%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.23",
%%%     date            = "08 September 2014",
%%%     time            = "09:17:17 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "talg.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "14903 17411 101479 890918",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "ACM Transactions on Algorithms; bibliography;
%%%                        TALG",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        ACM Transactions on Algorithms (CODEN ????,
%%%                        ISSN 1549-6325), covering all journal issues
%%%                        from 2005 -- date.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.23, the COMPLETE journal
%%%                        coverage looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             2005 (  20)    2009 (  54)    2013 (  21)
%%%                             2006 (  37)    2010 (  37)    2014 (  29)
%%%                             2007 (  52)    2011 (  41)
%%%                             2008 (  66)    2012 (  57)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        414
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  414
%%%
%%%                        The journal Web page can be found at:
%%%
%%%                            http://talg.acm.org/
%%%
%%%                        The journal table of contents page is at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/talg/
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982
%%%
%%%                        Qualified subscribers can retrieve the full
%%%                        text of recent articles in PDF form.
%%%
%%%                        The initial draft was extracted from the ACM
%%%                        Web pages.
%%%
%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
%%%                        included in this bibliography wherever
%%%                        available.  Article reviews have been
%%%                        omitted, until their copyright status has
%%%                        been clarified.
%%%
%%%                        bibsource keys in the bibliography entries
%%%                        below indicate the entry originally came
%%%                        from the computer science bibliography
%%%                        archive, even though it has likely since
%%%                        been corrected and updated.
%%%
%%%                        URL keys in the bibliography point to
%%%                        World Wide Web locations of additional
%%%                        information about the entry.
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen
%%%                        as name:year:abbrev, where name is the
%%%                        family name of the first author or editor,
%%%                        year is a 4-digit number, and abbrev is a
%%%                        3-letter condensation of important title
%%%                        words. Citation tags were automatically
%%%                        generated by software developed for the
%%%                        BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted in
%%%                        publication order, using ``bibsort -byvolume.''
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
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%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-TALG                  = "ACM Transactions on Algorithms"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:

@Article{Gabow:2005:EF,
  author =       "Harold N. Gabow",
  title =        "{Editor}'s foreword",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Yuster:2005:FSM,
  author =       "Raphael Yuster and Uri Zwick",
  title =        "Fast sparse matrix multiplication",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2--13",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1077464.1077466",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Let $A$ and $B$ be two $n \times n$ matrices over a
                 ring $R$ (e.g., the reals or the integers) each
                 containing at most $m$ nonzero elements. We present a
                 new algorithm that multiplies $A$ and $B$ using
                 $O(m^{0.7}n^{1.2} + n^2 + o(1))$ algebraic operations
                 (i.e., multiplications, additions and subtractions)
                 over $R$. The na{\"\i}ve matrix multiplication
                 algorithm, on the other hand, may need to perform
                 $\Omega(mn)$ operations to accomplish the same task.
                 For $m \leq n^{1.14}$, the new algorithm performs an
                 almost optimal number of only $n^2 + o(1)$ operations.
                 For $m \leq n^{1.68}$, the new algorithm is also faster
                 than the best known matrix multiplication algorithm for
                 dense matrices which uses $O(n^{2.38})$ algebraic
                 operations. The new algorithm is obtained using a
                 surprisingly straightforward combination of a simple
                 combinatorial idea and existing fast rectangular matrix
                 multiplication algorithms. We also obtain improved
                 algorithms for the multiplication of more than two
                 sparse matrices. As the known fast rectangular matrix
                 multiplication algorithms are far from being practical,
                 our result, at least for now, is only of theoretical
                 value.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Edmonds:2005:MAL,
  author =       "Jeff Edmonds and Kirk Pruhs",
  title =        "A maiden analysis of longest wait first",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14--32",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Demaine:2005:FPA,
  author =       "Erik D. Demaine and Fedor V. Fomin and Mohammadtaghi
                 Hajiaghayi and Dimitrios M. Thilikos",
  title =        "Fixed-parameter algorithms for $(k, r)$-center in
                 planar graphs and map graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "33--47",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Adler:2005:PMM,
  author =       "Micah Adler and Dan Rubenstein",
  title =        "Pricing multicasting in more flexible network models",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "48--73",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Even:2005:NDP,
  author =       "Guy Even and Guy Kortsarz and Wolfgang Slany",
  title =        "On network design problems: fixed cost flows and the
                 covering {Steiner} problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "74--101",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Alstrup:2005:BBC,
  author =       "Stephen Alstrup and Thore Husfeldt and Theis Rauhe and
                 Mikkel Thorup",
  title =        "Black box for constant-time insertion in priority
                 queues (note)",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "102--106",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Vinkemeier:2005:LTA,
  author =       "Doratha E. Drake Vinkemeier and Stefan Hougardy",
  title =        "A linear-time approximation algorithm for weighted
                 matchings in graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "107--122",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Grabner:2005:ALC,
  author =       "Peter J. Grabner and Clemens Heuberger and Helmut
                 Prodinger and J{\"o}rg M. Thuswaldner",
  title =        "Analysis of linear combination algorithms in
                 cryptography",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "123--142",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1077464.1077473",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Several cryptosystems rely on fast calculations of
                 linear combinations in groups. One way to achieve this
                 is to use joint signed binary digit expansions of small
                 ``weight.'' We study two algorithms, one based on
                 nonadjacent forms of the coefficients of the linear
                 combination, the other based on a certain joint sparse
                 form specifically adapted to this problem. Both methods
                 are sped up using the sliding windows approach combined
                 with precomputed lookup tables. We give explicit and
                 asymptotic results for the number of group operations
                 needed, assuming uniform distribution of the
                 coefficients. Expected values, variances and a central
                 limit theorem are proved using generating functions.
                 Furthermore, we provide a new algorithm that calculates
                 the digits of an optimal expansion of pairs of integers
                 from left to right. This avoids storing the whole
                 expansion, which is needed with the previously known
                 right-to-left methods, and allows an online
                 computation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Cechlarova:2005:GSR,
  author =       "Katar{\'\i}na Cechl{\'a}rov{\'a} and Tam{\'a}s
                 Fleiner",
  title =        "On a generalization of the stable roommates problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "143--156",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Khuller:2005:PC,
  author =       "Samir Khuller",
  title =        "Problems column",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "157--159",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Johnson:2005:NCC,
  author =       "David S. Johnson",
  title =        "The {NP}-completeness column",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "160--176",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:55 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Janson:2005:IDL,
  author =       "Svante Janson",
  title =        "Individual displacements for linear probing hashing
                 with different insertion policies",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "177--213",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1103963.1103964",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the distribution of the individual
                 displacements in hashing with linear probing for three
                 different versions: First Come, Last Come and Robin
                 Hood. Asymptotic distributions and their moments are
                 found when the size of the hash table tends to infinity
                 with the proportion of occupied cells converging to
                 some $\alpha$, $0 < \alpha < 1$. (In the case of Last
                 Come, the results are more complicated and less
                 complete than in the other cases.) We also show, using
                 the diagonal Poisson transform studied by Poblete,
                 Viola and Munro, that exact expressions for finite $m$
                 and $n$ can be obtained from the limits as $m,n
                 \rightarrow \infty$. We end with some results,
                 conjectures and questions about the shape of the limit
                 distributions. These have some relevance for computer
                 applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Viola:2005:EDI,
  author =       "Alfredo Viola",
  title =        "Exact distribution of individual displacements in
                 linear probing hashing",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "214--242",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1103963.1103965",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper studies the distribution of individual
                 displacements for the standard and the Robin Hood
                 linear probing hashing algorithms. When a table of size
                 $m$ has $n$ elements, the distribution of the search
                 cost of a random element is studied for both
                 algorithms. Specifically, exact distributions for fixed
                 $m$ and $n$ are found as well as when the table is
                 $\alpha$-full, and $\alpha$ strictly smaller than 1.
                 Moreover, for full tables, limit laws for both
                 algorithms are derived.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Alstrup:2005:MIF,
  author =       "Stephen Alstrup and Jacob Holm and Mikkel Thorup and
                 Kristian De Lichtenberg",
  title =        "Maintaining information in fully dynamic trees with
                 top trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "243--264",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Jothi:2005:AAC,
  author =       "Raja Jothi and Balaji Raghavachari",
  title =        "Approximation algorithms for the capacitated minimum
                 spanning tree problem and its variants in network
                 design",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "265--282",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Elkin:2005:CAS,
  author =       "Michael Elkin",
  title =        "Computing almost shortest paths",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "283--323",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Carvalho:2005:VAE,
  author =       "Marcelo H. {De Carvalho} and Joseph Cheriyan",
  title =        "An {$O(VE)$} algorithm for ear decompositions of
                 matching-covered graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "324--337",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1103963.1103969",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Goel:2005:AMF,
  author =       "Ashish Goel and Adam Meyerson and Serge Plotkin",
  title =        "Approximate majorization and fair online load
                 balancing",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "338--349",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chrobak:2005:GAM,
  author =       "Marek Chrobak and Petr Kolman and Ji{\v{r}}{\'\i}
                 Sgall",
  title =        "The greedy algorithm for the minimum common string
                 partition problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "350--366",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 18:19:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Sawada:2006:GRF,
  author =       "Joe Sawada",
  title =        "Generating rooted and free plane trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--13",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 26 08:40:43 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Hegde:2006:FSE,
  author =       "Rajneesh Hegde",
  title =        "Finding $3$-shredders efficiently",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14--43",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 26 08:40:43 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Gramm:2006:PMA,
  author =       "Jens Gramm and Jiong Guo and Rolf Niedermeier",
  title =        "Pattern matching for arc-annotated sequences",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "44--65",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 26 08:40:43 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Hassin:2006:MGV,
  author =       "Refael Hassin and Asaf Levin",
  title =        "The minimum generalized vertex cover problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "66--78",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 26 08:40:43 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Epstein:2006:OSS,
  author =       "Leah Epstein and Rob {Van Stee}",
  title =        "Online scheduling of splittable tasks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--94",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 26 08:40:43 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Gonzalez:2006:MTC,
  author =       "Teofilo F. Gonzalez and Joseph Y.-T. Leung and Michael
                 Pinedo",
  title =        "Minimizing total completion time on uniform machines
                 with deadline constraints",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "95--115",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 26 08:40:43 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Gandhi:2006:IRD,
  author =       "Rajiv Gandhi and Magn{\'u}s M. Halld{\'o}rsson and Guy
                 Kortsarz and Hadas Shachnai",
  title =        "Improved results for data migration and open shop
                 scheduling",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "116--129",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 26 08:40:43 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  note =         "See corrigendum \cite{Gandhi:2013:CIR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Khuller:2006:PC,
  author =       "Samir Khuller",
  title =        "Problems column",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "130--134",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 26 08:40:43 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Korsh:2006:LGC,
  author =       "James Korsh and Paul Lafollette",
  title =        "A loopless {Gray} code for rooted trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "135--152",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 05:38:18 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Alon:2006:ACS,
  author =       "Noga Alon and Dana Moshkovitz and Shmuel Safra",
  title =        "Algorithmic construction of sets for
                 {$k$}-restrictions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "153--177",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 05:38:18 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Lau:2006:BRG,
  author =       "Lap Chi Lau",
  title =        "Bipartite roots of graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "178--208",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 05:38:18 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Agarwal:2006:EAB,
  author =       "Pankaj K. Agarwal and Boris Aronov and Vladlen
                 Koltun",
  title =        "Efficient algorithms for bichromatic separability",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "209--227",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 05:38:18 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Epstein:2006:SU,
  author =       "Leah Epstein and Rob {Van Stee}",
  title =        "This side up!",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "228--243",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 05:38:18 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Huo:2006:MMF,
  author =       "Yumei Huo and Joseph Y.-T. Leung",
  title =        "Minimizing mean flow time for {UET} tasks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "244--262",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 05:38:18 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Hassin:2006:RST,
  author =       "Refael Hassin and Danny Segev",
  title =        "Robust subgraphs for trees and paths",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "263--281",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 05:38:18 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Azar:2006:IAC,
  author =       "Yossi Azar and Yossi Richter",
  title =        "An improved algorithm for {CIOQ} switches",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "282--295",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 05:38:18 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Berend:2006:CMP,
  author =       "Daniel Berend and Amir Sapir",
  title =        "The cyclic multi-peg {Tower of Hanoi}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "297--317",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 08:13:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Drmota:2006:RFA,
  author =       "Michael Drmota and Helmut Prodinger",
  title =        "The register function for $t$-ary trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "318--334",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 08:13:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Kowalik:2006:OBL,
  author =       "Lukasz Kowalik and Maciej Kurowski",
  title =        "Oracles for bounded-length shortest paths in planar
                 graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "335--363",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 08:13:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Katriel:2006:OTO,
  author =       "Irit Katriel and Hans L. Bodlaender",
  title =        "Online topological ordering",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "364--379",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 08:13:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Duncan:2006:OCG,
  author =       "Christian A. Duncan and Stephen G. Kobourov and V. S.
                 Anil Kumar",
  title =        "Optimal constrained graph exploration",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "380--402",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 08:13:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Raman:2006:FFP,
  author =       "Venkatesh Raman and Saket Saurabh and C. R.
                 Subramanian",
  title =        "Faster fixed parameter tractable algorithms for
                 finding feedback vertex sets",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "403--415",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 08:13:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Jansen:2006:AAS,
  author =       "Klaus Jansen and Hu Zhang",
  title =        "An approximation algorithm for scheduling malleable
                 tasks under general precedence constraints",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "416--434",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 08:13:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Feigenbaum:2006:SMC,
  author =       "Joan Feigenbaum and Yuval Ishai and Tal Malkin and
                 Kobbi Nissim and Martin J. Strauss and Rebecca N.
                 Wright",
  title =        "Secure multiparty computation of approximations",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "435--472",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 08:13:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Johnson:2006:NCC,
  author =       "David S. Johnson",
  title =        "The {NP}-completeness column: {The} many limits on
                 approximation",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "473--489",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 08:13:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Lopez-Ortiz:2006:F,
  author =       "Alejandro L{\'o}pez-Ortiz and J. Ian Munro",
  title =        "Foreword",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "491--491",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Eppstein:2006:QAM,
  author =       "David Eppstein",
  title =        "Quasiconvex analysis of multivariate recurrence
                 equations for backtracking algorithms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "492--509",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Geary:2006:SOT,
  author =       "Richard F. Geary and Rajeev Raman and Venkatesh
                 Raman",
  title =        "Succinct ordinal trees with level-ancestor queries",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "510--534",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Mendelson:2006:MPQ,
  author =       "Ran Mendelson and Robert E. Tarjan and Mikkel Thorup
                 and Uri Zwick",
  title =        "Melding priority queues",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "535--556",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Baswana:2006:ADO,
  author =       "Surender Baswana and Sandeep Sen",
  title =        "Approximate distance oracles for unweighted graphs in
                 expected {$O(n^2)$} time",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "557--577",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Demetrescu:2006:EAD,
  author =       "Camil Demetrescu and Giuseppe F. Italiano",
  title =        "Experimental analysis of dynamic all pairs shortest
                 path algorithms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "578--601",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Irving:2006:RMM,
  author =       "Robert W. Irving and Telikepalli Kavitha and Kurt
                 Mehlhorn and Dimitrios Michail and Katarzyna E.
                 Paluch",
  title =        "Rank-maximal matchings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "602--610",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Foschini:2006:WIE,
  author =       "Luca Foschini and Roberto Grossi and Ankur Gupta and
                 Jeffrey Scott Vitter",
  title =        "When indexing equals compression: {Experiments} with
                 compressing suffix arrays and applications",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "611--639",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Alon:2006:GAO,
  author =       "Noga Alon and Baruch Awerbuch and Yossi Azar and Niv
                 Buchbinder and Joseph (Seffi) Naor",
  title =        "A general approach to online network optimization
                 problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "640--660",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Evans:2006:OSV,
  author =       "William Evans and David Kirkpatrick",
  title =        "Optimally scheduling video-on-demand to minimize delay
                 when sender and receiver bandwidth may differ",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "661--678",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Beier:2006:CES,
  author =       "Rene Beier and Artur Czumaj and Piotr Krysta and
                 Berthold V{\"o}cking",
  title =        "Computing equilibria for a service provider game with
                 (Im)perfect information",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "679--706",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Moore:2006:GQF,
  author =       "Cristopher Moore and Daniel Rockmore and Alexander
                 Russell",
  title =        "Generic quantum {Fourier} transforms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "707--723",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Archer:2007:FPM,
  author =       "Aaron Archer and {\'E}va Tardos",
  title =        "Frugal path mechanisms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bhatia:2007:AAB,
  author =       "Randeep Bhatia and Julia Chuzhoy and Ari Freund and
                 Joseph (Seffi) Naor",
  title =        "Algorithmic aspects of bandwidth trading",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Carmo:2007:QPI,
  author =       "Renato Carmo and Tom{\'a}s Feder and Yoshiharu
                 Kohayakawa and Eduardo Laber and Rajeev Motwani and
                 Liadan O'Callaghan and Rina Panigrahy and Dilys
                 Thomas",
  title =        "Querying priced information in databases: {The}
                 conjunctive case",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ciriani:2007:DSS,
  author =       "Valentina Ciriani and Paolo Ferragina and Fabrizio
                 Luccio and S. Muthukrishnan",
  title =        "A data structure for a sequence of string accesses in
                 external memory",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Cormode:2007:SED,
  author =       "Graham Cormode and S. Muthukrishnan",
  title =        "The string edit distance matching problem with moves",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The edit distance between two strings $S$ and $R$ is
                 defined to be the minimum number of character inserts,
                 deletes, and changes needed to convert $R$ to S. Given
                 a text string $t$ of length $n$, and a pattern string
                 $p$ of length $m$, informally, the string edit distance
                 matching problem is to compute the smallest edit
                 distance between $p$ and substrings of $t$. We relax
                 the problem so that: (a) we allow an additional
                 operation, namely, substring moves; and (b) we allow
                 approximation of this string edit distance. Our result
                 is a near-linear time deterministic algorithm to
                 produce a factor of $O(\log n \log\star n)$
                 approximation to the string edit distance with moves.
                 This is the first known significantly subquadratic
                 algorithm for a string edit distance problem in which
                 the distance involves nontrivial alignments. Our
                 results are obtained by embedding strings into $L_1$
                 vector space using a simplified parsing technique,
                 which we call edit-sensitive parsing (ESP).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Czumaj:2007:TBW,
  author =       "Artur Czumaj and Berthold V{\"o}cking",
  title =        "Tight bounds for worst-case equilibria",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Elkin:2007:IAR,
  author =       "Michael Elkin and Guy Kortsarz",
  title =        "An improved algorithm for radio broadcast",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Eppstein:2007:FSI,
  author =       "David Eppstein",
  title =        "Foreword to special issue on {SODA 2002}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Hershberger:2007:DSS,
  author =       "John Hershberger and Subhash Suri and Amit Bhosle",
  title =        "On the difficulty of some shortest path problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Pandurangan:2007:EBB,
  author =       "Gopal Pandurangan and Eli Upfal",
  title =        "Entropy-based bounds for online algorithms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:58:14 MDT 2007",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Voronenko:2007:MMC,
  author =       "Yevgen Voronenko and Markus P{\"u}schel",
  title =        "Multiplierless multiple constant multiplication",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240234",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A variable can be multiplied by a given set of
                 fixed-point constants using a multiplier block that
                 consists exclusively of additions, subtractions, and
                 shifts. The generation of a multiplier block from the
                 set of constants is known as the multiple constant
                 multiplication (MCM) problem. Finding the optimal
                 solution, namely, the one with the fewest number of
                 additions and subtractions, is known to be NP-complete.
                 We propose a new algorithm for the MCM problem, which
                 produces solutions that require up to 20\% less
                 additions and subtractions than the best previously
                 known algorithm. At the same time our algorithm, in
                 contrast to the closest competing algorithm, is not
                 limited by the constant bitwidths. We present our
                 algorithm using a unifying formal framework for the
                 best, graph-based MCM algorithms and provide a detailed
                 runtime analysis and experimental evaluation. We show
                 that our algorithm can handle problem sizes as large as
                 100 32-bit constants in a time acceptable for most
                 applications. The implementation of the new algorithm
                 is available at \path =www.spiral.net=.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Addition chains; directed graph; FIR filter;
                 fixed-point arithmetic; strength reduction",
}

@Article{Chern:2007:PCR,
  author =       "Hua-Huai Chern and Michael Fuchs and Hsien-Kuei
                 Hwang",
  title =        "Phase changes in random point quadtrees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240235",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show that a wide class of linear cost measures
                 (such as the number of leaves) in random
                 $d$-dimensional point quadtrees undergo a change in
                 limit laws: If the dimension $ d = 1, \ldots, 8 $, then
                 the limit law is normal; if $ d \geq 9 $ then there is
                 no convergence to a fixed limit law. Stronger
                 approximation results such as convergence rates and
                 local limit theorems are also derived for the number of
                 leaves, additional phase changes being unveiled. Our
                 approach is new and very general, and also applicable
                 to other classes of search trees. A brief discussion of
                 Devroye's grid trees (covering $m$-ary search trees and
                 quadtrees as special cases) is given. We also propose
                 an efficient numerical procedure for computing the
                 constants involved to high precision.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "analysis in distribution of algorithms; Asymptotic
                 transfer; central limit theorems; depth; differential
                 equations; grid trees; local limit theorems; Mellin
                 transforms; page usage; phase transitions; quadtrees;
                 total path length",
}

@Article{Demaine:2007:RDS,
  author =       "Erik D. Demaine and John Iacono and Stefan Langerman",
  title =        "Retroactive data structures",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240236",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a new data structuring paradigm in which
                 operations can be performed on a data structure not
                 only in the present, but also in the past. In this new
                 paradigm, called retroactive data structures, the
                 historical sequence of operations performed on the data
                 structure is not fixed. The data structure allows
                 arbitrary insertion and deletion of operations at
                 arbitrary times, subject only to consistency
                 requirements. We initiate the study of retroactive data
                 structures by formally defining the model and its
                 variants. We prove that, unlike persistence, efficient
                 retroactivity is not always achievable. Thus, we
                 present efficient retroactive data structures for
                 queues, doubly ended queues, priority queues,
                 union-find, and decomposable search structures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "History; persistence; point location; rollback; time
                 travel",
}

@Article{Hayward:2007:IAW,
  author =       "Ryan B. Hayward and Jeremy P. Spinrad and R.
                 Sritharan",
  title =        "Improved algorithms for weakly chordal graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240237",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We use a new structural theorem on the presence of
                 two-pairs in weakly chordal graphs to develop improved
                 algorithms. For the recognition problem, we reduce the
                 time complexity from {$ O(m n^2) $} to {$ O(m^2) $} and
                 the space complexity from {$ O(n^3) $} to {$ O(m + n)
                 $}, and also produce a hole or antihole if the input
                 graph is not weakly chordal. For the optimization
                 problems, the complexity of the clique and coloring
                 problems is reduced from {$ O(m n^2) $} to {$ O(n^3) $}
                 and the complexity of the independent set and clique
                 cover problems is improved from {$ O(n^4) $} to {$ O(m
                 n) $}. The space complexity of our optimization
                 algorithms is {$ O(m + n) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "coloring; graph algorithms; Perfect graphs;
                 recognition; weakly chordal",
}

@Article{Kavitha:2007:SSM,
  author =       "Telikepalli Kavitha and Kurt Mehlhorn and Dimitrios
                 Michail and Katarzyna E. Paluch",
  title =        "Strongly stable matchings in time {$ O(n m) $} and
                 extension to the hospitals-residents problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240238",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "An instance of the stable marriage problem is an
                 undirected bipartite graph {$ G = (X \cup W, E) $} with
                 linearly ordered adjacency lists with ties allowed in
                 the ordering. A matching {$M$} is a set of edges, no
                 two of which share an endpoint. An edge {$ e = (a, b)
                 \in E \setminus M $} is a blocking edge for {$M$} if
                 {$a$} is either unmatched or strictly prefers {$b$} to
                 its partner in {$M$}, and {$b$} is unmatched, strictly
                 prefers {$a$} to its partner in {$M$}, or is
                 indifferent between them. A matching is strongly stable
                 if there is no blocking edge with respect to it. We
                 give an {$ O(n m) $} algorithm for computing strongly
                 stable matchings, where {$n$} is the number of vertices
                 and {$m$} the number of edges. The previous best
                 algorithm had running time {$ O(m^2) $}. We also study
                 this problem in the hospitals-residents setting, which
                 is a many-to-one extension of the aforementioned
                 problem. We give an {$ O(m \sum_{h \in H} p_h) $}
                 algorithm for computing a strongly stable matching in
                 the hospitals-residents problem, where {$ p_h $} is the
                 quota of a hospital {$h$}. The previous best algorithm
                 had running time {$ O(m^2) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Bipartite matching; level maximal; stable marriage;
                 strong stability",
}

@Article{Bagchi:2007:DSR,
  author =       "Amitabha Bagchi and Amitabh Chaudhary and David
                 Eppstein and Michael T. Goodrich",
  title =        "Deterministic sampling and range counting in geometric
                 data streams",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240239",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present memory-efficient deterministic algorithms
                 for constructing $ \epsilon $-nets and $ \epsilon
                 $-approximations of streams of geometric data. Unlike
                 probabilistic approaches, these deterministic samples
                 provide guaranteed bounds on their approximation
                 factors. We show how our deterministic samples can be
                 used to answer approximate online iceberg geometric
                 queries on data streams. We use these techniques to
                 approximate several robust statistics of geometric data
                 streams, including Tukey depth, simplicial depth,
                 regression depth, the Thiel-Sen estimator, and the
                 least median of squares. Our algorithms use only a
                 polylogarithmic amount of memory, provided the desired
                 approximation factors are at least
                 inverse-polylogarithmic. We also include a lower bound
                 for noniceberg geometric queries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Data streams; epsilon nets; geometric data; iceberg
                 queries; range counting; robust statistics; sampling;
                 streaming algorithms",
}

@Article{Arya:2007:SEB,
  author =       "Sunil Arya and Theocharis Malamatos and David M.
                 Mount",
  title =        "A simple entropy-based algorithm for planar point
                 location",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17:1--17:17",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240240",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a planar polygonal subdivision {$S$}, point
                 location involves preprocessing this subdivision into a
                 data structure so that given any query point {$q$}, the
                 cell of the subdivision containing {$q$} can be
                 determined efficiently. Suppose that for each cell
                 {$z$} in the subdivision, the probability $ p_z $ that
                 a query point lies within this cell is also given. The
                 goal is to design the data structure to minimize the
                 average search time. This problem has been considered
                 before, but existing data structures are all quite
                 complicated. It has long been known that the entropy
                 {$H$} of the probability distribution is the dominant
                 term in the lower bound on the average-case search
                 time. In this article, we show that a very simple
                 modification of a well-known randomized incremental
                 algorithm can be applied to produce a data structure of
                 expected linear size that can answer point-location
                 queries in {$ O(H) $} average time. We also present
                 empirical evidence for the practical efficiency of this
                 approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "entropy; expected-case complexity; Point location;
                 polygonal subdivision; randomized algorithms;
                 trapezoidal maps",
}

@Article{Kauers:2007:ADZ,
  author =       "Manuel Kauers",
  title =        "An algorithm for deciding zero equivalence of nested
                 polynomially recurrent sequences",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240241",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce the class of nested polynomially
                 recurrent sequences which includes a large number of
                 sequences that are of combinatorial interest. We
                 present an algorithm for deciding zero equivalence of
                 these sequences, thereby providing a new algorithm for
                 proving identities among combinatorial sequences: In
                 order to prove an identity, decide by the algorithm
                 whether the difference of lefthand-side and
                 righthand-side is identically zero. This algorithm is
                 able to treat mathematical objects which are not
                 covered by any other known symbolic method for proving
                 combinatorial identities. Despite its theoretical
                 flavor and high complexity, an implementation of the
                 algorithm can be successfully applied to nontrivial
                 examples.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "combinatorial sequences; nested polynomially recurrent
                 sequences; Symbolic computation; zero equivalence",
}

@Article{Amir:2007:DTS,
  author =       "Amihood Amir and Gad M. Landau and Moshe Lewenstein
                 and Dina Sokol",
  title =        "Dynamic text and static pattern matching",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240242",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we address a new version of dynamic
                 pattern matching. The dynamic text and static pattern
                 matching problem is the problem of finding a static
                 pattern in a text that is continuously being updated.
                 The goal is to report all new occurrences of the
                 pattern in the text after each text update. We present
                 an algorithm for solving the problem where the text
                 update operation is changing the symbol value of a text
                 location. Given a text of length $n$ and a pattern of
                 length $m$, our algorithm preprocesses the text in time
                 {$ O(n \log \log m) $}, and the pattern in time {$ O(m
                 \log m) $}. The extra space used is {$ O(n + m \log m)
                 $}. Following each text update, the algorithm deletes
                 all prior occurrences of the pattern that no longer
                 match, and reports all new occurrences of the pattern
                 in the text in {$ O(\log \log m) $} time. We note that
                 the complexity is not proportional to the number of
                 pattern occurrences, since all new occurrences can be
                 reported in a succinct form.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "border trees; Dynamic text; static pattern",
}

@Article{Ferragina:2007:CRS,
  author =       "Paolo Ferragina and Giovanni Manzini and Veli
                 M{\"a}kinen and Gonzalo Navarro",
  title =        "Compressed representations of sequences and full-text
                 indexes",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240243",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a sequence {$ S = s_1 s_2 \ldots s_n $} of
                 integers smaller than {$ r = O(\polylog (n)) $}, we
                 show how {$S$} can be represented using {$ n H_0 (S) +
                 o(n) $} bits, so that we can know any {$ s_q $}, as
                 well as answer rank and select queries on {$S$}, in
                 constant time. {$ H_0 (S) $} is the zero-order
                 empirical entropy of {$S$} and {$ n H_0 (S) $} provides
                 an information-theoretic lower bound to the bit storage
                 of any sequence {$S$} via a fixed encoding of its
                 symbols. This extends previous results on binary
                 sequences, and improves previous results on general
                 sequences where those queries are answered in {$ O(\log
                 r) $} time. For larger {$r$}, we can still represent
                 {$S$} in {$ n H_0 (S) + o(n \log r) $} bits and answer
                 queries in {$ O(\log r / \log \log n) $} time.\par

                 Another contribution of this article is to show how to
                 combine our compressed representation of integer
                 sequences with a compression boosting technique to
                 design compressed full-text indexes that scale well
                 with the size of the input alphabet {$ \Sigma $}.
                 Specifically, we design a variant of the FM-index that
                 indexes a string {$ T[1, n] $} within {$ n H_k(T) +
                 o(n) $} bits of storage, where {$ H_k(T) $} is the
                 {$k$} th-order empirical entropy of {$T$}. This space
                 bound holds simultaneously for all {$ k \leq \alpha
                 \log | \Sigma | n $}, constant {$ 0 < \alpha < 1 $},
                 and {$ | \Sigma | = O(\polylog (n)) $}. This index
                 counts the occurrences of an arbitrary pattern {$ P[1,
                 p] $} as a substring of {$T$} in {$ O(p) $} time; it
                 locates each pattern occurrence in {$ O(\log 1 +
                 \varepsilon n) $} time for any constant {$ 0 <
                 \varepsilon < 1 $}; and reports a text substring of
                 length {$ \ell $} in {$ O(\ell + \log 1 + \varepsilon
                 n) $} time.\par

                 Compared to all previous works, our index is the first
                 that removes the alphabet-size dependance from all
                 query times, in particular, counting time is linear in
                 the pattern length. Still, our index uses essentially
                 the same space of the {$k$} th-order entropy of the
                 text {$T$}, which is the best space obtained in
                 previous work. We can also handle larger alphabets of
                 size {$ | \Sigma | = O(n \beta) $}, for any {$ 0 <
                 \beta < 1 $}, by paying {$ o(n \log | \Sigma |) $}
                 extra space and multiplying all query times by {$
                 O(\log | \Sigma | / \log \log n) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Burrows--Wheeler transform; compression boosting;
                 entropy; rank and select; text compression; Text
                 indexing; wavelet tree",
}

@Article{Chan:2007:CID,
  author =       "Ho-Leung Chan and Wing-Kai Hon and Tak-Wah Lam and
                 Kunihiko Sadakane",
  title =        "Compressed indexes for dynamic text collections",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240244",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Let {$T$} be a string with {$n$} characters over an
                 alphabet of constant size. A recent breakthrough on
                 compressed indexing allows us to build an index for
                 {$T$} in optimal space (i.e., {$ O(n) $} bits), while
                 supporting very efficient pattern matching [Ferragina
                 and Manzini 2000; Grossi and Vitter 2000]. Yet the
                 compressed nature of such indexes also makes them
                 difficult to update dynamically.\par

                 This article extends the work on optimal-space indexing
                 to a dynamic collection of texts. Our first result is a
                 compressed solution to the library management problem,
                 where we show an index of {$ O(n) $} bits for a text
                 collection {$L$} of total length {$n$}, which can be
                 updated in {$ O(| T | \log n) $} time when a text {$T$}
                 is inserted or deleted from {$L$}; also, the index
                 supports searching the occurrences of any pattern {$P$}
                 in all texts in {$L$} in {$ O(|P| \log n + {\rm occ}
                 \log 2 n) $} time, where {\rm occ} is the number of
                 occurrences.\par

                 Our second result is a compressed solution to the
                 dictionary matching problem, where we show an index of
                 {$ O(d) $} bits for a pattern collection {$D$} of total
                 length {$d$}, which can be updated in {$ O(|P| \log 2
                 d) $} time when a pattern {$P$} is inserted or deleted
                 from {$D$}; also, the index supports searching the
                 occurrences of all patterns of {$D$} in any text {$T$}
                 in {$ O((|T| + {\rm occ}) \log 2 d) $} time. When
                 compared with the {$ O(d \log d) $}-bit
                 suffix-tree-based solution of Amir et al. [1995], the
                 compact solution increases the query time by roughly a
                 factor of {$ \log d $} only.\par

                 The solution to the dictionary matching problem is
                 based on a new compressed representation of a suffix
                 tree. Precisely, we give an {$ O(n) $}-bit
                 representation of a suffix tree for a dynamic
                 collection of texts whose total length is {$n$}, which
                 supports insertion and deletion of a text {$T$} in {$
                 O(|T| \log 2 n) $} time, as well as all suffix tree
                 traversal operations, including forward and backward
                 suffix links. This work can be regarded as a
                 generalization of the compressed representation of
                 static texts. In the study of the aforementioned
                 result, we also derive the first {$ O(n) $}-bit
                 representation for maintaining {$n$} pairs of balanced
                 parentheses in {$ O(\log n / \log \log n) $} time per
                 operation, matching the time complexity of the previous
                 {$ O(n \log n) $}-bit solution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Compressed suffix tree; string matching",
}

@Article{Boyar:2007:RWO,
  author =       "Joan Boyar and Lene M. Favrholdt",
  title =        "The relative worst order ratio for online algorithms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240245",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We define a new measure for the quality of online
                 algorithms, the relative worst order ratio, using ideas
                 from the max/max ratio [Ben-David and Borodin 1994] and
                 from the random order ratio [Kenyon 1996]. The new
                 ratio is used to compare online algorithms directly by
                 taking the ratio of their performances on their
                 respective worst permutations of a worst-case
                 sequence.\par

                 Two variants of the bin packing problem are considered:
                 the classical bin packing problem, where the goal is to
                 fit all items in as few bins as possible, and the dual
                 bin packing problem, which is the problem of maximizing
                 the number of items packed in a fixed number of bins.
                 Several known algorithms are compared using this new
                 measure, and a new, simple variant of first-fit is
                 proposed for dual bin packing.\par

                 Many of our results are consistent with those
                 previously obtained with the competitive ratio or the
                 competitive ratio on accommodating sequences, but new
                 separations and easier proofs are found.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "bin packing; dual bin packing; Online; quality
                 measure; relative worst order ratio",
}

@Article{Becchetti:2007:SCM,
  author =       "L. Becchetti and J. K{\"o}nemann and S. Leonardi and
                 M. P{\'a}al",
  title =        "Sharing the cost more efficiently: {Improved}
                 approximation for multicommodity rent-or-buy",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240246",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In the multicommodity rent-or-buy (MROB) network
                 design problems, we are given a network together with a
                 set of $k$ terminal pairs $ (s_1, t_1), \ldots, (s_k,
                 t_k) $. The goal is to provision the network so that a
                 given amount of flow can be shipped between $ s_i $ and
                 $ t_i $ for all $ 1 \leq i \leq k $ simultaneously. In
                 order to provision the network, one can either rent
                 capacity on edges at some cost per unit of flow, or buy
                 them at some larger fixed cost. Bought edges have no
                 incremental, flow-dependent cost. The overall objective
                 is to minimize the total provisioning cost.\par

                 Recently, Gupta et al. [2003a] presented a
                 12-approximation for the MROB problem. Their algorithm
                 chooses a subset of the terminal pairs in the graph at
                 random and then buys the edges of an approximate
                 Steiner forest for these pairs. This technique had
                 previously been introduced [Gupta et al. 2003b] for the
                 single-sink rent-or-buy network design problem.\par

                 In this article we give a 6.828-approximation for the
                 MROB problem by refining the algorithm of Gupta et al.
                 and simplifying their analysis. The improvement in our
                 article is based on a more careful adaptation and
                 simplified analysis of the primal-dual algorithm for
                 the Steiner forest problem due to Agrawal et al.
                 [1995]. Our result significantly reduces the gap
                 between the single-sink and multisink case.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; cost sharing; network
                 design; Steiner forests",
}

@Article{Johnson:2007:NCC,
  author =       "David S. Johnson",
  title =        "The {NP}-completeness column: {Finding} needles in
                 haystacks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1240233.1240247",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:54:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This is the 26th edition of a column that covers new
                 developments in the theory of NP-completeness. The
                 presentation is modeled on that which M. R. Garey and I
                 used in our book ``Computers and Intractability: A
                 Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness,'' W. H. Freeman
                 {\&} Co., New York, 1979, hereinafter referred to as
                 ``[G{\&}J].'' Previous columns, the first 23 of which
                 appeared in J. Algorithms, will be referred to by a
                 combination of their sequence number and year of
                 appearance, e.g., ``Column 1 [1981].'' Full
                 bibliographic details on the previous columns, as well
                 as downloadable unofficial versions of them, can be
                 found at \path
                 =http://www.research.att.com/~dsj/columns/=. This
                 column discusses the question of whether finding an
                 object can be computationally difficult even when we
                 know that the object exists.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "fixed point; game theory; local search; Nash
                 equilibrium; PLS; PPAD",
}

@Article{Feng:2007:FAS,
  author =       "Jianxing Feng and Daming Zhu",
  title =        "Faster algorithms for sorting by transpositions and
                 sorting by block interchanges",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25:1--25:14",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273341",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we present a new data structure,
                 called the permutation tree, to improve the running
                 time of sorting permutation by transpositions and
                 sorting permutation by block interchanges. The existing
                 1.5-approximation algorithm for sorting permutation by
                 transpositions has time complexity {$ O(n^{3 / 2} \sqrt
                 {\log n}) $}. By means of the permutation tree, we can
                 improve this algorithm to achieve time complexity {$
                 O(n \log n) $}. We can also improve the algorithm for
                 sorting permutation by block interchanges to take its
                 time complexity from {$ O(n^2) $} down to {$ O(n \log
                 n) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Block interchange; genome; permutation; time
                 complexity; transposition; tree",
}

@Article{Gupta:2007:CPD,
  author =       "Himanshu Gupta and Rephael Wenger",
  title =        "Constructing pairwise disjoint paths with few links",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273342",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Let {$P$} be a simple polygon and let {$ \{ (u_1,
                 u{\prime}_1), (u_2, u{\prime}_2), \ldots, (u_m,
                 u{\prime}_m) \} $} be a set of {$m$} pairs of distinct
                 vertices of {$P$}, where for every distinct {$ i, j
                 \leq m $}, there exist pairwise disjoint
                 (nonintersecting) paths connecting {$ u_i $} to {$ u
                 \prime_i $} and $ u_j $ to $ u \prime_j $. We wish to
                 construct $m$ pairwise disjoint paths in the interior
                 of {$P$} connecting {$ u_i $} to {$ u \prime_i $} for
                 {$ i = 1, \ldots, m $}, with a minimal total number of
                 line segments. We give an approximation algorithm that
                 constructs such a set of paths using {$ O(M) $} line
                 segments in {$ O(n \log m + M \log m) $} time, where
                 {$M$} is the number of line segments in the optimal
                 solution and {$n$} is the size of the polygon.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "isomorphic triangulations; Link paths; noncrossing;
                 polygon",
}

@Article{Chekuri:2007:MDF,
  author =       "Chandra Chekuri and Marcelo Mydlarz and F. Bruce
                 Shepherd",
  title =        "Multicommodity demand flow in a tree and packing
                 integer programs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273343",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider requests for capacity in a given tree
                 network {$ T = (V, E) $} where each edge {$e$} of the
                 tree has some integer capacity {$ u_e $}. Each request
                 {$f$} is a node pair with an integer demand $ d_f $ and
                 a profit $ w_f $ which is obtained if the request is
                 satisfied. The objective is to find a set of demands
                 that can be feasibly routed in the tree and which
                 provides a maximum profit. This generalizes well-known
                 problems, including the knapsack and $b$-matching
                 problems.\par

                 When all demands are 1, we have the integer
                 multicommodity flow problem. Garg et al. [1997] had
                 shown that this problem is NP-hard and gave a
                 2-approximation algorithm for the cardinality case (all
                 profits are 1) via a primal-dual algorithm. Our main
                 result establishes that the integrality gap of the
                 natural linear programming relaxation is at most 4 for
                 the case of arbitrary profits. Our proof is based on
                 coloring paths on trees and this has other applications
                 for wavelength assignment in optical network
                 routing.\par

                 We then consider the problem with arbitrary demands.
                 When the maximum demand $ d_{\rm max} $ is at most the
                 minimum edge capacity $ u_{\rm min} $, we show that the
                 integrality gap of the LP is at most 48. This result is
                 obtained by showing that the integrality gap for the
                 demand version of such a problem is at most 11.542
                 times that for the unit-demand case. We use techniques
                 of Kolliopoulos and Stein [2004, 2001] to obtain this.
                 We also obtain, via this method, improved algorithms
                 for line and ring networks. Applications and
                 connections to other combinatorial problems are
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithm; Integer multicommodity flow;
                 integrality gap; packing integer program; tree",
}

@Article{Bar-Noy:2007:WSR,
  author =       "Amotz Bar-Noy and Richard E. Ladner and Tami Tamir",
  title =        "Windows scheduling as a restricted version of bin
                 packing",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273344",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a sequence of $n$ positive integers $ w_1, w_2,
                 \ldots, w_n $ that are associated with the items $ 1,
                 2, \ldots n $, respectively. In the windows scheduling
                 problem, the goal is to schedule all the items
                 (equal-length information pages) on broadcasting
                 channels such that the gap between two consecutive
                 appearances of page $i$ on any of the channels is at
                 most $ w_i $ slots (a slot is the transmission time of
                 one page). In the unit-fractions bin packing problem,
                 the goal is to pack all the items in bins of unit size
                 where the size (width) of item $i$ is $ 1 / w_i $. The
                 optimization objective is to minimize the number of
                 channels or bins. In the offline setting, the sequence
                 is known in advance, whereas in the online setting, the
                 items arrive in order and assignment decisions are
                 irrevocable. Since a page requires at least $ 1 / w_i $
                 of a channel's bandwidth, it follows that windows
                 scheduling without migration (i.e., all broadcasts of a
                 page must be from the same channel) is a restricted
                 version of unit-fractions bin packing.\par

                 Let {$ H = \lceil \sum_{i = 1}^n (1 / w_i) $} be the
                 bandwidth lower bound on the required number of bins
                 (channels). The best-known offline algorithm for the
                 windows scheduling problem used {$ H + O(\ln H) $}
                 channels. This article presents an offline algorithm
                 for the unit-fractions bin packing problem with at most
                 {$ H + 1 $} bins. In the online setting, this article
                 presents algorithms for both problems with {$ H +
                 O(\sqrt {H}) $} channels or bins, where the one for the
                 unit-fractions bin packing problem is simpler. On the
                 other hand, this article shows that already for the
                 unit-fractions bin packing problem, any online
                 algorithm must use at least {$ H + \Omega (\ln H) $}
                 bins. For instances in which the window sizes form a
                 divisible sequence, an optimal online algorithm is
                 presented. Finally, this article includes a new
                 NP-hardness proof for the windows scheduling problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithms; bin-packing; online
                 algorithms; Periodic scheduling",
}

@Article{Hazay:2007:APM,
  author =       "Carmit Hazay and Moshe Lewenstein and Dina Sokol",
  title =        "Approximate parameterized matching",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273345",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Two equal length strings $s$ and $ s \prime $, over
                 alphabets {$ \Sigma s $} and {$ \Sigma s \prime $},
                 parameterize match if there exists a bijection {$ \pi :
                 \Sigma s \rightarrow \Sigma s \prime $} such that {$
                 \pi (s) = s \prime $}, where {$ \pi (s) $} is the
                 renaming of each character of {$s$} via $ \pi $.
                 Parameterized matching is the problem of finding all
                 parameterized matches of a pattern string $p$ in a text
                 $t$, and approximate parameterized matching is the
                 problem of finding at each location a bijection $ \pi $
                 that maximizes the number of characters that are mapped
                 from $p$ to the appropriate $ |p| $-length substring of
                 $t$.\par

                 Parameterized matching was introduced as a model for
                 software duplication detection in software maintenance
                 systems and also has applications in image processing
                 and computational biology. For example, approximate
                 parameterized matching models image searching with
                 variable color maps in the presence of errors.\par

                 We consider the problem for which an error threshold,
                 $k$, is given, and the goal is to find all locations in
                 $t$ for which there exists a bijection $ \pi $ which
                 maps $p$ into the appropriate $ |p| $-length substring
                 of $t$ with at most $k$ mismatched mapped elements. Our
                 main result is an algorithm for this problem with {$
                 O(n k^{1.5} + m k \log m) $} time complexity, where {$
                 m = | p | $} and {$ n = | t | $}. We also show that
                 when {$ | p | = | t | = m $}, the problem is equivalent
                 to the maximum matching problem on graphs, yielding a
                 {$ O(m + k^{1.5}) $} solution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Hamming distance; maximum matching; mismatch pair;
                 parameterize match",
}

@Article{Halldorsson:2007:IAR,
  author =       "Magn{\'u}s M. Halld{\'o}rsson and Kazuo Iwama and
                 Shuichi Miyazaki and Hiroki Yanagisawa",
  title =        "Improved approximation results for the stable marriage
                 problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273346",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The stable marriage problem has recently been studied
                 in its general setting, where both ties and incomplete
                 lists are allowed. It is NP-hard to find a stable
                 matching of maximum size, while any stable matching is
                 a maximal matching and thus trivially we can obtain a
                 2-approximation algorithm.\par

                 In this article, we give the first nontrivial result
                 for approximation of factor less than two. Our
                 algorithm achieves an approximation ratio of {$ 2 / (1
                 + L - 2) $} for instances in which only men have ties
                 of length at most {$L$}. When both men and women are
                 allowed to have ties but the lengths are limited to
                 two, then we show a ratio of {$ 13 / 7 ( < 1.858) $}.
                 We also improve the lower bound on the approximation
                 ratio to {$ 21 / 19 ( > 1.1052) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; incomplete lists; stable
                 marriage problem; ties",
}

@Article{Indyk:2007:NNP,
  author =       "Piotr Indyk and Assaf Naor",
  title =        "Nearest-neighbor-preserving embeddings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273347",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article we introduce the notion of
                 nearest-neighbor-preserving embeddings. These are
                 randomized embeddings between two metric spaces which
                 preserve the (approximate) nearest-neighbors. We give
                 two examples of such embeddings for Euclidean metrics
                 with low ``intrinsic'' dimension. Combining the
                 embeddings with known data structures yields the
                 best-known approximate nearest-neighbor data structures
                 for such metrics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "dimensionality reduction; doubling spaces; embeddings;
                 Nearest neighbor",
}

@Article{Even-Dar:2007:CTN,
  author =       "Eyal Even-Dar and Alex Kesselman and Yishay Mansour",
  title =        "Convergence time to {Nash} equilibrium in load
                 balancing",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273348",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the number of steps required to reach a pure
                 Nash equilibrium in a load balancing scenario where
                 each job behaves selfishly and attempts to migrate to a
                 machine which will minimize its cost. We consider a
                 variety of load balancing models, including identical,
                 restricted, related, and unrelated machines. Our
                 results have a crucial dependence on the weights
                 assigned to jobs. We consider arbitrary weights,
                 integer weights, $k$ distinct weights, and identical
                 (unit) weights. We look both at an arbitrary schedule
                 (where the only restriction is that a job migrates to a
                 machine which lowers its cost) and specific efficient
                 schedulers (e.g., allowing the largest weight job to
                 move first). A by-product of our results is
                 establishing a connection between various scheduling
                 models and the game-theoretic notion of potential
                 games. We show that load balancing in unrelated
                 machines is a generalized ordinal potential game, load
                 balancing in related machines is a weighted potential
                 game, and load balancing in related machines and unit
                 weight jobs is an exact potential game.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "convergence time; game theory; Nash equilibrium",
}

@Article{Andrews:2007:RSM,
  author =       "Matthew Andrews and Lisa Zhang",
  title =        "Routing and scheduling in multihop wireless networks
                 with time-varying channels",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33:1--33:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273349",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study routing and scheduling in multihop wireless
                 networks. When data is transmitted from its source node
                 to its destination node it may go through other
                 wireless nodes as intermediate hops. The data
                 transmission is node constrained, that is, every node
                 can transmit data to at most one neighboring node per
                 time step. The transmission rates are time varying as a
                 result of changing wireless channel conditions.\par

                 In this article, we assume that data arrivals and
                 transmission rates are governed by an adversary. The
                 power of the adversary is limited by an admissibility
                 condition which forbids the adversary from overloading
                 any wireless node a priori. The node-constrained
                 transmission and time-varying nature of the
                 transmission rates make our model different from and
                 harder than the standard adversarial queueing model
                 which relates to wireline networks.\par

                 For the case in which the adversary specifies the paths
                 that the data must follow, we design scheduling
                 algorithms that ensure network stability. These
                 algorithms try to give priority to the data that is
                 closest to its source node. However, at each time step
                 only a subset of the data queued at a node is eligible
                 for scheduling. One of our algorithms is fully
                 distributed.\par

                 For the case in which the adversary does not dictate
                 the data paths, we show how to route data so that the
                 admissibility condition is satisfied. We can then
                 schedule data along the chosen paths using our stable
                 scheduling algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "33",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "routing; Scheduling; stability; time-varying; wireless
                 network",
}

@Article{Naor:2007:NAP,
  author =       "Moni Naor and Udi Wieder",
  title =        "Novel architectures for {P2P} applications: {The}
                 continuous-discrete approach",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "34:1--34:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273350",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose a new approach for constructing P2P
                 networks based on a dynamic decomposition of a
                 continuous space into cells corresponding to servers.
                 We demonstrate the power of this approach by suggesting
                 two new P2P architectures and various algorithms for
                 them. The first serves as a DHT (distributed hash
                 table) and the other is a dynamic expander network. The
                 DHT network, which we call Distance Halving, allows
                 logarithmic routing and load while preserving constant
                 degrees. It offers an optimal tradeoff between degree
                 and path length in the sense that degree $d$ guarantees
                 a path length of {$ O(\log d n) $}. Another advantage
                 over previous constructions is its relative simplicity.
                 A major new contribution of this construction is a
                 dynamic caching technique that maintains low load and
                 storage, even under the occurrence of hot spots. Our
                 second construction builds a network that is guaranteed
                 to be an expander. The resulting topologies are simple
                 to maintain and implement. Their simplicity makes it
                 easy to modify and add protocols. A small variation
                 yields a DHT which is robust against random Byzantine
                 faults. Finally we show that, using our approach, it is
                 possible to construct any family of constant degree
                 graphs in a dynamic environment, though with worse
                 parameters. Therefore, we expect that more distributed
                 data structures could be designed and implemented in a
                 dynamic environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "34",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Peer-to-peer networks; routing",
}

