       "Tiziano D'albis and Rossella Blatt and Roberto Tedesco
                 and Licia Sbattella and Matteo Matteucci",
  title =        "A predictive speller controlled by a brain-computer
                 interface based on motor imagery",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362364.2362368",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 5 18:10:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Persons suffering from motor disorders have limited
                 possibilities for communicating and normally require
                 assistive technologies to fulfill this primary need.
                 Promising means of providing basic communication
                 abilities to subjects affected by severe motor
                 impairments include brain-computer interfaces (BCIs),
                 that is, systems that directly translate brain signals
                 into device commands, bypassing any muscle or nerve
                 mediation. To date, the use of BCIs for effective
                 verbal communication is yet an open issue, primarily
                 due to the low rates of information transfer that can
                 be achieved with this technology. Still, performance of
                 BCI spelling applications could be considerably
                 improved by a smart user interface design and by the
                 adoption of natural language processing (NLP)
                 techniques for text prediction. The objective of this
                 work is to suggest an approach and a user interface for
                 BCI spelling applications combining state-of-the-art
                 BCI and NLP techniques to maximize the overall
                 communication rate of the system. The BCI paradigm
                 adopted is motor imagery, that is, when the subject
                 imagines moving a certain part of the body, he/she
                 produces modifications to specific brain rhythms that
                 are detected in real-time through an
                 electroencephalogram and translated into commands for a
                 spelling application. By maximizing the overall
                 communication rate, our approach is twofold: on one
                 hand, we maximize the information transfer rate from
                 the control signal, on the other hand, we optimize the
                 way this information is employed for the purpose of
                 verbal communication. The achieved results are
                 satisfactory and comparable with the latest works
                 reported in literature on motor-imagery BCI spellers.
                 For the three subjects tested, we obtained a spelling
                 rate of respectively 3 char/min, 2.7 char/min, and 2
                 char/min.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Varol:2012:HMA,
  author =       "Cihan Varol and Coskun Bayrak",
  title =        "Hybrid Matching Algorithm for Personal Names",
  journal =      j-JDIQ,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2348828.2348830",
  ISSN =         "1936-1955",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 8 18:27:14 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jdqi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jdiq.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Companies acquire personal information from phone,
                 World Wide Web, or email in order to sell or send an
                 advertisement about their product. However, when this
                 information is acquired, moved, copied, or edited, the
                 data may lose its quality. Often, the use of data
                 administrators or a tool that has limited capabilities
                 to correct the mistyped information can cause many
                 problems. Moreover, most of the correction techniques
                 are particularly implemented for the words used in
                 daily conversations. Since personal names have
                 different characteristics compared to general text, a
                 hybrid matching algorithm (PNRS) which employs phonetic
                 encoding, string matching and statistical facts to
                 provide a possible candidate for misspelled names is
                 developed. At the end, the efficiency of the proposed
                 algorithm is compared with other well known spelling
                 correction techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Data and Information Quality (JDIQ)",
}

@Article{Ehsan:2013:GCS,
  author =       "Nava Ehsan and Heshaam Faili",
  title =        "Grammatical and context-sensitive error correction
                 using a statistical machine translation framework",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "43",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "187--206",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.2110",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 7 08:19:39 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  keywords =     "English language; grammar checking; Persian (Farsi)
                 language; spell checking",
  onlinedate =   "26 Jan 2012",
}

@Article{Parvez:2013:OAH,
  author =       "Mohammad Tanvir Parvez and Sabri A. Mahmoud",
  title =        "Offline {Arabic} handwritten text recognition: a
                 survey",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "45",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2431211.2431222",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 7 11:42:33 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Research in offline Arabic handwriting recognition has
                 increased considerably in the past few years. This is
                 evident from the numerous research results published
                 recently in major journals and conferences in the area
                 of handwriting recognition. Features and
                 classifications techniques utilized in recent research
                 work have diversified noticeably compared to the past.
                 Moreover, more efforts have been diverted, in last few
                 years, to construct different databases for Arabic
                 handwriting recognition. This article provides a
                 comprehensive survey of recent developments in Arabic
                 handwriting recognition. The article starts with a
                 summary of the characteristics of Arabic text, followed
                 by a general model for an Arabic text recognition
                 system. Then the used databases for Arabic text
                 recognition are discussed. Research works on
                 preprocessing phase, like text representation, baseline
                 detection, line, word, character, and subcharacter
                 segmentation algorithms, are presented. Different
                 feature extraction techniques used in Arabic
                 handwriting recognition are identified and discussed.
                 Different classification approaches, like HMM, ANN,
                 SVM, k-NN, syntactical methods, etc., are discussed in
                 the context of Arabic handwriting recognition. Works on
                 Arabic lexicon construction and spell checking are
                 presented in the postprocessing phase. Several summary
                 tables of published research work are provided for used
                 Arabic text databases and reported results on Arabic
                 character, word, numerals, and text recognition. These
                 tables summarize the features, classifiers, data, and
                 reported recognition accuracy for each technique.
                 Finally, we discuss some future research directions in
                 Arabic handwriting recognition.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% These entries must come last because they are cross-referenced
%%% by others above.  From version 0.04, ``bibsort -byyear'' will
%%% correctly position Book entries that contain booktitle information.