@Article{Khuller:2007:PC,
  author =       "Samir Khuller",
  title =        "Problems column",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "35:1--35:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1273340.1273351",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "35",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Gabow:2007:ISS,
  author =       "H. N. Gabow and Michael A. Bender and Martin
                 Farach-Colton",
  title =        "Introduction to {SODA} 2002 and 2003 special issue",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "36:1--36:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290673",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "36",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Aspnes:2007:SG,
  author =       "James Aspnes and Gauri Shah",
  title =        "Skip graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "37:1--37:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290674",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Skip graphs are a novel distributed data structure,
                 based on skip lists, that provide the full
                 functionality of a balanced tree in a distributed
                 system where resources are stored in separate nodes
                 that may fail at any time. They are designed for use in
                 searching peer-to-peer systems, and by providing the
                 ability to perform queries based on key ordering, they
                 improve on existing search tools that provide only hash
                 table functionality. Unlike skip lists or other tree
                 data structures, skip graphs are highly resilient,
                 tolerating a large fraction of failed nodes without
                 losing connectivity. In addition, simple and
                 straightforward algorithms can be used to construct a
                 skip graph, insert new nodes into it, search it, and
                 detect and repair errors within it introduced due to
                 node failures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "37",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "overlay networks; Peer-to-peer; skip lists",
}

@Article{Han:2007:OPS,
  author =       "Yijie Han",
  title =        "Optimal parallel selection",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "38:1--38:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290675",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present an optimal parallel selection algorithm on
                 the EREW PRAM. This algorithm runs in {$ O(\log n) $}
                 time with {$ n / \log n $} processors. This complexity
                 matches the known lower bound for parallel selection on
                 the EREW PRAM model. We therefore close this problem
                 which has been open for more than a decade.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "38",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "EREW PRAM; Parallel algorithms; selection",
}

@Article{Bansal:2007:MWF,
  author =       "Nikhil Bansal and Kedar Dhamdhere",
  title =        "Minimizing weighted flow time",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "39:1--39:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290676",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of minimizing the total
                 weighted flow time on a single machine with
                 preemptions. We give an online algorithm that is {$
                 O(k) $}-competitive for {$k$} weight classes. This
                 implies an {$ O(\log W) $}-competitive algorithm, where
                 {$W$} is the maximum to minimum ratio of weights. This
                 algorithm also implies an {$ O(\log n + \log P)
                 $}-approximation ratio for the problem, where {$P$} is
                 the ratio of the maximum to minimum job size and {$n$}
                 is the number of jobs. We also consider the
                 nonclairvoyant setting where the size of a job is
                 unknown upon its arrival and becomes known to the
                 scheduler only when the job meets its service
                 requirement. We consider the resource augmentation
                 model, and give a {$ (1 + \varepsilon) $}-speed, {$ (1
                 + 1 / \varepsilon) $}-competitive online algorithm.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "39",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "nonclairvoyant scheduling; online algorithms; response
                 time; Scheduling",
}

@Article{Fakcharoenphol:2007:TRP,
  author =       "Jittat Fakcharoenphol and Chris Harrelson and Satish
                 Rao",
  title =        "The $k$-traveling repairmen problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40:1--40:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290677",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the $k$-traveling repairmen problem, also
                 known as the minimum latency problem, to multiple
                 repairmen. We give a polynomial-time $ 8.497 \alpha
                 $-approximation algorithm for this generalization,
                 where $ \alpha $ denotes the best achievable
                 approximation factor for the problem of finding the
                 least-cost rooted tree spanning $i$ vertices of a
                 metric. For the latter problem, a $ (2 + \varepsilon)
                 $-approximation is known. Our results can be compared
                 with the best-known approximation algorithm using
                 similar techniques for the case $ k = 1 $, which is $
                 3.59 \alpha $. Moreover, recent work of Chaudry et al.
                 [2003] shows how to remove the factor of $ \alpha $,
                 thus improving all of these results by that factor. We
                 are aware of no previous work on the approximability of
                 the present problem. In addition, we give a simple
                 proof of the $ 3.59 \alpha $-approximation result that
                 can be more easily extended to the case of multiple
                 repairmen, and may be of independent interest.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "40",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Traveling salesman; vehicle routing",
}

@Article{Irani:2007:APS,
  author =       "Sandy Irani and Sandeep Shukla and Rajesh Gupta",
  title =        "Algorithms for power savings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41:1--41:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290678",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article examines two different mechanisms for
                 saving power in battery-operated embedded systems. The
                 first strategy is that the system can be placed in a
                 sleep state if it is idle. However, a fixed amount of
                 energy is required to bring the system back into an
                 active state in which it can resume work. The second
                 way in which power savings can be achieved is by
                 varying the speed at which jobs are run. We utilize a
                 power consumption curve {$ P(s) $} which indicates the
                 power consumption level given a particular speed. We
                 assume that {$ P(s) $} is convex, nondecreasing, and
                 nonnegative for {$ s \geq 0 $}. The problem is to
                 schedule arriving jobs in a way that minimizes total
                 energy use and so that each job is completed after its
                 release time and before its deadline. We assume that
                 all jobs can be preempted and resumed at no cost.
                 Although each problem has been considered separately,
                 this is the first theoretical analysis of systems that
                 can use both mechanisms. We give an offline algorithm
                 that is within a factor of 2 of the optimal algorithm.
                 We also give an online algorithm with a constant
                 competitive ratio.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "41",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "dynamic speed scaling; online algorithms; Power
                 savings",
}

@Article{Alon:2007:GSE,
  author =       "Noga Alon and Venkatesan Guruswami and Tali Kaufman
                 and Madhu Sudan",
  title =        "Guessing secrets efficiently via list decoding",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42:1--42:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290679",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the guessing secrets problem defined by
                 Chung et al. [2001]. This is a variant of the standard
                 20 questions game where the player has a set of $ k > 1
                 $ secrets from a universe of {$N$} possible secrets.
                 The player is asked Boolean questions about the secret.
                 For each question, the player picks one of the {$k$}
                 secrets adversarially, and answers according to this
                 secret.\par

                 We present an explicit set of {$ O(\log N) $} questions
                 together with an efficient (i.e., {$ {\rm poly}(\log N)
                 $} time) algorithm to solve the guessing secrets
                 problem for the case of 2 secrets. This answers the
                 main algorithmic question left unanswered by Chung et
                 al. [2001]. The main techniques we use are small {$
                 \epsilon $}-biased spaces and the notion of list
                 decoding.\par

                 We also establish bounds on the number of questions
                 needed to solve the {$k$}-secrets game for {$ k > 2 $},
                 and discuss how list decoding can be used to get
                 partial information about the secrets, specifically to
                 find a small core of secrets that must intersect the
                 actual set of $k$ secrets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "42",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "$\epsilon$-biased spaces; $k$-universal sets; 20
                 questions; decoding algorithms; error-correcting
                 codes",
}

@Article{Raman:2007:SID,
  author =       "Rajeev Raman and Venkatesh Raman and Srinivasa Rao
                 Satti",
  title =        "Succinct indexable dictionaries with applications to
                 encoding $k$-ary trees, prefix sums and multisets",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "43:1--43:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290680",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the indexable dictionary problem, which
                 consists of storing a set {$ S \subseteq \{ 0, \ldots,
                 m - 1 \} $} for some integer {$m$} while supporting the
                 operations of {$ \rank (x) $}, which returns the number
                 of elements in {$S$} that are less than {$x$} if {$ x
                 \in S $}, and {$ - 1 $} otherwise; and {$ \select (i)
                 $}, which returns the {$i$} th smallest element in
                 {$S$}. We give a data structure that supports both
                 operations in {$ O(1) $} time on the RAM model and
                 requires {$ B(n, m) + o(n) + O(\lg \lg m) $} bits to
                 store a set of size {$n$}, where {$ B(n, m) = \lfloor
                 \lg (m / n) \rfloor $} is the minimum number of bits
                 required to store any {$n$}-element subset from a
                 universe of size {$m$}. Previous dictionaries taking
                 this space only supported (yes/no) membership queries
                 in {$ O (1) $} time. In the cell probe model we can
                 remove the {$ O (\lg \lg m) $} additive term in the
                 space bound, answering a question raised by Fich and
                 Miltersen [1995] and Pagh [2001].\par

                 We present extensions and applications of our indexable
                 dictionary data structure, including:\par

                 --- an information-theoretically optimal representation
                 of a {$k$}-ary cardinal tree that supports standard
                 operations in constant time;\par

                 --- a representation of a multiset of size {$n$} from
                 {$ \{ 0, \ldots, m - 1 \} $} in {$ B(n, m + n) + o(n)
                 $} bits that supports (appropriate generalizations of)
                 rank and select operations in constant time; and {$ +
                 O(\lg \lg m) $}\par

                 --- a representation of a sequence of {$n$} nonnegative
                 integers summing up to {$m$} in {$ B(n, m + n) + o(n)
                 $} bits that supports prefix sum queries in constant
                 time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "43",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Dictionaries; multisets; perfect hashing; prefix sums;
                 sets; succinct data structures; tries",
}

@Article{Janson:2007:PFS,
  author =       "Svante Janson and Wojciech Szpankowski",
  title =        "Partial fillup and search time in {LC} tries",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "44:1--44:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290681",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Andersson and Nilsson introduced in 1993 a
                 level-compressed trie (for short, LC trie) in which a
                 full subtree of a node is compressed to a single node
                 of degree being the size of the subtree. Recent
                 experimental results indicated a ``dramatic
                 improvement'' when full subtrees are replaced by
                 ``partially filled subtrees.'' In this article, we
                 provide a theoretical justification of these
                 experimental results, showing, among others, a rather
                 moderate improvement in search time over the original
                 LC tries. For such an analysis, we assume that $n$
                 strings are generated independently by a binary
                 memoryless source, with $p$ denoting the probability of
                 emitting a ``1'' (and $ q = 1 - p $ ). We first prove
                 that the so-called {$ \alpha $}-fillup level {$ F_n
                 (\alpha) $} (i.e., the largest level in a trie with {$
                 \alpha $} fraction of nodes present at this level) is
                 concentrated on two values with high probability:
                 either {$ F_n(\alpha) = k_n $} or {$ F_n ({\alpha}) =
                 k_n + 1 $}, where {$ k_n = \log 1 / \sqrt {pq} n - |l
                 n(p / q)| / 2 l n 3 / 2 (1 \sqrt {pq}) {\Phi} - 1
                 (\alpha) \sqrt {\ln n} + O(1) $} is an integer and {$
                 \Phi (x) $} denotes the normal distribution function.
                 This result directly yields the typical depth (search
                 time) {$ D_n (\alpha) $} in the {$ \alpha $}-LC tries,
                 namely, we show that with high probability {$
                 D_n(\alpha) \sim C_2 \log \log n $}, where {$ C_2 = 1 /
                 | \log (1 - h / \log (1 / \sqrt {pq}))| $} for {$ p
                 \neq q $} and {$ h = - p \log p - q \log q $} is the
                 Shannon entropy rate. This should be compared with
                 recently found typical depth in the original LC tries,
                 which is {$ C_1 \log \log n $}, where {$ C_1 = 1 / |
                 \log (1 - h) / \log (1 / \min \{ p, 1 - p \})| $}. In
                 conclusion, we observe that {$ \alpha $} affects only
                 the lower term of the {$ \alpha $}-fillup level {$
                 F_n(\alpha) $}, and the search time in {$ \alpha $}-LC
                 tries is of the same order as in the original LC
                 tries.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "44",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Digital trees; level-compressed tries; partial fillup;
                 Poissonization; probabilistic analysis; strings;
                 trees",
}

@Article{Hershberger:2007:FSS,
  author =       "John Hershberger and Matthew Maxel and Subhash Suri",
  title =        "Finding the $k$ shortest simple paths: a new algorithm
                 and its implementation",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "45:1--45:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290682",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe a new algorithm to enumerate the $k$
                 shortest simple (loopless) paths in a directed graph
                 and report on its implementation. Our algorithm is
                 based on a replacement paths algorithm proposed by
                 Hershberger and Suri [2001], and can yield a factor {$
                 \Theta (n) $} improvement for this problem. But there
                 is a caveat: The fast replacement paths subroutine is
                 known to fail for some directed graphs. However, the
                 failure is easily detected, and so our {$k$} shortest
                 paths algorithm optimistically uses the fast
                 subroutine, then switches to a slower but correct
                 algorithm if a failure is detected. Thus, the algorithm
                 achieves its {$ \Theta (n) $} speed advantage only when
                 the optimism is justified. Our empirical results show
                 that the replacement paths failure is a rare
                 phenomenon, and the new algorithm outperforms the
                 current best algorithms; the improvement can be
                 substantial in large graphs. For instance, on GIS map
                 data with about 5,000 nodes and 12,000 edges, our
                 algorithm is 4--8 times faster. In synthetic graphs
                 modeling wireless ad hoc networks, our algorithm is
                 about 20 times faster.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "45",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "directed paths; Loop-free paths; path equivalence
                 class; replacement paths",
}

@Article{Chekuri:2007:EDP,
  author =       "Chandra Chekuri and Sanjeev Khanna",
  title =        "Edge-disjoint paths revisited",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "46:1--46:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290683",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The approximability of the maximum edge-disjoint paths
                 problem (EDP) in directed graphs was seemingly settled
                 by an {$ \Omega (m^{1 / 2} - \epsilon) $}-hardness
                 result of Guruswami et al. [2003], and an {$ O(\sqrt
                 {m}) $} approximation achievable via a natural
                 multicommodity-flow-based LP relaxation as well as a
                 greedy algorithm. Here {$m$} is the number of edges in
                 the graph. We observe that the {$ \Omega (m^{1 / 2} -
                 {\epsilon}) $}-hardness of approximation applies to
                 sparse graphs, and hence when expressed as a function
                 of {$n$}, that is, the number of vertices, only an {$
                 \Omega (n^{1 / 2} - \epsilon) $}-hardness follows. On
                 the other hand, {$ O(\sqrt {m}) $}-approximation
                 algorithms do not guarantee a sublinear (in terms of
                 {$n$} ) approximation algorithm for dense graphs. We
                 note that a similar gap exists in the known results on
                 the integrality gap of the flow-based LP relaxation: an
                 {$ \Omega (\sqrt {n}) $} lower bound and {$ O(\sqrt
                 {m}) $} upper bound. Motivated by this discrepancy in
                 the upper and lower bounds, we study algorithms for EDP
                 in directed and undirected graphs and obtain improved
                 approximation ratios. We show that the greedy algorithm
                 has an approximation ratio of {$ O(\min (n^{2 / 3},
                 \sqrt {m})) $} in undirected graphs and a ratio of {$
                 O(\min (n^{4 / 5}, \sqrt {m})) $} in directed graphs.
                 For acyclic graphs we give an {$ O(\sqrt {n} \ln n) $}
                 approximation via LP rounding. These are the first
                 sublinear approximation ratios for EDP. The results
                 also extend to EDP with weights and to the
                 uniform-capacity unsplittable flow problem (UCUFP).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "46",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithm; Edge-disjoint paths; greedy
                 algorithm; multicommodity flow relaxation",
}

@Article{Cheriyan:2007:PED,
  author =       "Joseph Cheriyan and Mohammad R. Salavatipour",
  title =        "Packing element-disjoint {Steiner} trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "47:1--47:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290684",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given an undirected graph {$ G(V, E) $} with terminal
                 set {$ T \subseteq V $}, the problem of packing
                 element-disjoint Steiner trees is to find the maximum
                 number of Steiner trees that are disjoint on the
                 nonterminal nodes and on the edges. The problem is
                 known to be NP-hard to approximate within a factor of
                 {$ \Omega (\log n) $}, where {$n$} denotes {$ |V| $}.
                 We present a randomized {$ O(\log n) $}-approximation
                 algorithm for this problem, thus matching the hardness
                 lower bound. Moreover, we show a tight upper bound of
                 {$ O(\log n) $} on the integrality ratio of a natural
                 linear programming relaxation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "47",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithms; element-disjoint; hardness
                 of approximation; Packing; Steiner trees",
}

@Article{Krivelevich:2007:AAH,
  author =       "Michael Krivelevich and Zeev Nutov and Mohammad R.
                 Salavatipour and Jacques Verstraete Yuster and Raphael
                 Yuster",
  title =        "Approximation algorithms and hardness results for
                 cycle packing problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "48:1--48:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290685",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The cycle packing number {$ \nu e(G) $} of a graph
                 {$G$} is the maximum number of pairwise edge-disjoint
                 cycles in {$G$}. Computing {$ \nu e(G) $} is an NP-hard
                 problem. We present approximation algorithms for
                 computing {$ \nu e (G) $} in both undirected and
                 directed graphs. In the undirected case we analyze a
                 variant of the modified greedy algorithm suggested by
                 Caprara et al. [2003] and show that it has
                 approximation ratio {$ \Theta (\sqrt {\log n}) $},
                 where {$ n = |V(G)| $}. This improves upon the previous
                 {$ O(\log n) $} upper bound for the approximation ratio
                 of this algorithm. In the directed case we present a {$
                 \sqrt {n} $}-approximation algorithm. Finally, we give
                 an {$ O(n^{2 / 3}) $}-approximation algorithm for the
                 problem of finding a maximum number of edge-disjoint
                 cycles that intersect a specified subset {$S$} of
                 vertices. We also study generalizations of these
                 problems. Our approximation ratios are the currently
                 best-known ones and, in addition, provide upper bounds
                 on the integrality gap of standard LP-relaxations of
                 these problems. In addition, we give lower bounds for
                 the integrality gap and approximability of {$ \nu e(G)
                 $} in directed graphs. Specifically, we prove a lower
                 bound of {$ \Omega (\log n / \log \log n) $} for the
                 integrality gap of edge-disjoint cycle packing. We also
                 show that it is quasi-NP-hard to approximate {$ \nu
                 e(G) $} within a factor of {$ O(\log 1 - \varepsilon n)
                 $} for any constant {$ \varepsilon > 0 $}. This
                 improves upon the previously known APX-hardness result
                 for this problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "48",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithms; Cycle packing;
                 edge-disjoint; hardness of approximation; integrality
                 gap",
}

@Article{Albers:2007:EEA,
  author =       "Susanne Albers and Hiroshi Fujiwara",
  title =        "Energy-efficient algorithms for flow time
                 minimization",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "49:1--49:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290686",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study scheduling problems in battery-operated
                 computing devices, aiming at schedules with low total
                 energy consumption. While most of the previous work has
                 focused on finding feasible schedules in deadline-based
                 settings, in this article we are interested in
                 schedules that guarantee good response times. More
                 specifically, our goal is to schedule a sequence of
                 jobs on a variable-speed processor so as to minimize
                 the total cost consisting of the energy consumption and
                 the total flow time of all jobs.\par

                 We first show that when the amount of work, for any
                 job, may take an arbitrary value, then no online
                 algorithm can achieve a constant competitive ratio.
                 Therefore, most of the article is concerned with
                 unit-size jobs. We devise a deterministic constant
                 competitive online algorithm and show that the offline
                 problem can be solved in polynomial time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "49",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "competitive analysis; dynamic programming; flow time;
                 offline algorithms; online algorithms; Variable-speed
                 processor",
}

@Article{Chrobak:2007:IOA,
  author =       "Marek Chrobak and Wojciech Jawor and Ji{\v{r}}{\'\i}
                 Sgall and Tom{\'a}{\v{s}} Tich{\'y}",
  title =        "Improved online algorithms for buffer management in
                 {QoS} switches",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "50:1--50:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290687",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the following buffer management problem
                 arising in QoS networks: Packets with specified weights
                 and deadlines arrive at a network switch and need to be
                 forwarded so that the total weight of forwarded packets
                 is maximized. Packets not forwarded before their
                 deadlines are lost. The main result of the article is
                 an online $ 64 / 33 \approx 1.939 $-competitive
                 algorithm, the first deterministic algorithm for this
                 problem with competitive ratio below 2. For the
                 2-uniform case we give an algorithm with ratio $
                 \approx 1.377 $ and a matching lower bound.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "50",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Online algorithms; scheduling",
}

@Article{Hajiaghayi:2007:ORN,
  author =       "Mohammad Taghi Hajiaghayi and Robert D. Kleinberg and
                 Harald R{\"a}cke and Tom Leighton",
  title =        "Oblivious routing on node-capacitated and directed
                 graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "51:1--51:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290688",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Oblivious routing algorithms for general undirected
                 networks were introduced by R{\"a}cke [2002], and this
                 work has led to many subsequent improvements and
                 applications. Comparatively little is known about
                 oblivious routing in general directed networks, or even
                 in undirected networks with node capacities.\par

                 We present the first nontrivial upper bounds for both
                 these cases, providing algorithms for $k$-commodity
                 oblivious routing problems with competitive ratio {$
                 O(\sqrt {k \log (n)}) $} for undirected
                 node-capacitated graphs and {$ O(\sqrt {k_n} 1 / 4 \log
                 (n)) $} for directed graphs. In the special case that
                 all commodities have a common source or sink, our upper
                 bound becomes {$ O(\sqrt {n} \log (n)) $} in both
                 cases, matching the lower bound up to a factor of {$
                 \log (n) $}. The lower bound (which first appeared in
                 Azar et al. [2003]) is obtained on a graph with very
                 high degree. We show that, in fact, the degree of a
                 graph is a crucial parameter for node-capacitated
                 oblivious routing in undirected graphs, by providing an
                 {$ O(\Delta \polylog (n)) $}-competitive oblivious
                 routing scheme for graphs of degree {$ \Delta $}. For
                 the directed case, however, we show that the lower
                 bound of {$ \Omega (\sqrt {n}) $} still holds in
                 low-degree graphs.\par

                 Finally, we settle an open question about routing
                 problems in which all commodities share a common source
                 or sink. We show that even in this simplified scenario
                 there are networks in which no oblivious routing
                 algorithm can achieve a competitive ratio better than
                 {$ \Omega (\log n) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "51",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "communication networks; directed graphs;
                 node-capacitated graphs; Oblivious routing",
}

@Article{Auletta:2007:RSU,
  author =       "Vincenzo Auletta and Roberto {De Prisco} and Paolo
                 Penna and Giuseppe Persiano",
  title =        "Routing selfish unsplittable traffic",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "52:1--52:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1290672.1290689",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:55:31 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider general resource assignment games
                 involving selfish users/agents in which users compete
                 for resources and try to be assigned to those which
                 maximize their own benefits (e.g., try to route their
                 traffic through links which minimize the latency of
                 their own traffic). We propose and study a mechanism
                 design approach in which an allocation mechanism
                 assigns users to resources and charges the users for
                 using the resources so as to induce each user to
                 truthfully report a private piece of information he/she
                 holds (e.g., how much traffic he/she needs to
                 transmit). This information is crucial for computing
                 optimal (or close to optimal) allocations and an agent
                 could misreport his/her information to induce the
                 underlying allocation algorithm to output a solution
                 which he/she likes more (e.g., which assigns better
                 resources to him/her).\par

                 For our resource allocation problems, we give an
                 algorithmic characterization of the solutions for which
                 truth-telling is a Nash equilibrium. A natural
                 application of these results is to a scheduling/routing
                 problem which is the mechanism design counterpart of
                 the selfish routing game of Koutsoupias and
                 Papadimitriou [1999]: Each selfish user wants to route
                 a piece of unsplittable traffic using one of $m$ links
                 of different speeds so as to minimize his/her own
                 latency. Our mechanism design counterpart can be seen
                 as the problem of scheduling selfish jobs on parallel
                 related machines and is the dual of the problem of
                 scheduling (unselfish) jobs on parallel selfish
                 machines studied by Archer and Tardos [2001].\par

                 Koutsoupias and Papadimitriou studied an ``anarchic''
                 scenario in which each user chooses his/her own link,
                 and this may produce Nash equilibria of cost {$ \Omega
                 (\log m / \log \log m) $} times the optimum. Our
                 mechanism design counterpart is a possible way of
                 reducing the effect of selfish behavior via suitable
                 incentives to the agents (i.e., taxes for using the
                 links). We indeed show that in the resulting game, it
                 is possible to guarantee an approximation factor of 8
                 for any number of links/machines (this solution also
                 works for online settings). However, it remains
                 impossible to guarantee arbitrarily good approximate
                 solutions, even for 2 links/machines and even if the
                 allocation algorithm is allowed superpolynomial time.
                 This result shows that our scheduling problem with
                 selfish jobs is more difficult than the scheduling
                 problem with selfish machines by Archer and Tardos
                 (which admits exact solutions).\par

                 We also study some generalizations of this basic
                 problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "52",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Algorithmic mechanism design; Nash equilibrium;
                 scheduling; selfish routing",
}

@Article{Ruzic:2008:UDD,
  author =       "Milan Ru{\v{z}}i{\'c}",
  title =        "Uniform deterministic dictionaries",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328912",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a new analysis of the well-known family of
                 multiplicative hash functions, and improved
                 deterministic algorithms for selecting ``good'' hash
                 functions. The main motivation is realization of
                 deterministic dictionaries with fast lookups and
                 reasonably fast updates. The model of computation is
                 the Word RAM, and it is assumed that the machine
                 word-size matches the size of keys in bits. Many of the
                 modern solutions to the dictionary problem are weakly
                 nonuniform, that is, they require a number of constants
                 to be computed at ``compile time'' for the stated time
                 bounds to hold. The currently fastest deterministic
                 dictionary uses constants not known to be computable in
                 polynomial time. In contrast, our dictionaries do not
                 require any special constants or instructions, and
                 running times are independent of word (and key) length.
                 Our family of dynamic dictionaries achieves a
                 performance of the following type: lookups in time {$
                 O(t) $} and updates in amortized time {$ O(n^{1 / t})
                 $}, for an appropriate parameter function {$t$}. Update
                 procedures require division, whereas searching uses
                 multiplication only.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Deterministic algorithms; perfect hashing",
}

@Article{Franceschini:2008:NSB,
  author =       "Gianni Franceschini and Roberto Grossi",
  title =        "No sorting? better searching!",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328913",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Questions about order versus disorder in systems and
                 models have been fascinating scientists over the years.
                 In computer science, order is intimately related to
                 sorting, commonly meant as the task of arranging keys
                 in increasing or decreasing order with respect to an
                 underlying total order relation. The sorted
                 organization is amenable for searching a set of $n$
                 keys, since each search requires {$ \Theta (\log n) $}
                 comparisons in the worst case, which is optimal if the
                 cost of a single comparison can be considered a
                 constant. Nevertheless, we prove that disorder
                 implicitly provides more information than order does.
                 For the general case of searching an array of
                 multidimensional keys whose comparison cost is
                 proportional to their length (and hence which cannot be
                 considered a constant), we demonstrate that
                 ``suitable'' disorder gives better bounds than those
                 derivable by using the natural lexicographic order.\par

                 We start from previous work done by Andersson et al.
                 [2001], who proved that {$ \Theta (k \log \log n / \log
                 \log (4 + k \log \log n / \log n) + k + \log n) $}
                 character comparisons (or probes) comprise the tight
                 complexity for searching a plain sorted array of {$n$}
                 keys, each of length {$k$}, arranged in lexicographic
                 order. We describe a novel permutation of the {$n$}
                 keys that is different from the sorted order. When keys
                 are kept ``unsorted'' in the array according to this
                 permutation, the complexity of searching drops to {$
                 \Theta (k + \log n) $} character comparisons (or
                 probes) in the worst case, which is optimal among all
                 possible permutations, up to a constant factor.
                 Consequently, disorder carries more information than
                 does order; this fact was not observable before, since
                 the latter two bounds are {$ \Theta (\log n) $} when {$
                 k = O(1) $}. More implications are discussed in the
                 article, including searching in the bit-probe model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Implicit data structures; in-place algorithms;
                 searching; sorting",
}

@Article{Kaplan:2008:THT,
  author =       "Haim Kaplan and Robert Endre Tarjan",
  title =        "Thin heaps, thick heaps",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328914",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The Fibonacci heap was devised to provide an
                 especially efficient implementation of Dijkstra's
                 shortest path algorithm. Although asymptotically
                 efficient, it is not as fast in practice as other heap
                 implementations. Expanding on ideas of H{\o }yer
                 [1995], we describe three heap implementations (two
                 versions of thin heaps and one of thick heaps) that
                 have the same amortized efficiency as Fibonacci heaps,
                 but need less space and promise better practical
                 performance. As part of our development, we fill in a
                 gap in H{\o }yer's analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "binomial queue; Data structure; decrease key
                 operation; Fibonacci heap; heap; melding; priority
                 queue; thick heap; thin heap",
}

@Article{Barbay:2008:ARA,
  author =       "J{\'e}r{\'e}my Barbay and Claire Kenyon",
  title =        "Alternation and redundancy analysis of the
                 intersection problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328915",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The intersection of sorted arrays problem has
                 applications in search engines such as Google. Previous
                 work has proposed and compared deterministic algorithms
                 for this problem, in an adaptive analysis based on the
                 encoding size of a certificate of the result (cost
                 analysis). We define the alternation analysis, based on
                 the nondeterministic complexity of an instance. In this
                 analysis we prove that there is a deterministic
                 algorithm asymptotically performing as well as any
                 randomized algorithm in the comparison model. We define
                 the redundancy analysis, based on a measure of the
                 internal redundancy of the instance. In this analysis
                 we prove that any algorithm optimal in the redundancy
                 analysis is optimal in the alternation analysis, but
                 that there is a randomized algorithm which performs
                 strictly better than any deterministic algorithm in the
                 comparison model. Finally, we describe how these
                 results can be extended beyond the comparison model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Adaptive analysis; alternation analysis; intersection;
                 intersection of sorted arrays; randomized algorithm;
                 redundancy analysis",
}

@Article{Pettie:2008:RMS,
  author =       "Seth Pettie and Vijaya Ramachandran",
  title =        "Randomized minimum spanning tree algorithms using
                 exponentially fewer random bits",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328916",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "For many fundamental problems there exist randomized
                 algorithms that are asymptotically optimal and are
                 superior to the best-known deterministic algorithm.
                 Among these are the minimum spanning tree (MST)
                 problem, the MST sensitivity analysis problem, the
                 parallel connected components and parallel minimum
                 spanning tree problems, and the local sorting and set
                 maxima problems. (For the first two problems there are
                 provably optimal deterministic algorithms with unknown,
                 and possibly superlinear, running times.) One downside
                 of the randomized methods for solving these problems is
                 that they use a number of random bits linear in the
                 size of input. In this article we develop some general
                 methods for reducing exponentially the consumption of
                 random bits in comparison-based algorithms. In some
                 cases we are able to reduce the number of random bits
                 from linear to nearly constant, without affecting the
                 expected running time.\par

                 Most of our results are obtained by adjusting or
                 reorganizing existing randomized algorithms to work
                 well with a pairwise or {$ O(1) $}-wise independent
                 sampler. The prominent exception, and the main focus of
                 this article, is a linear-time randomized minimum
                 spanning tree algorithm that is not derived from the
                 well-known Karger-Klein-Tarjan algorithm. In many ways
                 it resembles more closely the deterministic minimum
                 spanning tree algorithms based on soft heaps. Further,
                 using our algorithm as a guide, we present a unified
                 view of the existing ``nongreedy'' minimum spanning
                 tree algorithms. Concepts from the Karger-Klein-Tarjan
                 algorithm, such as F-lightness, MST verification, and
                 sampled graphs, are related to the concepts of edge
                 corruption, subgraph contractibility, and soft heaps,
                 which are the basis of the deterministic MST algorithms
                 of Chazelle and Pettie-Ramachandran.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Graph algorithms; minimum spanning trees; random
                 sampling",
}

@Article{Roditty:2008:FSF,
  author =       "Liam Roditty",
  title =        "A faster and simpler fully dynamic transitive
                 closure",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328917",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We obtain a new fully dynamic algorithm for
                 maintaining the transitive closure of a directed graph.
                 Our algorithm maintains the transitive closure matrix
                 in a total running time of {$ O(m n + ({\rm ins} + {\rm
                 del}) {\cdot} n^2) $}, where ins(del) is the number of
                 insert (delete) operations performed. Here {$n$} is the
                 number of vertices in the graph and {$m$} is the
                 initial number of edges in the graph. Obviously,
                 reachability queries can be answered in constant time.
                 The algorithm uses only {$ O(n^2) $} time which is
                 essentially optimal for maintaining the transitive
                 closure matrix. Our algorithm can also support path
                 queries. If {$v$} is reachable from {$u$}, the
                 algorithm can produce a path from {$u$} to $v$ in time
                 proportional to the length of the path. The best
                 previously known algorithm for the problem is due to
                 Demetrescu and Italiano [2000]. Their algorithm has a
                 total running time of {$ O(n^3 + ({\rm ins} + {\rm
                 del}) {\cdot} n^2) $}. The query time is also constant.
                 In addition, we also present a simple algorithm for
                 directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) with a total running
                 time of {$ O(m n + {\rm ins} {\cdot} n^2 + {\rm del})
                 $}. Our algorithms are obtained by combining some new
                 ideas with techniques of Italiano [1986, 1988], King
                 [1999], King and Thorup [2001] and Frigioni et al.
                 [2001]. We also note that our algorithms are extremely
                 simple and can be easily implemented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "directed graph; Dynamic graph algorithms;
                 reachability",
}

@Article{Gabow:2008:FLD,
  author =       "Harold N. Gabow and Shuxin Nie",
  title =        "Finding a long directed cycle",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328918",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Consider a digraph with $n$ vertices. For any fixed
                 value $k$, we present linear- and almost-linear-time
                 algorithms to find a cycle of length $ \geq k $, if one
                 exists. We also find a cycle that has length $ \geq
                 \log n / \log \log n $ in polynomial time, if one
                 exists. Under an appropriate complexity assumption it
                 is known to be impossible to improve this guarantee by
                 more than a $ \log \log n $ factor. Our approach is
                 based on depth-first search.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; circumference; cycles;
                 Hamiltonian cycles; long cycles",
}

@Article{Buchsbaum:2008:RLC,
  author =       "Adam L. Buchsbaum and Emden R. Gansner and Cecilia M.
                 Procopiuc and Suresh Venkatasubramanian",
  title =        "Rectangular layouts and contact graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328919",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Contact graphs of isothetic rectangles unify many
                 concepts from applications including VLSI and
                 architectural design, computational geometry, and GIS.
                 Minimizing the area of their corresponding rectangular
                 layouts is a key problem. We study the
                 area-optimization problem and show that it is NP-hard
                 to find a minimum-area rectangular layout of a given
                 contact graph. We present {$ O(n) $}-time algorithms
                 that construct {$ O(n^2) $}-area rectangular layouts
                 for general contact graphs and {$ O(n \log n) $}-area
                 rectangular layouts for trees. (For trees, this is an
                 {$ O(\log n) $}-approximation algorithm.) We also
                 present an infinite family of graphs (respectively,
                 trees) that require {$ \Omega (n^2) $} (respectively,
                 {$ \Omega (n \log n) $}) area.\par

                 We derive these results by presenting a new
                 characterization of graphs that admit rectangular
                 layouts, using the related concept of rectangular
                 duals. A corollary to our results relates the class of
                 graphs that admit rectangular layouts to
                 rectangle-of-influence drawings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Contact graphs; rectangular duals; rectangular
                 layouts",
}

@Article{Arge:2008:PRT,
  author =       "Lars Arge and Mark {De Berg} and Herman Haverkort and
                 Ke Yi",
  title =        "The priority {R}-tree: a practically efficient and
                 worst-case optimal {R}-tree",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328920",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present the priority R-tree, or PR-tree, which is
                 the first R-tree variant that always answers a window
                 query using {$ O((N / B) 1 - 1 / d + T / B) $} I/Os,
                 where {$N$} is the number of {$d$}-dimensional (hyper-)
                 rectangles stored in the R-tree, {$B$} is the disk
                 block size, and {$T$} is the output size. This is
                 provably asymptotically optimal and significantly
                 better than other R-tree variants, where a query may
                 visit all {$ N / B $} leaves in the tree even when {$ T
                 = 0 $}. We also present an extensive experimental study
                 of the practical performance of the PR-tree using both
                 real-life and synthetic data. This study shows that the
                 PR-tree performs similarly to the best-known R-tree
                 variants on real-life and relatively nicely distributed
                 data, but outperforms them significantly on more
                 extreme data.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "R-trees",
}

@Article{Gudmundsson:2008:ADO,
  author =       "Joachim Gudmundsson and Christos Levcopoulos and Giri
                 Narasimhan and Michiel Smid",
  title =        "Approximate distance oracles for geometric spanners",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328921",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given an arbitrary real constant $ \varepsilon > 0 $,
                 and a geometric graph {$G$} in {$d$}-dimensional
                 Euclidean space with {$n$} points, {$ O(n) $} edges,
                 and constant dilation, our main result is a data
                 structure that answers {$ (1 + \varepsilon)
                 $}-approximate shortest-path-length queries in constant
                 time. The data structure can be constructed in {$ O(n
                 \log n) $} time using {$ O(n \log n) $} space. This
                 represents the first data structure that answers {$ (1
                 + \varepsilon) $}-approximate shortest-path queries in
                 constant time, and hence functions as an approximate
                 distance oracle. The data structure is also applied to
                 several other problems. In particular, we also show
                 that approximate shortest-path queries between vertices
                 in a planar polygonal domain with ``rounded'' obstacles
                 can be answered in constant time. Other applications
                 include query versions of closest-pair problems, and
                 the efficient computation of the approximate dilations
                 of geometric graphs. Finally, we show how to extend the
                 main result to answer {$ (1 + \varepsilon)
                 $}-approximate shortest-path-length queries in constant
                 time for geometric spanner graphs with {$ m = \omega
                 (n) $} edges. The resulting data structure can be
                 constructed in {$ O(m + n \log n) $} time using {$ O(n
                 \log n) $} space.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithm; computational geometry;
                 geometric graphs; Shortest paths; spanners",
}

@Article{Gandhi:2008:IBS,
  author =       "Rajiv Gandhi and Magn{\'u}s M. Halld{\'o}rsson and Guy
                 Kortsarz and Hadas Shachnai",
  title =        "Improved bounds for scheduling conflicting jobs with
                 minsum criteria",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328922",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider a general class of scheduling problems
                 where a set of conflicting jobs needs to be scheduled
                 (preemptively or nonpreemptively) on a set of machines
                 so as to minimize the weighted sum of completion times.
                 The conflicts among jobs are formed as an arbitrary
                 conflict graph.\par

                 Building on the framework of Queyranne and Sviridenko
                 [2002b], we present a general technique for reducing
                 the weighted sum of completion-times problem to the
                 classical makespan minimization problem. Using this
                 technique, we improve the best-known results for
                 scheduling conflicting jobs with the min-sum objective,
                 on several fundamental classes of graphs, including
                 line graphs, $ (k + 1) $-claw-free graphs, and perfect
                 graphs. In particular, we obtain the first
                 constant-factor approximation ratio for nonpreemptive
                 scheduling on interval graphs. We also improve the
                 results of Kim [2003] for scheduling jobs on line
                 graphs and for resource-constrained scheduling.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; coloring; linear
                 programming; LP rounding; scheduling; sum
                 multicoloring",
}

@Article{Guerraoui:2008:CMA,
  author =       "Rachid Guerraoui and Ron R. Levy and Bastian Pochon
                 and Jim Pugh",
  title =        "The collective memory of amnesic processes",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328923",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article considers the problem of robustly
                 emulating a shared atomic memory over a distributed
                 message-passing system where processes can fail by
                 crashing and possibly recover. We revisit the notion of
                 atomicity in the crash-recovery context and introduce a
                 generic algorithm that emulates an atomic memory. The
                 algorithm is instantiated for various settings
                 according to whether processes have access to local
                 stable storage, and whether, in every execution of the
                 algorithm, a sufficient number of processes are assumed
                 not to crash. We establish the optimality of specific
                 instances of our algorithm in terms of resilience, log
                 complexity (number of stable storage accesses needed in
                 every read or write operation), as well as time
                 complexity (number of communication steps needed in
                 every read or write operation). The article also
                 discusses the impact of considering a multiwriter
                 versus a single-writer memory, as well as the impact of
                 weakening the consistency of the memory by providing
                 safe or regular semantics instead of atomicity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "\log complexity; Atomic registers; crash recovery;
                 shared-memory emulation",
}

@Article{Karakostas:2008:FAS,
  author =       "George Karakostas",
  title =        "Faster approximation schemes for fractional
                 multicommodity flow problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13:1--13:17",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328924",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present fully polynomial approximation schemes for
                 concurrent multicommodity flow problems that run in
                 time of the minimum possible dependencies on the number
                 of commodities $k$. We show that by modifying the
                 algorithms by Garg and K{\"o}nemann [1998] and
                 Fleischer [2000], we can reduce their running time on a
                 graph with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges from {$ \tilde
                 {O}(\varepsilon^{ - 2}(m^2 + k m)) $} to {$ \tilde
                 {O}({\varepsilon^{ - 2m}}^2) $} for an {\em implicit\/}
                 representation of the output, or {$ \tilde
                 {O}(\varepsilon^{ - 2}(m^2 + k n)) $} for an {\em
                 explicit\/} representation, where {$ \tilde {O}(f) $}
                 denotes a quantity that is {$ O(f \log^{O(1)} m)$}. The
                 implicit representation consists of a set of trees
                 rooted at sources (there can be more than one tree per
                 source), and with sinks as their leaves, together with
                 flow values for the flow directed from the source to
                 the sinks in a particular tree. Given this implicit
                 representation, the approximate value of the concurrent
                 flow is known, but if we want the explicit flow per
                 commodity per edge, we would have to combine all these
                 trees together, and the cost of doing so may be
                 prohibitive. In case we want to calculate explicitly
                 the solution flow, we modify our schemes so that they
                 run in time polylogarithmic in {$ n k $} ({$n$} is the
                 number of nodes in the network). This is within a
                 polylogarithmic factor of the trivial lower bound of
                 time {$ \Omega (n k) $} needed to explicitly write down
                 a multicommodity flow of {$k$} commodities in a network
                 of {$n$} nodes. Therefore our schemes are within a
                 polylogarithmic factor of the minimum possible
                 dependencies of the running time on the number of
                 commodities {$k$}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "fully-polynomial time approximation schemes;
                 Multicommodity flows",
}

@Article{Lemire:2008:HBO,
  author =       "Daniel Lemire and Owen Kaser",
  title =        "Hierarchical bin buffering: {Online} local moments for
                 dynamic external memory arrays",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328925",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "For a massive I/O array of size $n$, we want to
                 compute the first {$N$} local moments, for some
                 constant {$N$}. Our simpler algorithms partition the
                 array into consecutive ranges called bins, and apply
                 not only to local-moment queries, but also to algebraic
                 queries. With {$N$} buffers of size {$ \sqrt {n} $},
                 time complexity drops to {$ O(\sqrt {n}) $}. A more
                 sophisticated approach uses hierarchical buffering and
                 has a logarithmic time complexity ({$ O(b \log b n)
                 $}), when using {$N$} hierarchical buffers of size {$ n
                 / b $}. Using overlapped bin buffering, we show that
                 only one buffer is needed, as with wavelet-based
                 algorithms, but using much less storage.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "hierarchical buffers; polynomial fitting; statistical
                 queries; Very large arrays",
}

@Article{Anshelevich:2008:PDU,
  author =       "Elliot Anshelevich and Lisa Zhang",
  title =        "Path decomposition under a new cost measure with
                 applications to optical network design",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1328911.1328926",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:15 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a problem directly inspired by its
                 application to DWDM (dense wavelength division
                 multiplexing) network design. We are given a set of
                 demands to be carried over a network. Our goal is to
                 choose a route for each demand and to decompose the
                 network into a collection of edge-disjoint simple
                 paths. These paths are called optical line systems. The
                 cost of routing one unit of demand is the number of
                 line systems with which the demand route overlaps; our
                 design objective is to minimize the total cost over all
                 demands. This cost metric is motivated by the need to
                 minimize O-E-O(optical-electrical-optical) conversions
                 in optical transmission.\par

                 For given line systems, it is easy to find the optimal
                 demand routes. On the other hand, for given demand
                 routes designing the optimal line systems can be
                 NP-hard. We first present a 2-approximation for general
                 network topologies. As optical networks often have low
                 node degrees, we offer an algorithm that finds the
                 optimal solution for the special case in which the node
                 degree is at most 3. Our solution is based on a local
                 greedy approach.\par

                 If neither demand routes nor line systems are fixed,
                 the situation becomes much harder. Even for a
                 restricted scenario on a 3-regular Hamiltonian network,
                 no efficient algorithm can guarantee a constant
                 approximation better than 2. For general topologies, we
                 offer a simple algorithm with an {$ O(\log K) $}- and
                 an {$ O(\log n) $}-approximation, where {$K$} is the
                 number of demands and {$n$} the number of nodes. This
                 approximation ratio is almost tight. For rings, a
                 common special topology, we offer a more complex
                 3/2-approximation algorithm.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithms; Optical network design; path
                 decomposition",
}

@Article{Buchsbaum:2008:GE,
  author =       "Adam L. Buchsbaum",
  title =        "Guest editorial",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361192.1361193",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Blandford:2008:CDV,
  author =       "Daniel K. Blandford and Guy E. Blelloch",
  title =        "Compact dictionaries for variable-length keys and data
                 with applications",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361192.1361194",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of maintaining a dynamic
                 dictionary {$T$} of keys and associated data for which
                 both the keys and data are bit strings that can vary in
                 length from zero up to the length {$w$} of a machine
                 word. We present a data structure for this
                 variable-bit-length dictionary problem that supports
                 constant time lookup and expected amortized
                 constant-time insertion and deletion. It uses {$ O(m +
                 3 n - n \log 2 n) $} bits, where {$n$} is the number of
                 elements in {$T$}, and {$m$} is the total number of
                 bits across all strings in {$T$} (keys and data). Our
                 dictionary uses an array {$ A[1 \ldots n] $} in which
                 locations store variable-bit-length strings. We present
                 a data structure for this variable-bit-length array
                 problem that supports worst-case constant-time lookups
                 and updates and uses {$ O(m + n) $} bits, where {$m$}
                 is the total number of bits across all strings stored
                 in {$A$}.\par

                 The motivation for these structures is to support
                 applications for which it is helpful to efficiently
                 store short varying-length bit strings. We present
                 several applications, including representations for
                 semidynamic graphs, order queries on integers sets,
                 cardinal trees with varying cardinality, and simplicial
                 meshes of {$d$} dimensions. These results either
                 generalize or simplify previous results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Compression",
}

@Article{Kolluri:2008:PGM,
  author =       "Ravikrishna Kolluri",
  title =        "Provably good moving least squares",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361192.1361195",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We analyze a moving least squares (MLS) interpolation
                 scheme for reconstructing a surface from point cloud
                 data. The input is a sufficiently dense set of sample
                 points that lie near a closed surface F with
                 approximate surface normals. The output is a
                 reconstructed surface passing near the sample points.
                 For each sample point $s$ in the input, we define a
                 linear point function that represents the local shape
                 of the surface near $s$. These point functions are
                 combined by a weighted average, yielding a
                 three-dimensional function {$I$}. The reconstructed
                 surface is implicitly defined as the zero set of
                 {$I$}.\par

                 We prove that the function {$I$} is a good
                 approximation to the signed distance function of the
                 sampled surface {$F$} and that the reconstructed
                 surface is geometrically close to and isotopic to
                 {$F$}. Our sampling requirements are derived from the
                 local feature size function used in Delaunay-based
                 surface reconstruction algorithms. Our analysis can
                 handle noisy data provided the amount of noise in the
                 input dataset is small compared to the feature size of
                 {$F$}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "implicit surfaces; interpolation; Reconstruction",
}

@Article{Fusy:2008:DOT,
  author =       "{\'E}ric Fusy and Gilles Schaeffer and Dominique
                 Poulalhon",
  title =        "Dissections, orientations, and trees with applications
                 to optimal mesh encoding and random sampling",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361192.1361196",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a bijection between some quadrangular
                 dissections of an hexagon and unrooted binary trees
                 with interesting consequences for enumeration, mesh
                 compression, and graph sampling. Our bijection yields
                 an efficient uniform random sampler for 3-connected
                 planar graphs, which turns out to be determinant for
                 the quadratic complexity of the current best-known
                 uniform random sampler for labelled planar graphs. It
                 also provides an encoding for the set {$ P(n) $} of
                 {$n$}-edge 3-connected planar graphs that matches the
                 entropy bound {$ 1 / n \log 2 | P(n)| = 2 + o (1) $}
                 bits per edge (bpe). This solves a theoretical problem
                 recently raised in mesh compression as these graphs
                 abstract the combinatorial part of meshes with
                 spherical topology. We also achieve the optimal
                 parametric rate {$ 1 / n \log 2 | P(n, i, j)| $} bpe
                 for graphs of {$ P(n) $} with {$i$} vertices and {$j$}
                 faces, matching in particular the optimal rate for
                 triangulations. Our encoding relies on a linear time
                 algorithm to compute an orientation associated with the
                 minimal Schnyder wood of a 3-connected planar map. This
                 algorithm is of independent interest, and it is, for
                 instance, a key ingredient in a recent straight line
                 drawing algorithm for 3-connected planar graphs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Bijection; coding; counting; random generation",
}

@Article{VeghVegh:2008:PDA,
  author =       "L{\'a}szl{\'o} A. V{\'e}ghV{\'e}gh and Andr{\'a}s A.
                 Bencz{\'u}r",
  title =        "Primal-dual approach for directed vertex connectivity
                 augmentation and generalizations",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361192.1361197",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In their seminal paper, Frank and Jord{\'a}n [1995]
                 show that a large class of optimization problems,
                 including certain directed graph augmentation, fall
                 into the class of covering supermodular functions over
                 pairs of sets. They also give an algorithm for such
                 problems, however, it relies on the ellipsoid method.
                 Prior to our result, combinatorial algorithms existed
                 only for the 0--1 valued problem. Our key result is a
                 combinatorial algorithm for the general problem that
                 includes directed vertex or S-T connectivity
                 augmentation. The algorithm is based on Bencz{\'u}r's
                 previous algorithm for the 0--1 valued case
                 [Bencz{\'u}r 2003].\par

                 Our algorithm uses a primal-dual scheme for finding
                 covers of partially ordered sets that satisfy natural
                 abstract properties as in Frank and Jord{\'a}n. For an
                 initial (possibly greedy) cover, the algorithm searches
                 for witnesses for the necessity of each element in the
                 cover. If no two (weighted) witnesses have a common
                 cover, the solution is optimal. As long as this is not
                 the case, the witnesses are gradually exchanged for
                 smaller ones. Each witness change defines an
                 appropriate change in the solution; these changes are
                 finally unwound in a shortest-path manner to obtain a
                 solution of size one less.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "combinatorial algorithm; Vertex connectivity
                 augmentation",
}

@Article{Sanders:2008:AAS,
  author =       "Peter Sanders and David Steurer",
  title =        "An asymptotic approximation scheme for multigraph edge
                 coloring",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361192.1361198",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The edge coloring problem considers the assignment of
                 colors from a minimum number of colors to edges of a
                 graph such that no two edges with the same color are
                 incident to the same node. We give polynomial time
                 algorithms for approximate edge coloring of
                 multigraphs, that is, parallel edges are allowed. The
                 best previous algorithms achieve a fixed constant
                 approximation factor plus a small additive offset. One
                 of our algorithms achieves solution quality $ {\rm opt}
                 + \sqrt {9 {\rm opt} / 2} $ and has execution time
                 polynomial in the number of nodes and the logarithm of
                 the maximum edge multiplicity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "chromatic index; data migration; Edge coloring;
                 multigraphs",
}