@Proceedings{ACM:1981:ASS,
  key =          "ACM SIGOA '81",
  title =        "Proceedings of the {ACM} {SIGPLAN} {SIGOA} Symposium
                 on Text Manipulation, {Portland, Oregon}, {June} 8--10,
                 1981",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "160",
  year =         "1981",
  ISBN =         "0-89791-043-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-89791-043-9",
  LCCN =         "QA76.7 .S54 v.16:6",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:53:11 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "ACM SIGPLAN Notices, v. 16, no. 6, (June 1981).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Baal-Schem:1981:OAK,
  editor =       "J. Baal-Schem and others",
  booktitle =    "Electrotechnology for development: proceedings of
                 MELECON '81, the first Mediterranean Electrotechnical
                 Conference, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 24--28 May, 1981",
  title =        "Electrotechnology for development: proceedings of
                 {MELECON} '81, the first Mediterranean Electrotechnical
                 Conference, Tel-Aviv, Israel, 24--28 May, 1981",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "461",
  year =         "1981",
  ISBN =         "????",
  ISBN-13 =      "????",
  LCCN =         "TK 5 M42 1981",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 13:30:00 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Catalog number 81CH1659-2.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Lewis:1981:CEP,
  editor =       "Bob Lewis and Donovan Tagg",
  booktitle =    "Computers in education: proceedings of the IFIP TC-3
                 3rd World Conference on Computers in Education,
                 Lausanne, Switzerland, July 27--31, 1981",
  title =        "Computers in education: proceedings of the {IFIP}
                 {TC}-3 3rd World Conference on Computers in Education,
                 Lausanne, Switzerland, July 27--31, 1981",
  publisher =    pub-NH,
  address =      pub-NH:adr,
  pages =        "xviii + 876",
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "CEDUDS",
  ISBN =         "0-444-86255-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-444-86255-6",
  LCCN =         "LB2846.4.W67 1981",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:00:57 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Nievergelt:1982:DPS,
  editor =       "J. Nievergelt and G. Coray and J.-D. Nicoud and A. C.
                 Shaw",
  booktitle =    "Document Preparation Systems: A Collection of Survey
                 Articles",
  title =        "Document Preparation Systems: {A} Collection of Survey
                 Articles",
  publisher =    pub-ENH,
  address =      pub-ENH:adr,
  pages =        "xiv + 274",
  year =         "1982",
  ISBN =         "0-444-86493-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-444-86493-2",
  LCCN =         "Z244 .D63 1982",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 12 21:44:28 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$46.50",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "algorithms; human factors; languages; theory",
  review =       "ACM CR 40376",
  subject =      "H.1 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems \\ I.7 Computing Methodologies,
                 TEXT PROCESSING, Text Editing \\ I.7 Computing
                 Methodologies, TEXT PROCESSING, Document Preparation J
                 Computer Applications, COMPUTERS IN OTHER SYSTEMS",
}