@Article{Chawla:2008:ENT,
  author =       "Shuchi Chawla and Anupam Gupta and Harald R{\"a}cke",
  title =        "Embeddings of negative-type metrics and an improved
                 approximation to generalized sparsest cut",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361192.1361199",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we study metrics of negative type,
                 which are metrics {$ (V, d) $} such that {$ \sqrt {d}
                 $} is an Euclidean metric; these metrics are thus also
                 known as {$ \ell_2 $}-squared metrics. We show how to
                 embed {$n$}-point negative-type metrics into Euclidean
                 space $ \ell_2 $ with distortion {$ D = O(\log 3 / 4 n)
                 $}. This embedding result, in turn, implies an {$
                 O(\log 3 / 4 k) $}-approximation algorithm for the
                 Sparsest Cut problem with nonuniform demands. Another
                 corollary we obtain is that {$n$}-point subsets of {$
                 \ell_1 $} embed into {$ \ell_2 $} with distortion {$
                 O(\log 3 / 4 n) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithm; embedding; metrics;
                 negative-type metric; sparsest cut",
}

@Article{Chuzhoy:2008:ASN,
  author =       "Julia Chuzhoy and Anupam Gupta and Joseph (Seffi) Naor
                 and Amitabh Sinha",
  title =        "On the approximability of some network design
                 problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361192.1361200",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Consider the following classical network design
                 problem: a set of terminals {$ T = \{ t_i \} $} wishes
                 to send traffic to a root {$r$} in an {$n$}-node graph
                 {$ G = (V, E) $}. Each terminal {$ t_i $} sends {$ d_i
                 $} units of traffic and enough bandwidth has to be
                 allocated on the edges to permit this. However,
                 bandwidth on an edge {$e$} can only be allocated in
                 integral multiples of some base capacity $ u_e $ and
                 hence provisioning $ k {\times} u_e $ bandwidth on edge
                 $e$ incurs a cost of $ \lceil k \rceil $ times the cost
                 of that edge. The objective is a minimum-cost feasible
                 solution.\par

                 This is one of many network design problems widely
                 studied where the bandwidth allocation is governed by
                 side constraints: edges can only allow a subset of
                 cables to be purchased on them or certain
                 quality-of-service requirements may have to be met.\par

                 In this work, we show that this problem and, in fact,
                 several basic problems in this general network design
                 framework cannot be approximated better than {$ \Omega
                 (\log \log n) $} unless {$ {\rm NP} \subseteq {\rm
                 DTIME}(n O(\log \log \log n)) $}, where {$ |V| = n $}.
                 In particular, we show that this inapproximability
                 threshold holds for (i) the Priority-Steiner Tree
                 problem, (ii) the (single-sink) Cost-Distance problem,
                 and (iii) the single-sink version of an even more
                 fundamental problem, Fixed Charge Network Flow. Our
                 results provide a further breakthrough in the
                 understanding of the level of complexity of network
                 design problems. These are the first nonconstant
                 hardness results known for all these problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "cost-distance; fixed charge network flow; Hardness of
                 approximation; network design; priority Steiner tree",
}

@Article{Immorlica:2008:LCM,
  author =       "Nicole Immorlica and Mohammad Mahdian and Vahab S.
                 Mirrokni",
  title =        "Limitations of cross-monotonic cost-sharing schemes",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1361192.1361201",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:56:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A cost-sharing scheme is a set of rules defining how
                 to share the cost of a service (often computed by
                 solving a combinatorial optimization problem) among
                 serviced customers. A cost-sharing scheme is
                 cross-monotonic if it satisfies the property that
                 everyone is better off when the set of people who
                 receive the service expands. In this article, we
                 develop a novel technique for proving upper bounds on
                 the budget-balance factor of cross-monotonic
                 cost-sharing schemes or the worst-case ratio of
                 recovered cost to total cost. We apply this technique
                 to games defined, based on several combinatorial
                 optimization problems, including the problems of edge
                 cover, vertex cover, set cover, and metric facility
                 location and, in each case, derive tight or
                 nearly-tight bounds. In particular, we show that for
                 the facility location game, there is no cross-monotonic
                 cost-sharing scheme that recovers more than a third of
                 the total cost. This result, together with a recent
                 1/3-budget-balanced cross-monotonic cost-sharing scheme
                 of P{\'a}l and Tardos [2003] closes the gap for the
                 facility location game. For the vertex cover and set
                 cover games, we show that no cross-monotonic
                 cost-sharing scheme can recover more than a {$ O(n - 1
                 / 3) $} and {$ O(1 / n) $} fraction of the total cost,
                 respectively. Finally, we study the implications of our
                 results on the existence of group-strategyproof
                 mechanisms. We show that every group-strategyproof
                 mechanism corresponds to a cost-sharing scheme that
                 satisfies a condition weaker than cross-monotonicity.
                 Using this, we prove that group-strategyproof
                 mechanisms satisfying additional properties give rise
                 to cross-monotonic cost-sharing schemes and therefore
                 our upper bounds hold.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Cross-monotonic cost-sharing schemes;
                 group-strategyproof mechanism design; probabilistic
                 method",
}

@Article{Dinitz:2008:OAS,
  author =       "Yefim Dinitz and Shay Solomon",
  title =        "Optimality of an algorithm solving the {Bottleneck
                 Tower of Hanoi} problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367065",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the Bottleneck Tower of Hanoi puzzle posed by
                 D. Wood in 1981. There, a relaxed placement rule allows
                 a larger disk to be placed {\em higher\/} than a
                 smaller one if their size difference is less than a
                 pregiven value $k$. A shortest sequence of moves
                 (optimal algorithm) transferring all the disks placed
                 on some peg in decreasing order of size, to another peg
                 in the same order is in question. In 1992, D. Poole
                 suggested a natural disk-moving strategy for this
                 problem, and computed the length of the shortest move
                 sequence under its framework. However, other strategies
                 were overlooked, so the lower bound/optimality question
                 remained open. In 1998, Benditkis, Berend, and Safro
                 proved the optimality of Poole's algorithm for the
                 first nontrivial case $ k = 2 $. We prove Poole's
                 algorithm to be optimal in the general case.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Optimality proofs; Tower of Hanoi",
}

@Article{Alonso:2008:DP,
  author =       "Laurent Alonso and Edward M. Reingold",
  title =        "Determining plurality",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367066",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a set of $n$ elements, each of which is colored
                 one of $c$ colors, we must determine an element of the
                 plurality (most frequently occurring) color by pairwise
                 equal/unequal color comparisons of elements. We prove
                 that $ (c - 1)(n - c) / 2 $ color comparisons are
                 necessary in the worst case to determine the plurality
                 color and give an algorithm requiring {$ (0.775 c +
                 5.9) n + O(c^2) $} color comparisons for {$ c \geq 9
                 $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Algorithm analysis; majority problem; plurality
                 problem",
}

@Article{Alonso:2008:ACL,
  author =       "Laurent Alonso and Edward M. Reingold",
  title =        "Average-case lower bounds for the plurality problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367067",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a set of $n$ elements, each of which is colored
                 one of $ c \geq 2 $ colors, we have to determine an
                 element of the plurality (most frequently occurring)
                 color by pairwise equal/unequal color comparisons of
                 elements. We derive lower bounds for the expected
                 number of color comparisons when the $ c^n $ colorings
                 are equally probable. We prove a general lower bound of
                 {$ c / 3 n - O(\sqrt n) $} for {$ c \geq 2 $}; we prove
                 the stronger particular bounds of {$ 7 / 6 n - O(\sqrt
                 n) $} for {$ c = 3 $}, {$ 54 / 35 n - O(\sqrt n) $} for
                 {$ c = 4 $}, {$ 607 / 315 n O(\sqrt n) $} for {$ c = 5
                 $}, {$ 1592 / 693 n - O(\sqrt n) $} for {$ c = 6 $}, {$
                 7985 / 3003 n - O(\sqrt n) $} for {$ c = 7 $}, and {$
                 19402 / 6435 n - O(\sqrt n) $} for {$ c = 8 $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Algorithm analysis; majority problem; plurality
                 problem",
}

@Article{Lu:2008:BPS,
  author =       "Hsueh-I Lu and Chia-Chi Yeh",
  title =        "Balanced parentheses strike back",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367068",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "An {\em ordinal tree\/} is an arbitrary rooted tree
                 where the children of each node are ordered. Succinct
                 representations for ordinal trees with efficient query
                 support have been extensively studied. The best
                 previously known result is due to Geary et al. [2004b,
                 pages 1--10]. The number of bits required by their
                 representation for an $n$-node ordinal tree {$T$} is {$
                 2 n + o(n) $}, whose first-order term is
                 information-theoretically optimal. Their representation
                 supports a large set of {$ O(1) $}-time queries on
                 {$T$}. Based upon a balanced string of {$ 2 n $}
                 parentheses, we give an improved {$ 2 n + o(n) $}-bit
                 representation for {$T$}. Our improvement is two-fold:
                 First, the set of {$ O(1) $}-time queries supported by
                 our representation is a proper superset of that
                 supported by the representation of Geary, Raman, and
                 Raman. Second, it is also much easier for our
                 representation to support new queries by simply adding
                 new auxiliary strings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Succinct data structures; XML document
                 representation",
}

@Article{Roditty:2008:RSR,
  author =       "Iam Roditty and Mikkel Thorup and Uri Zwick",
  title =        "Roundtrip spanners and roundtrip routing in directed
                 graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367069",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce the notion of {\em roundtrip-spanners\/}
                 of weighted {\em directed\/} graphs and describe
                 efficient algorithms for their construction. We show
                 that for every integer $ k \geq 1 $ and any $ \epsilon
                 > 0 $, any directed graph on $n$ vertices with edge
                 weights in the range {$ [1, W] $} has a {$ (2 k +
                 \epsilon) $}-roundtrip-spanner with {$ O(\min (k^2 /
                 \epsilon)) n^{1 + 1 / k} (\log (n W), (k / \epsilon)^2
                 n^{1 + 1 / k}, (\log n)^{2 - 1 / k}) $} edges. We then
                 extend these constructions and obtain compact roundtrip
                 routing schemes. For every integer {$ k \geq 1 $} and
                 every {$ \epsilon > 0 $}, we describe a roundtrip
                 routing scheme that has stretch {$ 4 k + \epsilon $},
                 and uses at each vertex a routing table of size {$
                 \tilde {O}((k^2 / \epsilon) n^{1 / k} \log (n W)) $}.
                 We also show that any weighted directed graph with {\em
                 arbitrary / \/} positive edge weights has a
                 3-roundtrip-spanner with {$ O(n^{3 / 2}) $} edges. This
                 result is optimal. Finally, we present a stretch 3
                 roundtrip routing scheme that uses local routing tables
                 of size {$ \tilde {O}(n^{1 / 2}) $}. This routing
                 scheme is essentially optimal. The roundtrip-spanner
                 constructions and the roundtrip routing schemes for
                 directed graphs that we describe are only slightly
                 worse than the best available spanners and routing
                 schemes for undirected graphs. Our roundtrip routing
                 schemes substantially improve previous results of Cowen
                 and Wagner. Our results are obtained by combining ideas
                 of Cohen, Cowen and Wagner, Thorup and Zwick, with some
                 new ideas.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "distances; roundtrip; Routing; shortest paths;
                 spanners",
}

@Article{Gu:2008:OBD,
  author =       "Qian-Ping Gu and Hisao Tamaki",
  title =        "Optimal branch-decomposition of planar graphs in {$
                 O(n^3) $} time",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367070",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give an {$ O(n^3) $} time algorithm for
                 constructing a minimum-width branch-decomposition of a
                 given planar graph with {$n$} vertices. This is
                 achieved through a refinement to the previously best
                 known algorithm of Seymour and Thomas, which runs in {$
                 O(n^4) $} time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Branch-decompositions; planar graphs",
}

@Article{Czumaj:2008:TEM,
  author =       "Artur Czumaj and Christian Sohler",
  title =        "Testing {Euclidean} minimum spanning trees in the
                 plane",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367071",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a Euclidean graph {$G$} over a set {$P$} of
                 {$n$} points in the plane, we are interested in
                 verifying whether {$G$} is a Euclidean minimum spanning
                 tree (EMST) of {$P$} or {$G$} differs from it in more
                 than {$ \epsilon n $} edges. We assume that {$G$} is
                 given in adjacency list representation and the
                 point/vertex set {$P$} is given in an array. We present
                 a property testing algorithm that accepts graph {$G$}
                 if it is an EMST of {$P$} and that rejects with
                 probability at least {$ 2 / 3 $} if {$G$} differs from
                 every EMST of {$P$} in more than {$ \epsilon, n $}
                 edges. Our algorithm runs in {$ O(\sqrt n / \epsilon
                 \cdot \log^2 (n / \epsilon)) $} time and has a query
                 complexity of {$ O(\sqrt n / \epsilon \cdot \log (n /
                 \epsilon)) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Euclidean minimum spanning tree; property testing;
                 randomized algorithms",
}

@Article{Makinen:2008:DEC,
  author =       "Veli M{\"a}kinen and Gonzalo Navarro",
  title =        "Dynamic entropy-compressed sequences and full-text
                 indexes",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367072",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give new solutions to the Searchable Partial Sums
                 with Indels problem. Given a sequence of $n$ $k$-bit
                 numbers, we present a structure taking $ k n + o(k n) $
                 bits of space, able of performing operations {\em sum},
                 {\em search}, {\em insert}, and {\em delete}, all in {$
                 O(\log n) $} worst-case time, for any {$ k = O(\log n)
                 $}. This extends previous results by Hon et al. [2003c]
                 achieving the same space and {$ O(\log n / \log \log n)
                 $} time complexities for the queries, yet offering
                 complexities for {\em insert\/} and {\em delete\/}
                 that are amortized and worse than ours, and supported
                 only for {$ k = O(1) $}. Our result matches an existing
                 lower bound for large values of {$k$}.\par

                 We also give new solutions to the Dynamic Sequence
                 problem. Given a sequence of {$n$} symbols in the range
                 {$ [1, \sigma] $} with binary zero-order entropy {$ H_0
                 $}, we present a dynamic data structure that requires
                 {$ n_0 + o(n \log \sigma) $} bits of space, which is
                 able of performing {\em rank\/} and {\em select}, as
                 well as inserting and deleting symbols at arbitrary
                 positions, in {$ O(\log n \log \sigma) $} time. Our
                 result is the {\em first\/} entropy-bound dynamic data
                 structure for {\em rank\/} and {\em select\/} over
                 general sequences.\par

                 In the case {$ \sigma = 2 $}, where both previous
                 problems coincide, we improve the dynamic solution of
                 Hon et al. [2003c] in that we compress the sequence.
                 The only previous result with entropy-bound space for
                 dynamic binary sequences is by Blandford and Blelloch
                 [2004], which has the same complexities as our
                 structure, but does not achieve constant 1 multiplying
                 the entropy term in the space complexity.\par

                 Finally, we present a new dynamic compressed full-text
                 self-index, for a collection of texts over an alphabet
                 of size {$ \sigma $}, of overall length {$n$} and $h$
                 th order empirical entropy {$ H_h $}. The index
                 requires {$ n H_h + o(n \log \sigma) $} bits of space,
                 for any {$ h \leq \alpha \log_\sigma n $} and constant
                 {$0$}.\par

                 An important result we prove in this paper is that the
                 wavelet tree of the Burrows--Wheeler transform of a
                 text, if compressed with a technique that achieves
                 zero-order compression locally (e.g., Raman et al.
                 [2002]), automatically achieves $h$ th order entropy
                 space for any $h$. This unforeseen relation is
                 essential for the results of the previous paragraph,
                 but it also derives into significant simplifications on
                 many existing static compressed full-text self-indexes
                 that build on wavelet trees.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Compressed dynamic data structures; compressed text
                 databases; entropy; partial sums; sequences",
}

@Article{Kowalski:2008:WAD,
  author =       "Dariusz R. Kowalski and Alexander A. Shvartsman",
  title =        "Writing-all deterministically and optimally using a
                 nontrivial number of asynchronous processors",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33:1--33:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367073",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The problem of performing $n$ tasks on $p$
                 asynchronous or undependable processors is a basic
                 problem in distributed computing. This article
                 considers an abstraction of this problem called {\em
                 Write-All: using $p$ processors write 1's into all
                 locations of an array of size n}. In this problem
                 writing 1 abstracts the notion of performing a simple
                 task. Despite substantial research, there is a dearth
                 of efficient deterministic asynchronous algorithms for
                 {\em Write-All/}. Efficiency of algorithms is measured
                 in terms of {\em work\/} that accounts for all local
                 steps performed by the processors in solving the
                 problem. Thus, an optimal algorithm would have work {$
                 \Theta (n) $}, however it is known that optimality
                 cannot be achieved when {$ p = \Omega (n) $}. The quest
                 then is to obtain work-optimal solutions for this
                 problem using a nontrivial, compared to {$n$}, number
                 of processors {$p$}. The algorithm presented in this
                 article has work complexity of {$ O(n + p^{2 +
                 \epsilon}) $}, and it achieves work optimality for {$ p
                 = O(n^{1 / (2 + \epsilon)}) $} for any {$ \epsilon > 0
                 $}, while the previous best result achieved optimality
                 for {$ p \leq 4 \sqrt n / \log n $}. Additionally, the
                 new result uses {\em only\/} the atomic read/write
                 memory, without resorting to using the test-and-set
                 primitive that was necessary in the previous
                 solution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "33",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Asynchrony; distributed algorithms; shared memory;
                 work; Write-All",
}

@Article{Even:2008:ACR,
  author =       "Guy Even and Retsef Levi and Dror Rawitz and Baruch
                 Schieber and Shimon (Moni) Shahar and Maxim
                 Sviridenko",
  title =        "Algorithms for capacitated rectangle stabbing and lot
                 sizing with joint set-up costs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "34:1--34:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367074",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In the rectangle stabbing problem, we are given a set
                 of axis parallel rectangles and a set of horizontal and
                 vertical lines, and our goal is to find a minimum size
                 subset of lines that intersect all the rectangles. In
                 this article, we study the capacitated version of this
                 problem in which the input includes an integral
                 capacity for each line. The capacity of a line bounds
                 the number of rectangles that the line can cover. We
                 consider two versions of this problem. In the first,
                 one is allowed to use only a single copy of each line
                 ({\em hard capacities\/}), and in the second, one is
                 allowed to use multiple copies of every line, but the
                 multiplicities are counted in the size (or weight) of
                 the solution ({\em soft capacities\/}).\par

                 We present an exact polynomial-time algorithm for the
                 weighted one dimensional case with hard capacities that
                 can be extended to the one dimensional weighted case
                 with soft capacities. This algorithm is also extended
                 to solve a certain capacitated multi-item {\em
                 lot-sizing\/} inventory problem with joint set-up
                 costs. For the case of $d$-dimensional rectangle
                 stabbing with soft capacities, we present a $ 3 d
                 $-approximation algorithm for the unweighted case. For
                 $d$-dimensional rectangle stabbing problem with hard
                 capacities, we present a bi-criteria algorithm that
                 computes $ 4 d $-approximate solutions that use at most
                 two copies of every line. Finally, we present hardness
                 results for rectangle stabbing when the dimension is
                 part of the input and for a two-dimensional weighted
                 version with hard capacities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "34",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; capacitated covering; lot
                 sizing; rectangle stabbing",
}

@Article{Zhang:2008:CCP,
  author =       "Cun-Quan Zhang and Yongbin Ou",
  title =        "Clustering, community partition and disjoint spanning
                 trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "35:1--35:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367075",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Clustering method is one of the most important tools
                 in statistics. In a graph theory model, clustering is
                 the process of finding all dense subgraphs. A
                 mathematically well-defined measure for graph density
                 is introduced in this article as follows. Let {$ G =
                 (V, E) $} be a graph (or multi-graph) and {$H$} be a
                 subgraph of {$G$}. The dynamic density of {$H$} is the
                 greatest integer {$k$} such that {$ \min_\forall P \{ |
                 E (H / P)| / | V (H / P)| - 1 \} > k $} where the
                 minimum is taken over all possible partitions {$P$} of
                 the vertex set of {$H$}, and {$ H / P $} is the graph
                 obtained from {$H$} by contracting each part of {$P$}
                 into a single vertex. A subgraph {$H$} of {$G$} is a
                 level-{$k$} community if {$H$} is a maximal subgraph of
                 {$G$} with dynamic density at least {$k$}. An algorithm
                 is designed in this paper to detect all level-{$h$}
                 communities of an input multi-graph {$G$}. The
                 worst-case complexity of this algorithm is upper
                 bounded by {$ O(|V(G)|^2 h^2) $}. This new method is
                 one of few available clustering methods that are
                 mathematically well-defined, supported by rigorous
                 mathematical proof and able to achieve the optimization
                 goal with polynomial complexity. As a byproduct, this
                 algorithm also can be applied for finding edge-disjoint
                 spanning trees of a multi-graph. The worst-case
                 complexity is lower than all known algorithms for
                 multi-graphs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "35",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "clustering; community; dense subgraph; dynamic
                 density; hierarchical clustering; polynomial algorithm;
                 Spanning trees",
}

@Article{Yu:2008:IAM,
  author =       "Hung-I. Yu and Tzu-Chin Lin and Biing-Feng Wang",
  title =        "Improved algorithms for the minmax-regret 1-center and
                 1-median problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "36:1--36:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367076",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, efficient algorithms are presented
                 for the minmax-regret 1-center and 1-median problems on
                 a general graph and a tree with uncertain vertex
                 weights. For the minmax-regret 1-center problem on a
                 general graph, we improve the previous upper bound from
                 {$ O(m n^2 \log n) $} to {$ O(m n \log n) $}. For the
                 problem on a tree, we improve the upper bound from {$
                 O(n^2) $} to {$ O(n \log^2 n) $}. For the minmax-regret
                 1-median problem on a general graph, we improve the
                 upper bound from {$ O(m n^2 \log n) $} to {$ O(m n^2 +
                 n^3 \log n) $}. For the problem on a tree, we improve
                 the upper bound from {$ O(n \log^2 n) $} to {$ O(n \log
                 n) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "36",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "centers; general graphs; Location theory; medians;
                 minmax-regret optimization; trees",
}

@Article{Abraham:2008:CNI,
  author =       "Ittai Abraham and Cyril Gavoille and Dahlia Malkhi and
                 Noam Nisan and Mikkel Thorup",
  title =        "Compact name-independent routing with minimum
                 stretch",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "37:1--37:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367077",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a weighted undirected network with arbitrary
                 node names, we present a compact routing scheme, using
                 a {$ \tilde {O}(\sqrt n) $} space routing table at each
                 node, and routing along paths of stretch 3, that is, at
                 most thrice as long as the minimum cost paths. This is
                 optimal in a very strong sense. It is known that no
                 compact routing using {$ o(n) $} space per node can
                 route with stretch below 3. Also, it is known that any
                 stretch below 5 requires {$ \Omega (\sqrt n) $} space
                 per node.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "37",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Compact routing",
}

@Article{Pruhs:2008:GBR,
  author =       "Kirk Pruhs and Patchrawat Uthaisombut and Gerhard
                 Woeginger",
  title =        "Getting the best response for your erg",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "38:1--38:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1367064.1367078",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the speed scaling problem of minimizing
                 the average response time of a collection of
                 dynamically released jobs subject to a constraint {$A$}
                 on energy used. We propose an algorithmic approach in
                 which an energy optimal schedule is computed for a huge
                 {$A$}, and then the energy optimal schedule is
                 maintained as {$A$} decreases. We show that this
                 approach yields an efficient algorithm for equi-work
                 jobs. We note that the energy optimal schedule has the
                 surprising feature that the job speeds are not monotone
                 functions of the available energy. We then explain why
                 this algorithmic approach is problematic for arbitrary
                 work jobs. Finally, we explain how to use the algorithm
                 for equi-work jobs to obtain an algorithm for arbitrary
                 work jobs that is {$ O(1) $}-approximate with respect
                 to average response time, given an additional factor of
                 {$ (1 + \epsilon) $} energy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "38",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "frequency scaling; power management; scheduling; Speed
                 scaling; voltage scaling",
}

@Article{Ajwani:2008:AIT,
  author =       "Deepak Ajwani and Tobias Friedrich and Ulrich Meyer",
  title =        "An {$ O(n^{2.75}) $} algorithm for incremental
                 topological ordering",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "39:1--39:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383370",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a simple algorithm which maintains the
                 topological order of a directed acyclic graph (DAG)
                 with $n$ nodes, under an online edge insertion
                 sequence, in {$ O(n^{2.75}) $} time, independent of the
                 number {$m$} of edges inserted. For dense DAGs, this is
                 an improvement over the previous best result of {$
                 O(\min m^{3 / 2} \log n, m^{3 / 2} + n^2 \log n) $} by
                 Katriel and Bodlaender [2006]. We also provide an
                 empirical comparison of our algorithm with other
                 algorithms for incremental topological sorting.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "39",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Dynamic algorithms; graphs; online algorithms;
                 topological order",
}

@Article{Ibarra:2008:FDA,
  author =       "Louis Ibarra",
  title =        "Fully dynamic algorithms for chordal graphs and split
                 graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40:1--40:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383371",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present the first dynamic algorithm that maintains
                 a clique tree representation of a chordal graph and
                 supports the following operations: (1) query whether
                 deleting or inserting an arbitrary edge preserves
                 chordality; and (2) delete or insert an arbitrary edge,
                 provided it preserves chordality. We give two
                 implementations. In the first, each operation runs in
                 {$ O(n) $} time, where {$n$} is the number of vertices.
                 In the second, an insertion query runs in {$ O(\log^2
                 n) $} time, an insertion in {$ O(n) $} time, a deletion
                 query in {$ O(n) $} time, and a deletion in {$ O(n \log
                 n) $} time. We also present a data structure that
                 allows a deletion query to run in {$ O(\sqrt m) $} time
                 in either implementation, where {$m$} is the current
                 number of edges. Updating this data structure after a
                 deletion or insertion requires {$ O(m) $} time.\par

                 We also present a very simple dynamic algorithm that
                 supports each of the following operations in {$ O(1) $}
                 time on a general graph: (1) query whether the graph is
                 split, and (2) delete or insert an arbitrary edge.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "40",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "chordal graphs; clique trees; Dynamic graph
                 algorithms; split graphs",
}

@Article{Korman:2008:DRS,
  author =       "Amos Korman and David Peleg",
  title =        "Dynamic routing schemes for graphs with low local
                 density",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41:1--41:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383372",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article studies approximate distributed routing
                 schemes on dynamic communication networks. The work
                 focuses on dynamic weighted general graphs where the
                 vertices of the graph are fixed, but the weights of the
                 edges may change. Our main contribution concerns
                 bounding the cost of adapting to dynamic changes. The
                 update efficiency of a routing scheme is measured by
                 the time needed in order to update the routing scheme
                 following a weight change. A naive dynamic routing
                 scheme, which updates all vertices following a weight
                 change, requires {$ \Omega (\hbox {\em Diam \/}) $}
                 time in order to perform the updates after every weight
                 change, where {\em Diam\/} is the diameter of the
                 underlying graph. In contrast, this article presents
                 approximate dynamic routing schemes with average time
                 complexity {$ \tilde {\Theta}(d) $} per topological
                 change, where {$d$} is the local density parameter of
                 the underlying graph. Following a weight change, our
                 scheme never incurs more than {\em Diam\/} time; thus,
                 our scheme is particularly efficient on graphs which
                 have low local density and large diameter. The article
                 also establishes upper and lower bounds on the size of
                 the databases required by the scheme at each site.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "41",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "distributed algorithms; dynamic networks; Routing
                 schemes",
}

@Article{Cohen:2008:LGG,
  author =       "Reuven Cohen and Pierre Fraigniaud and David Ilcinkas
                 and Amos Korman and David Peleg",
  title =        "Label-guided graph exploration by a finite automaton",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42:1--42:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383373",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A finite automaton, simply referred to as a {\em
                 robot}, has to explore a graph, that is, visit all the
                 nodes of the graph. The robot has no a priori knowledge
                 of the topology of the graph, nor of its size. It is
                 known that for any $k$-state robot, there exists a
                 graph of maximum degree 3 that the robot cannot
                 explore. This article considers the effects of allowing
                 the system designer to add short labels to the graph
                 nodes in a preprocessing stage, for helping the
                 exploration by the robot. We describe an exploration
                 algorithm that, given appropriate 2-bit labels (in
                 fact, only 3-valued labels), allows a robot to explore
                 all graphs. Furthermore, we describe a suitable
                 labeling algorithm for generating the required labels
                 in linear time. We also show how to modify our labeling
                 scheme so that a robot can explore all graphs of
                 bounded degree, given appropriate 1-bit labels. In
                 other words, although there is no robot able to explore
                 all graphs of maximum degree 3, there is a robot {$R$},
                 and a way to color in black or white the nodes of any
                 bounded-degree graph {$G$}, so that {$R$} can explore
                 the colored graph {$G$}. Finally, we give impossibility
                 results regarding graph exploration by a robot with no
                 internal memory (i.e., a single-state automaton).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "42",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Distributed algorithms; graph exploration; labeling
                 schemes",
}

@Article{Suzuki:2008:DSP,
  author =       "Akiko Suzuki and Takeshi Tokuyama",
  title =        "Dense subgraph problems with output-density
                 conditions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "43:1--43:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383374",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the dense subgraph problem that extracts a
                 subgraph, with a prescribed number of vertices, having
                 the maximum number of edges (or total edge weight, in
                 the weighted case) in a given graph. We give
                 approximation algorithms with improved theoretical
                 approximation ratios assuming that the density of the
                 optimal output subgraph is high, where density is the
                 ratio of number of edges (or sum of edge weights) to
                 the number of edges in the clique on the same number of
                 vertices. Moreover, we investigate the case where the
                 input graph is bipartite and design a randomized
                 pseudopolynomial time approximation scheme that can
                 become a randomized PTAS, even if the size of the
                 optimal output graph is comparatively small. This is a
                 significant improvement in a theoretical sense, since
                 no constant-ratio approximation algorithm was known
                 previously if the output graph has o(n) vertices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "43",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithms; Combinatorial optimization;
                 dense subgraph; randomized algorithms",
}

@Article{Bar-Noy:2008:DCF,
  author =       "Amotz Bar-Noy and Panagiotis Cheilaris and Shakhar
                 Smorodinsky",
  title =        "Deterministic conflict-free coloring for intervals:
                 {From} offline to online",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "44:1--44:18",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383375",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We investigate deterministic algorithms for a
                 frequency assignment problem in cellular networks. The
                 problem can be modeled as a special vertex coloring
                 problem for hypergraphs: In every hyperedge there must
                 exist a vertex with a color that occurs exactly once in
                 the hyperedge (the conflict-free property). We
                 concentrate on a special case of the problem, called
                 conflict-free coloring for intervals. We introduce a
                 hierarchy of four models for the aforesaid problem: (i)
                 static, (ii) dynamic offline, (iii) dynamic online with
                 absolute positions, and (iv) dynamic online with
                 relative positions. In the dynamic offline model, we
                 give a deterministic algorithm that uses at most $
                 \log_{3 / 2} n + 1 \approx 1.71 \log_2 n $ colors and
                 show inputs that force any algorithm to use at least $
                 3 \log_5 n + 1 \approx 1.29 \log_2 n $ colors. For the
                 online absolute-positions model, we give a
                 deterministic algorithm that uses at most $ 3 \lceil
                 \log_3 n \rceil \approx 1.89 \log_2 n $ colors. To the
                 best of our knowledge, this is the first deterministic
                 online algorithm using {$ O(\log n) $} colors in a
                 nontrivial online model. In the online
                 relative-positions model, we resolve an open problem by
                 showing a tight analysis on the number of colors used
                 by the first-fit greedy online algorithm. We also
                 consider conflict-free coloring only with respect to
                 intervals that contain at least one of the two extreme
                 points.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "44",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "cellular networks; coloring; conflict free; frequency
                 assignment; Online algorithms",
}

@Article{Chandran:2008:IAO,
  author =       "Nishanth Chandran and Ryan Moriarty and Rafail
                 Ostrovsky and Omkant Pandey and Mohammad Ali Safari and
                 Amit Sahai",
  title =        "Improved algorithms for optimal embeddings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "45:1--45:14",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383376",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In the last decade, the notion of metric embeddings
                 with small distortion has received wide attention in
                 the literature, with applications in combinatorial
                 optimization, discrete mathematics, and
                 bio-informatics. The notion of embedding is, given two
                 metric spaces on the same number of points, to find a
                 bijection that minimizes maximum Lipschitz and
                 bi-Lipschitz constants. One reason for the popularity
                 of the notion is that algorithms designed for one
                 metric space can be applied to a different one, given
                 an embedding with small distortion. The better
                 distortion, the better the effectiveness of the
                 original algorithm applied to a new metric space.\par
                 The goal recently studied by Kenyon et al. [2004] is to
                 consider all possible embeddings between two {\em
                 finite\/} metric spaces and to find the best possible
                 one; that is, consider a single objective function over
                 the space of all possible embeddings that minimizes the
                 distortion. In this article we continue this important
                 direction. In particular, using a theorem of Albert and
                 Atkinson [2005], we are able to provide an algorithm to
                 find the optimal bijection between two line metrics,
                 provided that the optimal distortion is smaller than
                 13.602. This improves the previous bound of $ 3 + 2
                 \sqrt {2} $, solving an open question posed by Kenyon
                 et al. [2004]. Further, we show an inherent limitation
                 of algorithms using the ``forbidden pattern'' based
                 dynamic programming approach, in that they cannot find
                 optimal mapping if the optimal distortion is more than
                 $ 7 + 4 \sqrt {3} (\simeq 13.928) $. Thus, our results
                 are almost optimal for this method. We also show that
                 previous techniques for general embeddings apply to a
                 (slightly) more general class of metrics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "45",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "dynamic programming; forbidden patterns; line
                 embeddings; metric spaces; Optimal metric embeddings;
                 shape matching",
}

@Article{Alon:2008:OEM,
  author =       "Noga Alon and Mihai B{\~a}doiu and Erik D. Demaine and
                 Martin Farach-Colton and Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi and
                 Anastasios Sidiropoulos",
  title =        "Ordinal embeddings of minimum relaxation: {General}
                 properties, trees, and ultrametrics",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "46:1--46:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383377",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a new notion of embedding, called {\em
                 minimum-relaxation ordinal embedding}, parallel to the
                 standard notion of minimum-distortion (metric)
                 embedding. In an ordinal embedding, it is the relative
                 order between pairs of distances, and not the distances
                 themselves, that must be preserved as much as possible.
                 The (multiplicative) relaxation of an ordinal embedding
                 is the maximum ratio between two distances whose
                 relative order is inverted by the embedding. We develop
                 several worst-case bounds and approximation algorithms
                 on ordinal embedding. In particular, we establish that
                 ordinal embedding has many qualitative differences from
                 metric embedding, and we capture the ordinal behavior
                 of ultrametrics and shortest-path metrics of unweighted
                 trees.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "46",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "distortion; Metrics; ordinal embedding; relaxation",
}

@Article{Blaser:2008:NAA,
  author =       "Markus Bl{\"a}ser",
  title =        "A new approximation algorithm for the asymmetric {TSP}
                 with triangle inequality",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "47:1--47:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383378",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a polynomial time factor $ 0.999 \cdot \log
                 n $ approximation algorithm for the asymmetric
                 traveling salesperson problem with triangle
                 inequality.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "47",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithm; cycle cover; traveling
                 salesman problem; TSP",
}

@Article{Boyar:2008:RWO,
  author =       "Joan Boyar and Paul Medvedev",
  title =        "The relative worst order ratio applied to seat
                 reservation",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "48:1--48:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383379",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The seat reservation problem is the problem of
                 assigning passengers to seats on a train with $n$ seats
                 and $k$ stations enroute in an online manner. The
                 performance of algorithms for this problem is studied
                 using the relative worst order ratio, a fairly new
                 measure for the quality of online algorithms, which
                 allows for direct comparisons between algorithms. This
                 study has yielded new separations between algorithms.
                 For example, for both variants of the problem
                 considered, using the relative worst order ratio,
                 First-Fit and Best-Fit are shown to be better than
                 Worst-Fit.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "48",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Online; quality measure; relative worst order ratio;
                 seat reservation",
}

@Article{Nieberg:2008:ASW,
  author =       "Tim Nieberg and Johann Hurink and Walter Kern",
  title =        "Approximation schemes for wireless networks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "49:1--49:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383380",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Wireless networks are created by the communication
                 links between a collection of radio transceivers. The
                 nature of wireless transmissions does not lead to
                 arbitrary undirected graphs but to structured graphs
                 which we characterize by the polynomially bounded
                 growth property. In contrast to many existing graph
                 models for wireless networks, the property of
                 polynomially bounded growth is defined independently of
                 geometric data such as positional information.\par

                 On such wireless networks, we present an approach that
                 can be used to create polynomial-time approximation
                 schemes for several optimization problems called the
                 local neighborhood-based scheme. We apply this approach
                 to the problems of seeking maximum (weight) independent
                 sets and minimum dominating sets. These are two
                 important problems in the area of wireless
                 communication networks and are also used in many
                 applications ranging from clustering to routing
                 strategies. However, the approach is presented in a
                 general fashion since it can be applied to other
                 problems as well.\par

                 The approach for the approximation schemes is robust in
                 the sense that it accepts any undirected graph as input
                 and either outputs a solution of desired quality or
                 correctly asserts that the graph presented as input
                 does not satisfy the structural assumption of a
                 wireless network (an NP-hard problem).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "49",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "bounded growth; maximum independent set; minimum
                 dominating set; PTAS; Wireless ad-hoc networks",
}

@Article{Massberg:2008:AAF,
  author =       "Jens Ma{\ss}berg and Jens Vygen",
  title =        "Approximation algorithms for a facility location
                 problem with service capacities",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "50:1--50:15",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383381",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present the first constant-factor approximation
                 algorithms for the following problem. Given a metric
                 space {$ (V, c) $}, a finite set {$ d \subseteq V $} of
                 terminals\slash customers with demands {$ d : d
                 \rightarrow \mathbb {R}_+ $}, a facility opening cost
                 {$ f \in \mathbb {R}_+ $} and a capacity {$ u \in
                 \mathbb {R}_+ $}, find a partition {$ d = D_1 \dot
                 {\cup} \cdots {} \dot {\cup} D_k $} and Steiner trees
                 {$ T_i $} for {$ D_i (i = 1, \ldots {}, k) $} with {$
                 c(E(T_i)) + d(D_i) \leq u $} for {$ i = 1, \ldots {}, k
                 $} such that {$ \sum_{i = 1}^k c(E(T_i)) + k f $} is
                 minimum. This problem arises in VLSI design. It
                 generalizes the bin-packing problem and the Steiner
                 tree problem. In contrast to other network design and
                 facility location problems, it has the additional
                 feature of upper bounds on the service cost that each
                 facility can handle. Among other results, we obtain a
                 4.1-approximation in polynomial time, a
                 4.5-approximation in cubic time, and a 5-approximation
                 as fast as computing a minimum spanning tree on {$ (D,
                 c) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "50",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithm; facility location; network
                 design; VLSI design",
}

@Article{Swamy:2008:FTF,
  author =       "Chaitanya Swamy and David B. Shmoys",
  title =        "Fault-tolerant facility location",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "51:1--51:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383382",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider a fault-tolerant generalization of the
                 classical uncapacitated facility location problem,
                 where each client $j$ has a requirement that $ r_j $
                 {\em distinct\/} facilities serve it, instead of just
                 one. We give a 2.076-approximation algorithm for this
                 problem using LP rounding, which is currently the
                 best-known performance guarantee. Our algorithm
                 exploits primal and dual complementary slackness
                 conditions and is based on {\em clustered randomized
                 rounding}. A technical difficulty that we overcome is
                 the presence of terms with negative coefficients in the
                 dual objective function, which makes it difficult to
                 bound the cost in terms of dual variables. For the case
                 where all requirements are the same, we give a
                 primal-dual 1.52-approximation algorithm.\par

                 We also consider a fault-tolerant version of the
                 $k$-median problem. In the metric $k$-median problem,
                 we are given $n$ points in a metric space. We must
                 select $k$ of these to be centers, and then assign each
                 input point $j$ to the selected center that is closest
                 to it. In the fault-tolerant version we want $j$ to be
                 assigned to $ r_j $ distinct centers. The goal is to
                 select the $k$ centers so as to minimize the sum of
                 assignment costs. The primal-dual algorithm for
                 fault-tolerant facility location with uniform
                 requirements also yields a 4-approximation algorithm
                 for the fault-tolerant $k$-median problem for this
                 case. This the first constant-factor approximation
                 algorithm for the uniform requirements case.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "51",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; facility location; k-median
                 problem",
}

@Article{Fotakis:2008:ACG,
  author =       "Dimitris Fotakis and Spyros Kontogiannis and Paul
                 Spirakis",
  title =        "Atomic congestion games among coalitions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "52:1--52:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1383369.1383383",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:03:43 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider algorithmic questions concerning the
                 existence, tractability, and quality of Nash
                 equilibria, in atomic congestion games among users
                 participating in selfish coalitions.\par

                 We introduce a coalitional congestion model among
                 atomic players and demonstrate many interesting
                 similarities with the noncooperative case. For example,
                 there exists a potential function proving the existence
                 of pure Nash equilibria (PNE) in the unrelated parallel
                 links setting; in the network setting, the finite
                 improvement property collapses as soon as we depart
                 from linear delays, but there is an exact potential
                 (and thus PNE) for linear delays. The price of anarchy
                 on identical parallel links demonstrates a quite
                 surprising threshold behavior: It persists on being
                 asymptotically equal to that in the case of the
                 noncooperative KP-model, unless the number of
                 coalitions is {\em sublogarithmic}.\par

                 We also show crucial differences, mainly concerning the
                 hardness of algorithmic problems that are solved
                 efficiently in the noncooperative case. Although we
                 demonstrate convergence to robust PNE, we also prove
                 the hardness of computing them. On the other hand, we
                 propose a generalized fully mixed Nash equilibrium that
                 can be efficiently constructed in most cases. Finally,
                 we propose a natural improvement policy and prove its
                 convergence in pseudopolynomial time to PNE which are
                 robust against (even dynamically forming) coalitions of
                 small size.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "52",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Algorithmic game theory; congestion games; convergence
                 to equilibria; price of anarchy",
}

@Article{Torng:2008:SOU,
  author =       "Eric Torng and Jason McCullough",
  title =        "{SRPT} optimally utilizes faster machines to minimize
                 flow time",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435376",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We analyze the shortest remaining processing time
                 (SRPT) algorithm with respect to the problem of
                 scheduling $n$ jobs with release times on $m$ identical
                 machines to minimize total flow time. It is known that
                 SRPT is optimal if $m = 1$ but that SRPT has a
                 worst-case approximation ratio of $ \Theta (\min (\log
                 n / m, \log \Delta)) $ for this problem, where $
                 \Delta $ is the ratio of the length of the longest job
                 divided by the length of the shortest job. It has
                 previously been shown that SRPT is able to use faster
                 machines to produce a schedule {\em as good as\/} an
                 optimal algorithm using slower machines. We now show
                 that SRPT {\em optimally\/} uses these faster machines
                 with respect to the worst-case approximation ratio.
                 That is, if SRPT is given machines that are $ s \geq 2
                 - 1 / m $ times as fast as those used by an optimal
                 algorithm, SRPT's flow time is at least $s$ {\em
                 times smaller\/} than the flow time incurred by the
                 optimal algorithm. Clearly, no algorithm can offer a
                 better worst-case guarantee, and we show that existing
                 algorithms with similar performance guarantees to SRPT
                 without resource augmentation do not optimally use
                 extra resources.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "flow time; parallel machines; resource augmentation;
                 scheduling; SRPT",
}

@Article{Goldwasser:2008:ONS,
  author =       "Michael H. Goldwasser and Mark Pedigo",
  title =        "Online nonpreemptive scheduling of equal-length jobs
                 on two identical machines",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:18",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435377",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the nonpreemptive scheduling of two
                 identical machines for jobs with equal processing times
                 yet arbitrary release dates and deadlines. Our
                 objective is to maximize the number of jobs completed
                 by their deadlines. Using standard nomenclature, this
                 problem is denoted as {$ P 2 \mid p_j = p, 4_j \mid
                 \sum {\bar {U}}_j $}. The problem is known to be
                 polynomially solvable in an offline setting.\par

                 In an online variant of the problem, a job's existence
                 and parameters are revealed to the scheduler only upon
                 that job's release date. We present an online
                 deterministic algorithm for the problem and prove that
                 it is {$ 3 / 2 $}-competitive. A simple lower bound
                 shows that this is the optimal deterministic
                 competitiveness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Admission control; competitive analysis; scheduling",
}

@Article{Aiello:2008:CBM,
  author =       "William Aiello and Alex Kesselman and Yishay Mansour",
  title =        "Competitive buffer management for shared-memory
                 switches",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435378",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider buffer management policies for shared
                 memory switches. We study the case of overloads
                 resulting in packet loss, where the constraint is the
                 limited shared memory capacity. The goal of the buffer
                 management policy is that of maximizing the number of
                 packets transmitted. The problem is online in nature,
                 and thus we use competitive analysis to measure the
                 performance of the buffer management policies. Our main
                 result is to show that the well-known preemptive
                 Longest Queue Drop ({\em LQD\/}) policy is at most
                 2-competitive and at least $ \sqrt 2 $-competitive. We
                 also demonstrate a general lower bound of $ 4 / 3 $ on
                 the performance of any deterministic online policy.
                 Finally, we consider some other popular non-preemptive
                 policies including Complete Partition, Complete
                 Sharing, Static Threshold and Dynamic Threshold and
                 derive almost tight bounds on their performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Buffer management; competitive analysis; shared
                 memory",
}

@Article{Agarwal:2008:KDD,
  author =       "Pankaj K. Agarwal and Haim Kaplan and Micha Sharir",
  title =        "Kinetic and dynamic data structures for closest pair
                 and all nearest neighbors",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435379",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present simple, fully dynamic and kinetic data
                 structures, which are variants of a dynamic
                 two-dimensional range tree, for maintaining the closest
                 pair and all nearest neighbors for a set of $n$ moving
                 points in the plane; insertions and deletions of points
                 are also allowed. If no insertions or deletions take
                 place, the structure for the closest pair uses {$ O(n
                 \log n) $} space, and processes {$ O(n^2 \beta_+ 2 (n)
                 \log n) $} critical events, each in {$ O(\log^2 n) $}
                 time. Here {$s$} is the maximum number of times where
                 the distances between any two specific pairs of points
                 can become equal, {$ \beta_s(q) = \lambda_s(q) / q $},
                 and {$ \lambda_s(q) $} is the maximum length of
                 Davenport--Schinzel sequences of order $s$ on $q$
                 symbols. The dynamic version of the problem incurs a
                 slight degradation in performance: If $ m \geq n $
                 insertions and deletions are performed, the structure
                 still uses {$ O(n \log n) $} space, and processes {$
                 O(m n \beta_s + 2 (n) \log^3 n) $} events, each in {$
                 O(\log^3 n) $} time.\par

                 Our kinetic data structure for all nearest neighbors
                 uses {$ O(n \log^2 n) $} space, and processes {$ O(n^2
                 \beta^{2_s + 2}(n) \log^3 n) $} critical events. The
                 expected time to process all events is {$ O(n^2
                 \beta_{s + 2}^2 (n) \log^4 n) $}, though processing a
                 single event may take {$ \Theta (n) $} expected time in
                 the worst case. If {$ m \geq n $} insertions and
                 deletions are performed, then the expected number of
                 events is {$ O(m n \beta^2_{s + 2}(n) \log^3 n) $} and
                 processing them all takes {$ O(m n \beta^2_{s + 2} (n)
                 \log^4 n) $}. An insertion or deletion takes {$ O(n) $}
                 expected time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "closest pair; computational geometry; Kinetic data
                 structures; nearest neighbors",
}

@Article{Agarwal:2008:ACT,
  author =       "Pankaj K. Agarwal and Micha Sharir and Emo Welzl",
  title =        "Algorithms for center and {Tverberg} points",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435380",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a set $s$ of $n$ points in {$ R^3 $}, a point
                 {$x$} in {$ R^3 $} is called {\em center point of $S$
                 \/} if every closed halfspace whose bounding
                 hyperplane passes through {$x$} contains at least {$
                 \lceil n / 4 \rceil $} points from {$S$}. We present a
                 near-quadratic algorithm for computing the {\em center
                 region}, that is the set of all center points, of a set
                 of {$n$} points in {$ R^3 $}. This is nearly tight in
                 the worst case since the center region can have {$
                 \Omega (n^2) $} complexity.\par

                 We then consider sets {$s$} of {$ 3 n $} points in the
                 plane which are the union of three disjoint sets
                 consisting respectively of {$n$} red, $n$ blue, and $n$
                 green points. A point $x$ in {$ R^2 $} is called a {\em
                 colored Tverberg point of $S$ \/} if there is a
                 partition of {$s$} into {$n$} triples with one point of
                 each color, so that {$x$} lies in all triangles spanned
                 by these triples. We present a first polynomial-time
                 algorithm for recognizing whether a given point is a
                 colored Tverberg point of such a 3-colored set {$S$}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Arrangements; center point; Tverberg point",
}

@Article{Grandoni:2008:DWV,
  author =       "Fabrizio Grandoni and Jochen K{\"o}nemann and
                 Alessandro Panconesi",
  title =        "Distributed weighted vertex cover via maximal
                 matchings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:12",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435381",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we consider the problem of computing
                 a minimum-weight vertex-cover in an $n$-node, weighted,
                 undirected graph {$ G = (V, E) $}. We present a fully
                 distributed algorithm for computing vertex covers of
                 weight at most twice the optimum, in the case of
                 integer weights. Our algorithm runs in an expected
                 number of {$ O(\log n + \log \hat {W}) $} communication
                 rounds, where {$ \hat {W} $} is the average
                 vertex-weight. The previous best algorithm for this
                 problem requires {$ O(\log n (\log n + \log \hat {W}))
                 $} rounds and it is not fully distributed.\par

                 For a maximal matching {$m$} in {$G$}, it is a
                 well-known fact that any vertex-cover in {$G$} needs to
                 have at least {$ |m| $} vertices. Our algorithm is
                 based on a generalization of this combinatorial
                 lower-bound to the weighted setting.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; distributed algorithms;
                 maximal matching; vertex cover",
}

@Article{Vishwanathan:2008:HIA,
  author =       "Sundar Vishwanathan",
  title =        "On hard instances of approximate vertex cover",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435382",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show that if there is a $ 2 - \epsilon $
                 approximation algorithm for vertex cover on graphs with
                 vector chromatic number at most $ 2 + \delta $, then
                 there is a $ 2 - f(\epsilon, \delta) $ approximation
                 algorithm for vertex cover for all graphs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; vertex cover",
}

@Article{Berend:2008:CDG,
  author =       "Daniel Berend and Steven S. Skiena and Yochai Twitto",
  title =        "Combinatorial dominance guarantees for problems with
                 infeasible solutions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435383",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The design and analysis of approximation algorithms
                 for {\em NP\/}-hard problems is perhaps the most
                 active research area in the theory of combinatorial
                 algorithms. In this article, we study the notion of a
                 {\em combinatorial dominance guarantee\/} as a way for
                 assessing the performance of a given approximation
                 algorithm. An $ f(n) $ dominance bound is a guarantee
                 that the heuristic always returns a solution not worse
                 than at least $ f(n) $ solutions. We give tight
                 analysis of many heuristics, and establish novel and
                 interesting dominance guarantees even for certain
                 inapproximable problems and heuristic search
                 algorithms. For example, we show that the maximal
                 matching heuristic of VERTEX COVER offers a
                 combinatorial dominance guarantee of $ 2^n - (1.839 +
                 o(1))^n $. We also give inapproximability results for
                 most of the problems we discuss.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "algorithms analysis; approximation algorithms;
                 Computation complexity; dominance analysis",
}