@Proceedings{USENIX:1982:UAS,
  key =          "USENIX-Summer'92",
  title =        "/usr/group, {USENIX} Association, Software Tools Users
                 Group Joint Conference Proceedings: Boston, July 1982",
  publisher =    pub-USENIX,
  address =      pub-USENIX:adr,
  year =         "1982",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 22 18:58:05 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Badre:1982:DHC,
  editor =       "Albert Badre and Ben Shneiderman",
  title =        "Directions in Human-Computer Interaction",
  publisher =    pub-ABLEX,
  address =      pub-ABLEX:adr,
  pages =        "ix + 225",
  year =         "1982",
  ISBN =         "0-89391-144-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-89391-144-7",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.I58 .D57 1982",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 09:50:08 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       "Human\slash Computer Interaction",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Morgan:1982:NCC,
  editor =       "Howard Lee Morgan",
  title =        "{1982 National Computer Conference: June 7--10, 1982,
                 Houston, Texas}",
  publisher =    pub-AFIPS,
  address =      pub-AFIPS:adr,
  pages =        "xi + 843",
  year =         "1982",
  ISBN =         "0-88283-035-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-88283-035-3",
  LCCN =         "TK7885.A1 J6 1982",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 31 23:10:48 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Williams:1982:PIS,
  editor =       "M. B. Williams",
  title =        "Pathways to the Information Society, Proceedings of
                 the Sixth Informational Conference on Computer
                 Communications (London, Sept. 7--10, 1982)",
  publisher =    pub-NH,
  address =      pub-NH:adr,
  pages =        "xix + 1016",
  year =         "1982",
  ISBN =         "0-444-86464-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-444-86464-2",
  LCCN =         "TK5105.5 .I57 1982",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:44:10 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Scheuermann:1982:PSI,
  editor =       "Peter Scheuermann",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
                 Databases: Improving Usability and Responsiveness, June
                 22--24, 1982, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
                 Israel",
  title =        "Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
                 Databases: Improving Usability and Responsiveness, June
                 22--24, 1982, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
                 Israel",
  publisher =    pub-AP,
  address =      pub-AP:adr,
  pages =        "xvii + 450",
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "PICDD7",
  ISBN =         "0-12-624080-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-12-624080-1",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.D3I558 1982",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:03:15 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$34.00",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Burton:1983:SIC,
  editor =       "Sarah K. Burton and Douglas D. Short",
  title =        "Sixth International Conference on Computers and the
                 Humanities (North Carolina State University, Raleigh,
                 {NC}, June 6--8, 1983)",
  publisher =    pub-CSP,
  address =      pub-CSP:adr,
  pages =        "x + 782",
  year =         "1983",
  ISBN =         "0-914894-96-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-914894-96-4",
  LCCN =         "AZ105 .I56 1983",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 09:59:19 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{ACM:1983:ACP,
  key =          "ACM PSC '83",
  title =        "1983 {ACM} Conference on Personal and Small Computers:
                 Westgate Hotel, San Diego, {CA}, December 7--9, 1983",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "xiii + 267",
  year =         "1983",
  ISBN =         "0-89791-123-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-89791-123-8",
  LCCN =         "QA 76.5 S53 v.6 no.2",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:53:06 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{OShea:1984:AAI,
  editor =       "Tim O'Shea",
  booktitle =    "Advances in artificial intelligence: proceedings of
                 the Sixth European Conference on Artificial
                 Intelligence, ECAI-84, Pisa, Italy, September 5--7,
                 1984",
  title =        "Advances in artificial intelligence: proceedings of
                 the Sixth European Conference on Artificial
                 Intelligence, {ECAI}-84, Pisa, Italy, September 5--7,
                 1984",
  publisher =    pub-NH,
  address =      pub-NH:adr,
  pages =        "xi + 423",
  year =         "1984",
  ISBN =         "0-444-87611-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-444-87611-9",
  LCCN =         "Q334.E97 1984",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 13:46:33 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Camuse:1984:MEC,
  editor =       "Ruth A. Camuse and Gary G. Bitter and Donna
                 Craighead",
  title =        "Microcomputers in Education Conference: Literacy Plus
                 (Arizona State University, Tempe, {AZ}, March 13--15,
                 1984)",
  publisher =    pub-CSP,
  address =      pub-CSP:adr,
  pages =        "xi + 465",
  year =         "1984",
  ISBN =         "0-88175-077-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-88175-077-5",
  LCCN =         "LB1028.5 .M53 1984",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 12 21:44:03 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Patterson:1985:SDN,
  author =       "K. E. Patterson and J. C. Marshall and M. Coltheart",
  booktitle =    "Surface Dyslexia: Neuropsychological and Cognitive
                 Studies of Phonological Reading",
  title =        "Surface Dyslexia: Neuropsychological and Cognitive
                 Studies of Phonological Reading",
  publisher =    pub-ERLBAUM,
  address =      pub-ERLBAUM:adr,
  pages =        "xxii + 544",
  year =         "1985",
  ISBN =         "0-8367-7026-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8367-7026-1",
  LCCN =         "RC394.W6 S971 1985, WL 340.6 S961 1985",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 22 18:29:32 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "UK\pounds 29.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{ACM:1985:RDI,
  key =          "ACM SIGIR '85",
  title =        "Research and Development in Information Retrieval:
                 Eighth Annual International {ACM} {SIGIR} Conference,
                 Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 5--7, 1985",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "288",
  year =         "1985",
  LCCN =         "Z699.A1 I659 1985",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:51:47 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$23.00",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Boyanov:1985:NOA,
  editor =       "Kiril Boyanov",
  title =        "Networks in Office Automation: Proceedings of the
                 {IFIP} {TC} 6 International In-Depth Symposium on
                 Networks in Office Automation, Sofia, Bulgaria, 25--30
                 September, 1984",
  publisher =    pub-NH,
  address =      pub-NH:adr,
  pages =        "x + 281",
  year =         "1985",
  ISBN =         "0-444-87715-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-444-87715-4",
  LCCN =         "HF5547.5 .I34 1985",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 17 11:18:21 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Lawson:1985:TTT,
  editor =       "Veronica Lawson",
  title =        "Tools for the Trade: Translating and the Computer 5:
                 Proceedings of a Conference Jointly Sponsored by Aslib,
                 the Association for Information Management, the Aslib
                 Technical Translation Group, the Translators' Guild,
                 with the co-sponsorship of the Commission of the
                 European Communities: 10--11 November 1983",
  publisher =    pub-ASLIB,
  address =      pub-ASLIB:adr,
  pages =        "xi + 272",
  year =         "1985",
  ISBN =         "0-85142-180-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-85142-180-3",
  LCCN =         "P308.T6 1985",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:30 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "UK\pounds 19.00",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Fallside:1985:CSP,
  editor =       "Frank Fallside and William A. Woods",
  title =        "Computer speech processing",
  publisher =    pub-PHI,
  address =      pub-PHI:adr,
  pages =        "xxi + 506",
  year =         "1985",
  ISBN =         "0-13-163841-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-13-163841-9",
  LCCN =         "TK7895.S65 F351 1985",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:17:08 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$39.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{ATT:1986:AUS,
  author =       "AT{\&T}",
  key =          "ATT",
  booktitle =    "{AT\&T} {UNIX} System Readings and Applications",
  title =        "{AT\&T} {UNIX} System Readings and Applications",
  volume =       "I",
  publisher =    pub-PH,
  address =      pub-PH:adr,
  pages =        "xiv + 397",
  year =         "1986",
  ISBN =         "0-13-938532-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-13-938532-2",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 U553 1986",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:22:25 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1986:EIC,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "Eighth International Conference on Pattern
                 Recognition, Paris, France, October 27--31, 1986:
                 proceedings",
  title =        "Eighth International Conference on Pattern
                 Recognition, Paris, France, October 27--31, 1986:
                 proceedings",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "xxxvi + 1300",
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "PICREG",
  ISBN =         "0-8186-0742-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8186-0742-4",