@Article{Fomin:2008:CBM,
  author =       "Fedor V. Fomin and Fabrizio Grandoni and Artem V.
                 Pyatkin and Alexey A. Stepanov",
  title =        "Combinatorial bounds via measure and conquer:
                 {Bounding} minimal dominating sets and applications",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435384",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We provide an algorithm listing all minimal dominating
                 sets of a graph on $n$ vertices in time {$ O(1.7159^n)
                 $}. This result can be seen as an algorithmic proof of
                 the fact that the number of minimal dominating sets in
                 a graph on {$n$} vertices is at most {$ 1.7159^n $},
                 thus improving on the trivial {$ O(2^n / \sqrt n) $}
                 bound. Our result makes use of the measure-and-conquer
                 technique which was recently developed in the area of
                 exact algorithms.\par

                 Based on this result, we derive an {$ O(2.8718^n) $}
                 algorithm for the domatic number problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "domatic number; Exact exponential algorithms; listing
                 algorithms; measure and conquer; minimum dominating
                 set; minimum set cover",
}

@Article{Oum:2008:ARW,
  author =       "Sang-Il Oum",
  title =        "Approximating rank-width and clique-width quickly",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435385",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Rank-width was defined by Oum and Seymour [2006] to
                 investigate clique-width. They constructed an algorithm
                 that either outputs a rank-decomposition of width at
                 most $ f(k) $ for some function f or confirms that
                 rank-width is larger than $k$ in time {$ O(|V|^9 \log
                 |V|) $} for an input graph {$ G = (V, E) $} and a fixed
                 {$k$}. We develop three separate algorithms of this
                 kind with faster running time. We construct an {$
                 O(|V|^4) $}-time algorithm with {$ f(k) = 3 k + 1 $} by
                 constructing a subroutine for the previous algorithm;
                 we avoid generic algorithms minimizing submodular
                 functions used by Oum and Seymour. Another one is an {$
                 O(|V|^3) $}-time algorithm with {$ f(k) = 24 k $},
                 achieved by giving a reduction from graphs to binary
                 matroids; then we use an approximation algorithm for
                 matroid branch-width by Hlin{\^e}n{\'y} [2005]. Finally
                 we construct an {$ O(|V|^3) $}-time algorithm with {$
                 f(k) = 3 k - 1 $} by combining the ideas of the two
                 previously cited papers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; branch-width; clique-width;
                 matroids; rank-width",
}

@Article{Brandstadt:2008:SLT,
  author =       "Andreas Brandst{\"a}dt and Van Bang Le and R.
                 Sritharan",
  title =        "Structure and linear-time recognition of 4-leaf
                 powers",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435386",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A graph {$G$} is the {$k$}-{\em leaf power\/} of a
                 tree {$T$} if its vertices are leaves of {$T$} such
                 that two vertices are adjacent in {$G$} if and only if
                 their distance in {$T$} is at most {$k$}. Then {$T$} is
                 a {$k$}-{\em leaf root\/} of {$G$}. This notion was
                 introduced and studied by Nishimura, Ragde, and
                 Thilikos [2002], motivated by the search for underlying
                 phylogenetic trees. Their results imply an {$ O(n^3)
                 $}-time recognition algorithm for 4-leaf powers.
                 Recently, Rautenbach [2006] as well as Dom et al.
                 [2005] characterized 4-leaf powers without true twins
                 in terms of forbidden subgraphs. We give new
                 characterizations for 4-leaf powers and squares of
                 trees by a complete structural analysis. As a
                 consequence, we obtain a conceptually simple
                 linear-time recognition of 4-leaf powers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Graph powers; leaf powers; phylogenetic trees; squares
                 of trees; trees",
}

@Article{Chen:2008:MCI,
  author =       "Xin Chen and Lan Liu and Zheng Liu and Tao Jiang",
  title =        "On the minimum common integer partition problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435387",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a new combinatorial optimization problem
                 in this article, called the {\em minimum common integer
                 partition\/} (MCIP) problem, which was inspired by
                 computational biology applications including ortholog
                 assignment and DNA fingerprint assembly. A {\em
                 partition\/} of a positive integer $n$ is a multiset
                 of positive integers that add up to exactly $n$, and an
                 {\em integer partition\/} of a multiset $s$ of
                 integers is defined as the multiset union of partitions
                 of integers in {$S$}. Given a sequence of multisets {$
                 s_1, s_2, \ldots, S_k $} of integers, where {$ k \geq 2
                 $}, we say that a multiset is a {\em common integer
                 partition\/} if it is an integer partition of every
                 multiset {$ S_i, 1 \leq i \leq k $}. The MCIP problem
                 is thus defined as to find a common integer partition
                 of {$ s_1, s_2, \ldots, S_k $} with the minimum
                 cardinality, denoted as MCIP({$ s_1 $}, {$ S_2 $},
                 \ldots {}, {$ S_k $}). It is easy to see that the MCIP
                 problem is NP-hard, since it generalizes the well-known
                 subset sum problem. We can in fact show that it is
                 APX-hard. We will also present a {$ 5 / 4
                 $}-approximation algorithm for the MCIP problem when {$
                 k = 2 $}, and a {$ 3 k (k - 1) / 3 k - 2
                 $}-approximation algorithm for $ k \geq 3 $.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithm; combinatorial optimization;
                 computational biology; integer partition; NP-hard;
                 Subset sum",
}

@Article{Azriel:2008:IFS,
  author =       "Dany Azriel and Noam Solomon and Shay Solomon",
  title =        "On an infinite family of solvable {Hanoi} graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435388",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The Tower of Hanoi problem is generalized by placing
                 pegs on the vertices of a given directed graph {$G$}
                 with two distinguished vertices, {$s$} and {$D$}, and
                 allowing moves only along arcs of this graph. An
                 optimal solution for such a graph {$G$} is an algorithm
                 that completes the task of moving a tower of any given
                 number of disks from {$s$} to {$d$} in a minimal number
                 of disk moves.\par

                 In this article we present an algorithm which solves
                 the problem for two infinite families of graphs, and
                 prove its optimality. To the best of our knowledge,
                 this is the first optimality proof for an {\em
                 infinite\/} family of graphs.\par

                 Furthermore, we present a unified algorithm that solves
                 the problem for a wider family of graphs and conjecture
                 its optimality.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Optimality proofs; Tower of Hanoi",
}

@Article{Elmasry:2008:MPQ,
  author =       "Amr Elmasry and Claus Jensen and Jyrki Katajainen",
  title =        "Multipartite priority queues",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1435375.1435389",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:04:20 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a framework for reducing the number of
                 element comparisons performed in priority-queue
                 operations. In particular, we give a priority queue
                 which guarantees the worst-case cost of {$ O(1) $} per
                 minimum finding and insertion, and the worst-case cost
                 of {$ O(\log n) $} with at most {$ \log n + O(1) $}
                 element comparisons per deletion, improving the bound
                 of {$ 2 \log n + O(1) $} known for binomial queues.
                 Here, {$n$} denotes the number of elements stored in
                 the data structure prior to the operation in question,
                 and {$ \log n $} equals {$ \log_2 (\max \{ 2, n \}) $}.
                 As an immediate application of the priority queue
                 developed, we obtain a sorting algorithm that is
                 optimally adaptive with respect to the inversion
                 measure of disorder, and that sorts a sequence having
                 $n$ elements and {$I$} inversions with at most {$ n
                 \log (I / n) + O(n) $} element comparisons.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "constant factors; heaps; meticulous analysis; Priority
                 queues",
}

@Article{Eppstein:2009:TBG,
  author =       "David Eppstein",
  title =        "Testing bipartiteness of geometric intersection
                 graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497291",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show how to test the bipartiteness of an
                 intersection graph of $n$ line segments or simple
                 polygons in the plane, or of an intersection graph of
                 balls in $d$-dimensional Euclidean space, in time {$
                 O(n \log n) $}. More generally, we find subquadratic
                 algorithms for connectivity and bipartiteness testing
                 of intersection graphs of a broad class of geometric
                 objects. Our algorithms for these problems return
                 either a bipartition of the input or an odd cycle in
                 its intersection graph. We also consider lower bounds
                 for connectivity and {$k$}-colorability problems of
                 geometric intersection graphs. For unit balls in {$d$}
                 dimensions, connectivity testing has equivalent
                 randomized complexity to construction of Euclidean
                 minimum spanning trees, and for line segments in the
                 plane connectivity testing has the same lower bounds as
                 Hopcroft's point-line incidence testing problem;
                 therefore, for these problems, connectivity is unlikely
                 to be solved as efficiently as bipartiteness. For line
                 segments or planar disks, testing {$k$}-colorability of
                 intersection graphs for $k$ > 2 is NP-complete.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Bipartite graph; coin graph; disks; geometric
                 thickness; graph coloring; Hopcroft's problem;
                 intersection graph; line segments; minimum spanning
                 tree",
}

@Article{Chen:2009:OCF,
  author =       "Ke Chen and Haim Kaplan and Micha Sharir",
  title =        "Online conflict-free coloring for halfplanes,
                 congruent disks, and axis-parallel rectangles",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497292",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present randomized algorithms for online
                 conflict-free coloring (CF in short) of points in the
                 plane, with respect to halfplanes, congruent disks, and
                 nearly-equal axis-parallel rectangles. In all three
                 cases, the coloring algorithms use {$ O(\log n) $}
                 colors, with high probability.\par

                 We also present a deterministic algorithm for online CF
                 coloring of points in the plane with respect to
                 nearly-equal axis-parallel rectangles, using {$
                 O(\log^3 n) $} colors. This is the first efficient
                 (i.e., using {$ \polylog (n) $} colors) deterministic
                 online CF coloring algorithm for this problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "coloring; Conflict free coloring; online algorithms",
}

@Article{Alonso:2009:ACA,
  author =       "Laurent Alonso and Edward M. Reingold",
  title =        "Average-case analysis of some plurality algorithms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497293",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a set of $n$ elements, each of which is colored
                 one of $c$ colors, we must determine an element of the
                 plurality (most frequently occurring) color by pairwise
                 equal/unequal color comparisons of elements. We focus
                 on the expected number of color comparisons when the $
                 c^n $ colorings are equally probable. We analyze an
                 obvious algorithm, showing that its expected
                 performance is {$ c^2 + c - 2 / 2 c n - O(c^2) $}, with
                 variance {$ \Theta (c^2 n) $}. We present and analyze
                 an algorithm for the case {$ c = 3 $} colors whose
                 average complexity on the {$ 3^n $} equally probable
                 inputs is {$ 7083 / 5425 n + O(\sqrt n) = 1.3056 \ldots
                 {} n + O(\sqrt n) $}, substantially better than the
                 expected complexity {$ 5 / 3 n + O(1) = 1.6666 \ldots
                 {} n + O(1) $} of the obvious algorithm. We describe a
                 similar algorithm for {$ c = 4 $} colors whose average
                 complexity on the {$ 4^n $} equally probable inputs is
                 {$ 761311 / 402850 n + O(\log n) = 1.8898 \ldots {} n +
                 O(\log n) $}, substantially better than the expected
                 complexity {$ 9 / 4 n + O(1) = 2.25 n + O(1) $} of the
                 obvious algorithm.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Algorithm analysis; majority problem; plurality
                 problem",
}

@Article{Bar-Noy:2009:TMR,
  author =       "Amotz Bar-Noy and Sudipto Guha and Yoav Katz and
                 Joseph (Seffi) Naor and Baruch Schieber and Hadas
                 Shachnai",
  title =        "Throughput maximization of real-time scheduling with
                 batching",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497294",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the following scheduling with batching
                 problem that has many applications, for example, in
                 multimedia-on-demand and manufacturing of integrated
                 circuits. The input to the problem consists of $n$ jobs
                 and $k$ parallel machines. Each job is associated with
                 a set of time intervals in which it can be scheduled
                 (given either explicitly or nonexplicitly), a weight,
                 and a family. Each family is associated with a
                 processing time. Jobs that belong to the same family
                 can be batched and executed together on the same
                 machine. The processing time of each batch is the
                 processing time of the family of jobs it contains. The
                 goal is to find a nonpreemptive schedule with batching
                 that maximizes the weight of the scheduled jobs. We
                 give constant factor ($4$ or $ 4 + \epsilon $ )
                 approximation algorithms for two variants of the
                 problem, depending on the precise representation of the
                 input. When the batch size is unbounded and each job is
                 associated with a time window in which it can be
                 processed, these approximation ratios reduce to $2$ and
                 $ 2 + \epsilon $, respectively. We also give
                 approximation algorithms for two special cases when all
                 release times are the same.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "batching; local ratio technique; Scheduling",
}

@Article{Rabani:2009:BAT,
  author =       "Yuval Rabani and Gabriel Scalosub",
  title =        "Bicriteria approximation tradeoff for the node-cost
                 budget problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497295",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider an optimization problem consisting of an
                 undirected graph, with cost and profit functions
                 defined on all vertices. The goal is to find a
                 connected subset of vertices with maximum total profit,
                 whose total cost does not exceed a given budget. The
                 best result known prior to this work guaranteed a $ (2,
                 O(\log n)) $ bicriteria approximation, that is, the
                 solution's profit is at least a fraction of $ 1 /
                 O(\log n) $ of an optimum solution respecting the
                 budget, while its cost is at most twice the given
                 budget. We improve these results and present a
                 bicriteria tradeoff that, given any $ \epsilon \in (0,
                 1] $, guarantees a $ (1 + \epsilon, O(1 / \epsilon \log
                 n)) $-approximation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; bicriteria approximation",
}

@Article{Li:2009:PTA,
  author =       "Guojun Li and Xiaotie Deng and Ying Xu",
  title =        "A polynomial-time approximation scheme for embedding
                 hypergraph in a cycle",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497296",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of embedding hyperedges of a
                 hypergraph as paths in a cycle such that the maximum
                 congestion, namely the maximum number of paths that use
                 any single edge in a cycle, is minimized.\par

                 The {\em minimum congestion hypergraph embedding in a
                 cycle\/} problem is known to be NP-hard and its graph
                 version, the {\em minimum congestion graph embedding in
                 a cycle}, is solvable in polynomial-time. Furthermore,
                 for the graph problem, a polynomial-time approximation
                 scheme for the weighted version is known. For the
                 hypergraph model, several approximation algorithms with
                 a ratio of two have been previously published. A recent
                 paper reduced the approximation ratio to 1.5. We
                 present a polynomial-time approximation scheme in this
                 article, settling the debate regarding whether the
                 problem is polynomial-time approximable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Hypergraph embedding; minimum congestion; NP-hard;
                 polynomial-time approximation scheme",
}

@Article{Even:2009:AAA,
  author =       "Guy Even and Jon Feldman and Guy Kortsarz and Zeev
                 Nutov",
  title =        "A 1.8 approximation algorithm for augmenting
                 edge-connectivity of a graph from 1 to 2",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497297",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a 1.8-approximation algorithm for the
                 following NP-hard problem: Given a connected graph {$ G
                 = (V, E) $} and an edge set {$E$} on {$V$} disjoint to
                 {$E$}, find a minimum-size subset of edges {$ F
                 \subseteq E $} such that {$ (V, E \cup f) $} is
                 2-edge-connected. Our result improves and significantly
                 simplifies the approximation algorithm with ratio {$
                 1.875 + \epsilon $} of Nagamochi.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; connectivity; graphs",
}

@Article{Marko:2009:ADP,
  author =       "Sharon Marko and Dana Ron",
  title =        "Approximating the distance to properties in
                 bounded-degree and general sparse graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497298",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We address the problem of approximating the distance
                 of bounded-degree and general sparse graphs from having
                 some predetermined graph property $p$. That is, we are
                 interested in sublinear algorithms for estimating the
                 fraction of edge modifications (additions or deletions)
                 that must be performed on a graph so that it obtains
                 $p$. This fraction is taken with respect to a given
                 upper bound $m$ on the number of edges. In particular,
                 for graphs with degree bound $d$ over $n$ vertices, $ m
                 = d n $. To perform such an approximation the algorithm
                 may ask for the degree of any vertex of its choice, and
                 may ask for the neighbors of any vertex.\par

                 The problem of estimating the distance to having a
                 property was first explicitly addressed by Parnas et
                 al. [2006]. In the context of graphs this problem was
                 studied by Fischer and Newman [2007] in the dense
                 graphs model. In this model the fraction of edge
                 modifications is taken with respect to $ n^2 $, and the
                 algorithm may ask for the existence of an edge between
                 any pair of vertices of its choice. Fischer and Newman
                 showed that every graph property that has a testing
                 algorithm in this model, with query complexity
                 independent of the size of the graph, also has a
                 distance approximation algorithm with query complexity
                 that is independent of the size of graph.\par

                 In this work we focus on bounded-degree and general
                 sparse graphs, and give algorithms for all properties
                 shown to have efficient testing algorithms by Goldreich
                 and Ron [2002]. Specifically, these properties are
                 $k$-edge connectivity, subgraph freeness (for
                 constant-size subgraphs), being an Eulerian graph, and
                 cycle freeness. A variant of our subgraph-freeness
                 algorithm approximates the size of a minimum vertex
                 cover of a graph in sublinear time. This approximation
                 improves on a recent result of Parnas and Ron [2007].",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "distance approximation; graph properties; property
                 testing; Sublinear approximation algorithms",
}

@Article{Berry:2009:LTA,
  author =       "Vincent Berry and Christophe Paul and Sylvain
                 Guillemot and Fran{\c{c}}ois Nicolas",
  title =        "Linear time 3-approximation for the {MAST} problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497299",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a set of leaf-labeled trees with identical leaf
                 sets, the well-known Maximum Agreement SubTree (MAST)
                 problem consists in finding a subtree homeomorphically
                 included in all input trees and with the largest number
                 of leaves. MAST and its variant called Maximum
                 Compatible Tree (MCT) are of particular interest in
                 computational biology. This article presents a
                 linear-time approximation algorithm to solve the
                 complement version of MAST, namely identifying the
                 smallest set of leaves to remove from input trees to
                 obtain isomorphic trees. We also present an {$ O(n^2 +
                 k n) $} algorithm to solve the complement version of
                 MCT. For both problems, we thus achieve significantly
                 lower running times than previously known algorithms.
                 Fast running times are especially important in
                 phylogenetics where large collections of trees are
                 routinely produced by resampling procedures, such as
                 the nonparametric bootstrap or Bayesian MCMC methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithm; maximum agreement subtree;
                 maximum compatible subtree; phylogenetic tree",
}

@Article{Condon:2009:ADA,
  author =       "Anne Condon and Amol Deshpande and Lisa Hellerstein
                 and Ning Wu",
  title =        "Algorithms for distributional and adversarial
                 pipelined filter ordering problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1497290.1497300",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 14 19:05:00 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Pipelined filter ordering is a central problem in
                 database query optimization. The problem is to
                 determine the optimal order in which to apply a given
                 set of commutative filters (predicates) to a set of
                 elements (the tuples of a relation), so as to find, as
                 efficiently as possible, the tuples that satisfy all of
                 the filters. Optimization of pipelined filter ordering
                 has recently received renewed attention in the context
                 of environments such as the Web, continuous high-speed
                 data streams, and sensor networks. Pipelined filter
                 ordering problems are also studied in areas such as
                 fault detection and machine learning under names such
                 as learning with attribute costs, minimum-sum set
                 cover, and satisfying search. We present algorithms for
                 two natural extensions of the classical pipelined
                 filter ordering problem: (1) a {\em
                 distributional-type\/} problem where the filters run
                 in parallel and the goal is to maximize throughput, and
                 (2) an {\em adversarial-type\/} problem where the goal
                 is to minimize the expected value of {\em
                 multiplicative regret}. We present two related
                 algorithms for solving (1), both running in time {$
                 O(n^2) $}, which improve on the {$ O(n 3 \log n) $}
                 algorithm of Kodialam. We use techniques from our
                 algorithms for (1) to obtain an algorithm for 1.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "flow algorithms; Pipelined filter ordering; query
                 optimization; selection ordering",
}

@Article{Gabow:2009:FSI,
  author =       "Harold Gabow",
  title =        "Foreword to special issue on {SODA 2007}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541886",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ruzic:2009:MDS,
  author =       "Milan Ru{\v{z}}i{\'c}",
  title =        "Making deterministic signatures quickly",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541887",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a new technique of universe reduction.
                 Primary applications are the dictionary problem and the
                 predecessor problem. We give several new results on
                 static dictionaries in different computational models:
                 the word RAM, the practical RAM, and the
                 cache-oblivious model. All algorithms and data
                 structures are deterministic and use linear space.
                 Representative results are: a dictionary with a lookup
                 time of {$ O(\log \log n) $} and construction time of
                 {$ O(n) $} on sorted input on a word RAM, and a static
                 predecessor structure for variable- and unbounded
                 length binary strings that in the cache-oblivious model
                 has a query performance of {$ O(| s | / B + \log | s |)
                 $} I/Os, for query argument {$s$}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Carr:2009:CCN,
  author =       "Robert D. Carr and Goran Konjevod and Greg Little and
                 Venkatesh Natarajan and Ojas Parekh",
  title =        "Compacting cuts: a new linear formulation for minimum
                 cut",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541888",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "For a graph (V, E), existing compact linear
                 formulations for the minimum cut problem require {$
                 \Theta (|V| |E|) $} variables and constraints and can
                 be interpreted as a composition of {$ |V| - 1 $}
                 polyhedra for minimum {$s$}--{$t$} cuts in much the
                 same way as early approaches to finding globally
                 minimum cuts relied on {$ |V| - 1 $} calls to a minimum
                 {$s$}--{$t$} cut algorithm. We present the first
                 formulation to beat this bound, one that uses {$
                 O(|V|^2) $} variables and {$ O(|V|^3) $} constraints.
                 An immediate consequence of our result is a compact
                 linear relaxation with {$ O(|V|^2) $} constraints and
                 {$ O(|V|^3) $} variables for enforcing global
                 connectivity constraints. This relaxation is as strong
                 as standard cut-based relaxations and has applications
                 in solving traveling salesman problems by integer
                 programming as well as finding approximate solutions
                 for survivable network design problems using Jain's
                 iterative rounding method. Another application is a
                 polynomial-time verifiable certificate of size {$n$}
                 for for the NP-complete problem of {$ l_1
                 $}-embeddability of a rational metric on an {$n$}-set
                 (as opposed to a certificate of size $ n^2 $ known
                 previously).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Giora:2009:ODV,
  author =       "Yoav Giora and Haim Kaplan",
  title =        "{Optimal} dynamic vertical ray shooting in rectilinear
                 planar subdivisions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541889",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the dynamic vertical ray shooting problem
                 against horizontal disjoint segments, that is, the task
                 of maintaining a dynamic set {$S$} of {$n$}
                 nonintersecting horizontal line segments in the plane
                 under a query that reports the first segment in {$S$}
                 intersecting a vertical ray from a query point. We
                 develop a linear-size structure that supports queries,
                 insertions, and deletion in {$ O(\log n) $} worst-case
                 time. Our structure works in the comparison model on a
                 random access machine.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Eppstein:2009:STS,
  author =       "David Eppstein",
  title =        "Squarepants in a tree: {Sum} of subtree clustering and
                 hyperbolic pants decomposition",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541890",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We provide efficient constant-factor approximation
                 algorithms for the problems of finding a hierarchical
                 clustering of a point set in any metric space,
                 minimizing the sum of minimimum spanning tree lengths
                 within each cluster, and in the hyperbolic or Euclidean
                 planes, minimizing the sum of cluster perimeters. Our
                 algorithms for the hyperbolic and Euclidean planes can
                 also be used to provide a pants decomposition, that is,
                 a set of disjoint simple closed curves partitioning the
                 plane minus the input points into subsets with exactly
                 three boundary components, with approximately minimum
                 total length. In the Euclidean case, these curves are
                 squares; in the hyperbolic case, they combine our
                 Euclidean square pants decomposition with our tree
                 clustering method for general metric spaces.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Demaine:2009:MM,
  author =       "Erik D. Demaine and Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi and Hamid
                 Mahini and Amin S. Sayedi-Roshkhar and Shayan
                 Oveisgharan and Morteza Zadimoghaddam",
  title =        "Minimizing movement",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541891",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give approximation algorithms and inapproximability
                 results for a class of movement problems. In general,
                 these problems involve planning the coordinated motion
                 of a large collection of objects (representing anything
                 from a robot swarm or firefighter team to map labels or
                 network messages) to achieve a global property of the
                 network while minimizing the maximum or average
                 movement. In particular, we consider the goals of
                 achieving connectivity (undirected and directed),
                 achieving connectivity between a given pair of
                 vertices, achieving independence (a dispersion
                 problem), and achieving a perfect matching (with
                 applications to multicasting). This general family of
                 movement problems encompasses an intriguing range of
                 graph and geometric algorithms, with several real-world
                 applications and a surprising range of approximability.
                 In some cases, we obtain tight approximation and
                 inapproximability results using direct techniques
                 (without use of PCP), assuming just that P $ \neq $
                 NP.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Borradaile:2009:ASS,
  author =       "Glencora Borradaile and Philip Klein and Claire
                 Mathieu",
  title =        "An {$ {O}(n \log n) $} approximation scheme for
                 {Steiner} tree in planar graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541892",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 09:37:25 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Borradaile:2009:LAS,
  author =       "Glencora Borradaile and Philip Klein and Claire
                 Mathieu",
  title =        "An {$ O(n \log n) $} approximation scheme for
                 {Steiner} tree in planar graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541892",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give a Polynomial-Time Approximation Scheme (PTAS)
                 for the Steiner tree problem in planar graphs. The
                 running time is {$ O(n \log n) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Charikar:2009:NOA,
  author =       "Moses Charikar and Konstantin Makarychev and Yury
                 Makarychev",
  title =        "Near-optimal algorithms for maximum constraint
                 satisfaction problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541893",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we present two approximation
                 algorithms for the maximum constraint satisfaction
                 problem with $k$ variables in each constraint (MAX
                 $k$-CSP). Given a $ (1 - \epsilon) $ satisfiable 2CSP
                 our first algorithm finds an assignment of variables
                 satisfying a {$ 1 - O(\sqrt \epsilon) $} fraction of
                 all constraints. The best previously known result, due
                 to Zwick, was {$ 1 - O(\epsilon^{1 / 3}) $}. The second
                 algorithm finds a {$ c k / 2^k $} approximation for the
                 MAX {$k$}-CSP problem (where {$ c > 0.44 $} is an
                 absolute constant). This result improves the previously
                 best known algorithm by Hast, which had an
                 approximation guarantee of {$ \Omega (k / (2^k \log k))
                 $}. Both results are optimal assuming the unique games
                 conjecture and are based on rounding natural
                 semidefinite programming relaxations. We also believe
                 that our algorithms and their analysis are simpler than
                 those previously known.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Andrews:2009:IFP,
  author =       "Matthew Andrews",
  title =        "Instability of {FIFO} in the permanent sessions model
                 at arbitrarily small network loads",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33:1--33:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1541885.1541894",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show that for any $ r > 0 $, there is a network of
                 First-In-First-Out servers and a fixed set of sessions
                 such that:\par --- The network load is $r$ with respect
                 to the permanent sessions model with bounded
                 arrivals.\par --- The network can be made unstable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "33",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Golubchik:2009:AAD,
  author =       "Leana Golubchik and Sanjeev Khanna and Samir Khuller
                 and Ramakrishna Thurimella and An Zhu",
  title =        "Approximation algorithms for data placement on
                 parallel disks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "34:1--34:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597037",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study an optimization problem that arises in the
                 context of data placement in a multimedia storage
                 system. We are given a collection of {$M$} multimedia
                 objects (data objects) that need to be assigned to a
                 storage system consisting of {$N$} disks {$ d_1 $}, {$
                 d_2 $}, \ldots {}, {$ d_N $}. We are also given sets {$
                 U_1 $}, {$ U_2 $}, \ldots {}, {$ U_M $} such that {$
                 U_i $} is the set of clients seeking the {$i$} th data
                 object. Each disk {$ d_j $} is characterized by two
                 parameters, namely, its storage capacity {$ C_j $}
                 which indicates the maximum number of data objects that
                 may be assigned to it, and a load capacity {$ L_j $}
                 which indicates the maximum number of clients that it
                 can serve. The goal is to find a placement of data
                 objects to disks and an assignment of clients to disks
                 so as to maximize the total number of clients served,
                 subject to the capacity constraints of the storage
                 system. We study this data placement problem for two
                 natural classes of storage systems, namely, homogeneous
                 and uniform ratio. We show that an algorithm developed
                 by Shachnai and Tamir [2000a] for data placement
                 achieves the best possible absolute bound regarding the
                 number of clients that can always be satisfied. We also
                 show how to implement the algorithm so that it has a
                 running time of {$ O((N + M) \log (N + M)) $}. In
                 addition, we design a polynomial-time approximation
                 scheme, solving an open problem posed in the same
                 paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "34",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Guha:2009:SEE,
  author =       "Sudipto Guha and Andrew McGregor and Suresh
                 Venkatasubramanian",
  title =        "Sublinear estimation of entropy and information
                 distances",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "35:1--35:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597038",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In many data mining and machine learning problems, the
                 data items that need to be clustered or classified are
                 not arbitrary points in a high-dimensional space, but
                 are distributions, that is, points on a
                 high-dimensional simplex. For distributions, natural
                 measures are not l$_p$ distances, but
                 information-theoretic measures such as the
                 Kullback--Leibler and Hellinger divergences. Similarly,
                 quantities such as the entropy of a distribution are
                 more natural than frequency moments. Efficient
                 estimation of these quantities is a key component in
                 algorithms for manipulating distributions. Since the
                 datasets involved are typically massive, these
                 algorithms need to have only sublinear complexity in
                 order to be feasible in practice. We present a range of
                 sublinear-time algorithms in various oracle models in
                 which the algorithm accesses the data via an oracle
                 that supports various queries. In particular, we answer
                 a question posed by Batu et al. on testing whether two
                 distributions are close in an information-theoretic
                 sense given independent samples. We then present
                 optimal algorithms for estimating various
                 information-divergences and entropy with a more
                 powerful oracle called the combined oracle that was
                 also considered by Batu et al. Finally, we consider
                 sublinear-space algorithms for these quantities in the
                 data-stream model. In the course of doing so, we
                 explore the relationship between the aforementioned
                 oracle models and the data-stream model. This continues
                 work initiated by Feigenbaum et al. An important
                 additional component to the study is considering data
                 streams that are ordered randomly rather than just
                 those which are ordered adversarially.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "35",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Levin:2009:GMC,
  author =       "Asaf Levin",
  title =        "A generalized minimum cost $k$-clustering",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "36:1--36:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597039",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problems of set partitioning into $k$
                 clusters with minimum total cost and minimum of the
                 maximum cost of a cluster. The cost function is given
                 by an oracle, and we assume that it satisfies some
                 natural structural constraints. That is, we assume that
                 the cost function is monotone, the cost of a singleton
                 is zero, and we assume that for all {$ S \cap S' \neq
                 \oslash $} the following holds {$ c(S) + c(S') \geq c(S
                 \cup S') $}. For the problem of minimizing the maximum
                 cost of a cluster we present a {$ (2 k - 1)
                 $}-approximation algorithm for {$ k \geq 3 $}, a
                 2-approximation algorithm for {$ k = 2 $}, and we also
                 show a lower bound of $k$ on the performance guarantee
                 of any polynomial-time algorithm. For the problem of
                 minimizing the total cost of all the clusters, we
                 present a 2-approximation algorithm for the case where
                 $k$ is a fixed constant, a $ (4 k - 3) $-approximation
                 where $k$ is unbounded, and we show a lower bound of
                 $2$ on the approximation ratio of any polynomial-time
                 algorithm. Our lower bounds do not depend on the common
                 assumption that P $ \neq $ NP.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "36",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Farach-Colton:2009:BHO,
  author =       "Martin Farach-Colton and Rohan J. Fernandes and Miguel
                 A. Mosteiro",
  title =        "Bootstrapping a hop-optimal network in the weak sensor
                 model",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "37:1--37:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597040",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Sensor nodes are very weak computers that get
                 distributed at random on a surface. Once deployed, they
                 must wake up and form a radio network. Sensor network
                 bootstrapping research thus has three parts: One must
                 model the restrictions on sensor nodes; one must prove
                 that the connectivity graph of the sensors has a
                 subgraph that would make a good network; and one must
                 give a distributed protocol for finding such a network
                 subgraph that can be implemented on sensor nodes.
                 Although many particular restrictions on sensor nodes
                 are implicit or explicit in many papers, there remain
                 many inconsistencies and ambiguities from paper to
                 paper. The lack of a clear model means that solutions
                 to the network bootstrapping problem in both the theory
                 and systems literature all violate constraints on
                 sensor nodes. For example, random geometric graph
                 results on sensor networks predict the existence of
                 subgraphs on the connectivity graph with good
                 route-stretch, but these results do not address the
                 degree of such a graph, and sensor networks must have
                 constant degree. Furthermore, proposed protocols for
                 actually finding such graphs require that nodes have
                 too much memory, whereas others assume the existence of
                 a contention-resolution mechanism. We present a formal
                 Weak Sensor model that summarizes the literature on
                 sensor node restrictions, taking the most restrictive
                 choices when possible. We show that sensor connectivity
                 graphs have low-degree subgraphs with good hop-stretch,
                 as required by the Weak Sensor model. Finally, we give
                 a Weak Sensor model-compatible protocol for finding
                 such graphs. Ours is the first network initialization
                 algorithm that is implementable on sensor nodes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "37",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Eppstein:2009:AMI,
  author =       "David Eppstein",
  title =        "All maximal independent sets and dynamic dominance for
                 sparse graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "38:1--38:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597042",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe algorithms, based on Avis and Fukuda's
                 reverse search paradigm, for listing all maximal
                 independent sets in a sparse graph in polynomial time
                 and delay per output. For bounded degree graphs, our
                 algorithms take constant time per set generated; for
                 minor-closed graph families, the time is {$ O(n) $} per
                 set, and for more general sparse graph families we
                 achieve subquadratic time per set. We also describe new
                 data structures for maintaining a dynamic vertex set
                 {$S$} in a sparse or minor-closed graph family, and
                 querying the number of vertices not dominated by {$S$};
                 for minor-closed graph families the time per update is
                 constant, while it is sublinear for any sparse graph
                 family. We can also maintain a dynamic vertex set in an
                 arbitrary {$m$}-edge graph and test the independence of
                 the maintained set in time {$ O(\sqrt m) $} per update.
                 We use the domination data structures as part of our
                 enumeration algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "38",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Reed:2009:LTA,
  author =       "Bruce Reed and David R. Wood",
  title =        "A linear-time algorithm to find a separator in a graph
                 excluding a minor",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "39:1--39:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597043",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Let {$G$} be an {$n$}-vertex {$m$}-edge graph with
                 weighted vertices. A pair of vertex sets {$ A, B
                 \subseteq V(G) $} is a {$ 2 / 3 $}-separation of order
                 {$ |A \cap B| $} if {$ A \cup B = V(G) $}, there is no
                 edge between {$A$}--{$B$} and {$B$}--{$A$}, and both
                 {$A$}--{$B$} and {$B$}--{$A$} have weight at most {$ 2
                 / 3 $} the total weight of {$G$}. Let {$ l \in Z^+ $}
                 be fixed. Alon et al. [1990] presented an algorithm
                 that in {$ O(n^{1 / 2m}) $} time, outputs either a {$
                 K_l $}-minor of {$G$}, or a separation of {$G$} of
                 order {$ O(n^{1 / 2}) $}. Whether there is a {$ O(n +
                 m) $}-time algorithm for this theorem was left as an
                 open problem. In this article, we obtain a {$ O(n + m)
                 $}-time algorithm at the expense of a {$ O(n^{2 / 3})
                 $} separator. Moreover, our algorithm exhibits a
                 trade-off between time complexity and the order of the
                 separator. In particular, for any given {$ \epsilon \in
                 [0, 1 / 2] $}, our algorithm outputs either a {$ K_l
                 $}-minor of {$G$}, or a separation of {$G$} with order
                 {$ O(n^{(2 - \epsilon) / 3}) $} in {$ O(n^{1 +
                 \epsilon} + m) $} time. As an application we give a
                 fast approximation algorithm for finding an independent
                 set in a graph with no {$ K_l $}-minor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "39",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ito:2009:EIC,
  author =       "Hiro Ito and Kazuo Iwama",
  title =        "Enumeration of isolated cliques and pseudo-cliques",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40:1--40:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597044",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we consider isolated cliques and
                 isolated dense subgraphs. For a given graph {$G$}, a
                 vertex subset {$S$} of size {$k$} (and also its induced
                 subgraph {$ G(S) $}) is said to be {$c$}-isolated if
                 {$G$} (S) is connected to its outside via less than {$
                 c k $} edges. The number {$c$} is sometimes called the
                 isolation factor. The subgraph appears more isolated if
                 the isolation factor is smaller. The main result in
                 this work shows that for a fixed constant {$c$}, we can
                 enumerate all $c$-isolated maximal cliques (including a
                 maximum one, if any) in linear time. In more detail, we
                 show that, for a given graph {$G$} of {$n$} vertices
                 and {$m$} edges, and a positive real number {$c$}, all
                 $c$-isolated maximal cliques can be enumerated in time
                 {$ O(c^4 2^{2c} m) $}. From this, we can see that: (1)
                 if {$c$} is a constant, all {$c$}-isolated maximal
                 cliques can be enumerated in linear time, and (2) if {$
                 c = O(\log n) $}, all {$c$}-isolated maximal cliques
                 can be enumerated in polynomial time. Moreover, we show
                 that these bounds are tight. That is, if {$ f(n) $} is
                 an increasing function not bounded by any constant,
                 then there is a graph of {$n$} vertices and $m$ edges
                 for which the number of $ f(n) $-isolated maximal
                 cliques is superlinear in $ n + m $. Furthermore, if $
                 f(n) = \omega (\log n) $, there is a graph of $n$
                 vertices and $m$ edges for which the number of $ f(n)
                 $-isolated maximal cliques is superpolynomial in $ n +
                 m $. We next introduce the idea of pseudo-cliques. A
                 pseudo-clique having an average degree $ \alpha $ and a
                 minimum degree $ \beta $, denoted by {$ {\rm
                 PC}(\alpha, \beta) $}, is a set {$ V' \subseteq V $}
                 such that the subgraph induced by {$ V' $} has an
                 average degree of at least {$ \alpha $} and a minimum
                 degree of at least {$ \beta $}. This article
                 investigates these, and obtains some cases that can be
                 solved in polynomial time and some other cases that
                 have a superpolynomial number of solutions. Especially,
                 we show the following results, where {$k$} is the
                 number of vertices of the isolated pseudo-cliques: (1)
                 For any $ \epsilon > 0 $ there is a graph of $n$
                 vertices for which the number of $1$-isolated {$ {\rm
                 PC}(k - (\log k)^{1 + \epsilon}, k / (\log k)^{1 +
                 \epsilon}) $} is superpolynomial, and (2) there is a
                 polynomial-time algorithm which enumerates all
                 {$c$}-isolated {$ {\rm PC}(k - \log k, k / \log k) $},
                 for any constant {$c$}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "40",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Karakostas:2009:BAR,
  author =       "George Karakostas",
  title =        "A better approximation ratio for the vertex cover
                 problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41:1--41:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597045",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We reduce the approximation factor for the vertex
                 cover to {$ 2 - \Theta (1 / \sqrt {\log n}) $} (instead
                 of the previous {$ 2 - \Theta (\ln \ln n / 2 \ln n) $}
                 obtained by Bar-Yehuda and Even [1985] and Monien and
                 Speckenmeyer [1985]). The improvement of the vanishing
                 factor comes as an application of the recent results of
                 Arora et al. [2004] that improved the approximation
                 factor of the sparsest cut and balanced cut problems.
                 In particular, we use the existence of two big and
                 well-separated sets of nodes in the solution of the
                 semidefinite relaxation for balanced cut, proven by
                 Arora et al. [2004]. We observe that a solution of the
                 semidefinite relaxation for vertex cover, when
                 strengthened with the triangle inequalities, can be
                 transformed into a solution of a balanced cut problem,
                 and therefore the existence of big well-separated sets
                 in the sense of Arora et al. [2004] translates into the
                 existence of a big independent set.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "41",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Berend:2009:LAC,
  author =       "Daniel Berend and Vladimir Braverman",
  title =        "A linear algorithm for computing convex hulls for
                 random lines",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42:1--42:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597046",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Finding the convex hull of $n$ points in the plane
                 requires {$ O(n \log n) $} time in general. In Devroye
                 and Toussaint [1993] and Golin et al. [2002] the
                 problem of computing the convex hull of the
                 intersection points of {$n$} lines was considered,
                 where the lines are chosen randomly according to two
                 various models. In both models, linear-time algorithms
                 were developed. Here we improve the results of Devroye
                 and Toussaint [1993] by giving a universal algorithm
                 for a wider range of distributions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "42",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Kao:2009:RFD,
  author =       "Ming-Yang Kao and Manan Sanghi and Robert Schweller",
  title =        "Randomized fast design of short {DNA} words",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "43:1--43:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597047",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of efficiently designing sets
                 (codes) of equal-length DNA strings (words) that
                 satisfy certain combinatorial constraints. This problem
                 has numerous motivations including DNA self-assembly
                 and DNA computing. Previous work has extended results
                 from coding theory to obtain bounds on code size for
                 new biologically motivated constraints and has applied
                 heuristic local search and genetic algorithm techniques
                 for code design. This article proposes a natural
                 optimization formulation of the DNA code design problem
                 in which the goal is to design $n$ strings that satisfy
                 a given set of constraints while minimizing the length
                 of the strings. For multiple sets of constraints, we
                 provide simple randomized algorithms that run in time
                 polynomial in $n$ and any given constraint parameters,
                 and output strings of length within a constant factor
                 of the optimal with high probability. To the best of
                 our knowledge, this work is the first to consider this
                 type of optimization problem in the context of DNA code
                 design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "43",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Fernandez-Baca:2009:PAU,
  author =       "David Fern{\'a}ndez-Baca and Balaji Venkatachalam",
  title =        "Parametric analysis for ungapped {Markov} models of
                 evolution",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "44:1--44:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597048",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Efficient sensitivity analysis algorithms are
                 presented for two problems arising in the study of
                 Markov models of sequence evolution: ancestral
                 reconstruction in evolutionary trees and local ungapped
                 alignment under log-odds scoring. The algorithms
                 generate complete descriptions of the optimum solutions
                 for all possible values of the evolutionary distance.
                 The running time for the parametric ancestral
                 reconstruction problem under the Kimura 2-parameter
                 model is {$ O(k n + k n^{2 / 3} \log k) $}, where {$n$}
                 is the number of sequences and {$k$} is their length,
                 assuming all edges have the same length. For the
                 parametric gapless alignment problem under the
                 Jukes-Cantor model, the running time is {$ O(m n + m
                 n^{2 / 3} \log m) $}, where {$m$} and {$n$} are the
                 sequence lengths and {$ n \leq m $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "44",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Scott:2009:PCS,
  author =       "Alexander D. Scott and Gregory B. Sorkin",
  title =        "{Polynomial} constraint satisfaction problems, graph
                 bisection, and the {Ising} partition function",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "45:1--45:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597049",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a problem class we call Polynomial
                 Constraint Satisfaction Problems, or PCSP. Where the
                 usual CSPs from computer science and optimization have
                 real-valued score functions, and partition functions
                 from physics have monomials, PCSP has scores that are
                 arbitrary multivariate formal polynomials, or indeed
                 take values in an arbitrary ring. Although PCSP is much
                 more general than CSP, remarkably, all (exact,
                 exponential-time) algorithms we know of for 2-CSP
                 (where each score depends on at most 2 variables)
                 extend to 2-PCSP, at the expense of just a polynomial
                 factor in running time. Specifically, we extend the
                 reduction-based algorithm of Scott and Sorkin [2007];
                 the specialization of that approach to sparse random
                 instances, where the algorithm runs in polynomial
                 expected time; dynamic-programming algorithms based on
                 tree decompositions; and the split-and-list
                 matrix-multiplication algorithm of Williams [2004].
                 This gives the first polynomial-space exact algorithm
                 more efficient than exhaustive enumeration for the
                 well-studied problems of finding a maximum bisection of
                 a graph, and calculating the partition function of an
                 Ising model. It also yields the most efficient
                 algorithm known for certain instances of counting
                 and/or weighted Maximum Independent Set. Furthermore,
                 PCSP solves both optimization and counting versions of
                 a wide range of problems, including all CSPs, and thus
                 enables samplers including uniform sampling of optimal
                 solutions and Gibbs sampling of all solutions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "45",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Nguyen:2009:LDL,
  author =       "Phong Q. Nguyen and Damien Stehl{\'e}",
  title =        "Low-dimensional lattice basis reduction revisited",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "46:1--46:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1597036.1597050",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:29 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Lattice reduction is a geometric generalization of the
                 problem of computing greatest common divisors. Most of
                 the interesting algorithmic problems related to lattice
                 reduction are NP-hard as the lattice dimension
                 increases. This article deals with the low-dimensional
                 case. We study a greedy lattice basis reduction
                 algorithm for the Euclidean norm, which is arguably the
                 most natural lattice basis reduction algorithm because
                 it is a straightforward generalization of an old
                 two-dimensional algorithm of Lagrange, usually known as
                 Gauss' algorithm, and which is very similar to Euclid's
                 gcd algorithm. Our results are twofold. From a
                 mathematical point of view, we show that up to
                 dimension four, the output of the greedy algorithm is
                 optimal: The output basis reaches all the successive
                 minima of the lattice. However, as soon as the lattice
                 dimension is strictly higher than four, the output
                 basis may be arbitrarily bad as it may not even reach
                 the first minimum. More importantly, from a
                 computational point of view, we show that up to
                 dimension four, the bit-complexity of the greedy
                 algorithm is quadratic without fast integer arithmetic,
                 just like Euclid's gcd algorithm. This was already
                 proved by Semaev up to dimension three using rather
                 technical means, but it was previously unknown whether
                 or not the algorithm was still polynomial in dimension
                 four. We propose two different analyzes: a global
                 approach based on the geometry of the current basis
                 when the length decrease stalls, and a local approach
                 showing directly that a significant length decrease
                 must occur every {$ O(1) $} consecutive steps. Our
                 analyzes simplify Semaev's analysis in dimensions two
                 and three, and unify the cases of dimensions two to
                 four. Although the global approach is much simpler, we
                 also present the local approach because it gives
                 further information on the behavior of the algorithm.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "46",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Finocchi:2009:RD,
  author =       "Irene Finocchi and Fabrizio Grandoni and Giuseppe F.
                 Italiano",
  title =        "Resilient dictionaries",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644016",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We address the problem of designing data structures in
                 the presence of faults that may arbitrarily corrupt
                 memory locations. More precisely, we assume that an
                 adaptive adversary can arbitrarily overwrite the
                 content of up to $ \delta $ memory locations, that
                 corrupted locations cannot be detected, and that only
                 {$ O(1) $} memory locations are safe. In this
                 framework, we call a data structure resilient if it is
                 able to operate correctly (at least) on the set of
                 uncorrupted values. We present a resilient dictionary,
                 implementing search, insert, and delete operations. Our
                 dictionary has {$ O(\log n + \delta) $} expected
                 amortized time per operation, and {$ O(n) $} space
                 complexity, where {$n$} denotes the current number of
                 keys in the dictionary. We also describe a
                 deterministic resilient dictionary, with the same
                 amortized cost per operation over a sequence of at
                 least {$ \delta^\epsilon $} operations, where {$
                 \epsilon > 0 $} is an arbitrary constant. Finally, we
                 show that any resilient comparison-based dictionary
                 must take {$ \Omega (\log n + \delta) $} expected time
                 per search. Our results are achieved by means of
                 simple, new techniques which might be of independent
                 interest for the design of other resilient
                 algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Demaine:2009:ODA,
  author =       "Erik D. Demaine and Shay Mozes and Benjamin Rossman
                 and Oren Weimann",
  title =        "An optimal decomposition algorithm for tree edit
                 distance",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644017",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The edit distance between two ordered rooted trees
                 with vertex labels is the minimum cost of transforming
                 one tree into the other by a sequence of elementary
                 operations consisting of deleting and relabeling
                 existing nodes, as well as inserting new nodes. In this
                 article, we present a worst-case {$ O(n^3) $}-time
                 algorithm for the problem when the two trees have size
                 {$n$}, improving the previous best {$ O(n^3 \log n)
                 $}-time algorithm. Our result requires a novel adaptive
                 strategy for deciding how a dynamic program divides
                 into subproblems, together with a deeper understanding
                 of the previous algorithms for the problem. We prove
                 the optimality of our algorithm among the family of
                 decomposition strategy algorithms-which also includes
                 the previous fastest algorithms-by tightening the known
                 lower bound of {$ \Omega (n^2 \log^2 n) $} to {$ \Omega
                 (n^3) $}, matching our algorithm's running time.
                 Furthermore, we obtain matching upper and lower bounds
                 for decomposition strategy algorithms of {$ \Theta (n
                 m^2 (1 + \log n / m)) $} when the two trees have sizes
                 {$m$} and {$n$} and {$ m < n $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bille:2009:IAS,
  author =       "Philip Bille and Rolf Fagerberg and Inge Li G{\o}rtz",
  title =        "Improved approximate string matching and regular
                 expression matching on {Ziv--Lempel} compressed texts",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644018",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the approximate string matching and regular
                 expression matching problem for the case when the text
                 to be searched is compressed with the Ziv--Lempel
                 adaptive dictionary compression schemes. We present a
                 time-space trade-off that leads to algorithms improving
                 the previously known complexities for both problems. In
                 particular, we significantly improve the space bounds,
                 which in practical applications are likely to be a
                 bottleneck.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Duch:2009:URK,
  author =       "Amalia Duch and Conrado Mart{\'\i}nez",
  title =        "Updating relaxed {$ {K} $}-d trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644019",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this work we present an in-depth study of
                 randomized relaxed $k$--$d$ trees. It covers two
                 fundamental aspects: the randomized algorithms that
                 allow to preserve the random properties of relaxed
                 $k$--$d$ trees and the mathematical analysis of the
                 expected performance of these algorithms. In
                 particular, we describe randomized update algorithms
                 for $k$--$d$ trees based on the split and join
                 algorithms of Duch et al. [1998]. We carry out an
                 analysis of the expected cost of all these algorithms,
                 using analytic combinatorics techniques. We show that
                 the average cost of split and join is of the form {$
                 \zeta (K) \cdot n^{\phi (K)} + o(n^{\phi (K)}) $}, with
                 {$ 1 \leq \phi (K) < 1.561552813 $}, and we give
                 explicit formul{\ae } for both {$ \zeta (K) $} and {$
                 \phi (K) $}. These results on the average performance
                 of split and join imply that the expected cost of an
                 insertion or a deletion is {$ \Theta (n^{\phi (K) - 1})
                 $} when {$ K > 2 $} and {$ \Theta (\log n) $} for {$ K
                 = 2 $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Nutov:2009:ACA,
  author =       "Zeev Nutov",
  title =        "Approximating connectivity augmentation problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:19",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644020",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Let {$ G = (V, E) $} be an undirected graph and let {$
                 S \subseteq V $}. The {$S$}-connectivity {$
                 \lambda^S_G(u, v) $} of a node pair {$ (u, v) $} in
                 {$G$} is the maximum number of {$ u v $}-paths that no
                 two of them have an edge or a node in {$ S - \{ u, v \}
                 $} in common. The corresponding Connectivity
                 Augmentation (CA) problem is: given a graph {$ G = (V,
                 E) $}, a node subset {$ S \subseteq V $}, and a
                 nonnegative integer requirement function {$ r(u, v) $}
                 on {$ V \times V $}, add a minimum size set F of new
                 edges to {$G$} so that {$ \lambda^S_{G + F}(u, v) \geq
                 r(u, v) $} for all {$ (u, v) \in V \times V $}. Three
                 extensively studied particular cases are: the Edge-CA
                 ({$ S = \oslash $}), the Node-CA ({$ S = V $}), and the
                 Element-CA {$ r(u, v) = 0 $} whenever {$ u \in S $} or
                 {$ v \in S $}. A polynomial-time algorithm for Edge-CA
                 was developed by Frank. In this article we consider the
                 Element-CA and the Node-CA, that are NP-hard even for
                 {$ r(u, v) \in \{ 0, 2 \} $}. The best known ratios for
                 these problems were: 2 for Element-CA and {$ O(r_{\rm
                 max} \cdot \ln n) $} for Node-CA, where {$ r_{\rm max}
                 = \max_{u,_v} \in V r(u, v) $} and {$ n = |V| $}. Our
                 main result is a 7/4-approximation algorithm for the
                 Element-CA, improving the previously best known
                 2-approximation. For Element-CA with {$ r(u, v) \in \{
                 0, 1, 2 \} $} we give a {$ 3 / 2 $}-approximation
                 algorithm. These approximation ratios are based on a
                 new splitting-off theorem, which implies an improved
                 lower bound on the number of edges needed to cover a
                 skew-supermodular set function. For Node-CA we
                 establish the following approximation threshold:
                 Node-CA with {$ r(u, v) \in \{ 0, k \} $} cannot be
                 approximated within {$ O(2^{\log^{1 - \epsilon} n}) $}
                 for any fixed {$ \epsilon > 0 $}, unless NP {$
                 \subseteq $} DTIME({$ n^{\polylog (n)} $} ).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Demetrescu:2009:TSP,
  author =       "Camil Demetrescu and Irene Finocchi and Andrea
                 Ribichini",
  title =        "Trading off space for passes in graph streaming
                 problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644021",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Data stream processing has recently received
                 increasing attention as a computational paradigm for
                 dealing with massive data sets. Surprisingly, no
                 algorithm with both sublinear space and passes is known
                 for natural graph problems in classical read-only
                 streaming. Motivated by technological factors of modern
                 storage systems, some authors have recently started to
                 investigate the computational power of less restrictive
                 models where writing streams is allowed. In this
                 article, we show that the use of intermediate temporary
                 streams is powerful enough to provide effective
                 space-passes tradeoffs for natural graph problems. In
                 particular, for any space restriction of $s$ bits, we
                 show that single-source shortest paths in directed
                 graphs with small positive integer edge weights can be
                 solved in {$ O((n \log^{3 / 2} n) / \sqrt s) $} passes.
                 The result can be generalized to deal with multiple
                 sources within the same bounds. This is the first known
                 streaming algorithm for shortest paths in directed
                 graphs. For undirected connectivity, we devise an {$
                 O((n \log n) / s) $} passes algorithm. Both problems
                 require {$ \Omega (n / s) $} passes under the
                 restrictions we consider. We also show that the model
                 where intermediate temporary streams are allowed can be
                 strictly more powerful than classical streaming for
                 some problems, while maintaining all of its hardness
                 for others.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Pettie:2009:LDS,
  author =       "Seth Pettie",
  title =        "{Low} distortion spanners",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644022",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A spanner of an undirected unweighted graph is a
                 subgraph that approximates the distance metric of the
                 original graph with some specified accuracy.
                 Specifically, we say {$ H \subseteq G $} is an
                 {$f$}-spanner of {$G$} if any two vertices {$ u, v $}
                 at distance {$d$} in {$G$} are at distance at most {$
                 f(d) $} in {$H$}. There is clearly some trade-off
                 between the sparsity of {$H$} and the distortion
                 function {$f$}, though the nature of the optimal
                 trade-off is still poorly understood. In this article
                 we present a simple, modular framework for constructing
                 sparse spanners that is based on interchangeable
                 components called connection schemes. By assembling
                 connection schemes in different ways we can recreate
                 the additive 2- and 6-spanners of Aingworth et al.
                 [1999] and Baswana et al. [2009], and give spanners
                 whose multiplicative distortion quickly tends toward 1.
                 Our results rival the simplicity of all previous
                 algorithms and provide substantial improvements (up to
                 a doubly exponential reduction in edge density) over
                 the comparable spanners of Elkin and Peleg [2004] and
                 Thorup and Zwick [2006].",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Mehlhorn:2009:MCB,
  author =       "Kurt Mehlhorn and Dimitrios Michail",
  title =        "Minimum cycle bases: {Faster} and simpler",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644023",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of computing exact or
                 approximate minimum cycle bases of an undirected (or
                 directed) graph {$G$} with {$m$} edges, {$n$} vertices
                 and nonnegative edge weights. In this problem, a {$ \{
                 0, 1 \} ( - 1, 0, 1) $} incidence vector is associated
                 with each cycle and the vector space over {$ F_2 (Q) $}
                 generated by these vectors is the cycle space of {$G$}.
                 A set of cycles is called a cycle basis of {$G$} if it
                 forms a basis for its cycle space. A cycle basis where
                 the sum of the weights of the cycles is minimum is
                 called a minimum cycle basis of {$G$}. Cycle bases of
                 low weight are useful in a number of contexts, for
                 example, the analysis of electrical networks,
                 structural engineering, chemistry, and surface
                 reconstruction. There exists a set of {$ \Theta (m n)
                 $} cycles which is guaranteed to contain a minimum
                 cycle basis. A minimum basis can be extracted by
                 Gaussian elimination. The resulting algorithm [Horton
                 1987] was the first polynomial-time algorithm. Faster
                 and more complicated algorithms have been found since
                 then. We present a very simple method for extracting a
                 minimum cycle basis from the candidate set with running
                 time {$ O(m^2 n) $}, which improves the running time
                 for sparse graphs. Furthermore, in the undirected case
                 by using bit-packing we improve the running time also
                 in the case of dense graphs. For undirected graphs we
                 derive an {$ O(m^2 n / \log n + n^2 m) $} algorithm.
                 For directed graphs we get an {$ O(m^3 n) $}
                 deterministic and an {$ O(m^2 n) $} randomized
                 algorithm. Our results improve the running times of
                 both exact and approximate algorithms. Finally, we
                 derive a smaller candidate set with size in {$ \Omega
                 (m) \cap O(m n) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Gaspers:2009:ETA,
  author =       "Serge Gaspers and Dieter Kratsch and Mathieu Liedloff
                 and Ioan Todinca",
  title =        "Exponential time algorithms for the minimum dominating
                 set problem on some graph classes",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644024",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The minimum dominating set problem remains NP-hard
                 when restricted to any of the following graph classes:
                 $c$-dense graphs, chordal graphs, 4-chordal graphs,
                 weakly chordal graphs, and circle graphs. Developing
                 and using a general approach, for each of these graph
                 classes we present an exponential time algorithm
                 solving the minimum dominating set problem faster than
                 the best known algorithm for general graphs. Our
                 algorithms have the following running time: {$
                 O(1.4124^n) $} for chordal graphs, {$ O(1.4776^n) $}
                 for weakly chordal graphs, {$ O(1.4845^n) $} for
                 4-chordal graphs, {$ O(1.4887^n) $} for circle graphs,
                 and {$ O(1.2273^{(1 + \sqrt {1 - 2 c}) n}) $} for
                 {$c$}-dense graphs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chan:2009:OTE,
  author =       "Ho-Leung Chan and Joseph Wun-Tat Chan and Tak-Wah Lam
                 and Lap-Kei Lee and Kin-Sum Mak and Prudence W. H.
                 Wong",
  title =        "Optimizing throughput and energy in online deadline
                 scheduling",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644025",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article extends the study of online algorithms
                 for energy-efficient deadline scheduling to the
                 overloaded setting. Specifically, we consider a
                 processor that can vary its speed between $0$ and a
                 maximum speed {$T$} to minimize its energy usage (the
                 rate is believed to be a cubic function of the speed).
                 As the speed is upper bounded, the processor may be
                 overloaded with jobs and no scheduling algorithms can
                 guarantee to meet the deadlines of all jobs. An optimal
                 schedule is expected to maximize the throughput, and
                 furthermore, its energy usage should be the smallest
                 among all schedules that achieve the maximum
                 throughput. In designing a scheduling algorithm, one
                 has to face the dilemma of selecting more jobs and
                 being conservative in energy usage. If we ignore energy
                 usage, the best possible online algorithm is
                 4-competitive on throughput [Koren and Shasha 1995]. On
                 the other hand, existing work on energy-efficient
                 scheduling focuses on a setting where the processor
                 speed is unbounded and the concern is on minimizing the
                 energy to complete all jobs; {$ O(1) $}-competitive
                 online algorithms with respect to energy usage have
                 been known [Yao et al. 1995; Bansal et al. 2007a; Li et
                 al. 2006]. This article presents the first online
                 algorithm for the more realistic setting where
                 processor speed is bounded and the system may be
                 overloaded; the algorithm is {$ O(1) $}-competitive on
                 both throughput and energy usage. If the maximum speed
                 of the online scheduler is relaxed slightly to {$ (1 +
                 \epsilon) T $} for some {$ \epsilon > 0 $}, we can
                 improve the competitive ratio on throughput to
                 arbitrarily close to one, while maintaining {$ O(1)
                 $}-competitiveness on energy usage.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Alon:2009:ACM,
  author =       "Noga Alon and Yossi Azar and Shai Gutner",
  title =        "Admission control to minimize rejections and online
                 set cover with repetitions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644026",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the admission control problem in general
                 networks. Communication requests arrive over time, and
                 the online algorithm accepts or rejects each request
                 while maintaining the capacity limitations of the
                 network. The admission control problem has been usually
                 analyzed as a benefit problem, where the goal is to
                 devise an online algorithm that accepts the maximum
                 number of requests possible. The problem with this
                 objective function is that even algorithms with optimal
                 competitive ratios may reject almost all of the
                 requests, when it would have been possible to reject
                 only a few. This could be inappropriate for settings in
                 which rejections are intended to be rare events. In
                 this article, we consider preemptive online algorithms
                 whose goal is to minimize the number of rejected
                 requests. Each request arrives together with the path
                 it should be routed on. We show an {$ O(\log^2 (m c))
                 $}-competitive randomized algorithm for the weighted
                 case, where {$m$} is the number of edges in the graph
                 and {$c$} is the maximum edge capacity. For the
                 unweighted case, we give an {$ O(\log m \log c)
                 $}-competitive randomized algorithm. This settles an
                 open question of Blum et al. [2001]. We note that
                 allowing preemption and handling requests with given
                 paths are essential for avoiding trivial lower bounds.
                 The admission control problem is a generalization of
                 the online set cover with repetitions problem, whose
                 input is a family of {$m$} subsets of a ground set of
                 {$n$} elements. Elements of the ground set are given to
                 the online algorithm one by one, possibly requesting
                 each element a multiple number of times. (If each
                 element arrives at most once, this corresponds to the
                 online set cover problem.) The algorithm must cover
                 each element by different subsets, according to the
                 number of times it has been requested. We give an {$
                 O(\log m \log n) $}-competitive randomized algorithm
                 for the online set cover with repetitions problem. This
                 matches a recent lower bound of {$ \Omega (\log m \log
                 n) $} given by Korman [2005] (based on Feige [1998])
                 for the competitive ratio of any randomized polynomial
                 time algorithm, under the BPP /= NP assumption. Given
                 any constant {$ \epsilon > 0 $}, an {$ O(\log m \log n)
                 $}-competitive deterministic bicriteria algorithm is
                 shown that covers each element by at least {$ (1 -
                 \epsilon) k $} sets, where {$k$} is the number of times
                 the element is covered by the optimal solution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Hay:2009:JRM,
  author =       "David Hay and Gabriel Scalosub",
  title =        "Jitter regulation for multiple streams",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644027",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "For widely used interactive communication, it is
                 essential that traffic is kept as smooth as possible;
                 the smoothness of the traffic is typically captured by
                 its delay jitter, that is, the difference between the
                 maximal and minimal end-to-end delays. The task of
                 minimizing the jitter is done by jitter regulators that
                 use a limited-size buffer in order to shape the
                 traffic. In many real-life situations regulators must
                 handle multiple streams simultaneously and provide low
                 jitter on each of them separately. Moreover,
                 communication links have limited capacity, and these
                 may pose further restrictions on the choices made by
                 the regulator. This article investigates the problem of
                 minimizing jitter in such an environment, using a
                 fixed-size buffer. We show that the offline version of
                 the problem can be solved in polynomial time, by
                 introducing an efficient offline algorithm that finds a
                 release schedule with optimal jitter. When regulating
                 {$M$} streams in the online setting, we take a
                 competitive analysis point of view and note that, in
                 the upcapacitated case, previous results in Mansour and
                 Patt-Shamir [2001] can be extended to an online
                 algorithm that uses a buffer of size {$ 2 \cdot M \cdot
                 B $} and obtains the optimal jitter possible with a
                 buffer of size {$B$} (and an offline algorithm). The
                 question arises whether such a resource augmentation is
                 essential. We answer this question in the affirmative,
                 by proving a lower bound that is tight up to a factor
                 of 2, thus showing that jitter regulation does not
                 scale well as the number of streams increases unless
                 the buffer is sized-up proportionally.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Becchetti:2009:LCA,
  author =       "Luca Becchetti and Alberto Marchetti-Spaccamela and
                 Andrea Vitaletti and Peter Korteweg and Martin Skutella
                 and Leen Stougie",
  title =        "Latency-constrained aggregation in sensor networks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644028",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A sensor network consists of sensing devices which may
                 exchange data through wireless communication; sensor
                 networks are highly energy constrained since they are
                 usually battery operated. Data aggregation is a
                 possible way to save energy consumption: nodes may
                 delay data in order to aggregate them into a single
                 packet before forwarding them towards some central node
                 (sink). However, many applications impose constraints
                 on the maximum delay of data; this translates into
                 latency constraints for data arriving at the sink. We
                 study the problem of data aggregation to minimize
                 maximum energy consumption under latency constraints on
                 sensed data delivery, and we assume unique
                 communication paths that form an intree rooted at the
                 sink. We prove that the offline problem is strongly
                 NP-hard and we design a 2-approximation algorithm. The
                 latter uses a novel rounding technique. Almost all
                 real-life sensor networks are managed online by simple
                 distributed algorithms in the nodes. In this context we
                 consider both the case in which sensor nodes are
                 synchronized or not. We assess the performance of the
                 algorithm by competitive analysis. We also provide
                 lower bounds for the models we consider, in some cases
                 showing optimality of the algorithms we propose. Most
                 of our results also hold when minimizing the total
                 energy consumption of all nodes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Cohen:2009:TDM,
  author =       "Rami Cohen and Dror Rawitz and Danny Raz",
  title =        "Time-dependent multi-scheduling of multicast",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644029",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Many network applications that need to distribute
                 content and data to a large number of clients use a
                 hybrid scheme in which one (or more) multicast channel
                 is used in parallel to a unicast dissemination. This
                 way the application can distribute data using one of
                 its available multicast channels or by sending one or
                 more unicast transmissions. In such a model the
                 utilization of the multicast channels is critical for
                 the overall performance of the system. We study the
                 scheduling algorithm of the sender in such a model. We
                 describe this scheduling problem as an optimization
                 problem where the objective is to maximize the
                 utilization of the multicast channel. Our model
                 captures the fact that it may be beneficial to
                 multicast an object more than once (e.g., page update).
                 Thus, the benefit depends, among other things, on the
                 last time the object was sent, which makes the problem
                 much more complex than previous related scheduling
                 problems. We show that our problem is NP-hard. Then,
                 using the local ratio technique we obtain a
                 4-approximation algorithm for the case where the
                 objects are of fixed size and a 10-approximation
                 algorithm for the general case. We also consider a
                 special case which may be of practical interest, and
                 prove that a simple greedy algorithm is a
                 3-approximation algorithm in this case.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Gamzu:2009:IOA,
  author =       "Iftah Gamzu and Danny Segev",
  title =        "Improved online algorithms for the sorting buffer
                 problem on line metrics",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644030",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "An instance of the sorting buffer problem consists of
                 a metric space and a server, equipped with a
                 finite-capacity buffer capable of holding a limited
                 number of requests. An additional ingredient of the
                 input is an online sequence of requests, each of which
                 is characterized by a destination in the given metric
                 space; whenever a request arrives, it must be stored in
                 the sorting buffer. At any point in time, a currently
                 pending request can be served by drawing it out of the
                 buffer and moving the server to its corresponding
                 destination. The objective is to serve all input
                 requests in a way that minimizes the total distance
                 traveled by the server. In this article, we focus our
                 attention on instances of the problem in which the
                 underlying metric is either an evenly-spaced line
                 metric or a continuous line metric. Our main findings
                 can be briefly summarized as follows. (1) We present a
                 deterministic {$ O(\log n) $}-competitive algorithm for
                 {$n$}-point evenly-spaced line metrics. This result
                 improves on a randomized {$ O(\log^2 n) $}-competitive
                 algorithm due to Khandekar and Pandit [2006b]. It also
                 refutes their conjecture, stating that a deterministic
                 strategy is unlikely to obtain a nontrivial competitive
                 ratio. (2) We devise a deterministic {$ O(\log N \log
                 \log N) $}-competitive algorithm for continuous line
                 metrics, where {$N$} denotes the length of the input
                 sequence. In this context, we introduce a novel
                 discretization technique of independent interest. (3)
                 We establish the first nontrivial lower bound for the
                 evenly-spaced case, by proving that the competitive
                 ratio of any deterministic algorithm is at least {$ 2 +
                 \sqrt 3 / \sqrt 3 \approx 2.154 $}. This result
                 settles, to some extent, an open question due to
                 Khandekar and Pandit [2006b], who posed the task of
                 attaining lower bounds on the achievable competitive
                 ratio as a foundational objective for future
                 research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Andreev:2009:SSL,
  author =       "Konstantin Andreev and Charles Garrod and Daniel
                 Golovin and Bruce Maggs and Adam Meyerson",
  title =        "Simultaneous source location",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644031",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of simultaneous source
                 location: selecting locations for sources in a
                 capacitated graph such that a given set of demands can
                 be satisfied simultaneously, with the goal of
                 minimizing the number of locations chosen. For general
                 directed and undirected graphs we give an {$ O(\log D)
                 $}-approximation algorithm, where {$D$} is the sum of
                 demands, and prove matching {$ \Omega (\log D) $}
                 hardness results assuming P {$ \neq $} NP. For
                 undirected trees, we give an exact algorithm and show
                 how this can be combined with a result of R{\"a}cke to
                 give a solution that exceeds edge capacities by at most
                 {$ O(\log^2 n \log \log n) $}, where {$n$} is the
                 number of nodes. For undirected graphs of bounded
                 treewidth we show that the problem is still NP-hard,
                 but we are able to give a PTAS with at most {$ (1 +
                 \epsilon) $} violation of the capacities for
                 arbitrarily small {$ \epsilon $}, or a $ (k + 1) $
                 approximation with exact capacities, where $k$ is the
                 treewidth.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bein:2009:KYQ,
  author =       "Wolfgang Bein and Mordecai J. Golin and Lawrence L.
                 Larmore and Yan Zhang",
  title =        "The {Knuth--Yao} quadrangle-inequality speedup is a
                 consequence of total monotonicity",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644032",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "There exist several general techniques in the
                 literature for speeding up naive implementations of
                 dynamic programming. Two of the best known are the
                 Knuth--Yao quadrangle inequality speedup and the SMAWK
                 algorithm for finding the row-minima of totally
                 monotone matrices. Although both of these techniques
                 use a quadrangle inequality and seem similar, they are
                 actually quite different and have been used differently
                 in the literature. In this article we show that the
                 Knuth--Yao technique is actually a direct consequence
                 of total monotonicity. As well as providing new
                 derivations of the Knuth--Yao result, this also permits
                 to solve the Knuth--Yao problem directly using the
                 SMAWK algorithm. Another consequence of this approach
                 is a method for solving online versions of problems
                 with the Knuth--Yao property. The online algorithms
                 given here are asymptotically as fast as the best
                 previously known static ones. For example, the
                 Knuth--Yao technique speeds up the standard dynamic
                 program for finding the optimal binary search tree of
                 $n$ elements from {$ \Theta (n^3) $} down to {$ O(n^2)
                 $}, and the results in this article allow construction
                 of an optimal binary search tree in an online fashion
                 (adding a node to the left or the right of the current
                 nodes at each step) in {$ O(n) $} time per step.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Hassin:2009:AMQ,
  author =       "Refael Hassin and Asaf Levin and Maxim Sviridenko",
  title =        "Approximating the minimum quadratic assignment
                 problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644033",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the well-known minimum quadratic
                 assignment problem. In this problem we are given two $
                 n \times n $ nonnegative symmetric matrices {$ A =
                 (a_{ij}) $} and {$ B = (b_{ij}) $}. The objective is to
                 compute a permutation {$ \pi $} of {$ V = \{ 1, \ldots
                 {}, n \} $} so that {$ \Sigma i, j \in V_{i \neq j}
                 a_{\pi (i), \pi (j)} b_{i, j} $} is minimized. We
                 assume that {$A$} is a {$ 0 / 1 $} incidence matrix of
                 a graph, and that {$B$} satisfies the triangle
                 inequality. We analyze the approximability of this
                 class of problems by providing polynomial bounded
                 approximations for some special cases, and
                 inapproximability results for other cases.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Alagic:2009:QAS,
  author =       "Gorjan Alagic and Cristopher Moore and Alexander
                 Russell",
  title =        "Quantum algorithms for {Simon}'s problem over
                 nonabelian groups",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644034",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Daniel Simon's 1994 discovery of an efficient quantum
                 algorithm for finding ``hidden shifts'' of Z$_2^n$
                 provided the first algebraic problem for which quantum
                 computers are exponentially faster than their classical
                 counterparts. In this article, we study the
                 generalization of Simon's problem to arbitrary groups.
                 Fixing a finite group {$G$}, this is the problem of
                 recovering an involution {$ m = (m_1, \ldots {}, m_n)
                 \in G^n $} from an oracle {$f$} with the property that
                 {$ f(x \cdot y) = f(x) \leq y \in \{ 1, m \} $}. In the
                 current parlance, this is the hidden subgroup problem
                 (HSP) over groups of the form {$ G^n $}, where {$G$} is
                 a nonabelian group of constant size, and where the
                 hidden subgroup is either trivial or has order two.
                 Although groups of the form {$ G^n $} have a simple
                 product structure, they share important
                 representation--theoretic properties with the symmetric
                 groups {$ S_n $}, where a solution to the HSP would
                 yield a quantum algorithm for Graph Isomorphism. In
                 particular, solving their HSP with the so-called
                 ``standard method'' requires highly entangled
                 measurements on the tensor product of many coset
                 states. In this article, we provide quantum algorithms
                 with time complexity {2$^{o(\sqrt n)}$} that recover
                 hidden involutions {$ m = (m_1, \ldots {}, m_n) \in G^n
                 $} where, as in Simon's problem, each {$ m_i $} is
                 either the identity or the conjugate of a known element
                 {$m$} which satisfies {$ \kappa (m) = - \kappa (1) $}
                 for some {$ \kappa \in G $}. Our approach combines the
                 general idea behind Kuperberg's sieve for dihedral
                 groups with the ``missing harmonic'' approach of Moore
                 and Russell. These are the first nontrivial HSP
                 algorithms for group families that require highly
                 entangled multiregister Fourier sampling.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Babai:2009:CRC,
  author =       "L{\'a}szl{\'o} Babai and Pedro F. Felzenszwalb",
  title =        "Computing rank-convolutions with a mask",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644035",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Rank-convolutions have important applications in a
                 variety of areas such as signal processing and computer
                 vision. We define a mask as a function taking only
                 values zero and infinity. Rank-convolutions with masks
                 are of special interest to image processing. We show
                 how to compute the rank-$k$ convolution of a function
                 over an interval of length $n$ with an arbitrary mask
                 of length $m$ in {$ O(n \sqrt m \log m) $} time. The
                 result generalizes to the {$d$}-dimensional case.
                 Previously no algorithm performing significantly better
                 than the brute-force {$ O(n m) $} bound was known. Our
                 algorithm seems to perform well in practice. We
                 describe an implementation, illustrating its
                 application to a problem in image processing. Already
                 on relatively small images, our experiments show a
                 significant speedup compared to brute force.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bruss:2009:IAI,
  author =       "F. Thomas Bruss and Guy Louchard and Mark Daniel
                 Ward",
  title =        "Inverse auctions: {Injecting} unique minima into
                 random sets",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1644015.1644036",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:31 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider auctions in which the winning bid is the
                 smallest bid that is unique. Only the upper-price limit
                 is given. Neither the number of participants nor the
                 distribution of the offers are known, so that the
                 problem of placing a bid to win with maximum
                 probability looks, a priori, ill-posed. Indeed, the
                 essence of the problem is to inject a (final) minimum
                 into a random subset (of unique offers) of a larger
                 random set. We will see, however, that here no more
                 than two external (and almost compelling) arguments
                 make the problem meaningful. By appropriately modeling
                 the relationship between the number of participants and
                 the distribution of the bids, we can then maximize our
                 chances of winning the auction and propose a computable
                 algorithm for placing our bid.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Albers:2010:EN,
  author =       "Susanne Albers",
  title =        "Editorial {Note}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721838",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Mathieu:2010:FSI,
  author =       "Claire Mathieu",
  title =        "Foreword to special issue {SODA} 2009",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721839",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Cabello:2010:FSC,
  author =       "Sergio Cabello",
  title =        "Finding shortest contractible and shortest separating
                 cycles in embedded graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721840",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give a polynomial-time algorithm to find a shortest
                 contractible cycle (i.e., a closed walk without
                 repeated vertices) in a graph embedded in a surface.
                 This answers a question posed by Hutchinson. In
                 contrast, we show that finding a shortest contractible
                 cycle through a given vertex is NP-hard. We also show
                 that finding a shortest separating cycle in an embedded
                 graph is NP-hard. This answers a question posed by
                 Mohar and Thomassen.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "3-path condition; forbidden pairs; graphs on surfaces;
                 topological graph theory",
}