  LCCN =         "Q 327 I615 1986",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:24:17 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 86CH2342-4.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Caudill:1987:IFI,
  editor =       "Maureen Caudill and Charles Butler",
  title =        "{IEEE} First International Conference on Neural
                 Networks, Sheraton Harbor Island East, San Diego,
                 California, June 21--24, 1987",
  publisher =    pub-SOS-PRINT,
  address =      pub-SOS-PRINT:adr,
  pages =        "(various)",
  year =         "1987",
  ISBN =         "(none)",
  ISBN-13 =      "(none)",
  LCCN =         "QP363.3 .I4 1987 v. 1--4",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:44:30 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1987:MCC,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "Montech '87 conferences: Conference sur les
                 technologies biomedicales, 10, 11, 12 novembre 1987,
                 Montreal = Biomedical technologies conference, November
                 10, 11, 12, 1987",
  title =        "Montech '87 conferences: Conference sur les
                 technologies biomedicales, 10, 11, 12 novembre 1987,
                 Montreal = Biomedical technologies conference, November
                 10, 11, 12, 1987",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "183",
  year =         "1987",
  ISBN =         "????",
  ISBN-13 =      "????",
  LCCN =         "R856.A2 C66 1987",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 13:34:58 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Catalog number 87Ch2919-7.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1987:IEC,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "IEEE engineering communication: a byte into the
                 future: conference record / IPCC, International
                 Professional Communication Conference, 87, October 14
                 to 16, 1987, Sheraton Hotel, Winnipeg, Canada",
  title =        "{IEEE} engineering communication: a byte into the
                 future: conference record / {IPCC}, International
                 Professional Communication Conference, 87, October 14
                 to 16, 1987, Sheraton Hotel, Winnipeg, Canada",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "x + 282",
  year =         "1987",
  ISBN =         "????",
  ISBN-13 =      "????",
  LCCN =         "T10.5.I2 1987",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 13:40:04 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 87CH2428-1.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Knave:1987:WDU,
  editor =       "Bengt Knave and Per-Gunnar Wideback",
  title =        "Work with Display Units 86: Selected Papers from the
                 International Scientific Conference on Work With
                 Display Units, Stockholm, Sweden, May 12--15, 1986",
  publisher =    pub-NH,
  address =      pub-NH:adr,
  pages =        "xvii + 877",
  year =         "1987",
  ISBN =         "0-444-70171-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-444-70171-8",
  LCCN =         "RC965.V53 I57 1986",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 17 11:18:24 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$85",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1988:IIC,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks,
                 Sheraton Harbor Island, San Diego, California, July
                 24--27, 1988",
  title =        "{IEEE} International Conference on Neural Networks,
                 Sheraton Harbor Island, San Diego, California, July
                 24--27, 1988",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "various",
  year =         "1988",
  ISBN =         "",
  ISBN-13 =      "",
  LCCN =         "QP 363.3 I58 1988",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 13:43:51 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Two volumes. IEEE catalog number 88CH2632-8.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{ACM:1988:APS,
  key =          "ACM SIGSMALL '88",
  title =        "Actes/Proceedings, Symposium 1988, {ACM}
                 {SIGSMALL}/{PC}, {Hotel Montfleury}, {Cannes, France},
                 4--6 mai, 1988",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "viii + 196",
  year =         "1988",
  LCCN =         "QA 76.6 A28 1988",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 19 11:53:45 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Campbell:1989:PAI,
  editor =       "J. A. Campbell and J. Cuena",
  title =        "Perspectives in Artificial Intelligence: Collection of
                 Invited and Contributed Papers Presented at the
                 Conference on Artificial Intelligence, held Sept. 7 and
                 11, 1987 in San Sebastian, Spain, within the framework
                 of the Second World Basque Congress",
  publisher =    pub-HALSTED,
  address =      pub-HALSTED:adr,
  year =         "1989",
  ISBN =         "0-470-21434-1 (Halsted Press: v. 1), 0-470-21435-X
                 (Halsted Press: v. 2), 0-7458-0659-7 (v. 1),
                 0-7458-0660-0 (v. 2)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-470-21434-3 (Halsted Press: v. 1),
                 978-0-470-21435-0 (Halsted Press: v. 2),
                 978-0-7458-0659-4 (v. 1), 978-0-7458-0660-0 (v. 2)",
  LCCN =         "Q335 .P42 1989",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:38:40 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Two volumes.",
  price =        "US\$29.95 (v. 1), US\$34.95 (v. 2)",
  series =       "Ellis Horwood series in artificial intelligence",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{ACM:1989:SAA,
  editor =       "{ACM}",
  booktitle =    "Seventeenth annual ACM Computer Science Conference,
                 February 21--23, 1989, Commonwealth Convention Center,
                 Louisville, Kentucky",
  title =        "Seventeenth annual {ACM} Computer Science Conference,
                 February 21--23, 1989, Commonwealth Convention Center,
                 Louisville, Kentucky",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "xix + 491",
  year =         "1989",
  ISBN =         "0-89791-299-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-89791-299-0",
  LCCN =         "QA75.5 .A1371 1989",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:26:56 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1989:NOM,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "National Online Meeting proceedings--1989, New York,
                 May 9--11, 1989",
  publisher =    pub-LEARNED-INF,
  address =      pub-LEARNED-INF:adr,
  pages =        "xv + 506",
  month =        "",
  year =         "1989",
  ISBN =         "0-938734-34-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-938734-34-5",
  LCCN =         "QA76.55 .N37 1989",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 01 02:27:38 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "The following topics were dealt with: gateways; CD-ROM
                 business databases; government information sources; end
                 user access to medical information; engineering
                 information workstations user interfaces for online
                 services; indexing of graphic materials; text/image
                 database design and performance; chief information
                 officer responsibilities; Comprehensive Core Medical
                 Library; alternatives to online databases; trade data;
                 WISER; full text searching behavior; library automation
                 project management; private databases; third world
                 information needs; facsimile and copyright; EasyNet end
                 user's reference needs; trademark images on Dialog; AI;
                 image publishing on CD-ROM; ARS Pesticide properties
                 database; SGML and TeX for interactive chemical
                 encyclopedia; patent information; strategic business
                 intelligence; ISDN; Search MAESTRO SOS; hypertext;
                 telephone diversification and information industry of
                 1990's; global market; reference media diversification;
                 spelling errors; document fulfillment; data quality;
                 art and architecture thesaurus; behavioral and social
                 science information; Information Index; international
                 marketing; aural interfaces; in-house bibliographic
                 databases; PENpages; expert systems; bilingual
                 Hebrew-English acquisition system; CD-ROM MEDLINE;
                 document image archive; and online searching
                 education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C7200 (Information science and documentation)",
  confdate =     "9--11 May 1989",
  conflocation = "New York, NY, USA",
  confsponsor =  "Learned Inf",
  keywords =     "AI; Architecture; ARS Pesticide properties database;
                 Art; Aural interfaces; Bilingual Hebrew-English
                 acquisition system; CD-ROM; CD-ROM business databases;
                 CD-ROM MEDLINE; Chief information officer
                 responsibilities; Comprehensive Core Medical Library;
                 Copyright; Data quality; Document fulfillment; Document
                 image archive; EasyNet; Engineering information
                 workstations; Expert systems; Full text searching;
                 Gateways; Hypertext; Image publishing; In-house
                 bibliographic databases; Indexing; Information Index;
                 Interactive chemical encyclopedia; International
                 marketing; Library automation project management;
                 Medical information; Online databases; Online searching
                 education; Online services; Patent information;
                 PENpages; Private databases; Search MAESTRO SOS; SGML;
                 Spelling errors; TeX; Text/image database design;
                 Thesaurus; Third world information needs; Trade data;
                 Trademark images; User interfaces; WISER",
  thesaurus =    "CD-ROMs; Electronic publishing; Indexing; Information
                 dissemination; Information needs; Information
                 retrieval; Information retrieval systems; Information
                 services; Library automation",
}