@Article{Aspnes:2010:ASM,
  author =       "James Aspnes and Keren Censor",
  title =        "Approximate shared-memory counting despite a strong
                 adversary",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721841",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A new randomized asynchronous shared-memory data
                 structure is given for implementing an approximate
                 counter that can be incremented once by each of $n$
                 processes in a model that allows up to $ n - 1 $ crash
                 failures. For any fixed $ \epsilon $, the counter
                 achieves a relative error of $ \delta $ with high
                 probability, at the cost of {$ O(((1 / \delta) \log
                 n)^{O(1 / \epsilon)}) $} register operations per
                 increment and {$ O(n^{4 / 5 + \epsilon}((1 / \delta)
                 \log n)^{O(1 / \epsilon)}) $} register operations per
                 read. The counter combines randomized sampling for
                 estimating large values with an expander for estimating
                 small values. This is the first counter implementation
                 that is sublinear the number of processes and works
                 despite a strong adversary scheduler that can observe
                 internal states of processes.\par

                 An application of the improved counter is an improved
                 protocol for solving randomized shared-memory
                 consensus, which reduces the best previously known
                 individual work complexity from {$ O(n \log n) $} to an
                 optimal {$ O(n) $}, resolving one of the last remaining
                 open problems concerning consensus in this model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximate counting; consensus; Distributed
                 computing; expanders; martingales",
}

@Article{Chan:2010:CBT,
  author =       "Timothy M. Chan",
  title =        "Comparison-based time-space lower bounds for
                 selection",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721842",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We establish the first nontrivial lower bounds on
                 time-space trade-offs for the selection problem. We
                 prove that any comparison-based randomized algorithm
                 for finding the median requires {$ \Omega (n \log
                 \log_S n) $} expected time in the RAM model (or more
                 generally in the comparison branching program model),
                 if we have {$S$} bits of extra space besides the
                 read-only input array. This bound is tight for all {$ S
                 > \log n $}, and remains true even if the array is
                 given in a random order. Our result thus answers a
                 16-year-old question of Munro and Raman [1996], and
                 also complements recent lower bounds that are
                 restricted to sequential access, as in the multipass
                 streaming model [Chakrabarti et al. 2008b].\par

                 We also prove that any comparison-based, deterministic,
                 multipass streaming algorithm for finding the median
                 requires {$ \Omega (n \log^*(n / s) + n \log_s n) $}
                 worst-case time (in scanning plus comparisons), if we
                 have {$s$} cells of space. This bound is also tight for
                 all {$ s > \log^2 n $}. We get deterministic lower
                 bounds for I/O-efficient algorithms as well.\par

                 The proofs in this article are self-contained and do
                 not rely on communication complexity techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Adversary arguments; lower bounds; median finding;
                 RAM; randomized algorithms; streaming algorithms;
                 time--space trade-offs",
}

@Article{Goel:2010:PMU,
  author =       "Ashish Goel and Michael Kapralov and Sanjeev Khanna",
  title =        "Perfect matchings via uniform sampling in regular
                 bipartite graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721843",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article we further investigate the
                 well-studied problem of finding a perfect matching in a
                 regular bipartite graph. The first nontrivial
                 algorithm, with running time {$ O(m n) $}, dates back
                 to K{\"o}nig's work in 1916 (here {$ m = n d $} is the
                 number of edges in the graph, {$ 2^n $} is the number
                 of vertices, and {$d$} is the degree of each node). The
                 currently most efficient algorithm takes time {$ O(m)
                 $}, and is due to Cole et al. [2001]. We improve this
                 running time to {$ O(\min \{ m, n^{2.5} \ln n / d \})
                 $}; this minimum can never be larger than {$ O(n^{1.75}
                 \sqrt {\ln n}) $}. We obtain this improvement by
                 proving a uniform sampling theorem: if we sample each
                 edge in a {$d$}-regular bipartite graph independently
                 with a probability {$ p = O(n \ln n / d^2) $} then the
                 resulting graph has a perfect matching with high
                 probability. The proof involves a decomposition of the
                 graph into pieces which are guaranteed to have many
                 perfect matchings but do not have any small cuts. We
                 then establish a correspondence between potential
                 witnesses to nonexistence of a matching (after
                 sampling) in any piece and cuts of comparable size in
                 that same piece. Karger's sampling theorem [1994a,
                 1994b] for preserving cuts in a graph can now be
                 adapted to prove our uniform sampling theorem for
                 preserving perfect matchings. Using the {$ O(m \sqrt n)
                 $} algorithm (due to Hopcroft and Karp [1973]) for
                 finding maximum matchings in bipartite graphs on the
                 sampled graph then yields the stated running time. We
                 also provide an infinite family of instances to show
                 that our uniform sampling result is tight up to
                 polylogarithmic factors (in fact, up to {$ l n^2 n $}
                 ).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Perfect matching; regular bipartite graphs",
}

@Article{Aminof:2010:RAO,
  author =       "Benjamin Aminof and Orna Kupferman and Robby Lampert",
  title =        "Reasoning about online algorithms with weighted
                 automata",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721844",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe an automata-theoretic approach for the
                 competitive analysis of {\em online algorithms}. Our
                 approach is based on {\em weighted automata}, which
                 assign to each input word a cost in {$ R^{\geq 0} $}.
                 By relating the ``unbounded look ahead'' of optimal
                 offline algorithms with nondeterminism, and relating
                 the ``no look ahead'' of online algorithms with
                 determinism, we are able to solve problems about the
                 competitive ratio of online algorithms, and the memory
                 they require, by reducing them to questions about {\em
                 determinization\/} and {\em approximated
                 determinization\/} of weighted automata.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Formal verification; online algorithms; weighted
                 automata",
}

@Article{Marx:2010:AFH,
  author =       "D{\'a}niel Marx",
  title =        "Approximating fractional hypertree width",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721845",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Fractional hypertree width is a hypergraph measure
                 similar to tree width and hypertree width. Its
                 algorithmic importance comes from the fact that, as
                 shown in previous work, Constraint Satisfaction
                 Problems (CSP) and various problems in database theory
                 are polynomial-time solvable if the input contains a
                 bounded-width fractional hypertree decomposition of the
                 hypergraph of the constraints. In this article, we show
                 that for every fixed $ w \geq 1 $, there is a
                 polynomial-time algorithm that, given a hypergraph
                 {$H$} with fractional hypertree width at most {$w$},
                 computes a fractional hypertree decomposition of width
                 {$ O(w^3) $} for {$H$}. This means that polynomial-time
                 algorithms relying on bounded-width fractional
                 hypertree decompositions no longer need to be given a
                 decomposition explicitly in the input, since an
                 appropriate decomposition can be computed in polynomial
                 time. Therefore, if {$H$} is a class of hypergraphs
                 with bounded fractional hypertree width, then a CSP
                 restricted to instances whose structure is in {$H$} is
                 polynomial-time solvable. This makes bounded fractional
                 hypertree width the most general known hypergraph
                 property that makes CSP, Boolean conjunctive queries,
                 and conjunctive query containment polynomial-time
                 solvable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "constraint satisfaction; fractional hypertree width;
                 Treewidth",
}

@Article{Klein:2010:SPD,
  author =       "Philip N. Klein and Shay Mozes and Oren Weimann",
  title =        "Shortest paths in directed planar graphs with negative
                 lengths: a linear-space {$ O(n \log^2 n) $}-time
                 algorithm",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721846",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give an {$ O(n \log^2 n) $}-time, linear-space
                 algorithm that, given a directed planar graph with
                 positive and negative arc-lengths, and given a node
                 {$s$}, finds the distances from {$s$} to all nodes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Monge; Planar graphs; replacement paths; shortest
                 paths",
}

@Article{Panagiotou:2010:MBS,
  author =       "Konstantinos Panagiotou and Angelika Steger",
  title =        "Maximal biconnected subgraphs of random planar
                 graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721847",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Let {$C$} be a class of labeled connected graphs, and
                 let {$ C_n $} be a graph drawn uniformly at random from
                 graphs in {$C$} that contain exactly {$n$} vertices.
                 Denote by {$ b(\ell; C_n) $} the number of blocks
                 (i.e., maximal biconnected subgraphs) of {$ C_n $} that
                 contain exactly {$ \ell $} vertices, and let {$ l
                 b(C_n) $} be the number of vertices in a largest block
                 of {$ C_n $}. We show that under certain general
                 assumptions on {$C$}, {$ C_n $} belongs with high
                 probability to one of the following categories:\par

                 (1) {$ l b(C_n) \sim c n $}, for some explicitly given
                 {$ c = c(C) $}, and the second largest block is of
                 order {$ n^\alpha $}, where {$ 1 > \alpha = \alpha (C)
                 $}, or\par

                 (2) {$ l b(C_n) = O(\log n) $}, that is, all blocks
                 contain at most logarithmically many vertices.\par

                 Moreover, in both cases we show that the quantity {$
                 b(\ell; C_n) $} is concentrated for all {$ \ell $} and
                 we determine its expected value. As a corollary we
                 obtain that the class of planar graphs belongs to
                 category {$1$}. In contrast to that, outerplanar and
                 series-parallel graphs belong to category {$1$}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Graphs with constraints; planar graphs; random
                 structures",
}

@Article{Thomasse:2010:KFV,
  author =       "St{\'e}phan Thomass{\'e}",
  title =        "A $ 4 k^2 $ kernel for feedback vertex set",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721848",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:49:22 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We prove that given an undirected graph {$G$} on {$n$}
                 vertices and an integer {$k$}, one can compute, in
                 polynomial time in {$n$}, a graph {$ G \prime $} with
                 at most {$ 4 k^2 $} vertices and an integer {$ k \prime
                 $} such that {$G$} has a feedback vertex set of size at
                 most {$ k \iff G \prime $} has a feedback vertex set of
                 size at most {$ k \prime $}. This result improves a
                 previous {$ O(k^{11}) $} kernel of Burrage et al., and
                 a more recent cubic kernel of Bodlaender. This problem
                 was communicated by Fellows.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "feedback vertex set; fixed parameter tractability;
                 Kernelization; matching",
}

@Article{Thomasse:2010:KKF,
  author =       "St{\'e}phan Thomass{\'e}",
  title =        "A $ 4 k^2 $ kernel for feedback vertex set",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721848",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We prove that given an undirected graph {$G$} on {$n$}
                 vertices and an integer {$k$}, one can compute, in
                 polynomial time in {$n$}, a graph {$ G' $} with at most
                 {$ 4 k^2 $} vertices and an integer {$ k' $} such that
                 {$G$} has a feedback vertex set of size at most {$k$}
                 iff {$ G' $} has a feedback vertex set of size at most
                 {$ k' $}. This result improves a previous {$ O(k^{11})
                 $} kernel of Burrage et al., and a more recent cubic
                 kernel of Bodlaender. This problem was communicated by
                 Fellows.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Madani:2010:DDM,
  author =       "Omid Madani and Mikkel Thorup and Uri Zwick",
  title =        "Discounted deterministic {Markov} decision processes
                 and discounted all-pairs shortest paths",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "33:1--33:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721849",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present algorithms for finding optimal strategies
                 for discounted, infinite-horizon, Determinsitc Markov
                 Decision Processes (DMDPs). Our fastest algorithm has a
                 worst-case running time of {$ O(m n) $}, improving the
                 recent bound of {$ O(m n^2) $} obtained by Andersson
                 and Vorbyov [2006]. We also present a randomized {$
                 O(m^{1 / 2} n^2) $}-time algorithm for finding
                 Discounted All-Pairs Shortest Paths (DAPSP), improving
                 an {$ O(m n^2) $}-time algorithm that can be obtained
                 using ideas of Papadimitriou and Tsitsiklis [1987].",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "33",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Markov decision processes; minimum mean weight cycles;
                 shortest paths",
}

@Article{Shalita:2010:EAG,
  author =       "Alon Shalita and Uri Zwick",
  title =        "Efficient algorithms for the 2-gathering problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "34:1--34:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721850",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Pebbles are placed on some vertices of a directed
                 graph. Is it possible to move each pebble along at most
                 one edge of the graph so that in the final
                 configuration no pebble is left on its own? We give an
                 {$ O(m n) $}-time algorithm for solving this problem,
                 which we call the {\em 2-gathering\/} problem, where
                 {$n$} is the number of vertices and {$m$} is the number
                 of edges of the graph. If such a 2-gathering is not
                 possible, the algorithm finds a solution that minimizes
                 the number of solitary pebbles. The 2-gathering problem
                 forms a nontrivial generalization of the nonbipartite
                 matching problem and it is solved by extending the
                 augmenting paths technique used to solve matching
                 problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "34",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "2-gatherings; augmenting paths; nonbipartite
                 matchings",
}

@Article{Bansal:2010:DPI,
  author =       "Nikhil Bansal and Ning Chen and Neva Cherniavsky and
                 Atri Rurda and Baruch Schieber and Maxim Sviridenko",
  title =        "Dynamic pricing for impatient bidders",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "35:1--35:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721851",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the following problem related to pricing over
                 time. Assume there is a collection of bidders, each of
                 whom is interested in buying a copy of an item of which
                 there is an unlimited supply. Every bidder is
                 associated with a time interval over which the bidder
                 will consider buying a copy of the item, and a maximum
                 value the bidder is willing to pay for the item. On
                 every time unit, the seller sets a price for the item.
                 The seller's goal is to set the prices so as to
                 maximize revenue from the sale of copies of items over
                 the time period.\par

                 In the first model considered, we assume that all
                 bidders are {\em impatient}, that is, bidders buy the
                 item at the first time unit within their bid interval
                 that they can afford the price. To the best of our
                 knowledge, this is the first work that considers this
                 model. In the offline setting, we assume that the
                 seller knows the bids of all the bidders in advance. In
                 the online setting we assume that at each time unit the
                 seller only knows the values of the bids that have
                 arrived before or at that time unit. We give a
                 polynomial time offline algorithm and prove upper and
                 lower bounds on the competitiveness of deterministic
                 and randomized online algorithms, compared with the
                 optimal offline solution. The gap between the upper and
                 lower bounds is quadratic.\par

                 We also consider the {\em envy-free\/} model in which
                 bidders are sold the item at the minimum price during
                 their bid interval, as long as it is not over their
                 limit value. We prove tight bounds on the
                 competitiveness of deterministic online algorithms for
                 this model, and upper and lower bounds on the
                 competitiveness of randomized algorithms with quadratic
                 gap. The lower bounds for the randomized case in both
                 models use a novel general technique.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "35",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Digital goods; online algorithms; pricing",
}

@Article{Azar:2010:TUF,
  author =       "Yossi Azar and Iftah Gamzu and Shai Gutner",
  title =        "Truthful unsplittable flow for large capacity
                 networks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "36:1--36:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721852",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The {\em unsplittable flow problem\/} is one of the
                 most extensively studied optimization problems in the
                 field of networking. An instance of it consists of an
                 edge capacitated graph and a set of connection
                 requests, each of which is associated with source and
                 target vertices, a demand, and a value. The objective
                 is to route a maximum value subset of requests subject
                 to the edge capacities. It is a well known fact that as
                 the capacities of the edges are larger with respect to
                 the maximal demand among the requests, the problem can
                 be approximated better. In particular, it is known that
                 for sufficiently large capacities, the integrality gap
                 of the corresponding integer linear program becomes $ 1
                 + \epsilon $, which can be matched by an algorithm that
                 utilizes the randomized rounding technique.\par

                 In this article, we focus our attention on the large
                 capacities unsplittable flow problem in a game
                 theoretic setting. In this setting, there are selfish
                 agents, which control some of the requests
                 characteristics, and may be dishonest about them. It is
                 worth noting that in game theoretic settings many
                 standard techniques, such as randomized rounding,
                 violate certain monotonicity properties, which are
                 imperative for truthfulness, and therefore cannot be
                 employed. In light of this state of affairs, we design
                 a monotone deterministic algorithm, which is based on a
                 primal-dual machinery, which attains an approximation
                 ratio of $ e / (e - 1) $, up to a disparity of $
                 \epsilon $ away. This implies an improvement on the
                 current best truthful mechanism, as well as an
                 improvement on the current best combinatorial algorithm
                 for the problem under consideration. Surprisingly, we
                 demonstrate that any algorithm in the family of
                 reasonable iterative path minimizing algorithms, cannot
                 yield a better approximation ratio. Consequently, it
                 follows that in order to achieve a monotone PTAS, if
                 that exists, one would have to exert different
                 techniques. We also consider the large capacities {\em
                 single-minded multi-unit combinatorial auction
                 problem}. This problem is closely related to the
                 unsplittable flow problem since one can formulate it as
                 a special case of the integer linear program of the
                 unsplittable flow problem. Accordingly, we obtain a
                 comparable performance guarantee by refining the
                 algorithm suggested for the unsplittable flow
                 problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "36",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithms; combinatorial and multi-unit
                 auctions; Mechanism design; primal-dual method",
}

@Article{Svitkina:2010:FLH,
  author =       "Zoya Svitkina and {\'E}va Tardos",
  title =        "Facility location with hierarchical facility costs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "37:1--37:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721853",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a facility location problem with
                 submodular facility cost functions, and give an {$
                 O(\log n) $} approximation algorithm for it. Then we
                 focus on a special case of submodular costs, called
                 hierarchical facility costs, and give a {$ (4.237 +
                 \epsilon) $}-approximation algorithm using local
                 search. The hierarchical facility costs model
                 multilevel service installation. Shmoys et al. [2004]
                 gave a constant factor approximation algorithm for a
                 two-level version of the problem. Here we consider a
                 multilevel problem, and give a constant factor
                 approximation algorithm, independent of the number of
                 levels, for the case of identical costs on all
                 facilities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "37",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithm; facility location; local
                 search; submodular function",
}

@Article{Christodoulou:2010:MDF,
  author =       "George Christodoulou and Elias Koutsoupias and
                 Annam{\'a}ria Kov{\'a}cs",
  title =        "Mechanism design for fractional scheduling on
                 unrelated machines",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "38:1--38:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721854",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Scheduling on unrelated machines is one of the most
                 general and classical variants of the task scheduling
                 problem. Fractional scheduling is the LP-relaxation of
                 the problem, which is polynomially solvable in the
                 nonstrategic setting, and is a useful tool to design
                 deterministic and randomized approximation
                 algorithms.\par

                 The mechanism design version of the scheduling problem
                 was introduced by Nisan and Ronen. In this article, we
                 consider the mechanism design version of the fractional
                 variant of this problem. We give lower bounds for any
                 fractional truthful mechanism. Our lower bounds also
                 hold for any (randomized) mechanism for the integral
                 case. In the positive direction, we propose a truthful
                 mechanism that achieves approximation 3/2 for 2
                 machines, matching the lower bound. This is the first
                 new tight bound on the approximation ratio of this
                 problem, after the tight bound of 2, for 2 machines,
                 obtained by Nisan and Ronen. For $n$ machines, our
                 mechanism achieves an approximation ratio of $ n + 1 /
                 2 $.\par

                 Motivated by the fact that all the known deterministic
                 and randomized mechanisms for the problem assign each
                 task independently from the others, we focus on an
                 interesting subclass of allocation algorithms, the {\em
                 task-independent\/} algorithms. We give a lower bound
                 of $ n + 1 / 2 $, that holds for every (not only
                 monotone) allocation algorithm that takes independent
                 decisions. Under this consideration, our truthful
                 independent mechanism is the best that we can hope from
                 this family of algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "38",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "scheduling; Truthful mechanisms; unrelated machines",
}

@Article{Korman:2010:LSV,
  author =       "Amos Korman",
  title =        "Labeling schemes for vertex connectivity",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "39:1--39:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721855",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article studies labeling schemes for the vertex
                 connectivity function on general graphs. We consider
                 the problem of assigning short labels to the nodes of
                 any $n$-node graph is such a way that given the labels
                 of any two nodes $u$ and $v$, one can decide whether
                 $u$ and $v$ are $k$-vertex connected in {$G$}, that is,
                 whether there exist {$k$} vertex disjoint paths
                 connecting {$u$} and {$v$}. This article establishes an
                 upper bound of $ k^2 \log n $ on the number of bits
                 used in a label. The best previous upper bound for the
                 label size of such a labeling scheme is $ 2^k \log n
                 $.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "39",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Graph algorithms; labeling schemes;
                 vertex-connectivity",
}

@Article{Butman:2010:OPM,
  author =       "Ayelet Butman and Danny Hermelin and Moshe Lewenstein
                 and Dror Rawitz",
  title =        "Optimization problems in multiple-interval graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "40:1--40:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721856",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Multiple-interval graphs are a natural generalization
                 of interval graphs where each vertex may have more then
                 one interval associated with it. We initiate the study
                 of optimization problems in multiple-interval graphs by
                 considering three classical problems: Minimum Vertex
                 Cover, Minimum Dominating Set, and Maximum Clique. We
                 describe applications for each one of these problems,
                 and then proceed to discuss approximation algorithms
                 for them.\par

                 Our results can be summarized as follows: Let $t$ be
                 the number of intervals associated with each vertex in
                 a given multiple-interval graph. For Minimum Vertex
                 Cover, we give a $ (2 - 1 / t) $-approximation
                 algorithm which also works when a $t$-interval
                 representation of our given graph is absent. Following
                 this, we give a $ t^2 $-approximation algorithm for
                 Minimum Dominating Set which adapts well to more
                 general variants of the problem. We then proceed to
                 prove that Maximum Clique is NP-hard already for
                 3-interval graphs, and provide a $ t^2 - (t + 1) / 2
                 $-approximation algorithm for general values of $ t
                 \geq 2 $, using bounds proven for the so-called
                 transversal number of $t$-interval families.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "40",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "$t$-interval graphs; Approximation algorithms; maximum
                 clique; minimum dominating set; minimum vertex cover;
                 multiple-interval graphs",
}

@Article{Gupta:2010:DRF,
  author =       "Anupam Gupta and Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi and
                 Viswanath Nagarajan and R. Ravi",
  title =        "Dial a {Ride} from $k$-forest",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "41:1--41:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721857",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:49:22 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The {\em $k$-forest problem\/} is a common
                 generalization of both the $k$-MST and the {\em
                 dense-$k$-subgraph\/} problems. Formally, given a
                 metric space on $n$ vertices {$V$}, with {$m$} demand
                 pairs {$ \subseteq V \times V $} and a ``target'' {$ k
                 \leq m $}, the goal is to find a minimum cost subgraph
                 that connects {\em at least\/} {$k$} pairs. In this
                 paper, we give an {$ O(m i n \{ \sqrt n \cdot \log k,
                 \sqrt k \}) $}-approximation algorithm for
                 {$k$}-forest, improving on the previous best ratio of
                 {$ O(m i n \{ n^{2 / 3}, \sqrt m \log n \}) $} by Segev
                 and Segev.\par

                 We then apply our algorithm for {$k$}-forest to obtain
                 approximation algorithms for several {\em
                 Dial-a-Ride\/} problems. The basic Dial-a-Ride problem
                 is the following: given an {$n$} point metric space
                 with {$m$} objects each with its own source and
                 destination, and a vehicle capable of carrying {\em at
                 most\/} $k$ objects at any time, find the minimum
                 length tour that uses this vehicle to move each object
                 from its source to destination. We want that the tour
                 be {\em non-preemptive\/}: that is, each object, once
                 picked up at its source, is dropped only at its
                 destination.  We prove that an $ \alpha $-approximation
                 algorithm for the $k$-forest problem implies an
                 {$O(\alpha \cdot \log^2 n) $}-approximation algorithm
                 for Dial-a-Ride.  Using our results for {$k$}-forest,
                 we get an {$ O(m i n \{ \sqrt n, \sqrt k \} \cdot
                 \log^2 n) $}-approximation algorithm for
                 Dial-a-Ride. The only previous result known for
                 Dial-a-Ride was an {$ O(\sqrt k \log n)
                 $}-approximation by Charikar and Raghavachari; our
                 results give a different proof of a similar
                 approximation guarantee --- in fact, when the vehicle
                 capacity {$k$} is large, we give a slight improvement
                 on their results. The reduction from Dial-a-Ride to the
                 {$k$}-forest problem is fairly robust, and allows us to
                 obtain approximation algorithms (with the same
                 guarantee) for some interesting generalizations of
                 Dial-a-Ride.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "41",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; network design; vehicle
                 routing",
}

@Article{Gupta:2010:DRK,
  author =       "Anupam Gupta and Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi and
                 Viswanath Nagarajan and R. Ravi",
  title =        "Dial a {Ride} from $k$-forest",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "41:1--41:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721857",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The $k$-forest problem is a common generalization of
                 both the $k$-MST and the dense-$k$-subgraph problems.
                 Formally, given a metric space on $n$ vertices {$V$},
                 with {$m$} demand pairs {$ \subseteq V \times V $} and
                 a ``target'' {$ k \leq m $}, the goal is to find a
                 minimum cost subgraph that connects at least {$k$}
                 pairs. In this paper, we give an {$ O(m i n{\sqrt n
                 \cdot \log k, \sqrt k}) $}-approximation algorithm for
                 {$k$}-forest, improving on the previous best ratio of
                 {$ O(m i n \{ n^{2 / 3}, \sqrt m \} \log n) $} by Segev
                 and Segev. We then apply our algorithm for {$k$}-forest
                 to obtain approximation algorithms for several
                 Dial-a-Ride problems. The basic Dial-a-Ride problem is
                 the following: given an {$n$} point metric space with
                 {$m$} objects each with its own source and destination,
                 and a vehicle capable of carrying at most $k$ objects
                 at any time, find the minimum length tour that uses
                 this vehicle to move each object from its source to
                 destination. We want that the tour be non-preemptive:
                 that is, each object, once picked up at its source, is
                 dropped only at its destination. We prove that an $
                 \alpha $-approximation algorithm for the $k$-forest
                 problem implies an {$ O(\alpha \cdot \log^2 n)
                 $}-approximation algorithm for Dial-a-Ride. Using our
                 results for {$k$}-forest, we get an {$ O(\min \{ \sqrt
                 n, \sqrt k \} \cdot \log^2 n) $}-approximation
                 algorithm for Dial-a-Ride. The only previous result
                 known for Dial-a-Ride was an {$ O(\sqrt k \log n)
                 $}-approximation by Charikar and Raghavachari; our
                 results give a different proof of a similar
                 approximation guarantee-in fact, when the vehicle
                 capacity {$k$} is large, we give a slight improvement
                 on their results. The reduction from Dial-a-Ride to the
                 {$k$}-forest problem is fairly robust, and allows us to
                 obtain approximation algorithms (with the same
                 guarantee) for some interesting generalizations of
                 Dial-a-Ride.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "41",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bobier:2010:FAG,
  author =       "Bruce Bobier and Joe Sawada",
  title =        "A fast algorithm to generate open meandric systems and
                 meanders",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "42:1--42:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721858",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "An open meandric system is a planar configuration of
                 acyclic curves crossing an infinite horizontal line in
                 the plane such that the curves may extend in both
                 horizontal directions. We present a fast, recursive
                 algorithm to exhaustively generate open meandric
                 systems with $n$ crossings. We then illustrate how to
                 modify the algorithm to generate unidirectional open
                 meandric systems (the curves extend only to the right)
                 and nonisomorphic open meandric systems where
                 equivalence is taken under horizontal reflection. Each
                 algorithm can be modified to generate systems with
                 exactly $k$ curves. In the unidirectional case when $ k
                 = 1 $, we can apply a minor modification along with
                 some additional optimization steps to yield the first
                 fast and simple algorithm to generate open meanders.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "42",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "CAT algorithm; meander; open meandric system",
}

@Article{Ergun:2010:PTS,
  author =       "Funda Ergun and S. Muthukrishnan and Cenk Sahinalp",
  title =        "Periodicity testing with sublinear samples and space",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "43:1--43:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1721837.1721859",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:34 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this work, we are interested in periodic trends in
                 long data streams in the presence of computational
                 constraints. To this end; we present algorithms for
                 discovering periodic trends in the combinatorial
                 property testing model in a data stream {$S$} of length
                 {$n$} using {$ o(n) $} samples and space.\par

                 In accordance with the property testing model, we first
                 explore the notion of being ``close'' to periodic by
                 defining three different notions of self-distance
                 through relaxing different notions of exact
                 periodicity. An input {$S$} is then called
                 approximately periodic if it exhibits a small
                 self-distance (with respect to any one self-distance
                 defined). We show that even though the different
                 definitions of exact periodicity are equivalent, the
                 resulting definitions of self-distance and approximate
                 periodicity are not; we also show that these
                 self-distances are constant approximations of each
                 other. Afterwards, we present algorithms which
                 distinguish between the two cases where {$S$} is
                 exactly periodic and {$S$} is far from periodic with
                 only a constant probability of error.\par

                 Our algorithms sample only {$ O(\sqrt n \log^2 n) $}
                 (or {$ O(\sqrt n \log^4 n) $}, depending on the
                 self-distance) positions and use as much space. They
                 can also find, using {$ o(n) $} samples and space, the
                 largest/smallest period, and/or all of the approximate
                 periods of {$S$}. These algorithms can also be viewed
                 as working on streaming inputs where each data item is
                 seen once and in order, storing only a sublinear ({$
                 O(\sqrt n \log^2 n) $} or {$ O(\sqrt n \log^4 n) $})
                 size sample from which periodicities are identified.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "43",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Combinatorial property testing; periodicity",
}

@Article{Vassilevska:2010:FHS,
  author =       "Virginia Vassilevska and Ryan Williams and Raphael
                 Yuster",
  title =        "Finding heaviest {$H$}-subgraphs in real weighted
                 graphs, with applications",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "44:1--44:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798597",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "For a graph {$G$} with real weights assigned to the
                 vertices (edges), the MAX {$H$}-SUBGRAPH problem is to
                 find an {$H$}-subgraph of {$G$} with maximum total
                 weight, if one exists. Our main results are new
                 strongly polynomial algorithms for the MAX
                 {$H$}-SUBGRAPH problem. Some of our algorithms are
                 based, in part, on fast matrix multiplication.\par

                 For vertex-weighted graphs with {$n$} vertices we solve
                 a more general problem: the {\em all pairs\/} MAX
                 {$H$}-SUBGRAPH problem, where the task is to find for
                 every pair of vertices {$ u, v $}, a maximum
                 {$H$}-subgraph containing both {$u$} and {$v$}, if one
                 exists. We obtain an {$ O(n^t(\omega, h)) $}-time
                 algorithm for the {\em all pairs\/} MAX {$H$}-SUBGRAPH
                 problem in the case where {$H$} is a fixed graph with
                 {$h$} vertices and {$ \omega $}.\par

                 We also present improved algorithms for the MAX
                 {$H$}-SUBGRAPH problem in the edge-weighted case. In
                 particular, we obtain an {$ O(m^{2 - 1 / k \log n})
                 $}-time algorithm for the heaviest cycle of length 2
                 {$k$} or {$ 2 k - 1 $} in a graph with {$m$} edges and
                 an {$ O(n^3 / \log n) $}-time randomized algorithm for
                 finding the heaviest cycle of any fixed length.\par

                 Our methods also yield efficient algorithms for several
                 related problems that are faster than any previously
                 existing algorithms. For example, we show how to find
                 chromatic {$H$}-subgraphs in edge-colored graphs, and
                 how to compute the most significant bits of the
                 distance product of two real matrices, in truly
                 subcubic time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "44",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "H-subgraph; matrix multiplication; weighted graph",
}

@Article{Ruskey:2010:EUC,
  author =       "Frank Ruskey and Aaron Williams",
  title =        "An explicit universal cycle for the $ (n - 1)
                 $-permutations of an $n$-set",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "45:1--45:12",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798598",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show how to construct an {\em explicit\/} Hamilton
                 cycle in the directed Cayley graph {$ \vec {\rm
                 Cay}(\sigma_n, \sigma_{n - 1} : S_n) $}, where {$
                 \sigma_k $} is the rotation {$ (1 2 \cdots k) $}. The
                 existence of such cycles was shown by Jackson [1996]
                 but the proof only shows that a certain directed graph
                 is Eulerian, and Knuth [2005] asks for an explicit
                 construction. We show that a simple recursion describes
                 our Hamilton cycle and that the cycle can be generated
                 by an iterative algorithm that uses {$ O(n) $} space.
                 Moreover, the algorithm produces each successive edge
                 of the cycle in constant time; such algorithms are said
                 to be {\em loopless}. Finally, our Hamilton cycle can
                 be used to construct an explicit universal cycle for
                 the {$ (n - 1) $}-permutations of a {$n$}-set, or as
                 the basis of an efficient algorithm for generating
                 every {$n$}-permutation of an $n$-set within a circular
                 array or linked list.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "45",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "loopless algorithm; Universal cycle",
}

@Article{Drescher:2010:AAM,
  author =       "Matthew Drescher and Adrian Vetta",
  title =        "An approximation algorithm for the maximum leaf
                 spanning arborescence problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "46:1--46:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798599",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present an {$ O(\sqrt {{\rm opt}}) $}-approximation
                 algorithm for the maximum leaf spanning arborescence
                 problem, where opt is the number of leaves in an
                 optimal spanning arborescence. The result is based upon
                 an {$ O(1) $}-approximation algorithm for a special
                 class of directed graphs called willows. Incorporating
                 the method for willow graphs as a subroutine in a local
                 improvement algorithm gives the bound for general
                 directed graphs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "46",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation Algorithms; arborescence; directed
                 graphs; maximum leaf",
}

@Article{Naor:2010:DCA,
  author =       "Joseph (Seffi) Naor and Roy Schwartz",
  title =        "The directed circular arrangement problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "47:1--47:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798600",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of embedding a directed graph
                 onto evenly spaced points on a circle while minimizing
                 the total weighted edge length. We present the first
                 poly-logarithmic approximation factor algorithm for
                 this problem which yields an approximation factor of {$
                 O(\log n \log \log n) $}, thus improving the previous
                 {$ \tilde {O}(\sqrt n) $} approximation factor. In
                 order to achieve this, we introduce a new problem which
                 we call the {\em directed penalized linear
                 arrangement}. This problem generalizes both the
                 directed feedback edge set problem and the directed
                 linear arrangement problem. We present an {$ O(\log n
                 \log \log n) $}-approximation factor algorithm for this
                 newly defined problem. Our solution uses two distinct
                 directed metrics (``right'' and ``left'') which
                 together yield a lower bound on the value of an optimal
                 solution. In addition, we define a sequence of new
                 directed spreading metrics that are used for applying
                 the algorithm recursively on smaller subgraphs. The new
                 spreading metrics allow us to define an asymmetric
                 region growing procedure that accounts simultaneously
                 for both incoming and outgoing edges. To the best of
                 our knowledge, this is the first time that a region
                 growing procedure is defined in directed graphs that
                 allows for such an accounting.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "47",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "region growing; scheduling; Spreading metrics",
}

@Article{Azar:2010:DEC,
  author =       "Yossi Azar and Shay Kutten and Boaz Patt-Shamir",
  title =        "Distributed error confinement",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "48:1--48:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798601",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study error confinement in distributed
                 applications, which can be viewed as an extreme case of
                 various fault locality notions studied in the past.
                 Error confinement means that to the external observer,
                 only nodes that were directly hit by a fault may
                 deviate from their specified correct behavior, and only
                 temporarily. The externally observable behavior of all
                 other nodes must remain impeccable, even though their
                 internal state may be affected. Error confinement is
                 impossible if an adversary is allowed to inflict
                 arbitrary transient faults on the system, since the
                 faults might completely wipe out input values. We
                 introduce a new fault-tolerance measure we call {\em
                 agility}, which quantifies the fault tolerance of an
                 algorithm that disseminates information against state
                 corrupting faults.\par

                 We then propose broadcast algorithms that guarantee
                 error confinement with optimal agility to within a
                 constant factor in synchronous networks. These
                 algorithms can serve as building blocks in more general
                 reactive systems. Previous results in exploring
                 locality in reactive systems were not error confined,
                 or allowed a wide range of behaviors to be considered
                 correct. Our results also include a new technique that
                 can be used to analyze the ``cow path'' problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "48",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Distributed algorithms; persistence;
                 self-stabilization; voting",
}

@Article{Aggarwal:2010:AAC,
  author =       "Gagan Aggarwal and Rina Panigrahy and Tom{\'a}s Feder
                 and Dilys Thomas and Krishnaram Kenthapadi and Samir
                 Khuller and An Zhu",
  title =        "Achieving anonymity via clustering",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "49:1--49:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798602",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Publishing data for analysis from a table containing
                 personal records, while maintaining individual privacy,
                 is a problem of increasing importance today. The
                 traditional approach of deidentifying records is to
                 remove identifying fields such as social security
                 number, name, etc. However, recent research has shown
                 that a large fraction of the U.S. population can be
                 identified using nonkey attributes (called
                 quasi-identifiers) such as date of birth, gender, and
                 zip code. The $k$-anonymity model protects privacy via
                 requiring that nonkey attributes that leak information
                 are suppressed or generalized so that, for every record
                 in the modified table, there are at least $k$-1 other
                 records having exactly the same values for
                 quasi-identifiers. We propose a new method for
                 anonymizing data records, where quasi-identifiers of
                 data records are first clustered and then cluster
                 centers are published. To ensure privacy of the data
                 records, we impose the constraint that each cluster
                 must contain no fewer than a prespecified number of
                 data records. This technique is more general since we
                 have a much larger choice for cluster centers than
                 $k$-anonymity. In many cases, it lets us release a lot
                 more information without compromising privacy. We also
                 provide constant factor approximation algorithms to
                 come up with such a clustering. This is the first set
                 of algorithms for the anonymization problem where the
                 performance is independent of the anonymity parameter
                 $k$. We further observe that a few outlier points can
                 significantly increase the cost of anonymization.
                 Hence, we extend our algorithms to allow an $ \epsilon
                 $ fraction of points to remain unclustered, that is,
                 deleted from the anonymized publication. Thus, by not
                 releasing a small fraction of the database records, we
                 can ensure that the data published for analysis has
                 less distortion and hence is more useful. Our
                 approximation algorithms for new clustering objectives
                 are of independent interest and could be applicable in
                 other clustering scenarios as well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "49",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "anonymity; approximation algorithms; clustering;
                 Privacy",
}

@Article{Gordon:2010:CWT,
  author =       "Eyal Gordon and Adi Ros{\'e}n",
  title =        "Competitive weighted throughput analysis of greedy
                 protocols on {DAGs}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "50:1--50:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798603",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The combination of the buffer sizes of routers
                 deployed in the Internet, and the Internet traffic
                 itself, leads routinely to the dropping of packets.
                 Motivated by this, we are interested in the problem of
                 maximizing the throughput of protocols that control
                 packet networks. Moreover, we are interested in a
                 setting where different packets have different
                 priorities (or weights), thus taking into account
                 Quality-of-Service considerations.\par

                 We first extend the Competitive Network Throughput
                 (CNT) model introduced by Aiello et al. [2003] to the
                 weighted packets case. We analyze the performance of
                 online, local-control protocols by their competitive
                 ratio, in the face of arbitrary traffic, using as a
                 measure the total weight of the packets that arrive to
                 their destinations, rather than being dropped en-route.
                 We prove that on Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs), any
                 greedy protocol is competitive, with competitive ratio
                 independent of the weights of the packets. Here we mean
                 by a ``greedy protocol'' a protocol that not only does
                 not leave a resource idle unnecessarily, but also
                 prefers packets with higher weight over those with
                 lower weight. We give two independent upper bounds on
                 the competitive ratio of general greedy protocols on
                 DAGs. We further give lower bounds that show that our
                 upper bounds cannot be improved (other than constant
                 factors) in the general case. Both our upper and lower
                 bounds apply also to the unweighted case, and they
                 improve the results given in Aiello et al. [2003] for
                 that case. We thus give tight (up to constant factors)
                 upper and lower bounds for both the unweighted and
                 weighted cases.\par

                 In the course of proving our upper bounds we prove a
                 lemma that gives upper bounds on the delivery times of
                 packets by any greedy protocol on general DAGs (without
                 buffer size considerations). We believe that this lemma
                 may be of independent interest and may find additional
                 applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "50",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Buffer management; competitive analysis; competitive
                 network throughput; online algorithms",
}

@Article{Chakrabarti:2010:NOA,
  author =       "Amit Chakrabarti and Graham Cormode and Andrew
                 Mcgregor",
  title =        "A near-optimal algorithm for estimating the entropy of
                 a stream",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "51:1--51:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798604",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe a simple algorithm for approximating the
                 empirical entropy of a stream of $m$ values up to a
                 multiplicative factor of $ (1 + \epsilon) $ using a
                 single pass, {$ O(\epsilon^{ - 2} \log (\delta^{ - 1})
                 \log m) $} words of space, and {$ O(\log \epsilon^{ -
                 1} + \log \log \delta^{ - 1} + \log \log m) $}
                 processing time per item in the stream. Our algorithm
                 is based upon a novel extension of a method introduced
                 by Alon et al. [1999]. This improves over previous work
                 on this problem. We show a space lower bound of {$
                 \Omega (\epsilon^{ - 2} / \log^2 (\epsilon^{ - 1})) $},
                 demonstrating that our algorithm is near-optimal in
                 terms of its dependency on {$ \epsilon $}.\par

                 We show that generalizing to
                 multiplicative-approximation of the {$k$} th-order
                 entropy requires close to linear space for {$ k \geq 1
                 $}. In contrast we show that additive-approximation is
                 possible in a single pass using only poly-logarithmic
                 space. Lastly, we show how to compute a multiplicative
                 approximation to the entropy of a random walk on an
                 undirected graph.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "51",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithms; Data streams; entropy",
}

@Article{Fattal:2010:ADM,
  author =       "Shahar Fattal and Dana Ron",
  title =        "Approximating the distance to monotonicity in high
                 dimensions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "52:1--52:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798605",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article we study the problem of approximating
                 the distance of a function {$ f : [n]^d \rightarrow R
                 $} to monotonicity where {$ [n] = \{ 1, \ldots, n \} $}
                 and {$R$} is some fully ordered range. Namely, we are
                 interested in randomized sublinear algorithms that
                 approximate the Hamming distance between a given
                 function and the closest monotone function. We allow
                 both an additive error, parameterized by {$ \delta $},
                 and a multiplicative error.\par

                 Previous work on distance approximation to monotonicity
                 focused on the one-dimensional case and the only
                 explicit extension to higher dimensions was with a
                 multiplicative approximation factor exponential in the
                 dimension {\em d}. Building on Goldreich et al. [2000]
                 and Dodis et al. [1999], in which there are better
                 implicit results for the case {$ n = 2 $}, we describe
                 a reduction from the case of functions over the
                 {$d$}-dimensional hypercube $ [n]^d $ to the case of
                 functions over the $k$-dimensional hypercube $ [n]^k $,
                 where $ 1 \leq k \leq d $. The quality of estimation
                 that this reduction provides is linear in $ \lceil d /
                 k \rceil $ and logarithmic in the size of the range {$
                 |R| $} (if the range is infinite or just very large,
                 then {$ \log |R| $} can be replaced by {$ d \log n
                 $}). Using this reduction and a known distance
                 approximation algorithm for the one-dimensional case,
                 we obtain a distance approximation algorithm for
                 functions over the {$d$}-dimensional hypercube, with
                 any range {$R$}, which has a multiplicative
                 approximation factor of {$ O(d \log |R) $}.\par

                 For the case of a binary range, we present algorithms
                 for distance approximation to monotonicity of functions
                 over one dimension, two dimensions, and the
                 {$k$}-dimensional hypercube (for any {$ k \geq 1 $} ).
                 Applying these algorithms and the reduction described
                 before, we obtain a variety of distance approximation
                 algorithms for Boolean functions over the
                 {$d$}-dimensional hypercube which suggest a trade-off
                 between quality of estimation and efficiency of
                 computation. In particular, the multiplicative error
                 ranges between {$ O(d) $} and {$ O(1) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "52",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "distance approximation; monotonicity; property
                 testing; Sublinear approximation algorithms",
}

@Article{Martinez:2010:ASS,
  author =       "Conrado Mart{\'\i}nez and Daniel Panario and Alfredo
                 Viola",
  title =        "Adaptive sampling strategies for quickselects",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "53:1--53:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798606",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Quickselect with median-of-3 is largely used in
                 practice and its behavior is fairly well understood.
                 However, the following natural adaptive variant, which
                 we call {\em proportion-from-3}, had not been
                 previously analyzed: ``choose as pivot the smallest of
                 the sample if the relative rank of the sought element
                 is below 1/3, the largest if the relative rank is above
                 2/3, and the median if the relative rank is between 1/3
                 and 2/3.'' We first analyze the average number of
                 comparisons made when using proportion-from-2 and then
                 for proportion-from-3. We also analyze $ \nu $-find, a
                 generalization of proportion-from-3 with interval
                 breakpoints at $ \nu $ and $ 1 - \nu $. We show that
                 there exists an optimal value of $ \nu $ and we also
                 provide the range of values of $ \nu $ where $ \nu
                 $-find outperforms median-of-3. Then, we consider the
                 average total cost of these strategies, which takes
                 into account the cost of both comparisons and
                 exchanges. Our results strongly suggest that a suitable
                 implementation of $ \nu $-find could be the method of
                 choice in a practical setting. We also study the
                 behavior of proportion-from-$s$ with $ s > 3 $ and in
                 particular we show that proportion-from-$s$-like
                 strategies are optimal when $ s \rightarrow \infty $.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "53",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Analytic combinatorics; average-case analysis;
                 divide-and-conquer; Find; quickselect; sampling;
                 selection",
}

@Article{Alon:2010:BFP,
  author =       "Noga Alon and Shai Gutner",
  title =        "Balanced families of perfect hash functions and their
                 applications",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "54:1--54:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798607",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The construction of perfect hash functions is a
                 well-studied topic. In this article, this concept is
                 generalized with the following definition. We say that
                 a family of functions from $ [n] $ to $ [k] $ is a $
                 \delta $-balanced $ (n, k) $-family of perfect hash
                 functions if for every {$ S \subseteq [n] $}, {$ |S| =
                 k $}, the number of functions that are {$1$}-{$1$} on
                 {$S$} is between {$ T / \delta $} and {$ \delta T $}
                 for some constant {$ T > 0 $}. The standard definition
                 of a family of perfect hash functions requires that
                 there will be at least one function that is {$1$}-{$1$}
                 on {$S$}, for each {$S$} of size {$k$}. In the new
                 notion of balanced families, we require the number of
                 {$1$}-{$1$} functions to be almost the same (taking $
                 \delta $ to be close to $1$ ) for every such {$S$}. Our
                 main result is that for any constant {$ \delta > 1 $},
                 a {$ \delta $}-balanced {$ (n, k) $}-family of perfect
                 hash functions of size {$ 2^{O(k \log \log k)} \log n
                 $} can be constructed in time {$ 2^{O(k \log \log k)} n
                 \log n $}. Using the technique of color-coding we can
                 apply our explicit constructions to devise
                 approximation algorithms for various counting problems
                 in graphs. In particular, we exhibit a deterministic
                 polynomial-time algorithm for approximating both the
                 number of simple paths of length {$k$} and the number
                 of simple cycles of size {$k$} for any {$ k \leq O(\log
                 n / \log \log \log n) $} in a graph with {$n$}
                 vertices. The approximation is up to any fixed
                 desirable relative error.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "54",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximate counting of subgraphs; color-coding;
                 perfect hashing",
}

@Article{Coppersmith:2010:OWN,
  author =       "Don Coppersmith and Lisa K. Fleischer and Atri Rurda",
  title =        "Ordering by weighted number of wins gives a good
                 ranking for weighted tournaments",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "55:1--55:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798608",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the following simple algorithm for
                 feedback arc set problem in weighted tournaments: order
                 the vertices by their weighted indegrees. We show that
                 this algorithm has an approximation guarantee of 5 if
                 the weights satisfy {\em probability constraints\/}
                 (for any pair of vertices $u$ and $v$, $ w_{uv} +
                 w_{vu} = 1 $ ). Special cases of the feedback arc set
                 problem in such weighted tournaments include the
                 feedback arc set problem in unweighted tournaments and
                 rank aggregation. To complement the upper bound, for
                 any constant $ \epsilon > 0 $, we exhibit an infinite
                 family of (unweighted) tournaments for which the
                 aforesaid algorithm ({\em irrespective\/} of how ties
                 are broken) has an approximation ratio of $ 5 -
                 \epsilon $.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "55",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "Approximation algorithms; Borda's method; feedback arc
                 set problem; rank aggregation; tournaments",
}

@Article{Gonzalez-Gutierrez:2010:ACT,
  author =       "Arturo Gonzalez-Gutierrez and Teofilo F. Gonzalez",
  title =        "Approximating corridors and tours via restriction and
                 relaxation techniques",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "56:1--56:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1798596.1798609",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 15:50:18 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a rectangular boundary partitioned into
                 rectangles, the Minimum-Length Corridor (MLC-R) problem
                 consists of finding a corridor of least total length. A
                 corridor is a set of connected line segments, each of
                 which must lie along the line segments that form the
                 rectangular boundary and/or the boundary of the
                 rectangles, and must include at least one point from
                 the boundary of every rectangle and from the
                 rectangular boundary. The MLC-R problem is known to be
                 NP-hard. We present the first polynomial-time constant
                 ratio approximation algorithm for the MLC-R and MLC$_k$
                 problems. The MLC$_k$ problem is a generalization of
                 the MLC-R problem where the rectangles are rectilinear
                 $c$-gons, for $ c \leq k $ and $k$ is a constant. We
                 also present the first polynomial-time constant ratio
                 approximation algorithm for the Group Traveling
                 Salesperson Problem (GTSP) for a rectangular boundary
                 partitioned into rectilinear $c$-gons as in the MLC$_k$
                 problem. Our algorithms are based on the restriction
                 and relaxation approximation techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "56",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
  keywords =     "approximation algorithms; complexity; computational
                 geometry; Corridors; restriction and relaxation
                 techniques",
}

@Article{Georgiadis:2011:DSM,
  author =       "Loukas Georgiadis and Haim Kaplan and Nira Shafrir and
                 Robert E. Tarjan and Renato F. Werneck",
  title =        "Data structures for mergeable trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921660",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Motivated by an application in computational geometry,
                 we consider a novel variant of the problem of
                 efficiently maintaining a forest of dynamic rooted
                 trees. This variant includes an operation that merges
                 two tree paths. In contrast to the standard problem, in
                 which a single operation can only add or delete one
                 arc, one merge can add and delete up to a linear number
                 of arcs. In spite of this, we develop three different
                 methods that need only polylogarithmic time per
                 operation. The first method extends a solution of
                 Farach and Thorup [1998] for the special case of paths.
                 Each merge takes {$ O(\log^2 n) $} amortized time on an
                 {$n$}-node forest and each standard dynamic tree
                 operation takes {$ O(\log n) $} time; the latter bound
                 is amortized, worst case, or randomized depending on
                 the underlying data structure. For the special case
                 that occurs in the motivating application, in which
                 arbitrary arc deletions (cuts) do not occur, we give a
                 method that takes {$ O(\log n) $} time per operation,
                 including merging. This is best possible in a model of
                 computation with an {$ \Omega (n \log n) $} lower bound
                 for sorting {$n$} numbers, since such sorting can be
                 done in {$ O(n) $} tree operations. For the
                 even-more-special case in which there are no cuts and
                 no parent queries, we give a method that uses standard
                 dynamic trees as a black box: each mergeable tree
                 operation becomes a constant number of standard dynamic
                 tree operations. This third method can also be used in
                 the motivating application, but only by changing the
                 algorithm in the application. Each of our three methods
                 needs different analytical tools and reveals different
                 properties of dynamic trees.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chakaravarthy:2011:DTE,
  author =       "Venkatesan T. Chakaravarthy and Vinayaka Pandit and
                 Sambuddha Roy and Pranjal Awasthi and Mukesh K.
                 Mohania",
  title =        "Decision trees for entity identification:
                 {Approximation} algorithms and hardness results",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921661",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of constructing decision trees
                 for entity identification from a given relational
                 table. The input is a table containing information
                 about a set of entities over a fixed set of attributes
                 and a probability distribution over the set of entities
                 that specifies the likelihood of the occurrence of each
                 entity. The goal is to construct a decision tree that
                 identifies each entity unambiguously by testing the
                 attribute values such that the average number of tests
                 is minimized. This classical problem finds such diverse
                 applications as efficient fault detection, species
                 identification in biology, and efficient diagnosis in
                 the field of medicine. Prior work mainly deals with the
                 special case where the input table is binary and the
                 probability distribution over the set of entities is
                 uniform. We study the general problem involving
                 arbitrary input tables and arbitrary probability
                 distributions over the set of entities. We consider a
                 natural greedy algorithm and prove an approximation
                 guarantee of {$ O(r_K \cdot \log N) $}, where {$N$} is
                 the number of entities and {$K$} is the maximum number
                 of distinct values of an attribute. The value {$ r_K $}
                 is a suitably defined Ramsey number, which is at most
                 {$ \log K $}. We show that it is NP-hard to approximate
                 the problem within a factor of {$ \Omega (\log N) $},
                 even for binary tables (i.e., {$ K = 2 $}). Thus, for
                 the case of binary tables, our approximation algorithm
                 is optimal up to constant factors (since {$ r_2 = 2
                 $}). In addition, our analysis indicates a possible way
                 of resolving a Ramsey-theoretic conjecture by
                 Erd{\"o}s.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Jacobs:2011:CFA,
  author =       "Tobias Jacobs",
  title =        "Constant factor approximations for the hotlink
                 assignment problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921662",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The concept of hotlink assignment aims at reducing the
                 navigation effort for the users of a Web directory or
                 similar structure by inserting a limited number of
                 additional hyperlinks called hotlinks. The $k$-hotlink
                 assignment problem denotes the task of adding at most
                 $k$ outgoing hotlinks to each page of a tree-like site,
                 minimizing the path length, that is, the expected
                 number of ``clicks'' necessary for the user to reach
                 her destination page. Another common formulation of
                 this problem is to maximize the gain, that is, the path
                 length reduction achieved by the assignment. In this
                 work we analyze the natural greedy strategy, proving
                 that it reaches the optimal gain up to the constant
                 factor of 2. Considering the gain, we also prove the
                 existence of a PTAS. Finally, we give a polynomial-time
                 2-approximation for the 1-hotlink assignment problem,
                 which constitutes the first constant factor
                 approximation in terms of the path length. The
                 algorithms' performance analyses are made possible by a
                 set of three new basic operations for the
                 transformation of hotlink assignments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ambuhl:2011:TEL,
  author =       "Christoph Amb{\"u}hl and Leszek Gasieniec and Andrzej
                 Pelc and Tomasz Radzik and Xiaohui Zhang",
  title =        "Tree exploration with logarithmic memory",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921663",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the task of network exploration by a
                 mobile agent (robot) with small memory. The agent has
                 to traverse all nodes and edges of a network
                 (represented as an undirected connected graph), and
                 return to the starting node. Nodes of the network are
                 unlabeled and edge ports are locally labeled at each
                 node. The agent has no a priori knowledge of the
                 topology of the network or of its size, and cannot mark
                 nodes in any way. Under such weak assumptions, cycles
                 in the network may prevent feasibility of exploration,
                 hence we restrict attention to trees. We present an
                 algorithm to accomplish tree exploration (with return)
                 using {$ O(\log n) $}-bit memory for all {$n$}-node
                 trees. This strengthens the result from Diks et al.
                 [2004], where {$ O(\log^2 n) $}-bit memory was used for
                 tree exploration, and matches the lower bound on memory
                 size proved there. We also extend our {$ O(\log n)
                 $}-bit memory traversal mechanism to a weaker model in
                 which ports at each node are ordered in circular
                 manner, however, the explicit values of port numbers
                 are not available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chekuri:2011:SCP,
  author =       "Chandra Chekuri and Guy Even and Anupam Gupta and
                 Danny Segev",
  title =        "Set connectivity problems in undirected graphs and the
                 directed {Steiner} network problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921664",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In the generalized connectivity problem, we are given
                 an edge-weighted graph {$ G = (V, E) $} and a
                 collection {$ D = \{ (S_1, T_1), \ldots {}, (S_k, T_k)
                 \} $} of distinct demands each demand {$ (S_i, T_i) $}
                 is a pair of disjoint vertex subsets. We say that a
                 subgraph {$F$} of {$G$} connects a demand {$ (S_i, T_i)
                 $} when it contains a path with one endpoint in {$ S_i
                 $} and the other in {$ T_i $}. The goal is to identify
                 a minimum weight subgraph that connects all demands in
                 D. Alon et al. (SODA '04) introduced this problem to
                 study online network formation settings and showed that
                 it captures some well-studied problems such as Steiner
                 forest, facility location with nonmetric costs, tree
                 multicast, and group Steiner tree. Obtaining a
                 nontrivial approximation ratio for generalized
                 connectivity was left as an open problem. We describe
                 the first poly-logarithmic approximation algorithm for
                 generalized connectivity that has a performance
                 guarantee of {$ O(\log^2 n \log^2 k) $}. Here, {$n$} is
                 the number of vertices in {$G$} and {$k$} is the number
                 of demands. We also prove that the cut-covering
                 relaxation of this problem has an {$ O(\log^3 n \log^2
                 k) $} integrality gap. Building upon the results for
                 generalized connectivity, we obtain improved
                 approximation algorithms for two problems that contain
                 generalized connectivity as a special case. For the
                 directed Steiner network problem, we obtain an {$
                 O(k^{1 / 2 + \epsilon}) $} approximation which improves
                 on the currently best performance guarantee of {$
                 \tilde {O}(k^{2 / 3}) $} due to Charikar et al. (SODA
                 '98). For the set connector problem, recently
                 introduced by Fukunaga and Nagamochi (IPCO '07), we
                 present a poly-logarithmic approximation; this result
                 improves on the previously known ratio which can be {$
                 \Omega (n) $} in the worst case.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{DeVerdiere:2011:SVD,
  author =       "{\'E}ric Colin {De Verdi{\`e}re} and Alexander
                 Schrijver",
  title =        "Shortest vertex-disjoint two-face paths in planar
                 graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921665",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Let {$G$} be a directed planar graph of complexity
                 {$n$}, each arc having a nonnegative length. Let {$s$}
                 and {$t$} be two distinct faces of {$G$} let {$ s_1,
                 \ldots {}, s_k $} be vertices incident with {$s$} let
                 {$ t_1, \ldots {}, t_k $} be vertices incident with
                 $t$. We give an algorithm to compute $k$ pairwise
                 vertex-disjoint paths connecting the pairs $ (s_i, t_i)
                 $ in {$G$}, with minimal total length, in {$ O(k n \log
                 n) $} time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Elkin:2011:SFD,
  author =       "Michael Elkin",
  title =        "Streaming and fully dynamic centralized algorithms for
                 constructing and maintaining sparse spanners",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921666",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a streaming algorithm for constructing
                 sparse spanners and show that our algorithm
                 significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art
                 algorithm for this task (due to Feigenbaum et al.).
                 Specifically, the processing time per edge of our
                 algorithm is {$ O(1) $}, and it is drastically smaller
                 than that of the algorithm of Feigenbaum et al., and
                 all other efficiency parameters of our algorithm are no
                 greater (and some of them are strictly smaller) than
                 the respective parameters of the state-of-the-art
                 algorithm. We also devise a fully dynamic centralized
                 algorithm maintaining sparse spanners. This algorithm
                 has incremental update time of {$ O(1) $}, and a
                 nontrivial decremental update time. To our knowledge,
                 this is the first fully dynamic centralized algorithm
                 for maintaining sparse spanners that provides
                 nontrivial bounds on both incremental and decremental
                 update time for a wide range of stretch parameter
                 {$t$}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Cormode:2011:ADF,
  author =       "Graham Cormode and S. Muthukrishnan and Ke Yi",
  title =        "Algorithms for distributed functional monitoring",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921667",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Consider the following problem: We have $k$ players
                 each receiving a stream of items, and communicating
                 with a central coordinator. Let the multiset of items
                 received by player $i$ up until time $t$ be {$ A_i(t)
                 $}. The coordinator's task is to monitor a given
                 function {$f$} computed over the union of the inputs {$
                 \cup_i A_i(t) $}, continuously at all times {$t$}. The
                 goal is to minimize the number of bits communicated
                 between the players and the coordinator. Of interest is
                 the approximate version where the coordinator outputs
                 {$1$} if {$ f \geq \tau $} and $0$ if $ f \leq (1 -
                 \epsilon) \tau $. This defines the $ (k, f, \tau,
                 \epsilon) $ distributed functional monitoring problem.
                 Functional monitoring problems are fundamental in
                 distributed systems, in particular sensor networks,
                 where we must minimize communication; they also connect
                 to the well-studied streaming model and communication
                 complexity. Yet few formal bounds are known for
                 functional monitoring. We give upper and lower bounds
                 for the $ (k, f, \tau, \epsilon) $ problem for some of
                 the basic $f$'s. In particular, we study the frequency
                 moments F$_p$ for $ p = 0, 1, 2 $. For {$ F_0 $} and {$
                 F_1 $}, we obtain monitoring algorithms with cost
                 almost the same as algorithms that compute the function
                 for a single instance of time. However, for {$ F_2 $}
                 the monitoring problem seems to be much harder than
                 computing the function for a single time instance. We
                 give a carefully constructed multiround algorithm that
                 uses ``sketch summaries'' at multiple levels of details
                 and solves the {$ (k, F_2, \tau, \epsilon) $} problem
                 with communication {$ \tilde {O} (k^2 / \epsilon + k^{3
                 / 2} / \epsilon^3) $}. Our algorithmic techniques are
                 likely to be useful for other functional monitoring
                 problems as well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Halldorsson:2011:SEC,
  author =       "Magn{\'u}s M. Halld{\'o}rsson and Guy Kortsarz and
                 Maxim Sviridenko",
  title =        "Sum edge coloring of multigraphs via configuration
                 {LP}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "22:1--22:21",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921668",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the scheduling of biprocessor jobs under
                 sum objective (BPSMSM). Given a collection of
                 unit-length jobs where each job requires the use of two
                 processors, find a schedule such that no two jobs
                 involving the same processor run concurrently. The
                 objective is to minimize the sum of the completion
                 times of the jobs. Equivalently, we would like to find
                 a sum edge coloring of a given multigraph, that is, a
                 partition of its edge set into matchings {$ M_1 $},
                 \ldots {}, {$ M_t $} minimizing {$ \Sigma_{i = 1}^t i
                 |M_i| $}.\par