@Proceedings{Garcia-Molina:1990:PAS,
  editor =       "Hector Garcia-Molina and H. V. Jagadish",
  booktitle =    "{Proceedings of the 1990 ACM SIGMOD International
                 Conference on Management of Data, May 23--25, 1990,
                 Atlantic City, NJ}",
  title =        "{Proceedings of the 1990 ACM SIGMOD International
                 Conference on Management of Data, May 23--25, 1990,
                 Atlantic City, NJ}",
  volume =       "19(2)",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "xii + 398",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  ISBN =         "0-89791-365-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-89791-365-2",
  ISSN =         "0163-5808 (print), 1943-5835 (electronic)",
  LCCN =         "QA 76.9 D3 S53 v.19 no.2 1990; QA1 .A87",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 25 08:47:39 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/sigmod_pods/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       j-SIGMOD,
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "SIGMOD '90",
}

@Proceedings{Hess:1990:RFC,
  editor =       "Thomas Hess",
  key =          "FORTH '90",
  booktitle =    "1990 Rochester FORTH Conference: Embedded Systems,
                 June 12--16th, 1990, University of Rochester",
  title =        "1990 Rochester {FORTH} Conference: Embedded Systems,
                 June 12--16th, 1990, University of Rochester",
  publisher =    inst-APPL-FORTH-RES,
  address =      inst-APPL-FORTH-RES:adr,
  pages =        "ix + 176",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  ISBN =         "0-914593-10-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-914593-10-2",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.F24 R59 1990",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 26 10:32:38 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  price =        "US\$35.00",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  checked =      "19931205",
}

@Proceedings{ACM:1990:CRS,
  key =          "ACM POPL '90",
  booktitle =    "Conference Record of the Seventeenth Annual ACM
                 Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages:
                 Papers Presented at the Symposium, San Francisco, CA,
                 17--19 January 1990",
  title =        "Conference Record of the Seventeenth Annual {ACM}
                 Symposium on Principles of Programming Languages:
                 Papers Presented at the Symposium, San Francisco, {CA},
                 17--19 January 1990",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "vi + 401",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  ISBN =         "0-89791-343-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-89791-343-0",
  LCCN =         "QA76.7 .A15 1990",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 22 18:08:11 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1990:PII,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 2nd International IEEE Conference
                 on Tools for Artificial Intelligence : Hyatt Hotel,
                 Dulles International Airport, Herndon, VA, USA,
                 November 6--9, 1990",
  title =        "Proceedings of the 2nd International {IEEE} Conference
                 on Tools for Artificial Intelligence : Hyatt Hotel,
                 Dulles International Airport, Herndon, {VA}, {USA},
                 November 6--9, 1990",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "xxi + 895",
  year =         "1990",
  ISBN =         "0-8186-2084-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8186-2084-3",
  LCCN =         "Q334 .I565 1990",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:28:32 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 90CH2915-7",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{INNC:1990:IPI,
  key =          "INNC '90",
  booktitle =    "INNC 90 Paris: International Neural Network
                 Conference, July 9--13, 1990, Palais des Congres,
                 Paris, France",
  title =        "{INNC} 90 Paris: International Neural Network
                 Conference, July 9--13, 1990, Palais des Congres,
                 Paris, France",
  volume =       "1",
  publisher =    pub-KLUWER,
  address =      pub-KLUWER:adr,
  pages =        "xlii + 1098",
  year =         "1990",
  ISBN =         "0-7923-0831-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7923-0831-7",
  LCCN =         "QA76.87 .I584 1990",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 22 18:44:28 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  abstract =     "Summary form only given. As a first step to natural
                 language understanding with neural networks an
                 associative system for recognizing words has been
                 implemented. By using a combination of
                 context-independent and context-sensitive coding of
                 words the system is able to recognize words, even if
                 they are only partly known to the knowledge base. Thus
                 it also achieves correct responses to typing and
                 spelling errors including missing and/or superfluous
                 characters. Recognizing words in this context is
                 defined as associating an (un)known search pattern
                 (word) to one or more known words stored in a
                 lexicon.",
  city =         "Paris, France",
  classification = "C1250B (Character recognition), C1230 (Artificial
                 intelligence), C6180N (Natural language processing)",
  days =         "9--13 July 1990",
  keywords =     "Context independent coding, ASCII character
                 recognition, Words recognition, Connectionistic
                 architectures, Natural language understanding, Neural
                 networks, Associative system, Context-sensitive coding,
                 Search pattern, Lexicon",
  language =     "English",
  refs =         "0",
  sponsor =      "Thomsom",
  thesaurus =    "Character recognition, Encoding, Natural languages,
                 Neural nets, Parallel architectures",
  treatment =    "Experimental",
}

@Proceedings{ASPRS:1991:GLP,
  editor =       "{ASPRS}",
  booktitle =    "GIS-LIS '91 proceedings: 28 October--1 November, The
                 Inforum, Atlanta, Georgia",
  title =        "{GIS}-{LIS} '91 proceedings: 28 October--1 November,
                 The Inforum, Atlanta, Georgia",
  publisher =    "American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote
                 Sensing, American Congress on Surveying and Mapping",
  address =      "Bethesda, MD",
  pages =        "xxxi + 999",
  year =         "1991",
  ISBN =         "0-944426-75-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-944426-75-3",
  LCCN =         "G70.2 .G57 1991",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:30:22 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Two volumes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Presperin:1991:TNA,
  editor =       "J. J. Presperin",
  booktitle =    "Technology for the nineties: 14th Annual conference
                 --- June 1991, Kansas City, MO",
  title =        "Technology for the nineties: 14th Annual conference
                 --- June 1991, Kansas City, {MO}",
  volume =       "11",
  publisher =    "RESNA Press",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "1991",
  ISBN =         "0-932101-29-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-932101-29-7",
  ISSN =         "0883-4741",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       "Proceedings of the RESNA Annual Conference",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  sponsor =      "Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America.",
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1992:AIE,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  booktitle =    "Artificial intelligence, expert systems, natural
                 language: 12th International conference --- June 1992,
                 Avignon, France",
  title =        "Artificial intelligence, expert systems, natural
                 language: 12th International conference --- June 1992,
                 Avignon, France",
  publisher =    "EC2",
  address =      "Nanterre, France",
  pages =        "various",
  year =         "1992",
  ISBN =         "2-906899-72-0, 2-906899-75-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-2-906899-72-8, 978-2-906899-75-9",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Four volumes.",
  price =        "FF1850",
  series =       "Artificial Intelligence Expert Systems Natural
                 Language --- International Conference",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1992:ISI,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "IJCNN-91-Seattle, International Joint Conference on
                 Neural Networks, July 8--12, 1991, Washington State
                 Convention and Trade Center, Seattle, WA",
  title =        "{IJCNN}-91-Seattle, International Joint Conference on
                 Neural Networks, July 8--12, 1991, Washington State
                 Convention and Trade Center, Seattle, {WA}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "various",
  year =         "1992",
  ISBN =         "0-7803-0164-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7803-0164-1",
  LCCN =         "QA76.87.I57 1991b",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:07:16 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Two volumes. IEEE catalog number: 91CH3049-4.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Belkin:1992:SPF,
  editor =       "Nicholas Belkin and Peter Ingwersen and Annelise Mark
                 Pejtersen",
  booktitle =    "SIGIR '92: proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual
                 International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and
                 Development in Information Retrieval: Copenhagen,
                 Denmark, June 21--24, 1992",
  title =        "{SIGIR} '92: proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual
                 International {ACM} {SIGIR} Conference on Research and
                 Development in Information Retrieval: Copenhagen,
                 Denmark, June 21--24, 1992",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "vii + 353",
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "FASRDV",
  ISBN =         "0-89791-523-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-89791-523-6",
  ISSN =         "0163-5840",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.D3I552 1992",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:10:04 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1992:EAP,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "Euro ASIC '92: proceedings, CNIT, Paris, June 1--5,
                 1992",
  title =        "Euro {ASIC} '92: proceedings, {CNIT}, Paris, June
                 1--5, 1992",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "xii + 423",
  year =         "1992",
  ISBN =         "0-8186-2845-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8186-2845-0",
  LCCN =         "TK7874.6 .E87 1992",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:32:31 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog no. 92TH0442-4.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1992:CIC,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  booktitle =    "COLING-92: 15th International conference on
                 computational linguistics --- August 1992, Nantes,
                 France",
  title =        "{COLING}-92: 15th International conference on
                 computational linguistics --- August 1992, Nantes,
                 France",
  volume =       "1",
  publisher =    "ICCL",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "1992",
  ISBN =         "952-90-2028-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-952-90-2028-7",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       "Coling --- Conference",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  sponsor =      "International Committee on Computational
                 Linguistics.",
}