                 This problem is APX-hard, even in the case of bipartite
                 graphs [Marx 2009]. This special case is closely
                 related to the classic open shop scheduling problem. We
                 give a 1.8298-approximation algorithm for BPSMSM
                 improving the previously best ratio known of 2 [Bar-Noy
                 et al. 1998]. The algorithm combines a configuration LP
                 with greedy methods, using nonstandard randomized
                 rounding on the LP fractions. We also give an efficient
                 combinatorial 1.8886-approximation algorithm for the
                 case of simple graphs, which gives an improved {$
                 1.79568 + O(\log \bar {d} / \bar {d}) $}-approximation
                 in graphs of large average degree {$ \bar {d} $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ben-Aroya:2011:CAF,
  author =       "Avraham Ben-Aroya and Sivan Toledo",
  title =        "Competitive analysis of flash memory algorithms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921669",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Flash memories are widely used in computer systems
                 ranging from embedded systems to workstations and
                 servers to digital cameras and mobile phones. The
                 memory cells of flash devices can only endure a limited
                 number of write cycles, usually between 10,000 and
                 1,000,000. Furthermore, cells containing data must be
                 erased before they can store new data, and erasure
                 operations erase large blocks of memory, not individual
                 cells. To maximize the endurance of the device (the
                 amount of useful data that can be written to it before
                 one of its cells wears out), flash-based systems move
                 data around in an attempt to reduce the total number of
                 erasures and to level the wear of the different erase
                 blocks. This data movement introduces an interesting
                 online problem called the wear-leveling problem.
                 Wear-leveling algorithms have been used at least since
                 1993, but they have never been mathematically analyzed.
                 In this article we analyze the two main wear-leveling
                 problems. We show that a simple randomized algorithm
                 for one of them is essentially optimal both in the
                 competitive sense and in the absolute sense (our
                 competitive result relies on an analysis of a
                 nearly-optimal offline algorithm). We show that
                 deterministic algorithms cannot achieve comparable
                 endurance. We also analyze a more difficult problem and
                 show that offline algorithms for it can improve upon
                 naive approaches, but that online algorithms
                 essentially cannot.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Aumann:2011:FWP,
  author =       "Yonatan Aumann and Moshe Lewenstein and Noa Lewenstein
                 and Dekel Tsur",
  title =        "Finding witnesses by peeling",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921670",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In the $k$-matches problem, we are given a pattern and
                 a text, and for each text location, the desired output
                 consists of all aligned matching characters if there
                 are $k$ or fewer of them, and any $k$ aligned matching
                 characters if there are more than $k$ of them. This
                 problem is one of several string matching problems that
                 seek not only to find where the pattern matches the
                 text under different ``match'' definitions, but also to
                 provide witnesses to the match. Other such problems
                 include $k$-aligned ones, $k$-witnesses, and
                 $k$-mismatches. In addition, the solutions to several
                 other string matching problems rely on the efficient
                 solutions of the witness finding problems. In this
                 article we provide a general method for solving such
                 witness finding problems efficiently. We do so by
                 casting the problem as a generalization of group
                 testing, which we then solve by a process we call
                 peeling. Using this general framework we obtain
                 improved results for all of the problems mentioned. We
                 also show that our method also solves a couple of
                 problems outside the pattern matching domain.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Choi:2011:CPM,
  author =       "Yongwook Choi and Wojciech Szpankowski",
  title =        "Constrained pattern matching",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921671",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Constrained sequences are strings satisfying certain
                 additional structural restrictions (e.g., some patterns
                 are forbidden). They find applications in
                 communication, digital recording, and biology. In this
                 article, we restrict our attention to the so-called $
                 (d, k) $ constrained binary sequences in which any run
                 of zeros must be of length at least $d$ and at most
                 $k$, where $ 0 \leq d < k $. In many applications, one
                 needs to know the number of occurrences of a given
                 pattern $w$ in such sequences, for which we coin the
                 term constrained pattern matching. For a given word
                 $w$, we first estimate the mean and the variance of the
                 number of occurrences of $w$ in a $ (d, k) $ sequence
                 generated by a memoryless source. Then we present the
                 central limit theorem and large deviations results. As
                 a by-product, we enumerate asymptotically the number of
                 $ (d, k) $ sequences with exactly $r$ occurrences of
                 $w$, and compute Shannon entropy of $ (d, k) $
                 sequences with a given number of occurrences of $w$. We
                 also apply our results to detect under- and
                 overrepresented patterns in neuronal data (spike
                 trains), which satisfy structural constraints that
                 match the framework of $ (d, k) $ binary sequences.
                 Throughout this article we use techniques of analytic
                 combinatorics such as combinatorial calculus,
                 generating functions, and complex asymptotics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Fu:2011:DAH,
  author =       "Bin Fu and Ming-Yang Kao and Lusheng Wang",
  title =        "Discovering almost any hidden motif from multiple
                 sequences",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921672",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study a natural probabilistic model for motif
                 discovery. In this model, there are $k$ background
                 sequences, and each character in a background sequence
                 is a random character from an alphabet {$ \Sigma $}. A
                 motif {$ G = g_1, g_2, \ldots {}, g_m $} is a string of
                 {$m$} characters. Each background sequence is implanted
                 with a probabilistically generated approximate copy of
                 {$G$}. For a probabilistically generated approximate
                 copy {$ b_1, b_2, \ldots {}, b_m $} of {$G$}, every
                 character is probabilistically generated such that the
                 probability for {$ b_i \neq g_i $} is at most {$ \alpha
                 $}. In this article, we develop an efficient algorithm
                 that can discover a hidden motif from a set of
                 sequences for any alphabet {$ \Sigma $} with {$ |
                 \Sigma | \geq 2 $} and is applicable to DNA motif
                 discovery. We prove that for {$ \alpha < 1 / 8 (1 - 1 /
                 | \Sigma |) $}, there exist positive constants {$ c_0
                 $}, {$ \epsilon $}, and {$ \delta_2 $} such that if
                 there are at least $ c_0 \log n $ input sequences, then
                 in {$ O(n^2 / h (\log n)^{O(1)}) $} time this algorithm
                 finds the motif with probability at least {$ 3 / 4 $}
                 for every {$ G \in \Sigma^\rho - \Psi_{\rho, h,
                 \epsilon}(\Sigma) $}, where {$n$} the length of longest
                 sequences, {$ \rho $} is the length of the motif, {$h$}
                 is a parameter with $ \rho \geq 4 h \geq \delta_2 \log
                 n $, and {$ \Psi_{\rho, h, \epsilon}(\Sigma) $} is a
                 small subset of at most {$ 2^{ - \Theta (\epsilon^2 h)}
                 $} fraction of the sequences in {$ \Sigma^\rho $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Nong:2011:CIS,
  author =       "Ge Nong and Sen Zhang and Wai Hong Chan",
  title =        "Computing the {Inverse Sort Transform} in linear
                 time",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1921659.1921673",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The Sort Transform (ST) can significantly speed up the
                 block sorting phase of the Burrows-Wheeler Transform
                 (BWT) by sorting the limited order contexts. However,
                 the best result obtained so far for the inverse ST has
                 a time complexity {$ O(N \log k) $} and a space
                 complexity {$ O(N) $}, where {$N$} and {$k$} are the
                 text size and the context order of the transform,
                 respectively. In this article, we present a novel
                 algorithm that can compute the inverse ST for any
                 {$k$}-order contexts in an {$ O(N) $} time and space
                 complexity, a linear result independent of {$k$}. The
                 main idea behind the design of this linear algorithm is
                 a set of cycle properties of {$k$}-order contexts that
                 we explore for this work. These newly discovered cycle
                 properties allow us to quickly compute the Longest
                 Common Prefix (LCP) between any pair of adjacent
                 {$k$}-order contexts that may belong to two different
                 cycles, which eventually leads to the proposed
                 linear-time solution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Friggstad:2011:MMM,
  author =       "Zachary Friggstad and Mohammad R. Salavatipour",
  title =        "Minimizing movement in mobile facility location
                 problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978783",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In the mobile facility location problem, which is a
                 variant of the classical facility location, each
                 facility and client is assigned to a start location in
                 a metric graph and our goal is to find a destination
                 node for each client and facility such that every
                 client is sent to a node which is the destination of
                 some facility. The quality of a solution can be
                 measured either by the total distance clients and
                 facilities travel or by the maximum distance traveled
                 by any client or facility. As we show in this article
                 (by an approximation-preserving reduction), the problem
                 of minimizing the total movement of facilities and
                 clients generalizes the classical $k$-median problem.
                 The class of movement problems was introduced by
                 Demaine et al. [2007] where a simple 2-approximation
                 was proposed for the minimum maximum movement mobile
                 facility location problem while an approximation for
                 the minimum total movement variant and hardness results
                 for both were left as open problems. Our main result
                 here is an 8-approximation algorithm for the minimum
                 total movement mobile facility location problem. Our
                 algorithm is obtained by rounding an LP relaxation in
                 five phases. For the minimum maximum movement mobile
                 facility location problem, we show that we cannot have
                 a better than a 2-approximation for the problem, unless
                 P = NP so the simple algorithm proposed by Demaine et
                 al. [2007] is essentially best possible.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Borodin:2011:HWC,
  author =       "Allan Borodin and David Cashman and Avner Magen",
  title =        "How well can primal-dual and local-ratio algorithms
                 perform?",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978784",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We define an algorithmic paradigm, the stack model,
                 that captures many primal-dual and local-ratio
                 algorithms for approximating covering and packing
                 problems. The stack model is defined syntactically and
                 without any complexity limitations and hence our
                 approximation bounds are independent of the P versus NP
                 question. Using the stack model, we bound the
                 performance of a broad class of primal-dual and
                 local-ratio algorithms and supply a $ (\log n + 1) / 2
                 $ inapproximability result for set cover, a $ 4 / 3 $
                 inapproximability for min Steiner tree, and a $ 0.913 $
                 inapproximability for interval scheduling on two
                 machines.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chung:2011:CDK,
  author =       "Kai-Min Chung and Omer Reingold and Salil Vadhan",
  title =        "{S}-{T} connectivity on digraphs with a known
                 stationary distribution",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978785",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a deterministic logspace algorithm for
                 solving S-T Connectivity on directed graphs if: (i) we
                 are given a stationary distribution of the random walk
                 on the graph in which both of the input vertices $s$
                 and $t$ have nonnegligible probability mass and (ii)
                 the random walk which starts at the source vertex $s$
                 has polynomial mixing time. This result generalizes the
                 recent deterministic logspace algorithm for
                 {$S$}--{$T$} Connectivity on undirected graphs
                 [Reingold, 2008]. It identifies knowledge of the
                 stationary distribution as the gap between the
                 {$S$}--{$T$} Connectivity problems we know how to solve
                 in logspace (L) and those that capture all of
                 randomized logspace (RL).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Gairing:2011:RSF,
  author =       "Martin Gairing and Burkhard Monien and Karsten
                 Tiemann",
  title =        "Routing (un-) splittable flow in games with
                 player-specific affine latency functions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978786",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this work we study weighted network congestion
                 games with player-specific latency functions where
                 selfish players wish to route their traffic through a
                 shared network. We consider both the case of splittable
                 and unsplittable traffic. Our main findings are as
                 follows. For routing games on parallel links with
                 linear latency functions, we introduce two new
                 potential functions for unsplittable and for splittable
                 traffic, respectively. We use these functions to derive
                 results on the convergence to pure Nash equilibria and
                 the computation of equilibria. For several
                 generalizations of these routing games, we show that
                 such potential functions do not exist. We prove tight
                 upper and lower bounds on the price of anarchy for
                 games with polynomial latency functions. All our
                 results on the price of anarchy translate to general
                 congestion games.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Rosen:2011:RVB,
  author =       "Adi Ros{\'e}n and Gabriel Scalosub",
  title =        "Rate vs. buffer size --- greedy information gathering
                 on the line",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978787",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider packet networks with limited buffer space
                 at the nodes, and are interested in the question of
                 maximizing the number of packets that arrive to
                 destination rather than being dropped due to full
                 buffers. We initiate a more refined analysis of the
                 throughput competitive ratio of admission and
                 scheduling policies in the Competitive Network
                 Throughput model [Aiello et al. 2005], taking into
                 account not only the network size but also the buffer
                 size and the injection rate of the traffic. We
                 specifically consider the problem of information
                 gathering on the line, with limited buffer space, under
                 adversarial traffic. We examine how the buffer size and
                 the injection rate of the traffic affect the
                 performance of the greedy protocol for this problem. We
                 establish upper bounds on the competitive ratio of the
                 greedy protocol in terms of the network size, the
                 buffer size, and the adversary's rate, and present
                 lower bounds which are tight up to constant factors.
                 These results show, for example, that provisioning the
                 network with sufficiently large buffers may
                 substantially improve the performance of the greedy
                 protocol in some cases, whereas for some high-rate
                 adversaries, using larger buffers does not have any
                 effect on the competitive ratio of the protocol.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bonifaci:2011:MFT,
  author =       "Vincenzo Bonifaci and Peter Korteweg and Alberto
                 Marchetti-Spaccamela and Leen Stougie",
  title =        "Minimizing flow time in the wireless gathering
                 problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "33:1--33:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978788",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We address the problem of efficient data gathering in
                 a wireless network through multihop communication. We
                 focus on two objectives related to flow times, that is,
                 the times spent by data packets in the system:
                 minimization of the maximum flow time and minimization
                 of the average flow time of the packets. For both
                 problems we prove that, unless P = NP, no
                 polynomial-time algorithm can approximate the optimal
                 solution within a factor less than {$ \Omega (m^{1 -
                 \epsilon}) $} for any {$ 0 < \epsilon < 1 $}, where
                 {$m$} is the number of packets. We then assess the
                 performance of two natural algorithms by proving that
                 their cost remains within the optimal cost of the
                 respective problem if we allow the algorithms to
                 transmit data at a speed 5 times higher than that of
                 the optimal solutions to which we compare them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "33",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Kranakis:2011:RRL,
  author =       "Evangelos Kranakis and Danny Krizanc and Pat Morin",
  title =        "Randomized rendezvous with limited memory",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "34:1--34:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978789",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a trade-off between the expected time for
                 two identical agents to rendezvous on a synchronous,
                 anonymous, oriented ring and the memory requirements of
                 the agents. In particular, we show there exists a $ 2^t
                 $ state agent which can achieve rendezvous on an
                 $n$-node ring in expected time {$ O(n^2 / 2^t + 2^t) $}
                 and that any {$ t / 2 $} state agent requires expected
                 time {$ \Omega (n^2 / 2^t) $}. As a corollary we
                 observe that {$ \Theta (\log \log n) $} bits of memory
                 are necessary and sufficient to achieve rendezvous in
                 linear time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "34",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Pemmaraju:2011:MCO,
  author =       "Sriram V. Pemmaraju and Rajiv Raman and Kasturi
                 Varadarajan",
  title =        "Max-coloring and online coloring with bandwidths on
                 interval graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "35:1--35:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978790",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a graph $ G = (V, E) $ and positive integral
                 vertex weights $ w \colon V \to N $, the max-coloring
                 problem seeks to find a proper vertex coloring of $G$
                 whose color classes $ C_1, C_2, \ldots {}, C_k $,
                 minimize $ \Sigma_i = 1^k \max_v \in C^i w(v) $. This
                 problem, restricted to interval graphs, arises whenever
                 there is a need to design dedicated memory managers
                 that provide better performance than the
                 general-purpose memory management of the operating
                 system. Though this problem seems similar to the
                 dynamic storage allocation problem, there are
                 fundamental differences. We make a connection between
                 max-coloring and online graph coloring and use this to
                 devise a simple 2-approximation algorithm for
                 max-coloring on interval graphs. We also show that a
                 simple first-fit strategy, that is a natural choice for
                 this problem, yields an 8-approximation algorithm. We
                 show this result by proving that the first-fit
                 algorithm for online coloring an interval graph $G$
                 uses no more than $ 8 c \chi (G) $ colors,
                 significantly improving the bound of $ 26 c \chi (G) $
                 by Kierstead and Qin [1995]. We also show that the
                 max-coloring problem is NP-hard. The problem of online
                 coloring of intervals with bandwidths is a simultaneous
                 generalization of online interval coloring and online
                 bin packing. The input is a set $I$ of intervals, each
                 interval $ i \in I $ having an associated bandwidth $
                 b(i) \in (0, 1] $. We seek an online algorithm that
                 produces a coloring of the intervals such that for any
                 color $c$ and any real $r$, the sum of the bandwidths
                 of intervals containing $r$ and colored $c$ is at most
                 $1$. Motivated by resource allocation problems, Adamy
                 and Erlebach [2003] consider this problem and present
                 an algorithm that uses at most 195 times the number of
                 colors used by an optimal offline algorithm. Using the
                 new analysis of first-fit coloring of interval graphs,
                 we show that the Adamy-Erlebach algorithm is
                 35-competitive. Finally, we generalize the
                 Adamy-Erlebach algorithm to a class of algorithms and
                 show that a different instance from this class is
                 30-competitive.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "35",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Khuller:2011:FFG,
  author =       "Samir Khuller and Azarakhsh Malekian and Juli{\'a}n
                 Mestre",
  title =        "To fill or not to fill: {The} gas station problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "36:1--36:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978791",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article we study several routing problems that
                 generalize shortest paths and the traveling salesman
                 problem. We consider a more general model that
                 incorporates the actual cost in terms of gas prices. We
                 have a vehicle with a given tank capacity. We assume
                 that at each vertex gas may be purchased at a certain
                 price. The objective is to find the cheapest route to
                 go from $s$ to $t$, or the cheapest tour visiting a
                 given set of locations. We show that the problem of
                 finding a cheapest plan to go from $s$ to $t$ can be
                 solved in polynomial time. For most other versions,
                 however, the problem is NP-complete and we develop
                 polynomial-time approximation algorithms for these
                 versions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "36",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Coppersmith:2011:OOG,
  author =       "Don Coppersmith and Tomasz Nowicki and Giuseppe
                 Paleologo and Charles Tresser and Chai Wah Wu",
  title =        "The optimality of the online greedy algorithm in
                 carpool and chairman assignment problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "37:1--37:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978792",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study several classes of related scheduling
                 problems including the carpool problem, its
                 generalization to arbitrary inputs and the chairman
                 assignment problem. We derive both lower and upper
                 bounds for online algorithms solving these problems. We
                 show that the greedy algorithm is optimal among online
                 algorithms for the chairman assignment problem and the
                 generalized carpool problem. We also consider geometric
                 versions of these problems and show how the bounds
                 adapt to these cases.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "37",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bille:2011:TIP,
  author =       "Philip Bille and Inge Li Gortz",
  title =        "The tree inclusion problem: {In} linear space and
                 faster",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "38:1--38:47",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978793",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given two rooted, ordered, and labeled trees {$P$} and
                 {$T$} the tree inclusion problem is to determine if
                 {$P$} can be obtained from {$T$} by deleting nodes in
                 {$T$}. This problem has recently been recognized as an
                 important query primitive in XML databases.
                 Kilpel{\"a}inen and Mannila [1995] presented the first
                 polynomial-time algorithm using quadratic time and
                 space. Since then several improved results have been
                 obtained for special cases when {$P$} and {$T$} have a
                 small number of leaves or small depth. However, in the
                 worst case these algorithms still use quadratic time
                 and space. Let {n$_S$}, {l$_S$}, and {d$_S$} denote the
                 number of nodes, the number of leaves, and the depth of
                 a tree {$ S \in P, T $}. In this article we show that
                 the tree inclusion problem can be solved in space {$
                 O(n_T) $} and time: { $$ O(\min \left \{ l_P n_T, l_P
                 n_T \log \log n_T + n_T, (n_P n_T) / (\log n_T) + n_T
                 \log n_T \right \}) $$} This improves or matches the
                 best known time complexities while using only linear
                 space instead of quadratic. This is particularly
                 important in practical applications, such as XML
                 databases, where the space is likely to be a
                 bottleneck.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "38",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Laber:2011:IAH,
  author =       "Eduardo Laber and Marco Molinaro",
  title =        "Improved approximations for the hotlink assignment
                 problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "39:1--39:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1978782.1978794",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Let {$ G = (V, E) $} be a graph representing a Web
                 site, where nodes correspond to pages and arcs to
                 hyperlinks. In this context, hotlinks are defined as
                 shortcuts (new arcs) added to Web pages of {$G$} in
                 order to reduce the time spent by users to reach their
                 desired information. In this article, we consider the
                 problem where {$G$} is a rooted directed tree and the
                 goal is minimizing the expected time spent by users by
                 assigning at most {$k$} hotlinks to each node. For the
                 most studied version of this problem where at most one
                 hotlink can be added to each node, we prove the
                 existence of two FPTAS's which optimize different
                 objectives considered in the literature: one minimizes
                 the expected user path length and the other maximizes
                 the expected reduction in user path lengths. These
                 results improve over a constant factor approximation
                 for the expected length and over a PTAS for the
                 expected reduction, both obtained recently in Jacobs
                 [2007]. Indeed, these FPTAS's are essentially the best
                 possible results one can achieve under the assumption
                 that P {$ \neq $} NP. Another contribution we give here
                 is a 16-approximation algorithm for the most general
                 version of the problem where up to {$k$} hotlinks can
                 be assigned from each node. This algorithm runs in {$
                 O(|V| \log |V|) $} time and it turns to be the first
                 algorithm with constant approximation for this
                 problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "39",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Salvy:2011:PFF,
  author =       "Bruno Salvy and Bob Sedgewick and Michele Soria and
                 Wojciech Szpankowski and Brigitte Vallee",
  title =        "{Philippe Flajolet}, the father of analytic
                 combinatorics",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40:1--40:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000808",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "40",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Dvorak:2011:TCT,
  author =       "Zdenek Dvor{\'a}k and Ken-Ichi Kawarabayashi and Robin
                 Thomas",
  title =        "Three-coloring triangle-free planar graphs in linear
                 time",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41:1--41:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000809",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Gr{\"o}tzsch's theorem states that every triangle-free
                 planar graph is 3-colorable, and several relatively
                 simple proofs of this fact were provided by Thomassen
                 and other authors. It is easy to convert these proofs
                 into quadratic-time algorithms to find a 3-coloring,
                 but it is not clear how to find such a coloring in
                 linear time (Kowalik used a nontrivial data structure
                 to construct an {$ O(n \log n) $} algorithm). We design
                 a linear-time algorithm to find a 3-coloring of a given
                 triangle-free planar graph. The algorithm avoids using
                 any complex data structures, which makes it easy to
                 implement. As a by-product, we give a yet simpler proof
                 of Gr{\"o}tzsch's theorem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "41",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Moran:2011:PCR,
  author =       "Shlomo Moran and Sagi Snir and Wing-Kin Sung",
  title =        "Partial convex recolorings of trees and galled
                 networks: {Tight} upper and lower bounds",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42:1--42:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000810",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A coloring of a graph is convex if the vertices that
                 pertain to any color induce a connected subgraph; a
                 partial coloring (which assigns colors to a subset of
                 the vertices) is convex if it can be completed to a
                 convex (total) coloring. Convex coloring has
                 applications in fields such as phylogenetics,
                 communication or transportation networks, etc. When a
                 coloring of a graph is not convex, a natural question
                 is how far it is from a convex one. This problem is
                 denoted as convex recoloring (CR). While the initial
                 works on CR defined and studied the problem on trees,
                 recent efforts aim at either generalizing the
                 underlying graphs or specializing the input colorings.
                 In this work, we extend the underlying graph and the
                 input coloring to partially colored galled networks. We
                 show that although determining whether a coloring is
                 convex on an arbitrary network is hard, it can be found
                 efficiently on galled networks. We present a fixed
                 parameter tractable algorithm that finds the recoloring
                 distance of such a network whose running time is
                 quadratic in the network size and exponential in that
                 distance. This complexity is achieved by amortized
                 analysis that uses a novel technique for contracting
                 colored graphs that seems to be of independent
                 interest.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "42",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Cabello:2011:GCF,
  author =       "Sergio Cabello and Panos Giannopoulos and Christian
                 Knauer and D{\'a}niel Marx and G{\"u}nter Rote",
  title =        "Geometric clustering: {Fixed-parameter} tractability
                 and lower bounds with respect to the dimension",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "43:1--43:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000811",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the parameterized complexity of the
                 $k$-center problem on a given $n$-point set {$P$} in {$
                 R^d $}, with the dimension {$d$} as the parameter. We
                 show that the rectilinear 3-center problem is
                 fixed-parameter tractable, by giving an algorithm that
                 runs in {$ O(n \log n) $} time for any fixed dimension
                 d. On the other hand, we show that this is unlikely to
                 be the case with both the Euclidean and rectilinear
                 {$k$}-center problems for any {$ k \geq 2 $} and {$ k
                 \geq 4 $} respectively. In particular, we prove that
                 deciding whether {$P$} can be covered by the union of 2
                 balls of given radius or by the union of 4 cubes of
                 given side length is W[1]-hard with respect to {$d$},
                 and thus not fixed-parameter tractable unless FPT =
                 W[1]. For the Euclidean case, we also show that even an
                 {$ n^{o(d)} $}-time algorithm does not exist, unless
                 there is a 2{$^{o(n)}$}-time algorithm for $n$-variable
                 3SAT, that is, the Exponential Time Hypothesis fails.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "43",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bonsma:2011:TBF,
  author =       "Paul Bonsma and Frederic Dorn",
  title =        "Tight bounds and a fast {FPT} algorithm for directed
                 {Max-Leaf Spanning Tree}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "44:1--44:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000812",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "An out-tree {$T$} of a directed graph {$D$} is a
                 rooted tree subgraph with all arcs directed outwards
                 from the root. An out-branching is a spanning out-tree.
                 By {$ l(D) $} and {$ l_s(D) $}, we denote the maximum
                 number of leaves over all out-trees and out-branchings
                 of {$D$}, respectively. We give fixed parameter
                 tractable algorithms for deciding whether {$ l_s(D)
                 \geq k $} and whether {$ l(D) \geq k $} for a digraph
                 {$D$} on {$n$} vertices, both with time complexity {$
                 2^{o(k \log k)} \cdot n^{o(1)} $}. This answers an open
                 question whether the problem for out-branchings is in
                 FPT, and improves on the previous complexity of {$
                 2^{o(k \log 2 k)} \cdot n^{o(1)} $} in the case of
                 out-trees. To obtain the complexity bound in the case
                 of out-branchings, we prove that when all arcs of {$D$}
                 are part of at least one out-branching, {$ l_s(D) \geq
                 l(D) / 3 $}. The second bound we prove in this article
                 states that for strongly connected digraphs {$D$} with
                 minimum in-degree {$ 3, l_s(D) \geq \Theta (\sqrt n)
                 $}, where previously {$ l_s(D) \geq \Theta (3 \sqrt n)
                 $} was the best known bound. This bound is tight, and
                 also holds for the larger class of digraphs with
                 minimum in-degree {$3$} in which every arc is part of
                 at least one out-branching.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "44",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Roditty:2011:APS,
  author =       "Liam Roditty and Asaf Shapira",
  title =        "All-pairs shortest paths with a sublinear additive
                 error",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "45:1--45:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000813",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show that, for every $ 0 \leq p \leq 1 $, there is
                 an {$ O(n^{2.575 - p / (7.4 - 2.3 p)}) $}-time
                 algorithm that given a directed graph with small
                 positive integer weights, estimates the length of the
                 shortest path between every pair of vertices {$ u, v $}
                 in the graph to within an additive error {$ \delta^p(u,
                 v) $}, where {$ \delta (u, v) $} is the exact length of
                 the shortest path between $u$ and $v$. This algorithm
                 runs faster than the fastest algorithm for computing
                 exact shortest paths for any $ 0 < p \leq 1 $.
                 Previously the only way to ``beat'' the running time of
                 the exact shortest path algorithms was by applying an
                 algorithm of Zwick [2002] that approximates the
                 shortest path distances within a multiplicative error
                 of $ (1 + \epsilon) $. Our algorithm thus gives a
                 smooth qualitative and quantitative transition between
                 the fastest exact shortest paths algorithm, and the
                 fastest approximation algorithm with a linear additive
                 error. In fact, the main ingredient we need in order to
                 obtain the above result, which is also interesting in
                 its own right, is an algorithm for computing $ (1 +
                 \epsilon) $ multiplicative approximations for the
                 shortest paths, whose running time is faster than the
                 running time of Zwick's approximation algorithm when $
                 \epsilon \ll 1 $ and the graph has small integer
                 weights.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "45",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Pritchard:2011:FCS,
  author =       "David Pritchard and Ramakrishna Thurimella",
  title =        "Fast computation of small cuts via cycle space
                 sampling",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "46:1--46:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000814",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe a new sampling-based method to determine
                 cuts in an undirected graph. For a graph {$ (V, E) $},
                 its cycle space is the family of all subsets of {$E$}
                 that have even degree at each vertex. We prove that
                 with high probability, sampling the cycle space
                 identifies the cuts of a graph. This leads to simple
                 new linear-time sequential algorithms for finding all
                 cut edges and cut pairs (a set of 2 edges that form a
                 cut) of a graph. In the model of distributed computing
                 in a graph {$ G = (V, E) $} with {$ O(\log |V|) $}-bit
                 messages, our approach yields faster algorithms for
                 several problems. The diameter of {$G$} is denoted by
                 {$D$}, and the maximum degree by {$ \Delta $}. We
                 obtain simple {$ O(D) $}-time distributed algorithms to
                 find all cut edges, 2-edge-connected components, and
                 cut pairs, matching or improving upon previous time
                 bounds. Under natural conditions these new algorithms
                 are universally optimal-that is, a {$ \Omega (D)
                 $}-time lower bound holds on every graph. We obtain a
                 {$ O(D + \Delta / \log |V|) $}-time distributed
                 algorithm for finding cut vertices; this is faster than
                 the best previous algorithm when {$ \Delta, D = O(\sqrt
                 |V|) $}. A simple extension of our work yields the
                 first distributed algorithm with sub-linear time for
                 3-edge-connected components. The basic distributed
                 algorithms are Monte Carlo, but they can be made Las
                 Vegas without increasing the asymptotic complexity. In
                 the model of parallel computing on the EREW PRAM, our
                 approach yields a simple algorithm with optimal time
                 complexity {$ O(\log V) $} for finding cut pairs and
                 3-edge-connected components.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "46",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chang:2011:BSA,
  author =       "Jessica Chang and Thomas Erlebach and Renars Gailis
                 and Samir Khuller",
  title =        "Broadcast scheduling: {Algorithms} and complexity",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "47:1--47:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000815",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Broadcast Scheduling is a popular method for
                 disseminating information in response to client
                 requests. There are $n$ pages of information, and
                 clients request pages at different times. However,
                 multiple clients can have their requests satisfied by a
                 single broadcast of the requested page. In this
                 article, we consider several related broadcast
                 scheduling problems. One central problem we study
                 simply asks to minimize the maximum response time (over
                 all requests). Another related problem we consider is
                 the version in which every request has a release time
                 and a deadline, and the goal is to maximize the number
                 of requests that meet their deadlines. While
                 approximation algorithms for both these problems were
                 proposed several years back, it was not known if they
                 were NP-complete. One of our main results is that both
                 these problems are NP-complete. In addition, we use the
                 same unified approach to give a simple NP-completeness
                 proof for minimizing the sum of response times. A very
                 complicated proof was known for this version.
                 Furthermore, we give a proof that FIFO is a
                 2-competitive online algorithm for minimizing the
                 maximum response time (this result had been claimed
                 earlier with no proof) and that there is no better
                 deterministic online algorithm (this result was claimed
                 earlier as well, but with an incorrect proof).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "47",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Calinescu:2011:IAA,
  author =       "Gruia Calinescu and Amit Chakrabarti and Howard
                 Karloff and Yuval Rabani",
  title =        "An improved approximation algorithm for resource
                 allocation",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "48:1--48:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000816",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the problem of finding a most profitable
                 subset of $n$ given tasks, each with a given start and
                 finish time as well as profit and resource requirement,
                 that at no time exceeds the quantity {$B$} of available
                 resource. We show that this NP-hard Resource Allocation
                 problem can be {$ (1 / 2 - \epsilon) $}-approximated in
                 randomized polynomial time, which improves upon earlier
                 approximation results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "48",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Fotakis:2011:MFL,
  author =       "Dimitris Fotakis",
  title =        "Memoryless facility location in one pass",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "49:1--49:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000817",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present the first one-pass memoryless algorithm for
                 metric Facility Location that maintains a set of
                 facilities approximating the optimal facility
                 configuration within a constant factor. The algorithm
                 is randomized and very simple to state and implement.
                 It processes the demand points one-by-one as they
                 arrive, and keeps in memory only the facility locations
                 currently open. We prove that its competitive ratio is
                 less than 14 in the special case of uniform facility
                 costs, and less than 49 in the general case of
                 nonuniform facility costs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "49",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Han:2011:NUB,
  author =       "Xin Han and Francis Y. L. Chin and Hing-Fung Ting and
                 Guochuan Zhang and Yong Zhang",
  title =        "A new upper bound $ 2.5545 $ on {$2$D} {Online Bin
                 Packing}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "50:1--50:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000818",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The 2D Online Bin Packing is a fundamental problem in
                 Computer Science and the determination of its
                 asymptotic competitive ratio has research attention. In
                 a long series of papers, the lower bound of this ratio
                 has been improved from 1.808, 1.856 to 1.907 and its
                 upper bound reduced from 3.25, 3.0625, 2.8596, 2.7834
                 to 2.66013. In this article, we rewrite the upper bound
                 record to 2.5545. Our idea for the improvement is as
                 follows. In 2002, Seiden and van Stee [Seiden and van
                 Stee 2003] proposed an elegant algorithm called {$ H
                 \otimes C $}, comprised of the Harmonic algorithm {$H$}
                 and the Improved Harmonic algorithm {$C$}, for the
                 two-dimensional online bin packing problem and proved
                 that the algorithm has an asymptotic competitive ratio
                 of at most 2.66013. Since the best known online
                 algorithm for one-dimensional bin packing is the Super
                 Harmonic algorithm [Seiden 2002], a natural question to
                 ask is: could a better upper bound be achieved by using
                 the Super Harmonic algorithm instead of the Improved
                 Harmonic algorithm? However, as mentioned in Seiden and
                 van Stee [2003], the previous analysis framework does
                 not work. In this article, we give a positive answer
                 for this question. A new upper bound of 2.5545 is
                 obtained for 2-dimensional online bin packing. The main
                 idea is to develop new weighting functions for the
                 Super Harmonic algorithm and propose new techniques to
                 bound the total weight in a rectangular bin.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "50",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Edmonds:2011:CCR,
  author =       "Jeff Edmonds and Kirk Pruhs",
  title =        "Cake cutting really is not a piece of cake",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "51:1--51:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000819",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the well-known cake cutting problem in
                 which a protocol wants to divide a cake among $ n \geq
                 2 $ players in such a way that each player believes
                 that they got a fair share. The standard Robertson-Webb
                 model allows the protocol to make two types of queries,
                 Evaluation and Cut, to the players. A deterministic
                 divide-and-conquer protocol with complexity {$ O(n \log
                 n) $} is known. We provide the first a {$ \Omega (n
                 \log n) $} lower bound on the complexity of any
                 deterministic protocol in the standard model. This
                 improves previous lower bounds, in that the protocol is
                 allowed to assign to a player a piece that is a union
                 of intervals and only guarantee approximate fairness.
                 We accomplish this by lower bounding the complexity to
                 find, for a single player, a piece of cake that is both
                 rich in value, and thin in width. We then introduce a
                 version of cake cutting in which the players are able
                 to cut with only finite precision. In this case, we can
                 extend the {$ \Omega (n \log n) $} lower bound to
                 include randomized protocols.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "51",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Barbay:2011:SIS,
  author =       "J{\'e}r{\'e}my Barbay and Meng He and J. Ian Munro and
                 Srinivasa Rao Satti",
  title =        "Succinct indexes for strings, binary relations and
                 multilabeled trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "52:1--52:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000820",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We define and design succinct indexes for several
                 abstract data types (ADTs). The concept is to design
                 auxiliary data structures that ideally occupy
                 asymptotically less space than the
                 information-theoretic lower bound on the space required
                 to encode the given data, and support an extended set
                 of operations using the basic operators defined in the
                 ADT. The main advantage of succinct indexes as opposed
                 to succinct (integrated data/index) encodings is that
                 we make assumptions only on the ADT through which the
                 main data is accessed, rather than the way in which the
                 data is encoded. This allows more freedom in the
                 encoding of the main data. In this article, we present
                 succinct indexes for various data types, namely
                 strings, binary relations and multilabeled trees. Given
                 the support for the interface of the ADTs of these data
                 types, we can support various useful operations
                 efficiently by constructing succinct indexes for them.
                 When the operators in the ADTs are supported in
                 constant time, our results are comparable to previous
                 results, while allowing more flexibility in the
                 encoding of the given data. Using our techniques, we
                 design a succinct encoding that represents a string of
                 length $n$ over an alphabet of size $ \sigma $ using {$
                 n H_k (S) + \lg \sigma \cdot o(n) + O(n \lg \sigma /
                 \lg \lg \lg \sigma) $} bits to support access\slash
                 rank\slash select operations in {$ o((\lg \lg
                 \sigma)^{1 + \epsilon}) $} time, for any fixed constant
                 {$ \epsilon > 0 $}. We also design a succinct text
                 index using {$ n H_0 (S) + O(n \lg \sigma / \lg \lg
                 \sigma) $} bits that supports finding all the occ
                 occurrences of a given pattern of length {$m$} in {$
                 O(m \lg \lg \sigma + {\rm occ} \lg n / \lg^\epsilon
                 \sigma) $} time, for any fixed constant {$ 0 < \epsilon
                 < 1 $}. Previous results on these two problems either
                 have a {$ \lg \sigma $} factor instead of {$ \lg \lg
                 \sigma $} in the running time, or are not compressed.
                 Finally, we present succinct encodings of binary
                 relations and multi-labeled trees that are more compact
                 than previous structures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "52",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Russo:2011:FCS,
  author =       "Lu{\'\i}s M. S. Russo and Gonzalo Navarro and Arlindo
                 L. Oliveira",
  title =        "{Fully} compressed suffix trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "53:1--53:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000821",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Suffix trees are by far the most important data
                 structure in stringology, with a myriad of applications
                 in fields like bioinformatics and information
                 retrieval. Classical representations of suffix trees
                 require {$ \Theta (n \log n) $} bits of space, for a
                 string of size {$n$}. This is considerably more than
                 the {$ n \log_2 \sigma $} bits needed for the string
                 itself, where {$ \sigma $} is the alphabet size. The
                 size of suffix trees has been a barrier to their wider
                 adoption in practice. Recent compressed suffix tree
                 representations require just the space of the
                 compressed string plus {$ \Theta (n) $} extra bits.
                 This is already spectacular, but the linear extra bits
                 are still unsatisfactory when {$ \sigma $} is small as
                 in DNA sequences. In this article, we introduce the
                 first compressed suffix tree representation that breaks
                 this {$ \Theta (n) $}-bit space barrier. The Fully
                 Compressed Suffix Tree (FCST) representation requires
                 only sublinear space on top of the compressed text
                 size, and supports a wide set of navigational
                 operations in almost logarithmic time. This includes
                 extracting arbitrary text substrings, so the FCST
                 replaces the text using almost the same space as the
                 compressed text. An essential ingredient of FCSTs is
                 the lowest common ancestor (LCA) operation. We reveal
                 important connections between LCAs and suffix tree
                 navigation. We also describe how to make FCSTs dynamic,
                 that is, support updates to the text. The dynamic FCST
                 also supports several operations. In particular, it can
                 build the static FCST within optimal space and
                 polylogarithmic time per symbol. Our theoretical
                 results are also validated experimentally, showing that
                 FCSTs are very effective in practice as well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "53",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Izsak:2011:CPM,
  author =       "Alexander Izsak and Nicholas Pippenger",
  title =        "Carry propagation in multiplication by constants",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "54:1--54:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2000807.2000822",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 8 09:35:43 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Suppose that a random $n$-bit number V is multiplied
                 by an odd constant {$ M \geq 3 $}, by adding shifted
                 versions of the number {$V$} corresponding to the {$1$}
                 s in the binary representation of the constant {$M$}.
                 Suppose further that the additions are performed by
                 carry-save adders until the number of summands is
                 reduced to two, at which time the final addition is
                 performed by a carry-propagate adder. We show that in
                 this situation the distribution of the length of the
                 longest carry-propagation chain in the final addition
                 is the same (up to terms tending to {$0$} as {$ n \to
                 \infty $} ) as when two independent {$n$}-bit numbers
                 are added, and in particular the mean and variance are
                 the same (again up to terms tending to 0). This result
                 applies to all possible orders of performing the
                 carry-save additions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "54",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Guha:2012:AUR,
  author =       "Sudipto Guha and Kamesh Munagala",
  title =        "Adaptive Uncertainty Resolution in {Bayesian}
                 Combinatorial Optimization Problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071379.2071380",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:33:03 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In several applications such as databases, planning,
                 and sensor networks, parameters such as selectivity,
                 load, or sensed values are known only with some
                 associated uncertainty. The performance of such a
                 system (as captured by some objective function over the
                 parameters) is significantly improved if some of these
                 parameters can be probed or observed. In a resource
                 constrained situation, deciding which parameters to
                 observe in order to optimize system performance, itself
                 becomes an interesting and important optimization
                 problem. This general problem is the focus of this
                 article. One of the most important considerations in
                 this framework is whether adaptivity is required for
                 the observations. Adaptive observations introduce
                 blocking or sequential operations in the system whereas
                 nonadaptive observations can be performed in parallel.
                 One of the important questions in this regard is to
                 characterize the benefit of adaptivity for probes and
                 observation. We present general techniques for
                 designing constant factor approximations to the optimal
                 observation schemes for several widely used scheduling
                 and metric objective functions. We show a unifying
                 technique that relates this optimization problem to the
                 outlier version of the corresponding deterministic
                 optimization. By making this connection, our technique
                 shows constant factor upper bounds for the benefit of
                 adaptivity of the observation schemes. We show that
                 while probing yields significant improvement in the
                 objective function, being adaptive about the probing is
                 not beneficial beyond constant factors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Mahdian:2012:OOU,
  author =       "Mohammad Mahdian and Hamid Nazerzadeh and Amin
                 Saberi",
  title =        "Online {Optimization} with {Uncertain Information}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071379.2071381",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:33:03 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a new framework for designing online
                 algorithms that can incorporate additional information
                 about the input sequence, while maintaining a
                 reasonable competitive ratio if the additional
                 information is incorrect. Within this framework, we
                 present online algorithms for several problems
                 including allocation of online advertisement space,
                 load balancing, and facility location.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Haeupler:2012:ICD,
  author =       "Bernhard Haeupler and Telikepalli Kavitha and Rogers
                 Mathew and Siddhartha Sen and Robert E. Tarjan",
  title =        "Incremental {Cycle Detection}, {Topological Ordering},
                 and {Strong Component Maintenance}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071379.2071382",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:33:03 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present two online algorithms for maintaining a
                 topological order of a directed $n$-vertex acyclic
                 graph as arcs are added, and detecting a cycle when one
                 is created. Our first algorithm handles $m$ arc
                 additions in {$ O(m^{3 / 2}) $} time. For sparse graphs
                 {$ (m / n = O(1)) $}, this bound improves the best
                 previous bound by a logarithmic factor, and is tight to
                 within a constant factor among algorithms satisfying a
                 natural locality property. Our second algorithm handles
                 an arbitrary sequence of arc additions in {$ O(n^{5 /
                 2}) $} time. For sufficiently dense graphs, this bound
                 improves the best previous bound by a polynomial
                 factor. Our bound may be far from tight: we show that
                 the algorithm can take {$ \Omega (n^2 2^{\sqrt {2 \lg
                 n}}) $} time by relating its performance to a
                 generalization of the {$k$}-levels problem of
                 combinatorial geometry. A completely different
                 algorithm running in {$ \Theta (n^2 \log n) $} time was
                 given recently by Bender, Fineman, and Gilbert. We
                 extend both of our algorithms to the maintenance of
                 strong components, without affecting the asymptotic
                 time bounds.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Frigo:2012:COA,
  author =       "Matteo Frigo and Charles E. Leiserson and Harald
                 Prokop and Sridhar Ramachandran",
  title =        "Cache-Oblivious Algorithms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071379.2071383",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:33:03 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents asymptotically optimal
                 algorithms for rectangular matrix transpose, fast
                 Fourier transform (FFT), and sorting on computers with
                 multiple levels of caching. Unlike previous optimal
                 algorithms, these algorithms are cache oblivious: no
                 variables dependent on hardware parameters, such as
                 cache size and cache-line length, need to be tuned to
                 achieve optimality. Nevertheless, these algorithms use
                 an optimal amount of work and move data optimally among
                 multiple levels of cache. For a cache with size {$M$}
                 and cache-line length {$B$} where {$ M = \Omega (B^2)
                 $}, the number of cache misses for an {$ m \times n $}
                 matrix transpose is {$ \Theta (1 + m n / B) $}. The
                 number of cache misses for either an {$n$}-point FFT or
                 the sorting of {$n$} numbers is {$ \Theta (1 + (n /
                 B)(1 + \log M n)) $}. We also give a {$ \Theta (m n p)
                 $}-work algorithm to multiply an {$ m \times n $}
                 matrix by an {$ n \times p $} matrix that incurs {$
                 \Theta (1 + (m n + n p + m p) / B + m n p / B \sqrt
                 {M}) $} cache faults. We introduce an `ideal-cache'
                 model to analyze our algorithms. We prove that an
                 optimal cache-oblivious algorithm designed for two
                 levels of memory is also optimal for multiple levels
                 and that the assumption of optimal replacement in the
                 ideal-cache model can be simulated efficiently by LRU
                 replacement. We offer empirical evidence that
                 cache-oblivious algorithms perform well in practice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chlebus:2012:AQM,
  author =       "Bogdan S. Chlebus and Dariusz R. Kowalski and Mariusz
                 A. Rokicki",
  title =        "Adversarial Queuing on the Multiple Access Channel",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071379.2071384",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:33:03 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study deterministic broadcasting on multiple access
                 channels when packets are injected continuously. The
                 quality of service is considered in the framework of
                 adversarial queuing. An adversary is determined by
                 injection rate and burstiness, the latter denoting the
                 number of packets that can be injected simultaneously
                 in a round. We consider only injection rates that are
                 less than $1$. A protocol is stable when the numbers of
                 packets in queues stay bounded at all rounds, and it is
                 of fair latency when waiting times of packets in queues
                 are {$ O({\rm burstiness} / {\rm rate}) $}. For
                 channels with collision detection, we give a
                 full-sensing protocol of fair latency for injection
                 rates that are at most {$ 1 \over 2 (\lceil \lg n
                 \rceil + 1) $}, where {$n$} is the number of stations,
                 and show that fair latency is impossible to achieve for
                 injection rates that are {$ \omega (1 \over \log n) $}.
                 For channels without collision detection, we present a
                 full-sensing protocol of fair latency for injection
                 rates that are at most $ 1 \over c \lg^2 n $, for some
                 $ c > 0 $. We show that there exists an
                 acknowledgment-based protocol that has fair latency for
                 injection rates that are at most $ 1 \over c n \lg^2 n
                 $, for some $ c > 0 $, and develop an explicit
                 acknowledgment-based protocol of fair latency for
                 injection rates that are at most $ 1 \over 27 n^2 \ln n
                 $. Regarding impossibility to achieve just stability by
                 restricted protocols, we prove that no
                 acknowledgment-based protocol can be stable for
                 injection rates larger than $ 3 \over 1 + \lg n $.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chen:2012:IEC,
  author =       "Jianer Chen and Yang Liu and Songjian Lu and Sing-Hoi
                 Sze and Fenghui Zhang",
  title =        "Iterative Expansion and Color Coding: An Improved
                 Algorithm for {$3$D}-Matching",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071379.2071385",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:33:03 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The research in the parameterized 3d-matching problem
                 has yielded a number of new algorithmic techniques and
                 an impressive list of improved algorithms. In this
                 article, a new deterministic algorithm for the problem
                 is developed that integrates and improves a number of
                 known techniques, including greedy localization,
                 dynamic programming, and color coding. The new
                 algorithm, which either constructs a matching of $k$
                 triples in a given triple set or correctly reports that
                 no such a matching exists, runs in time {$ O*(2.80^3 k)
                 $}, improving a long list of previous algorithms for
                 the problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bocker:2012:IFP,
  author =       "Sebastian B{\"o}cker and Quang Bao Anh Bui and Anke
                 Truss",
  title =        "Improved Fixed-Parameter Algorithms for Minimum-Flip
                 Consensus Trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071379.2071386",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:33:03 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In computational phylogenetics, the problem of
                 constructing a consensus tree for a given set of rooted
                 input trees has frequently been addressed. In this
                 article we study the Minimum-Flip Problem: the input
                 trees are transformed into a binary matrix, and we want
                 to find a perfect phylogeny for this matrix using a
                 minimum number of flips, that is, corrections of single
                 entries in the matrix. The graph-theoretical
                 formulation of the problem is as follows: Given a
                 bipartite graph {$ G = (V t \cup V c, E) $}, the task
                 is to find a minimum set of edge modifications such
                 that the resulting graph has no induced path with four
                 edges that starts and ends in Vt, where Vt corresponds
                 to the taxa set and Vc corresponds to the character
                 set. We present two fixed-parameter algorithms for the
                 Minimum-Flip Problem, one with running time {$ O(4.83 k
                 + \poly (m, n)) $} and another one with running time {$
                 O(4.42 k + \poly (m, n)) $} for {$n$} taxa, {$m$}
                 characters, {$k$} flips, and $ \poly (m, n) $ denotes a
                 polynomial function in $m$ and $n$. Additionally, we
                 discuss several heuristic improvements. We also report
                 computational results on phylogenetic data.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Cygan:2012:EFE,
  author =       "Marek Cygan and Marcin Pilipczuk",
  title =        "Even Faster Exact Bandwidth",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071379.2071387",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 15:33:03 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We deal with exact algorithms for Bandwidth, a long
                 studied NP-hard problem. For a long time nothing better
                 than the trivial {$ O^\ast (n!)^1 $} exhaustive search
                 was known. In 2000, Feige and Kilian [Feige 2000] came
                 up with a {$ O^\ast (10 n) $}-time and polynomial space
                 algorithm. In this article we present a new algorithm
                 that solves Bandwidth in {$ O^\ast (5 n) $} time and {$
                 O^\ast (2 n) $} space. Then, we take a closer look and
                 introduce a major modification that makes it run in {$
                 O(4.83 n) $} time with a cost of a {$ O^\ast (4 n) $}
                 space complexity. This modification allowed us to
                 perform the Measure \& Conquer analysis for the time
                 complexity which was not used for graph layout problems
                 before.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Aumann:2012:DIG,
  author =       "Yonatan Aumann and Moshe Lewenstein and Oren Melamud
                 and Ron Pinter and Zohar Yakhini",
  title =        "Dotted interval graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151172",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a generalization of interval graphs,
                 which we call Dotted Interval Graphs (DIG). A dotted
                 interval graph is an intersection graph of arithmetic
                 progressions (dotted intervals). Coloring of dotted
                 interval graphs naturally arises in the context of high
                 throughput genotyping. We study the properties of
                 dotted interval graphs, with a focus on coloring. We
                 show that any graph is a DIG, but that DIG$_d$ graphs,
                 that is, DIGs in which the arithmetic progressions have
                 a jump of at most $d$, form a strict hierarchy. We show
                 that coloring DIG$_d$ graphs is NP-complete even for $
                 d = 2 $. For any fixed $d$, we provide a $ 5 / 6 d +
                 o(d) $ approximation for the coloring of DIG$_d$
                 graphs. Finally, we show that finding the maximal
                 clique in DIG$_d$ graphs is fixed parameter tractable
                 in $d$.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bose:2012:SGI,
  author =       "Prosenjit Bose and Eric Y. Chen and Meng He and Anil
                 Maheshwari and Pat Morin",
  title =        "Succinct geometric indexes supporting point location
                 queries",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151173",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose designing data structures called succinct
                 geometric indexes of negligible space (more precisely,
                 $ o(n) $ bits) that support geometric queries in
                 optimal time, by taking advantage of the $n$ points in
                 the dataset permuted and stored elsewhere as a
                 sequence. Our first and main result is a succinct
                 geometric index that can answer point location queries,
                 a fundamental problem in computational geometry, on
                 planar triangulations in {$ O(\lg n) $} time. We also
                 design three variants of this index. The first supports
                 point location using {$ \lg n + 2 \sqrt {\lg n} +
                 O(\lg^{1 / 4} n) $} point-line comparisons. The second
                 supports point location in {$ o(\lg n) $} time when the
                 coordinates are integers bounded by {$U$}. The last
                 variant can answer point location queries in {$ O(H +
                 1) $} expected time, where {$H$} is the entropy of the
                 query distribution. These results match the query
                 efficiency of previous point location structures that
                 occupy {$ O(n) $} words or {$ O(n \lg n) $} bits, while
                 saving drastic amounts of space. We generalize our
                 succinct geometric index to planar subdivisions, and
                 design indexes for other types of queries. Finally, we
                 apply our techniques to design the first implicit data
                 structures that support point location in {$ O(\lg^2 n)
                 $} time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Drmota:2012:PAC,
  author =       "Michael Drmota and Reinhard Kutzelnigg",
  title =        "A precise analysis of {Cuckoo} hashing",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:36",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151174",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/hash.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Cuckoo hashing was introduced by Pagh and Rodler in
                 2001. Its main feature is that it provides constant
                 worst-case search time. The aim of this article is to
                 present a precise average case analysis of Cuckoo
                 hashing. In particular, we determine the probability
                 that Cuckoo hashing produces no conflicts and give an
                 upper bound for the construction time, that is linear
                 in the size of the table. The analysis rests on a
                 generating function approach to the so called Cuckoo
                 Graph, a random bipartite graph, and an application of
                 a double saddle point method to obtain asymptotic
                 expansions. Furthermore, we provide some results
                 concerning the structure of these kinds of random
                 graphs. Our results extend the analysis of Devroye and
                 Morin [2003]. Additionally, we provide numerical
                 results confirming the mathematical analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Yi:2012:MOT,
  author =       "Ke Yi and Qin Zhang",
  title =        "Multidimensional online tracking",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151175",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose and study a new class of online problems,
                 which we call online tracking. Suppose an observer, say
                 Alice, observes a multivalued function {$ f : Z^+ \to
                 Z^d $} over time in an online fashion, that is, she
                 only sees {$ f(t) $} for {$ t \leq t_{\rm now} $} where
                 {$ t_{\rm now} $} is the current time. She would like
                 to keep a tracker, say Bob, informed of the current
                 value of $f$ at all times. Under this setting, Alice
                 could send new values of $f$ to Bob from time to time,
                 so that the current value of $f$ is always within a
                 distance of {$ \Delta $} to the last value received by
                 Bob. We give competitive online algorithms whose
                 communication costs are compared with the optimal
                 offline algorithm that knows the entire {$f$} in
                 advance. We also consider variations of the problem
                 where Alice is allowed to send predictions to Bob, to
                 further reduce communication for well-behaved
                 functions. These online tracking problems have a
                 variety of application, ranging from sensor monitoring,
                 location-based services, to publish/subscribe
                 systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Demaine:2012:PAN,
  author =       "Erik D. Demaine and Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi and Hamid
                 Mahini and Morteza Zadimoghaddam",
  title =        "The price of anarchy in network creation games",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151176",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study Nash equilibria in the setting of network
                 creation games introduced recently by Fabrikant,
                 Luthra, Maneva, Papadimitriou, and Shenker. In this
                 game we have a set of selfish node players, each
                 creating some incident links, and the goal is to
                 minimize $ \alpha $ times the cost of the created links
                 plus sum of the distances to all other players.
                 Fabrikant et al. proved an upper bound {$ O(\sqrt
                 \alpha) $} on the price of anarchy: the relative cost
                 of the lack of coordination. Albers, Eilts, Even-Dar,
                 Mansour, and Roditty show that the price of anarchy is
                 constant for {$ \alpha = O(\sqrt n) $} and for {$
                 \alpha \geq 12 n \lceil \lg n \rceil $}, and that the
                 price of anarchy is {$ 15 (1 + (\min {\alpha^2 / n, n^2
                 / \alpha})^{1 / 3}) $} for any {$ \alpha $}. The latter
                 bound shows the first sublinear worst-case bound, {$
                 O(n^{1 / 3}) $}, for all {$ \alpha $}. But no better
                 bound is known for {$ \alpha $} between {$ \omega
                 (\sqrt n) $} and $ o(n \lg n) $. Yet $ \alpha \approx n
                 $ is perhaps the most interesting range, for it
                 corresponds to considering the average distance
                 (instead of the sum of distances) to other nodes to be
                 roughly on par with link creation (effectively dividing
                 $ \alpha $ by $n$ ). In this article, we prove the
                 first $ o(n^\epsilon) $ upper bound for general $
                 \alpha $, namely {$ 2^{O(\sqrt {\lg n})} $}. We also
                 prove a constant upper bound for {$ \alpha = O({n^{1
                 \epsilon}}) $} for any fixed {$ \epsilon > 0 $},
                 substantially reducing the range of {$ \alpha $} for
                 which constant bounds have not been obtained. Along the
                 way, we also improve the constant upper bound by Albers
                 et al. (with the lead constant of {$ 15 $} ) to $6$ for
                 $ \alpha < (n / 2)^{1 / 2} $ and to $4$ for $ \alpha <
                 (n / 2)^{1 / 3} $. Next we consider the bilateral
                 network variant of Corbo and Parkes, in which links can
                 be created only with the consent of both endpoints and
                 the link price is shared equally by the two. Corbo and
                 Parkes show an upper bound of {$ O(\sqrt \alpha) $} and
                 a lower bound of {$ \Omega (\lg \alpha) $} for {$
                 \alpha \leq n $}. In this article, we show that in fact
                 the upper bound {$ O(\sqrt \alpha) $} is tight for {$
                 \alpha \leq n $}, by proving a matching lower bound of
                 {$ \Omega (\sqrt \alpha) $}. For {$ \alpha > n $}, we
                 prove that the price of anarchy is {$ \Theta (n / \sqrt
                 \alpha) $}. Finally we introduce a variant of both
                 network creation games, in which each player desires to
                 minimize {$ \alpha $} times the cost of its created
                 links plus the maximum distance (instead of the sum of
                 distances) to the other players. This variant of the
                 problem is naturally motivated by considering the worst
                 case instead of the average case. Interestingly, for