@Proceedings{Presperin:1992:TCI,
  editor =       "J. J. Presperin",
  booktitle =    "Technology for consumers: International conference ---
                 June 1992, Toronto, Canada",
  title =        "Technology for consumers: International conference ---
                 June 1992, Toronto, Canada",
  volume =       "12",
  publisher =    "Resna Press",
  address =      "Washington, DC, USA",
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "1992",
  ISBN =         "0-932101-30-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-932101-30-3",
  ISSN =         "0883-4741",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       "Proceedings of the RESNA Annual Conference",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  sponsor =      "Rehabilitation Engineering Society of North America.",
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1993:CSC,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  booktitle =    "Control systems and computer science: 9th
                 International conference --- 25--28 May 1993,
                 Bucharest",
  title =        "Control systems and computer science: 9th
                 International conference --- 25--28 May 1993,
                 Bucharest",
  publisher =    "Institutul Politehnic Bucuresti. Dept. of Control and
                 Computers",
  address =      "Bucuresti, Romania",
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Two volumes.",
  series =       "International Conference on Control Systems and
                 Computer Science",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  sponsor =      "Politechnica University of Bucharest; Faculty of
                 Control and Computers.",
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1993:ECA,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  booktitle =    "EACL '93: 6th Conference --- April 1993, Utrecht, The
                 Netherlands",
  title =        "{EACL} '93: 6th Conference --- April 1993, Utrecht,
                 The Netherlands",
  publisher =    "Association for Computational Linguistics",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "1993",
  ISBN =         "90-5434-014-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-90-5434-014-0",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       "Conference --- European Chapter of the Association for
                 Computational Linguistics",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  sponsor =      "Association for Computational Linguistics; European
                 Chapter.",
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1993:TAI,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  booktitle =    "Turkish artificial intelligence and artificial neural
                 network: 2nd Symposium --- June 1993, Istanbul,
                 Turkey",
  title =        "Turkish artificial intelligence and artificial neural
                 network: 2nd Symposium --- June 1993, Istanbul,
                 Turkey",
  publisher =    "Univ Bilgisayar",
  address =      "Istanbul, Turkey",
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "1993",
  ISBN =         "975-518-024-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-975-518-024-3",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       "Ikinci Turk Yapay Zeka Ve Yapay Sinir Aglari
                 Sempozyumu",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1993:SII,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "Second IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems:
                 San Francisco, California, March 28--April 1, 1993",
  title =        "Second {IEEE} International Conference on Fuzzy
                 Systems: San Francisco, California, March 28--April 1,
                 1993",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "various",
  year =         "1993",
  ISBN =         "0-7803-0615-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7803-0615-8",
  LCCN =         "TJ212.2.I3249 1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:16:12 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Two volumes. IEEE catalog number: 93CH3136-9.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1993:IAS,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  booktitle =    "IEEE\slash SEMI Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing
                 Conference and Workshop. Theme: Factory of the Future.
                 ASMC '93 Proceedings: October 18--19, 1993, Boston,
                 Massachusetts",
  title =        "{IEEE}\slash {SEMI} Advanced Semiconductor
                 Manufacturing Conference and Workshop. Theme: Factory
                 of the Future. {ASMC} '93 Proceedings: October 18--19,
                 1993, Boston, Massachusetts",
  publisher =    "Semicond. Equipment and Mater. Int",
  address =      "Mountain View, CA, USA",
  pages =        "vi + 253",
  year =         "1993",
  ISBN =         "0-7803-1367-4 (casebound), 0-7803-1366-6 (softbound),
                 0-7803-1368-2 (microfiche)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7803-1367-5 (casebound), 978-0-7803-1366-8
                 (softbound), 978-0-7803-1368-2 (microfiche)",
  LCCN =         "TK 7836 I42 1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 93CH3337-3.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  chemicalindex = "Si/int Si/el",
  confdate =     "18--19 Oct. 1993",
  conflocation = "Boston, MA, USA",
  confsponsor =  "IEEE; Semicond. Equipment and Mater. Int",
  numericalindex = "Size 2.0E-01 m; Size 7.5E-04 m; Size 3.5E-04 m",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1993:PSI,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
                 Document Analysis and Recognition, October 20--22,
                 1993, Tsukuba Science City, Japan",
  title =        "Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
                 Document Analysis and Recognition, October 20--22,
                 1993, Tsukuba Science City, Japan",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "xx + 963",
  year =         "1993",
  ISBN =         "0-8186-4960-7 (paper), 0-8186-4961-5 (microfiche)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8186-4960-8 (paper), 978-0-8186-4961-5
                 (microfiche)",
  LCCN =         "TA1640.I57 1992",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "IEEE Catalog number 93TH0578-5.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "20--22 Oct. 1993",
  conflocation = "Tsukuba Science City, Japan",
  confsponsor =  "IAPR TC-11 and TC-10; IEEE Comput. Soc. and IGS",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1993:IPI,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "IJCNN '93-Nagoya. Proceedings of 1993 International
                 Joint Conference on Neural Networks",
  title =        "{IJCNN} '93-Nagoya. Proceedings of 1993 International
                 Joint Conference on Neural Networks",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "xxxxiv + 3061",
  year =         "1993",
  ISBN =         "0-7803-1421-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7803-1421-4",
  LCCN =         "QA76.87 .I57 1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Three volumes. IEEE Catalog number 93CH3353-0.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "25--29 Oct. 1993",
  conflocation = "Nagoya, Japan",
  confsponsor =  "Japanese Neural Network Soc.; IEEE Neural Networks
                 Council; Int. Neural Network Soc.; European Neural
                 Network Soc.; Soc. Instrum. and Control Eng.; IEICE",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
}

@Proceedings{Strehlow:1993:STB,
  editor =       "Richard A. Strehlow and Sue Ellen Wright",
  booktitle =    "Standardizing terminology for better communication:
                 practice, applied theory, and results",
  title =        "Standardizing terminology for better communication:
                 practice, applied theory, and results",
  volume =       "1166",
  publisher =    pub-ASTM,
  address =      pub-ASTM:adr,
  pages =        "vii + 390",
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "ASTTA8",
  ISBN =         "0-8031-1493-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8031-1493-7",
  ISSN =         "0066-0558",
  LCCN =         "T11.S677 1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 15 14:13:06 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "ASTM publication code number (PCN) 04-011660-42.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1994:IIC,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  booktitle =    "ICSLP 94. 1994 International Conference on Spoken
                 Language Processing",
  title =        "{ICSLP} 94. 1994 International Conference on Spoken
                 Language Processing",
  publisher =    "Acoustical Soc. Japan",
  address =      "Tokyo, Japan",
  pages =        "2258",
  month =        "1994 4 vol.",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:14:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "4 vol.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "18--22 Sept. 1994",
  conflocation = "Yokohama, Japan",
  pubcountry =   "Japan",
}

@Proceedings{Rzevski:1994:AAI,
  editor =       "G. Rzevski and R. A. Adey and D. W. Russell",
  booktitle =    "Applications of artificial intelligence in engineering
                 IX: proceedings of the ninth international conference,
                 held in Pennsylvania, USA, 19th--21st July, 1994",
  title =        "Applications of artificial intelligence in engineering
                 {IX}: proceedings of the ninth international
                 conference, held in Pennsylvania, {USA}, 19th--21st
                 July, 1994",
  publisher =    "Comput. Mech. Publications",
  address =      "Southampton, UK",
  pages =        "618",
  year =         "1994",
  ISBN =         "1-85312-284-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-85312-284-2",
  LCCN =         "TA345.I5674 1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "19--21 July 1994",
  conflocation = "Malvern, PA, USA",
  pubcountry =   "UK",
}

@Proceedings{Borchardt:1994:CAS,
  editor =       "F. L. Borchardt and E. M. T. Johnson",
  booktitle =    "CALICO '94 Annual Symposium. Proceedings of the
                 Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium. 1994
                 Annual Symposium. `Human Factors'",
  title =        "{CALICO} '94 Annual Symposium. Proceedings of the
                 Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium. 1994
                 Annual Symposium. `Human Factors'",
  publisher =    "Duke Univ",
  address =      "Durham, NC, USA",
  pages =        "ix + 246",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:14:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "14--18 March 1994",
  conflocation = "Flagstaff, AZ, USA",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
}

@Proceedings{Trost:1994:KVN,
  editor =       "H. Trost",
  booktitle =    "KONVENS '94. Verarbeitung Naturlicher Sprache (KONVENS
                 '94. Natural Speech Processing)",
  title =        "{KONVENS} '94. Verarbeitung Naturlicher Sprache
                 ({KONVENS} '94. Natural Speech Processing)",
  publisher =    "Univ. Wien",
  address =      "Vienna, Austria",
  pages =        "ix + 442",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "28--30 Sept. 1994",
  conflocation = "Vienna, Austria",
  pubcountry =   "Austria",
}

@Proceedings{Stancikova:1994:EKO,
  editor =       "Pavla Stancikova and Ingetraut Dahlberg",
  booktitle =    "Environmental Knowledge Organization and Information
                 Management. Proceedings of the First European ISKO
                 Conference, 14--16 Sept. 1994, Bratislava, Slovakia",
  title =        "Environmental Knowledge Organization and Information
                 Management. Proceedings of the First European {ISKO}
                 Conference, 14--16 Sept. 1994, Bratislava, Slovakia",
  publisher =    "INDEKS Verlag",
  address =      "Frankfurt/Main, Germany",
  pages =        "viii + 216 (vol. 1), viii + 88 (supplement)",
  year =         "1994",
  ISBN =         "3-88672-600-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-88672-600-4",
  ISSN =         "0946-9389",
  LCCN =         "GE30.E97 1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "14--16 Sept. 1994",
  conflocation = "Bratislava, Slovakia",
  pubcountry =   "Germany",
}

@Proceedings{Harman:1994:STR,
  editor =       "D. K. (Donna K.) Harman",
  booktitle =    "Second Text REtrieval Conference (TREC-2)",
  title =        "Second Text {REtrieval} Conference ({TREC}-2)",
  publisher =    pub-NIST,
  address =      pub-NIST:adr,
  pages =        "viii + 486",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "NIST-SP 500-215.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "31 Aug.--2 Sept. 1993",
  conflocation = "Gaithersburg, MD, USA",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1994:FCA,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  booktitle =    "Fourth Conference on Applied Natural Language
                 Processing: Association for Computational Linguistics:
                 proceedings of the conference, 13--15 October 1994,
                 Stuttgart, Germany",
  title =        "Fourth Conference on Applied Natural Language
                 Processing: Association for Computational Linguistics:
                 proceedings of the conference, 13--15 October 1994,
                 Stuttgart, Germany",
  publisher =    "Association for Computational Linguistics",
  address =      "Morristown, NJ, USA",
  pages =        "x + 216",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       "Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  sponsor =      "Association for Computational Linguistics.",
}

@Proceedings{Anonymous:1994:PPP,
  editor =       "Anonymous",
  booktitle =    "PRICAI-94. Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific Rim
                 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence",
  title =        "{PRICAI}-94. Proceedings of the 3rd Pacific Rim
                 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence",
  publisher =    "Int. Acad. Publishers",
  address =      "Beijing, China",
  pages =        "xi + 1106",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Two volumes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "15--18 Aug. 1994",
  conflocation = "Beijing, China",
  confsponsor =  "China Comput. Federation; Chinese Assoc. Autom",
  pubcountry =   "China",
}

@Proceedings{Williams:1994:NOM,
  editor =       "M. E. Williams",
  booktitle =    "15th National Online Meeting. Proceedings - 1994",
  title =        "15th National Online Meeting. Proceedings - 1994",
  publisher =    pub-LEARNED-INF,
  address =      pub-LEARNED-INF:adr,
  pages =        "xii + 464",
  year =         "1994",
  ISBN =         "0-938734-84-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-938734-84-0",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "10--12 May 1994",
  conflocation = "New York, NY, USA",
  confsponsor =  "Learned Inf.",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
}

@Proceedings{Balakrishnan:1994:CSE,
  editor =       "N. Balakrishnan and T. Radhakrishnan and D. Sampath
                 and S. Sundaram",
  booktitle =    "Computer Systems and Education. Proceedings of the
                 International Conference on Computer Systems and
                 Education in Honour of Prof. V. Rajaraman",
  title =        "Computer Systems and Education. Proceedings of the
                 International Conference on Computer Systems and
                 Education in Honour of Prof. {V}. Rajaraman",
  publisher =    pub-TATA-MCGRAW-HILL,
  address =      pub-TATA-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
  pages =        "xv + 414",
  year =         "1994",
  ISBN =         "0-07-462044-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-07-462044-1",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:28:25 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "22--25 June 1994",
  conflocation = "Bangalore, India",
  confsponsor =  "IEEE (Bangalore Chapter); CSI (Bangalore Chapter);
                 CDC; IBM",
  pubcountry =   "India",
}

@Proceedings{Vincent:1994:DRC,
  editor =       "Luc M. Vincent and Theo Pavlidis",
  booktitle =    "Document recognition: Conference --- 9--10 February
                 1994, San Jose, CA",
  title =        "Document recognition: Conference --- 9--10 February
                 1994, San Jose, {CA}",
  volume =       "2181",
  publisher =    pub-SPIE,
  address =      pub-SPIE:adr,
  pages =        "ix + 390",
  year =         "1994",
  ISBN =         "0-8194-1476-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8194-1476-2",
  ISSN =         "0361-0748",
  LCCN =         "TA1640.D63 1994",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 8 07:23:00 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  series =       "Proceedings --- SPIE, the International Society for
                 Optical Engineering",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  sponsor =      "SPIE. Society for Imaging Science and Technology.",
}

@Proceedings{IEEE:1995:ICA,
  editor =       "{IEEE}",
  booktitle =    "1995 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech,
                 and Signal Processing. Conference Proceedings",
  title =        "1995 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech,
                 and Signal Processing. Conference Proceedings",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "3662",
  year =         "1995",
  ISBN =         "0-7803-2431-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7803-2431-2",
  LCCN =         "TK 7882 S65 I16 1995",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 11 06:14:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib",
  note =         "Five volumes. IEEE Catalog number 95CH35732.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  confdate =     "9--12 May 1995",
  conflocation = "Detroit, MI, USA",
  confsponsor =  "Signal Process. Soc. IEEE",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
}