                 the original (unilateral) game, we show that the price
                 of anarchy is at most {$2$} for {$ \alpha \geq n $}, {$
                 O(\min \{ 4^{\sqrt {\lg n}}, (n / \alpha)^{1 / 3} \})
                 $} for {$ 2 \sqrt {\lg n} \leq \alpha \leq n $}, and {$
                 O(n^{2 / \alpha}) $} for {$ \alpha < 2 \sqrt {\lg n}
                 $}. For the bilateral game, we prove matching upper and
                 lower bounds of {$ \Theta (n / \alpha + 1) $} for {$
                 \alpha \leq n $}, and an upper bound of {$2$} for {$
                 \alpha > n $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ye:2012:EG,
  author =       "Yuli Ye and Allan Borodin",
  title =        "Elimination graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151177",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article we study graphs with inductive
                 neighborhood properties. Let {$P$} be a graph property,
                 a graph {$ G = (V, E) $} with {$n$} vertices is said to
                 have an inductive neighborhood property with respect to
                 {$P$} if there is an ordering of vertices {$ v_1 $},
                 \ldots, {$ v_n $} such that the property {$P$} holds on
                 the induced subgraph {$ G[N(v_i) \cap V_i] $}, where {$
                 N(v_i) $} is the neighborhood of {$ v_i $} and {$ V_i =
                 \{ v_i, \ldots, v_n \} $}. It turns out that if we take
                 {$P$} as a graph with maximum independent set size no
                 greater than {$k$}, then this definition gives a
                 natural generalization of both chordal graphs and {$ (k
                 + 1) $}-claw-free graphs. We refer to such graphs as
                 inductive {$k$}-independent graphs. We study properties
                 of such families of graphs, and we show that several
                 natural classes of graphs are inductive $k$-independent
                 for small $k$. In particular, any intersection graph of
                 translates of a convex object in a two dimensional
                 plane is an inductive $3$-independent graph;
                 furthermore, any planar graph is an inductive
                 $3$-independent graph. For any fixed constant $k$, we
                 develop simple, polynomial time approximation
                 algorithms for inductive $k$-independent graphs with
                 respect to several well-studied NP-complete problems.
                 Our generalized formulation unifies and extends several
                 previously known results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Fischer:2012:QCT,
  author =       "Eldar Fischer and Oded Lachish and Arie Matsliah and
                 Ilan Newman and Orly Yahalom",
  title =        "On the query complexity of testing orientations for
                 being {Eulerian}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151178",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider testing directed graphs Eulerianity in the
                 orientation model introduced in Halevy et al. [2005].
                 Despite the local nature of the Eulerian property, it
                 turns out to be significantly harder to test than other
                 properties studied in the orientation model. We show a
                 nonconstant lower bound on the query complexity of
                 $2$-sided tests and a linear lower bound on the query
                 complexity of $1$-sided tests for this property. On the
                 positive side, we give several $1$-sided and $2$-sided
                 tests, including a sublinear query complexity $2$-sided
                 test, for general graphs. For special classes of
                 graphs, including bounded-degree graphs and expander
                 graphs, we provide improved results. In particular, we
                 give a $2$-sided test with constant query complexity
                 for dense graphs, as well as for expander graphs with a
                 constant expansion parameter.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Fujito:2012:HTM,
  author =       "Toshihiro Fujito",
  title =        "How to trim a {MST}: a $2$-approximation algorithm for
                 minimum cost-tree cover",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151179",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The minimum cost-tree cover problem is to compute a
                 minimum cost-tree {$T$} in a given connected graph
                 {$G$} with costs on the edges, such that the vertices
                 spanned by {$T$} form a vertex cover for {$G$}. The
                 problem is supposed to occur in applications of vertex
                 cover and in edge-dominating sets when additional
                 connectivity is required for solutions. Whereas a
                 linear-time {$2$}-approximation algorithm for the
                 unweighted case has been known for quite a while, the
                 best approximation ratio known for the weighted case is
                 {$3$}. Moreover, the {$3$}-approximation algorithms for
                 such cases are far from practical due to their
                 inefficiency. In this article we present a fast, purely
                 combinatorial $2$-approximation algorithm for the
                 minimum cost-tree cover problem. It constructs a good
                 approximate solution by trimming some leaves within a
                 minimum spanning tree (MST); and, to determine which
                 leaves to trim, it uses both the primal-dual schema and
                 an instance layering technique adapted from the local
                 ratio method.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Manthey:2012:AMT,
  author =       "Bodo Manthey",
  title =        "On approximating multicriteria {TSP}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151180",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present approximation algorithms for almost all
                 variants of the multicriteria traveling salesman
                 problem (TSP). First, we devise randomized
                 approximation algorithms for multicriteria maximum
                 traveling salesman problems (Max-TSP). For
                 multicriteria Max-STSP where the edge weights have to
                 be symmetric, we devise an algorithm with an
                 approximation ratio of $ 2 / 3 - \epsilon $ . For
                 multicriteria Max-ATSP where the edge weights may be
                 asymmetric, we present an algorithm with a ratio of $ 1
                 / 2 - \epsilon $. Our algorithms work for any fixed
                 number $k$ of objectives. Furthermore, we present a
                 deterministic algorithm for bicriteria Max-STSP that
                 achieves an approximation ratio of $ 7 / 27 $. Finally,
                 we present a randomized approximation algorithm for the
                 asymmetric multicriteria minimum TSP with triangle
                 inequality (Min-ATSP). This algorithm achieves a ratio
                 of $ \log n + \epsilon $.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bjorklund:2012:TSP,
  author =       "Andreas Bj{\"o}rklund and Thore Husfeldt and Petteri
                 Kaski and Mikko Koivisto",
  title =        "The traveling salesman problem in bounded degree
                 graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151181",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show that the traveling salesman problem in
                 bounded-degree graphs can be solved in time {$ O((2 -
                 \epsilon)^n) $}, where {$ \epsilon > 0 $} depends only
                 on the degree bound but not on the number of cities,
                 {$n$}. The algorithm is a variant of the classical
                 dynamic programming solution due to Bellman, and,
                 independently, Held and Karp. In the case of bounded
                 integer weights on the edges, we also give a
                 polynomial-space algorithm with running time {$ O((2 -
                 \epsilon)^n) $} on bounded-degree graphs. In addition,
                 we present an analogous analysis of Ryser's algorithm
                 for the permanent of matrices with a bounded number of
                 nonzero entries in each column.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Krokhin:2012:HLW,
  author =       "Andrei Krokhin and D{\'a}niel Marx",
  title =        "On the hardness of losing weight",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2151171.2151182",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:57 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the complexity of local search for the
                 Boolean constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), in the
                 following form: given a CSP instance, that is, a
                 collection of constraints, and a solution to it, the
                 question is whether there is a better (lighter, i.e.,
                 having strictly less Hamming weight) solution within a
                 given distance from the initial solution. We classify
                 the complexity, both classical and parameterized, of
                 such problems by a Schaefer-style dichotomy result,
                 that is, with a restricted set of allowed types of
                 constraints. Our results show that there is a
                 considerable amount of such problems that are NP-hard,
                 but fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the
                 distance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bateni:2012:APC,
  author =       "Mohammadhossein Bateni and Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi",
  title =        "Assignment problem in content distribution networks:
                 {Unsplittable} hard-capacitated facility location",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229164",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In a Content Distribution Network (CDN), there are m
                 servers storing the data; each of them has a specific
                 bandwidth. All the requests from a particular client
                 should be assigned to one server because of the routing
                 protocol used. The goal is to minimize the total cost
                 of these assignments-cost of each is proportional to
                 the distance between the client and the server as well
                 as the request size-while the load on each server is
                 kept below its bandwidth limit. When each server also
                 has a setup cost, this is an unsplittable
                 hard-capacitated facility location problem. As much
                 attention as facility location problems have received,
                 there has been no nontrivial approximation algorithm
                 when we have hard capacities (i.e., there can only be
                 one copy of each facility whose capacity cannot be
                 violated) and demands are unsplittable (i.e., all the
                 demand from a client has to be assigned to a single
                 facility). We observe it is NP-hard to approximate the
                 cost to within any bounded factor in this case. Thus,
                 for an arbitrary constant $ \epsilon > 0 $, we relax
                 the capacities to a $ 1 + \epsilon $ factor. For the
                 case where capacities are almost uniform, we give a
                 bicriteria {$ O(\log n, 1 + \epsilon) $}-approximation
                 algorithm for general metrics and a {$ (1 + \epsilon, 1
                 + \epsilon) $}-approximation algorithm for tree
                 metrics. A bicriteria {$ (\alpha, \beta)
                 $}-approximation algorithm produces a solution of cost
                 at most {$ \alpha $} times the optimum, while violating
                 the capacities by no more than a $ \beta $ factor. We
                 can get the same guarantees for nonuniform capacities
                 if we allow quasipolynomial running time. In our
                 algorithm, some clients guess the facility they are
                 assigned to, and facilities decide the size of the
                 clients they serve. A straightforward approach results
                 in exponential running time. When costs do not satisfy
                 metricity, we show that a 1.5 violation of capacities
                 is necessary to obtain any approximation. It is worth
                 noting that our results generalize bin packing (zero
                 connection costs and facility costs equal to one),
                 knapsack (single facility with all costs being zero),
                 minimum makespan scheduling for related machines (all
                 connection costs being zero), and some facility
                 location problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Panconesi:2012:EPS,
  author =       "Alessandro Panconesi and Jaikumar Radhakrishnan",
  title =        "Expansion properties of (secure) wireless networks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229165",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show that some topologies arising naturally in the
                 context of wireless networking are low-degree, expander
                 graphs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Meyer:2012:ESP,
  author =       "Ulrich Meyer and Norbert Zeh",
  title =        "{I/O}-efficient shortest path algorithms for
                 undirected graphs with random or bounded edge lengths",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229166",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present I/O-efficient single-source shortest path
                 algorithms for undirected graphs. Our main result is an
                 algorithm with I/O complexity {$ O(\sqrt (n m \log L) /
                 B + {\rm MST}(n, m)) $} on graphs with {$n$} vertices,
                 {$m$} edges, and arbitrary edge lengths between {$1$}
                 and {$L$}; {$ {\rm MST}(n, m) $} denotes the I/O
                 complexity of computing a minimum spanning tree; {$B$}
                 denotes the disk block size. If the edge lengths are
                 drawn uniformly at random from {$ (0, 1] $}, the
                 expected I/O complexity of the algorithm is {$ O(\sqrt
                 n m / B + (m / B) \log B + {\rm MST}(n, m)) $}. A
                 simpler algorithm has expected I/O complexity {$
                 O(\sqrt (n m \log B) / B + {\rm MST}(n, m)) $} for
                 uniformly random edge lengths.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chekuri:2012:IAO,
  author =       "Chandra Chekuri and Nitish Korula and Martin P{\'a}l",
  title =        "Improved algorithms for orienteering and related
                 problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229167",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we consider the orienteering problem
                 in undirected and directed graphs and obtain improved
                 approximation algorithms. The point to
                 point-orienteering problem is the following: Given an
                 edge-weighted graph {$ G = (V, E) $} (directed or
                 undirected), two nodes {$ s, t \in V $} and a time
                 limit {$B$}, find an {$s$}--{$t$} walk in {$G$} of
                 total length at most {$B$} that maximizes the number of
                 distinct nodes visited by the walk. This problem is
                 closely related to tour problems such as TSP as well as
                 network design problems such as {$k$}-MST. Orienteering
                 with time-windows is the more general problem in which
                 each node {$v$} has a specified time-window {$ [R(v),
                 D(v)] $} and a node {$v$} is counted as visited by the
                 walk only if {$v$} is visited during its time-window.
                 We design new and improved algorithms for the
                 orienteering problem and orienteering with
                 time-windows. Our main results are the following: --- A
                 {$ (2 + \epsilon) $} approximation for orienteering in
                 undirected graphs, improving upon the $3$-approximation
                 of Bansal et al. [2004]. --- An {$ O(\log^2 {\rm OPT})
                 $} approximation for orienteering in directed graphs,
                 where {$ {\rm OPT} \leq n $} is the number of vertices
                 visited by an optimal solution. Previously, only a
                 quasipolynomial-time algorithm due to Chekuri and
                 P{\'a}l [2005] achieved a polylogarithmic approximation
                 (a ratio of {$ O(\log {\rm OPT}) $}). --- Given an {$
                 \alpha $} approximation for orienteering, we show an {$
                 O(\alpha c \{ {\rm maxlog} {\rm OPT}, \log l_{\rm max}
                 / l_{\rm min} \}) $} approximation for orienteering
                 with time-windows, where {$ l_{\rm max} $} and {$
                 l_{\rm min} $} are the lengths of the longest and
                 shortest time-windows respectively.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Asadpour:2012:SCM,
  author =       "Arash Asadpour and Uriel Feige and Amin Saberi",
  title =        "{Santa Claus} meets hypergraph matchings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229168",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the restricted assignment version of the
                 problem of max-min fair allocation of indivisible
                 goods, also known as the Santa Claus problem. There are
                 $m$ items and $n$ players. Every item has some
                 nonnegative value, and every player is interested in
                 only some of the items. The goal is to distribute the
                 items to the players in a way that maximizes the
                 minimum of the sum of the values of the items given to
                 any player. It was previously shown via a
                 nonconstructive proof that uses the Lov{\'a}sz local
                 lemma that the integrality gap of a certain
                 configuration LP for the problem is no worse than some
                 (unspecified) constant. This gives a polynomial-time
                 algorithm to estimate the optimum value of the problem
                 within a constant factor, but does not provide a
                 polynomial-time algorithm for finding a corresponding
                 allocation. We use a different approach to analyze the
                 integrality gap. Our approach is based upon local
                 search techniques for finding perfect matchings in
                 certain classes of hypergraphs. As a result, we prove
                 that the integrality gap of the configuration LP is no
                 worse than $ 1 / 4 $. Our proof provides a local search
                 algorithm which finds the corresponding allocation, but
                 is nonconstructive in the sense that this algorithm is
                 not known to converge to a local optimum in a
                 polynomial number of steps.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Fanelli:2012:SCC,
  author =       "Angelo Fanelli and Michele Flammini and Luca
                 Moscardelli",
  title =        "The speed of convergence in congestion games under
                 best-response dynamics",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229169",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We investigate the speed of convergence of best
                 response dynamics to approximately optimal solutions in
                 congestion games with linear delay functions. In
                 Ackermann et al. [2008] it has been shown that the
                 convergence time of such dynamics to Nash equilibrium
                 may be exponential in the number of players $n$.
                 Motivated by such a negative result, we focus on the
                 study of the states (not necessarily being equilibria)
                 reached after a limited number of players' selfish
                 moves, and we show that {$ \Theta (n \log \log n) $}
                 best responses are necessary and sufficient to achieve
                 states that approximate the optimal solution by a
                 constant factor, under the assumption that every {$
                 O(n) $} steps each player performs a constant (and
                 nonnull) number of best responses. We show that such
                 result is tight also for the simplest case of singleton
                 congestion games.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Baptiste:2012:PTA,
  author =       "Philippe Baptiste and Marek Chrobak and Christoph
                 D{\"u}rr",
  title =        "Polynomial-time algorithms for minimum energy
                 scheduling",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229170",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The aim of power management policies is to reduce the
                 amount of energy consumed by computer systems while
                 maintaining a satisfactory level of performance. One
                 common method for saving energy is to simply suspend
                 the system during idle times. No energy is consumed in
                 the suspend mode. However, the process of waking up the
                 system itself requires a certain fixed amount of
                 energy, and thus suspending the system is beneficial
                 only if the idle time is long enough to compensate for
                 this additional energy expenditure. In the specific
                 problem studied in the article, we have a set of jobs
                 with release times and deadlines that need to be
                 executed on a single processor. Preemptions are
                 allowed. The processor requires energy $L$ to be woken
                 up and, when it is on, it uses one unit of energy per
                 one unit of time. It has been an open problem whether a
                 schedule minimizing the overall energy consumption can
                 be computed in polynomial time. We solve this problem
                 in positive, by providing an {$ O(n^5) $}-time
                 algorithm. In addition we provide an {$ O(n^4) $}-time
                 algorithm for computing the minimum energy schedule
                 when all jobs have unit length.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Diedrich:2012:TAA,
  author =       "Florian Diedrich and Klaus Jansen and Lars Pr{\"a}del
                 and Ulrich M. Schwarz and Ola Svensson",
  title =        "Tight approximation algorithms for scheduling with
                 fixed jobs and nonavailability",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229171",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study two closely related problems in nonpreemptive
                 scheduling of jobs on identical parallel machines. In
                 these two settings there are either fixed jobs or
                 nonavailability intervals during which the machines are
                 not available; in both cases, the objective is to
                 minimize the makespan. Both formulations have different
                 applications, for example, in turnaround scheduling or
                 overlay computing. For both problems we contribute
                 approximation algorithms with an improved ratio of $ 3
                 / 2 $. For scheduling with fixed jobs, a lower bound of
                 $ 3 / 2 $ on the approximation ratio has been obtained
                 by Scharbrodt et al. [1999]; for scheduling with
                 nonavailability we provide the same lower bound. We use
                 dual approximation, creation of a gap structure, and a
                 PTAS for the multiple subset sum problem, combined with
                 a postprocessing step to assign large jobs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Edmonds:2012:SSP,
  author =       "Jeff Edmonds and Kirk Pruhs",
  title =        "Scalably scheduling processes with arbitrary speedup
                 curves",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229172",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give a scalable ($ (1 + \epsilon) $-speed {$ O(1)
                 $}-competitive) nonclairvoyant algorithm for scheduling
                 jobs with sublinear nondecreasing speedup curves on
                 multiple processors with the objective of average
                 response time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Collette:2012:ETP,
  author =       "S{\'e}bastien Collette and Vida Dujmovi{\'c} and John
                 Iacono and Stefan Langerman and Pat Morin",
  title =        "Entropy, triangulation, and point location in planar
                 subdivisions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229173",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A data structure is presented for point location in
                 connected planar subdivisions when the distribution of
                 queries is known in advance. The data structure has an
                 expected query time that is within a constant factor of
                 optimal. More specifically, an algorithm is presented
                 that preprocesses a connected planar subdivision {$G$}
                 of size {$n$} and a query distribution {$D$} to produce
                 a point location data structure for {$G$}. The expected
                 number of point-line comparisons performed by this data
                 structure, when the queries are distributed according
                 to {$D$}, is {$ \tilde {H} + O(\tilde {H}^{1 / 2} + 1)
                 $} where {$ \tilde {H} = \tilde {H}(G, D) $} is a lower
                 bound on the expected number of point-line comparisons
                 performed by any linear decision tree for point
                 location in {$G$} under the query distribution {$D$}.
                 The preprocessing algorithm runs in {$ O(n \log n) $}
                 time and produces a data structure of size {$ O(n) $}.
                 These results are obtained by creating a Steiner
                 triangulation of {$G$} that has near-minimum entropy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Damerow:2012:SAL,
  author =       "Valentina Damerow and Bodo Manthey and Friedhelm
                 {Meyer Auf Der Heide} and Harald R{\"a}cke and
                 Christian Scheideler and Christian Sohler and Till
                 Tantau",
  title =        "Smoothed analysis of left-to-right maxima with
                 applications",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229174",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A left-to-right maximum in a sequence of $n$ numbers $
                 s_1 $, \ldots {}, $ s_n $ is a number that is strictly
                 larger than all preceding numbers. In this article we
                 present a smoothed analysis of the number of
                 left-to-right maxima in the presence of additive random
                 noise. We show that for every sequence of $n$ numbers $
                 s_i \in [0, 1] $ that are perturbed by uniform noise
                 from the interval $ [ - \epsilon, \epsilon] $, the
                 expected number of left-to-right maxima is {$ \Theta
                 (\sqrt n / \epsilon + \log n) $} for {$ \epsilon > 1 /
                 n $}. For Gaussian noise with standard deviation {$
                 \sigma $} we obtain a bound of {$ O((\log^{3 / 2} n) /
                 \sigma + \log n) $}. We apply our results to the
                 analysis of the smoothed height of binary search trees
                 and the smoothed number of comparisons in the quicksort
                 algorithm and prove bounds of {$ \Theta (\sqrt n /
                 \epsilon + \log n) $} and {$ \Theta (n / \epsilon + 1
                 \sqrt n / \epsilon + n \log n) $}, respectively, for
                 uniform random noise from the interval {$ [ - \epsilon,
                 \epsilon] $}. Our results can also be applied to bound
                 the smoothed number of points on a convex hull of
                 points in the two-dimensional plane and to smoothed
                 motion complexity, a concept we describe in this
                 article. We bound how often one needs to update a data
                 structure storing the smallest axis-aligned box
                 enclosing a set of points moving in d -dimensional
                 space.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bassino:2012:COF,
  author =       "Fr{\'e}d{\'e}rique Bassino and Julien Cl{\'e}ment and
                 Pierre Nicod{\`e}me",
  title =        "Counting occurrences for a finite set of words:
                 combinatorial methods",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229175",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we provide the multivariate
                 generating function counting texts according to their
                 length and to the number of occurrences of words from a
                 finite set. The application of the inclusion-exclusion
                 principle to word counting due to Goulden and Jackson
                 [1979, 1983] is used to derive the result. Unlike some
                 other techniques which suppose that the set of words is
                 reduced (i.e., where no two words are factor of one
                 another), the finite set can be chosen arbitrarily.
                 Noonan and Zeilberger [1999] already provided a Maple
                 package treating the nonreduced case, without giving an
                 expression of the generating function or a detailed
                 proof. We provide a complete proof validating the use
                 of the inclusion-exclusion principle. Some formul{\ae }
                 for expected values, variance, and covariance for
                 number of occurrences when considering two arbitrary
                 sets of finite words are given as an application of our
                 methodology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Arvind:2012:TNG,
  author =       "V. Arvind and Piyush P. Kurur",
  title =        "Testing nilpotence of {Galois} groups in polynomial
                 time",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2229163.2229176",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:09:59 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give the first polynomial-time algorithm for
                 checking whether the Galois group {$ {\rm Gal}(f) $} of
                 an input polynomial {$ f(X) \in Q[X] $} is nilpotent:
                 the running time of our algorithm is bounded by a
                 polynomial in the size of the coefficients of {$f$} and
                 the degree of {$f$}. Additionally, we give a
                 deterministic polynomial-time algorithm that, when
                 given as input a polynomial {$ f(X) \in Q[X] $} with
                 nilpotent Galois group, computes for each prime factor
                 {$p$} of {$ \# {\rm Gal}(f) $}, a polynomial {$ g_p(X)
                 \in Q[X] $} whose Galois group of is the {$p$}-Sylow
                 subgroup of {$ {\rm Gal}(f) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Roditty:2012:RPS,
  author =       "Liam Roditty and Uri Zwick",
  title =        "Replacement paths and $k$ simple shortest paths in
                 unweighted directed graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "33:1--33:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344423",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Let {$ G = (V, E) $} be a directed graph and let {$P$}
                 be a shortest path from {$s$} to {$t$} in {$G$}. In the
                 replacement paths problem, we are required to find, for
                 every edge {$e$} on {$P$}, a shortest path from {$s$}
                 to {$t$} in {$G$} that avoids {$e$}. The only known
                 algorithm for solving the problem, even for unweighted
                 directed graphs, is the trivial algorithm in which each
                 edge on the path, in its turn, is excluded from the
                 graph and a shortest paths tree is computed from {$s$}.
                 The running time is {$ O(m n + n^2 \log n) $}. The
                 replacement paths problem is strongly motivated by two
                 different applications: (1) The fastest algorithm to
                 compute the {$k$} simple shortest paths between {$s$}
                 and {$t$} in directed graphs [Yen 1971; Lawler 1972]
                 computes the replacement paths between $s$ and $t$. Its
                 running time is {$ \tilde {O}(m n k) $}. (2) The
                 replacement paths problem is used to compute the
                 Vickrey pricing of edges in a distributed network. It
                 was raised as an open problem by Nisan and Ronen [2001]
                 whether it is possible to compute the Vickrey pricing
                 faster than {$n$} computations of a shortest paths
                 tree. In this article we present the first nontrivial
                 algorithm for computing replacement paths in unweighted
                 directed graphs (and in graphs with small integer
                 weights). Our algorithm is Monte-Carlo and its running
                 time is {$ \tilde {O}(m \sqrt n) $}. This result
                 immediately improves the running time of the two
                 applications mentioned above in a factor of {$ \sqrt n
                 $}. We also show how to reduce the problem of computing
                 {$k$} simple shortest paths between {$s$} and $t$ to {$
                 O(k) $} computations of a second simple shortest path
                 from {$s$} to {$t$} each time in a different subgraph
                 of {$G$}. The importance of this result is that
                 computing a second simple shortest path may turn out to
                 be an easier problem than computing the replacement
                 paths, thus, we can focus our efforts to improve the k
                 simple shortest paths algorithm in obtaining a faster
                 algorithm for the second shortest path problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "33",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chan:2012:APS,
  author =       "Timothy M. Chan",
  title =        "All-pairs shortest paths for unweighted undirected
                 graphs in $ o(m n) $ time",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "34:1--34:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344424",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We revisit the all-pairs-shortest-paths problem for an
                 unweighted undirected graph with $n$ vertices and $m$
                 edges. We present new algorithms with the following
                 running times: {$ O(m n / \log n) $} if {$ m > n \log n
                 \log \log \log n O(m n \log \log n / \log n) $} if {$ m
                 > n \log \log n O(n^2 \log^2 \log n / \log n) $} if {$
                 m \leq n \log \log n $}. These represent the best time
                 bounds known for the problem for all {$ m \ll n^{1.376}
                 $} . We also obtain a similar type of result for the
                 diameter problem for unweighted directed graphs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "34",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Baswana:2012:FDR,
  author =       "Surender Baswana and Sumeet Khurana and Soumojit
                 Sarkar",
  title =        "Fully dynamic randomized algorithms for graph
                 spanners",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "35:1--35:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344425",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Spanner of an undirected graph {$ G = (V, E) $} is a
                 subgraph that is sparse and yet preserves all-pairs
                 distances approximately. More formally, a spanner with
                 stretch {$ t \in N $} is a subgraph {$ (V, E_S) $},
                 {E$_S \subseteq E$} such that the distance between any
                 two vertices in the subgraph is at most {$t$} times
                 their distance in {$G$}. Though {$G$} is trivially a
                 {$t$}-spanner of itself, the research as well as
                 applications of spanners invariably deal with a
                 {$t$}-spanner that has as small number of edges as
                 possible. We present fully dynamic algorithms for
                 maintaining spanners in centralized as well as
                 synchronized distributed environments. These algorithms
                 are designed for undirected unweighted graphs and use
                 randomization in a crucial manner. Our algorithms
                 significantly improve the existing fully dynamic
                 algorithms for graph spanners. The expected size
                 (number of edges) of a {$t$}-spanner maintained at each
                 stage by our algorithms matches, up to a
                 polylogarithmic factor, the worst case optimal size of
                 a $t$-spanner. The expected amortized time (or messages
                 communicated in distributed environment) to process a
                 single insertion\slash deletion of an edge by our
                 algorithms is close to optimal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "35",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Swamy:2012:ESS,
  author =       "Chaitanya Swamy",
  title =        "The effectiveness of {Stackelberg} strategies and
                 tolls for network congestion games",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "36:1--36:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344426",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "It is well known that in a network with arbitrary
                 (convex) latency functions that are a function of edge
                 traffic, the worst-case ratio, over all inputs, of the
                 system delay caused due to selfish behavior versus the
                 system delay of the optimal centralized solution may be
                 unbounded even if the system consists of only two
                 parallel links. This ratio is called the price of
                 anarchy (PoA). In this article, we investigate ways by
                 which one can reduce the performance degradation due to
                 selfish behavior. We investigate two primary methods
                 (a) Stackelberg routing strategies, where a central
                 authority, for example, network manager, controls a
                 fixed fraction of the flow, and can route this flow in
                 any desired way so as to influence the flow of selfish
                 users; and (b) network tolls, where tolls are imposed
                 on the edges to modify the latencies of the edges, and
                 thereby influence the induced Nash equilibrium. We
                 obtain results demonstrating the effectiveness of both
                 Stackelberg strategies and tolls in controlling the
                 price of anarchy. For Stackelberg strategies, we obtain
                 the first results for nonatomic routing in graphs more
                 general than parallel-link graphs, and strengthen
                 existing results for parallel-link graphs. (i) In
                 series-parallel graphs, we show that Stackelberg
                 routing reduces the PoA to a constant (depending on the
                 fraction of flow controlled). (ii) For general graphs,
                 we obtain latency-class specific bounds on the PoA with
                 Stackelberg routing, which give a continuous trade-off
                 between the fraction of flow controlled and the price
                 of anarchy. (iii) In parallel-link graphs, we show that
                 for any given class L of latency functions, Stackelberg
                 routing reduces the PoA to at most {$ \alpha + (1 -
                 \alpha) c \rho (L) $}, where {$ \alpha $} is the
                 fraction of flow controlled and {$ \rho (L) $} is the
                 PoA of class {$L$} (when {$ \alpha = 0 $} ). For
                 network tolls, motivated by the known strong results
                 for nonatomic games, we consider the more general
                 setting of atomic splittable routing games. We show
                 that tolls inducing an optimal flow always exist, even
                 for general asymmetric games with heterogeneous users,
                 and can be computed efficiently by solving a convex
                 program. This resolves a basic open question about the
                 effectiveness of tolls for atomic splittable games.
                 Furthermore, we give a complete characterization of
                 flows that can be induced via tolls.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "36",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Czyzowicz:2012:HMA,
  author =       "Jurek Czyzowicz and Andrzej Pelc and Arnaud Labourel",
  title =        "How to meet asynchronously (almost) everywhere",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "37:1--37:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344427",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Two mobile agents (robots) with distinct labels have
                 to meet in an arbitrary, possibly infinite, unknown
                 connected graph or in an unknown connected terrain in
                 the plane. Agents are modeled as points, and the route
                 of each of them only depends on its label and on the
                 unknown environment. The actual walk of each agent also
                 depends on an asynchronous adversary that may
                 arbitrarily vary the speed of the agent, stop it, or
                 even move it back and forth, as long as the walk of the
                 agent is continuous, does not leave its route and
                 covers all of it. Meeting in a graph means that both
                 agents must be at the same time in some node or in some
                 point inside an edge of the graph, while meeting in a
                 terrain means that both agents must be at the same time
                 in some point of the terrain. Does there exist a
                 deterministic algorithm that allows any two agents to
                 meet in any unknown environment in spite of this very
                 powerful adversary? We give deterministic rendezvous
                 algorithms for agents starting at arbitrary nodes of
                 any anonymous connected graph (finite or infinite) and
                 for agents starting at any interior points with
                 rational coordinates in any closed region of the plane
                 with path-connected interior. In the geometric scenario
                 agents may have different compasses and different units
                 of length. While our algorithms work in a very general
                 setting --- agents can, indeed, meet almost everywhere
                 --- we show that none of these few limitations imposed
                 on the environment can be removed. On the other hand,
                 our algorithm also guarantees the following approximate
                 rendezvous for agents starting at arbitrary interior
                 points of a terrain as previously stated agents will
                 eventually get to within an arbitrarily small positive
                 distance from each other.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "37",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Binkele-Raible:2012:KPN,
  author =       "Daniel Binkele-Raible and Henning Fernau and Fedor V.
                 Fomin and Daniel Lokshtanov and Saket Saurabh and Yngve
                 Villanger",
  title =        "Kernel(s) for problems with no kernel: On out-trees
                 with many leaves",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "38:1--38:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344428",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The $k$-Leaf Out-Branching problem is to find an
                 out-branching, that is a rooted oriented spanning tree,
                 with at least k leaves in a given digraph. The problem
                 has recently received much attention from the viewpoint
                 of parameterized algorithms. Here, we take a
                 kernelization based approach to the
                 $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching problem. We give the first
                 polynomial kernel for Rooted $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching, a
                 variant of $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching where the root of the
                 tree searched for is also a part of the input. Our
                 kernel with O(k$^3$ ) vertices is obtained using
                 extremal combinatorics. For the $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching
                 problem, we show that no polynomial-sized kernel is
                 possible unless coNP is in NP/poly. However, our
                 positive results for Rooted $k$-Leaf-Out-Branching
                 immediately imply that the seemingly intractable k
                 Leaf-Out-Branching problem admits a data reduction to
                 $n$ independent polynomial-sized kernels. These two
                 results, tractability and intractability side by side,
                 are the first ones separating Karp kernelization from
                 Turing kernelization. This answers affirmatively an
                 open problem regarding ``cheat kernelization'' raised
                 by Mike Fellows and Jiong Guo independently.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "38",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Im:2012:OSA,
  author =       "Sungjin Im and Benjamin Moseley",
  title =        "An online scalable algorithm for average flow time in
                 broadcast scheduling",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "39:1--39:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344429",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, the online pull-based broadcast model
                 is considered. In this model, there are $n$ pages of
                 data stored at a server and requests arrive for pages
                 online. When the server broadcasts page p, all
                 outstanding requests for the same page p are
                 simultaneously satisfied. We consider the problem of
                 minimizing average (total) flow time online where all
                 pages are unit-sized. For this problem, there has been
                 a decade-long search for an online algorithm which is
                 scalable, that is, $ (1 + \epsilon) $-speed {$ O(1)
                 $}-competitive for any fixed {$ \epsilon > 0 $}. In
                 this article, we give the first analysis of an online
                 scalable algorithm.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "39",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Karakostas:2012:FMT,
  author =       "George Karakostas and Stavros G. Kolliopoulos and Jing
                 Wang",
  title =        "An {FPTAS} for the minimum total weighted tardiness
                 problem with a fixed number of distinct due dates",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40:1--40:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344430",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given a sequencing of jobs on a single machine, each
                 one with a weight, processing time, and a due date, the
                 tardiness of a job is the time needed for its
                 completion beyond its due date. We present an FPTAS for
                 the basic scheduling problem of minimizing the total
                 weighted tardiness when the number of distinct due
                 dates is fixed. Previously, an FPTAS was known only for
                 the case where all jobs have a common due date.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "40",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Deshpande:2012:PPF,
  author =       "Amol Deshpande and Lisa Hellerstein",
  title =        "Parallel pipelined filter ordering with precedence
                 constraints",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41:1--41:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344431",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In the parallel pipelined filter ordering problem, we
                 are given a set of $n$ filters that run in parallel.
                 The filters need to be applied to a stream of elements,
                 to determine which elements pass all filters. Each
                 filter has a rate limit r$_i$ on the number of elements
                 it can process per unit time, and a selectivity p$_i$,
                 which is the probability that a random element will
                 pass the filter. The goal is to maximize throughput.
                 This problem appears naturally in a variety of
                 settings, including parallel query optimization in
                 databases and query processing over Web services. We
                 present an O( n$^3$ ) algorithm for this problem, given
                 tree-structured precedence constraints on the filters.
                 This extends work of Condon et al. [2009] and Kodialam
                 [2001], who presented algorithms for solving the
                 problem without precedence constraints. Our algorithm
                 is combinatorial and produces a sparse solution.
                 Motivated by join operators in database queries, we
                 also give algorithms for versions of the problem in
                 which ``filter'' selectivities may be greater than or
                 equal to 1. We prove a strong connection between the
                 more classical problem of minimizing total work in
                 sequential filter ordering (A), and the parallel
                 pipelined filter ordering problem (B). More precisely,
                 we prove that A is solvable in polynomial time for a
                 given class of precedence constraints if and only if B
                 is as well. This equivalence allows us to show that B
                 is NP-Hard in the presence of arbitrary precedence
                 constraints (since A is known to be NP-Hard in that
                 setting).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "41",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{He:2012:SOT,
  author =       "Meng He and J. Ian Munro and Srinivasa Rao Satti",
  title =        "Succinct ordinal trees based on tree covering",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42:1--42:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344432",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Various methods have been used to represent a tree on
                 $n$ nodes in essentially the information-theoretic
                 minimum space while supporting various navigational
                 operations in constant time, but different
                 representations usually support different operations.
                 Our main contribution is a succinct representation of
                 ordinal trees, based on that of Geary et al. [2006],
                 that supports all the navigational operations supported
                 by various succinct tree representations while
                 requiring only 2 n + o (n) bits. It also supports
                 efficient level-order traversal, a useful ordering
                 previously supported only with a very limited set of
                 operations. Our second contribution expands on the
                 notion of a single succinct representation supporting
                 more than one traversal ordering, by showing that our
                 method supports two other encoding schemes as abstract
                 data types. In particular, it supports extracting a
                 word ({$ O(\lg n) $} bits) of the balanced parenthesis
                 sequence or depth first unary degree sequence in {$ O(f
                 (n)) $} time, using at most {$ n / f (n) + o (n) $}
                 additional bits, for any {$ f(n) $} in {$ O(\lg n) $}
                 and {$ \Omega (1) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "42",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Agarwal:2012:RSU,
  author =       "Pankaj K. Agarwal and Siu-Wing Cheng and Ke Yi",
  title =        "Range searching on uncertain data",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "43:1--43:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344433",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Querying uncertain data has emerged as an important
                 problem in data management due to the imprecise nature
                 of many measurement data. In this article, we study
                 answering range queries over uncertain data.
                 Specifically, we are given a collection {$P$} of {$n$}
                 uncertain points in {$R$}, each represented by its
                 one-dimensional probability density function (pdf). The
                 goal is to build a data structure on {$P$} such that,
                 given a query interval {$I$} and a probability
                 threshold {$ \tau $}, we can quickly report all points
                 of {$P$} that lie in {$I$} with probability at least {$
                 \tau $}. We present various structures with linear or
                 near-linear space and (poly)logarithmic query time. Our
                 structures support pdf's that are either histograms or
                 more complex ones such as Gaussian or piecewise
                 algebraic.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "43",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Andoni:2012:SCE,
  author =       "Alexandr Andoni and Robert Krauthgamer",
  title =        "The smoothed complexity of edit distance",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "44:1--44:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2344422.2344434",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:02 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We initiate the study of the smoothed complexity of
                 sequence alignment, by proposing a semi-random model of
                 edit distance between two input strings, generated as
                 follows: First, an adversary chooses two binary strings
                 of length d and a longest common subsequence A of them.
                 Then, every character is perturbed independently with
                 probability p, except that A is perturbed in exactly
                 the same way inside the two strings. We design two
                 efficient algorithms that compute the edit distance on
                 smoothed instances up to a constant factor
                 approximation. The first algorithm runs in near-linear
                 time, namely d$^{{1 + \epsilon}}$ for any fixed $
                 \epsilon > 0 $. The second one runs in time sublinear
                 in $d$, assuming the edit distance is not too small.
                 These approximation and runtime guarantees are
                 significantly better than the bounds that were known
                 for worst-case inputs. Our technical contribution is
                 twofold. First, we rely on finding matches between
                 substrings in the two strings, where two substrings are
                 considered a match if their edit distance is relatively
                 small, a prevailing technique in commonly used
                 heuristics, such as PatternHunter of Ma et al. [2002].
                 Second, we effectively reduce the smoothed edit
                 distance to a simpler variant of (worst-case) edit
                 distance, namely, edit distance on permutations (a.k.a.
                 Ulam's metric). We are thus able to build on algorithms
                 developed for the Ulam metric, whose much better
                 algorithmic guarantees usually do not carry over to
                 general edit distance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "44",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Nutov:2012:AMC,
  author =       "Zeev Nutov",
  title =        "Approximating minimum-cost connectivity problems via
                 uncrossable bifamilies",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390177",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give approximation algorithms for the Survivable
                 Network problem. The input consists of a graph $ G =
                 (V, E) $ with edge/node-costs, a node subset $ S
                 \subseteq V $, and connectivity requirements $ \{ r(s,
                 t) : s, t \in T \subseteq V \} $. The goal is to find a
                 minimum cost subgraph $H$ of $G$ that for all $ s, t
                 \in T $ contains $ r(s, t) $ pairwise edge-disjoint $ s
                 t $-paths such that no two of them have a node in $ S
                 \{ s, t \} $ in common. Three extensively studied
                 particular cases are: Edge-Connectivity Survivable
                 Network ($ S = \oslash $ ), Node-Connectivity
                 Survivable Network ($ S = V $ ), and
                 Element-Connectivity Survivable Network ($ r(s, t) = 0
                 $ whenever $ s \in S $ or $ t \in S $ ). Let $ k = \max
                 \{_{s, t \in T} \} r(s, t) $. In Rooted Survivable
                 Network, there is $ s \in T $ such that $ r(u, t) = 0 $
                 for all $ u \neq s $, and in the Subset $k$-Connected
                 Subgraph problem $ r(s, t) = k $ for all $ s, t \in T
                 $. For edge-costs, our ratios are $ O(k \log k) $ for
                 Rooted Survivable Network and $ O(k^2 \log k) $ for
                 Subset $k$-Connected Subgraph. This improves the
                 previous ratio $ O(k^2 \log n) $, and for constant
                 values of $k$ settles the approximability of these
                 problems to a constant. For node-costs, our ratios are
                 as follows. --- $ O(k \log | T |) $ for
                 Element-Connectivity Survivable Network, matching the
                 best known ratio for Edge-Connectivity Survivable
                 Network. --- $ O(k^2 \log | T |) $ for Rooted
                 Survivable Network and $ O(k^3 \log | T |) $ for Subset
                 $k$-Connected Subgraph, improving the ratio $ O(k^8
                 \log^2 | T |) $. --- $ O(k^4 \log^2 | T |) $ for
                 Survivable Network; this is the first nontrivial
                 approximation algorithm for the node-costs version of
                 the problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Hajiaghayi:2012:PCS,
  author =       "Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi and Rohit Khandekar and Guy
                 Kortsarz and Zeev Nutov",
  title =        "Prize-collecting {Steiner} network problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390178",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In the Steiner Network problem, we are given a graph
                 {$G$} with edge-costs and connectivity requirements {$
                 r_{u v} $} between node pairs {$ u, v $}. The goal is
                 to find a minimum-cost subgraph {$H$} of {$G$} that
                 contains {$ r_{uv} $} edge-disjoint paths for all {$ u,
                 v \in V $}. In Prize-Collecting Steiner Network
                 problems, we do not need to satisfy all requirements,
                 but are given a penalty function for violating the
                 connectivity requirements, and the goal is to find a
                 subgraph {$H$} that minimizes the cost plus the
                 penalty. The case when {$ r_{uv} \in \{ 0, 1 \} $} is
                 the classic Prize-Collecting Steiner Forest problem. In
                 this article, we present a novel linear programming
                 relaxation for the Prize-Collecting Steiner Network
                 problem, and by rounding it, obtain the first
                 constant-factor approximation algorithm for submodular
                 and monotone nondecreasing penalty functions. In
                 particular, our setting includes all-or-nothing penalty
                 functions, which charge the penalty even if the
                 connectivity requirement is slightly violated; this
                 resolves an open question posed by Nagarajan et al.
                 [2008]. We further generalize our results for
                 element-connectivity and node-connectivity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Awerbuch:2012:DAM,
  author =       "Baruch Awerbuch and Rohit Khandekar and Satish Rao",
  title =        "Distributed algorithms for multicommodity flow
                 problems via approximate steepest descent framework",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390179",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider solutions for distributed multicommodity
                 flow problems, which are solved by multiple agents
                 operating in a cooperative but uncoordinated manner. We
                 show first distributed solutions that allow $ (1 +
                 \epsilon) $ approximation and whose convergence time is
                 essentially linear in the maximal path length, and is
                 independent of the number of commodities and the size
                 of the graph. Our algorithms use a very natural
                 approximate steepest descent framework, combined with a
                 blocking flow technique to speed up the convergence in
                 distributed and parallel environment. Previously known
                 solutions that achieved comparable convergence time and
                 approximation ratio required exponential computational
                 and space overhead per agent.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chen:2012:CRS,
  author =       "Wei Chen and Christian Sommer and Shang-Hua Teng and
                 Yajun Wang",
  title =        "A compact routing scheme and approximate distance
                 oracle for power-law graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390180",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Compact routing addresses the tradeoff between table
                 sizes and stretch, which is the worst-case ratio
                 between the length of the path a packet is routed
                 through by the scheme and the length of an actual
                 shortest path from source to destination. We adapt the
                 compact routing scheme by Thorup and Zwick [2001] to
                 optimize it for power-law graphs. We analyze our
                 adapted routing scheme based on the theory of
                 unweighted random power-law graphs with fixed expected
                 degree sequence by Aiello et al. [2000]. Our result is
                 the first analytical bound coupled to the parameter of
                 the power-law graph model for a compact routing scheme.
                 Let $n$ denote the number of nodes in the network. We
                 provide a labeled routing scheme that, after a
                 stretch--5 handshaking step (similar to DNS lookup in
                 TCP/IP), routes messages along stretch--3 paths. We
                 prove that, instead of routing tables with {$ \tilde
                 {O}(n^{1 / 2}) $} bits ({$ \tilde {O} $} suppresses
                 factors logarithmic in {$n$} ) as in the general scheme
                 by Thorup and Zwick, expected sizes of {$ O(n^\gamma
                 \log n) $} bits are sufficient, and that all the
                 routing tables can be constructed at once in expected
                 time {$ O(n^{1 + \gamma} \log n) $}, with {$ \gamma =
                 \tau - 22 / \tau - 3 + \epsilon $}, where {$ \tau \in
                 (2, 3) $} is the power-law exponent and {$ \epsilon 0
                 $} (which implies $ \epsilon < \gamma < 1 / 3 +
                 \epsilon $ ). Both bounds also hold with probability at
                 least $ 1 - 1 / n $ (independent of $ \epsilon $ ). The
                 routing scheme is a labeled scheme, requiring a
                 stretch--5 handshaking step. The scheme uses addresses
                 and message headers with {$ O(\log n \log \log n) $}
                 bits, with probability at least {$ 1 - o(1) $}. We
                 further demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme by
                 simulations on real-world graphs as well as synthetic
                 power-law graphs. With the same techniques as for the
                 compact routing scheme, we also adapt the approximate
                 distance oracle by Thorup and Zwick [2001, 2005] for
                 stretch-3 and we obtain a new upper bound of expected
                 {$ \tilde {O}(n^{1 + \gamma}) $} for space and
                 preprocessing for random power-law graphs. Our distance
                 oracle is the first one optimized for power-law graphs.
                 Furthermore, we provide a linear-space data structure
                 that can answer 5--approximate distance queries in time
                 at most {$ \tilde {O}(n^{1 / 4 + \epsilon}) $} (similar
                 to {$ \gamma $}, the exponent actually depends on {$
                 \tau $} and lies between {$ \epsilon $} and $ 1 / 4 +
                 \epsilon $ ).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Jez:2012:OSP,
  author =       "Lukasz Jez and Fei Li and Jay Sethuraman and Clifford
                 Stein",
  title =        "Online scheduling of packets with agreeable
                 deadlines",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390181",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article concerns an online packet scheduling
                 problem that arises as a natural model for buffer
                 management at a network router. Packets arrive at a
                 router at integer time steps, and are buffered upon
                 arrival. Packets have non-negative weights and integer
                 deadlines that are (weakly) increasing in their arrival
                 times. In each integer time step, at most one packet
                 can be sent. The objective is to maximize the sum of
                 the weights of the packets that are sent by their
                 deadlines. The main results include an optimal $ (\phi
                 := (1 + \sqrt 5) / 2 \approx 1.618) $-competitive
                 deterministic online algorithm, a $ (4 / 3 \approx
                 1.33) $-competitive randomized online algorithm against
                 an oblivious adversary, and a $2$-speed $1$-competitive
                 deterministic online algorithm. The analysis does not
                 use a potential function explicitly, but instead
                 modifies the adversary's buffer and credits the
                 adversary to account for these modifications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bonifaci:2012:ACP,
  author =       "Vincenzo Bonifaci and Ho-Leung Chan and Alberto
                 Marchetti-Spaccamela and Nicole Megow",
  title =        "Algorithms and complexity for periodic real-time
                 scheduling",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390182",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We investigate the preemptive scheduling of periodic
                 tasks with hard deadlines. We show that, even in the
                 uniprocessor case, no pseudopolynomial-time algorithm
                 can test the feasibility of a task system within a
                 constant speedup bound, unless P = NP. This result
                 contrasts with recent results for sporadic task
                 systems. For two special cases, synchronous task
                 systems and systems with a constant number of different
                 task types, we provide the first polynomial-time
                 constant-speedup feasibility tests for multiprocessor
                 platforms. Furthermore, we show that the problem of
                 testing feasibility is coNP-hard for synchronous
                 multiprocessor task systems. The complexity of some of
                 these problems has been open for a long time. We also
                 propose a weight maximization variant of the
                 feasibility problem, where every task has a nonnegative
                 weight, and the goal is to find a subset of tasks that
                 can be scheduled feasibly and has maximum weight. We
                 give the first constant-speed, constant-approximation
                 algorithm for the case of synchronous task systems,
                 together with related hardness results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Halldorsson:2012:WSP,
  author =       "Magn{\'u}s M. Halld{\'o}rsson",
  title =        "Wireless scheduling with power control",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390183",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the scheduling of arbitrary wireless links
                 in the physical model of interference to minimize the
                 time for satisfying all requests. We study here the
                 combined problem of scheduling and power control, where
                 we seek both an assignment of power settings and a
                 partition of the links so that each set satisfies the
                 signal-to-interference-plus-noise (SINR) constraints.
                 We give an algorithm that attains an approximation
                 ratio of {$ O(\log n c \log \log \Delta) $}, where
                 {$n$} is the number of links and {$ \Delta $} is the
                 ratio between the longest and the shortest link length.
                 Under the natural assumption that lengths are
                 represented in binary, this gives the first
                 approximation ratio that is polylogarithmic in the size
                 of the input. The algorithm has the desirable property
                 of using an oblivious power assignment, where the power
                 assigned to a sender depends only on the length of the
                 link. We give evidence that this dependence on {$
                 \Delta $} is unavoidable, showing that any reasonably
                 behaving oblivious power assignment results in a {$
                 \Omega (\log \log \Delta) $}-approximation. These
                 results hold also for the (weighted) capacity problem
                 of finding a maximum (weighted) subset of links that
                 can be scheduled in a single time slot. In addition, we
                 obtain improved approximation for a bidirectional
                 variant of the scheduling problem, give partial answers
                 to questions about the utility of graphs for modeling
                 physical interference, and generalize the setting from
                 the standard {$2$}-dimensional Euclidean plane to
                 doubling metrics. Finally, we explore the utility of
                 graph models in capturing wireless interference.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ebrahimi:2012:CAW,
  author =       "Javad B. Ebrahimi and Christina Fragouli",
  title =        "Combinatiorial algorithms for wireless information
                 flow",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390184",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A long-standing open question in information theory is
                 to characterize the unicast capacity of a wireless
                 relay network. The difficulty arises due to the complex
                 signal interactions induced in the network, since the
                 wireless channel inherently broadcasts the signals and
                 there is interference among transmissions. Recently,
                 Avestimehr et al. [2007b] proposed a linear
                 deterministic model that takes into account the shared
                 nature of wireless channels, focusing on the signal
                 interactions rather than the background noise. They
                 generalized the min-cut max-flow theorem for graphs to
                 networks of deterministic channels and proved that the
                 capacity can be achieved using information theoretical
                 tools. They showed that the value of the minimum cut is
                 in this case the minimum rank of all the adjacency
                 matrices describing source-destination cuts. In this
                 article, we develop a polynomial-time algorithm that
                 discovers the relay encoding strategy to achieve the
                 min-cut value in linear deterministic (wireless)
                 networks, for the case of a unicast connection. Our
                 algorithm crucially uses a notion of linear
                 independence between channels to calculate the capacity
                 in polynomial time. Moreover, we can achieve the
                 capacity by using very simple one-symbol processing at
                 the intermediate nodes, thereby constructively yielding
                 finite-length strategies that achieve the unicast
                 capacity of the linear deterministic (wireless) relay
                 network.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chekuri:2012:SMP,
  author =       "Chandra Chekuri and Kenneth L. Clarkson and Sariel
                 Har-Peled",
  title =        "On the set multicover problem in geometric settings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390185",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the set multicover problem in geometric
                 settings. Given a set of points {$P$} and a collection
                 of geometric shapes (or sets) {$F$}, we wish to find a
                 minimum cardinality subset of {$F$} such that each
                 point {$ p \in P $} is covered by (contained in) at
                 least {$ d(p) $} sets. Here, {$ d(p) $} is an integer
                 demand (requirement) for {$p$}. When the demands $ d(p)
                 = 1 $ for all $p$, this is the standard set cover
                 problem. The set cover problem in geometric settings
                 admits an approximation ratio that is better than that
                 for the general version. In this article, we show that
                 similar improvements can be obtained for the multicover
                 problem as well. In particular, we obtain an {$ O(\log
                 {\rm opt}) $} approximation for set systems of bounded
                 VC-dimension, and an {$ O(1) $} approximation for
                 covering points by half-spaces in three dimensions and
                 for some other classes of shapes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Giesen:2012:APC,
  author =       "Joachim Giesen and Martin Jaggi and S{\"o}ren Laue",
  title =        "Approximating parameterized convex optimization
                 problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390186",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider parameterized convex optimization problems
                 over the unit simplex, that depend on one parameter. We
                 provide a simple and efficient scheme for maintaining
                 an $ \epsilon $-approximate solution (and a
                 corresponding $ \epsilon $-coreset) along the entire
                 parameter path. We prove correctness and optimality of
                 the method. Practically relevant instances of the
                 abstract parameterized optimization problem are for
                 example regularization paths of support vector
                 machines, multiple kernel learning, and minimum
                 enclosing balls of moving points.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Philip:2012:PKD,
  author =       "Geevarghese Philip and Venkatesh Raman and Somnath
                 Sikdar",
  title =        "Polynomial kernels for dominating set in graphs of
                 bounded degeneracy and beyond",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390187",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show that for every fixed $ j \geq i \geq 1 $, the
                 $k$-Dominating Set problem restricted to graphs that
                 do not have {$ K_{ij} $} (the complete bipartite graph
                 on {$ (i + j) $} vertices, where the two parts have
                 {$i$} and {$j$} vertices, respectively) as a subgraph
                 is fixed parameter tractable (FPT) and has a polynomial
                 kernel. We describe a polynomial-time algorithm that,
                 given a {$ K_{i, j} $}-free graph {$G$} and a
                 nonnegative integer {$k$}, constructs a graph {$H$}
                 (the ``kernel'') and an integer {$ k' $} such that (1)
                 {$G$} has a dominating set of size at most {$k$} if and
                 only if {$H$} has a dominating set of size at most {$
                 k' $}, (2) {$H$} has {$ O((j + 1)^{i + 1} k^{i^2}) $}
                 vertices, and (3) {$ k' = O((j + 1)^{i + 1} k^{i^2})
                 $}. Since {$d$}-degenerate graphs do not have {$ K_{d +
                 1, d + 1} $} as a subgraph, this immediately yields a
                 polynomial kernel on {$ O((d + 2)^{d + 2} {k^{(d +
                 1)}}^2) $} vertices for the {$k$}-Dominating Set
                 problem on {$d$}-degenerate graphs, solving an open
                 problem posed by Alon and Gutner [Alon and Gutner 2008;
                 Gutner 2009]. The most general class of graphs for
                 which a polynomial kernel was previously known for
                 {$k$}-Dominating Set is the class of {$ K_h
                 $}-topological-minor-free graphs [Gutner 2009]. Graphs
                 of bounded degeneracy are the most general class of
                 graphs for which an FPT algorithm was previously known
                 for this problem. {$ K_h $}-topological-minor-free
                 graphs are {$ K_{i, j} $}-free for suitable values of
                 {$i$}, {$j$} (but not vice-versa), and so our results
                 show that {$k$}-Dominating Set has both FPT algorithms
                 and polynomial kernels in strictly more general classes
                 of graphs. Using the same techniques, we also obtain an
                 {$ O(j k^i) $} vertex-kernel for the {$k$}-Independent
                 Dominating Set problem on {$ K_{i, j} $}-free graphs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bodlaender:2012:EAT,
  author =       "Hans L. Bodlaender and Fedor V. Fomin and Arie M. C.
                 A. Koster and Dieter Kratsch and Dimitrios M.
                 Thilikos",
  title =        "On exact algorithms for treewidth",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390188",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give experimental and theoretical results on the
                 problem of computing the treewidth of a graph by exact
                 exponential-time algorithms using exponential space or
                 using only polynomial space. We first report on an
                 implementation of a dynamic programming algorithm for
                 computing the treewidth of a graph with running time O
                 *(2 $^n$ ). This algorithm is based on the old dynamic
                 programming method introduced by Held and Karp for the
                 Traveling Salesman problem. We use some optimizations
                 that do not affect the worst case running time but
                 improve on the running time on actual instances and can
                 be seen to be practical for small instances. We also
                 consider the problem of computing Treewidth under the
                 restriction that the space used is only polynomial and
                 give a simple O *(4 $^n$ ) algorithm that requires
                 polynomial space. We also show that with a more
                 complicated algorithm using balanced separators,
                 Treewidth can be computed in O *(2.9512 $^n$ ) time and
                 polynomial space.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Amir:2012:CDC,
  author =       "Amihood Amir and Estrella Eisenberg and Avivit Levy
                 and Ely Porat and Natalie Shapira",
  title =        "Cycle detection and correction",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2390176.2390189",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 2 10:10:04 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Assume that a natural cyclic phenomenon has been
                 measured, but the data is corrupted by errors. The type
                 of corruption is application-dependent and may be
                 caused by measurements errors, or natural features of
                 the phenomenon. We assume that an appropriate metric
                 exists, which measures the amount of corruption
                 experienced. This article studies the problem of
                 recovering the correct cycle from data corrupted by
                 various error models, formally defined as the period
                 recovery problem. Specifically, we define a metric
                 property which we call pseudolocality and study the
                 period recovery problem under pseudolocal metrics.
                 Examples of pseudolocal metrics are the Hamming
                 distance, the swap distance, and the interchange (or
                 Cayley) distance. We show that for pseudolocal metrics,
                 periodicity is a powerful property allowing detecting
                 the original cycle and correcting the data, under
                 suitable conditions. Some surprising features of our
                 algorithm are that we can efficiently identify the
                 period in the corrupted data, up to a number of
                 possibilities logarithmic in the length of the data
                 string, even for metrics whose calculation is NP-hard.
                 For the Hamming metric, we can reconstruct the
                 corrupted data in near-linear time even for unbounded
                 alphabets. This result is achieved using the property
                 of separation in the self-convolution vector and
                 Reed--Solomon codes. Finally, we employ our techniques
                 beyond the scope of pseudo-local metrics and give a
                 recovery algorithm for the non-pseudolocal Levenshtein
                 edit metric.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Weimann:2013:RPD,
  author =       "Oren Weimann and Raphael Yuster",
  title =        "Replacement Paths and Distance Sensitivity Oracles via
                 Fast Matrix Multiplication",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2438645.2438646",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:37 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A distance sensitivity oracle of an $n$-vertex graph
                 {$ G = (V, E) $} is a data structure that can report
                 shortest paths when edges of the graph fail. A query
                 ({$ u \in V $}, {$ v \in V $}, {$ S \subseteq E $}) to
                 this oracle returns a shortest $u$-to-$v$ path in the
                 graph {$ G^' = (V, E \backslash S) $}. We present
                 randomized (Monte Carlo) algorithms for constructing a
                 distance sensitivity oracle of size {$ \tilde {O}(n^{3
                 - \alpha }) $} for {$ | S | = O(\lg n / \lg \lg n) $}
                 and any choice of $ 0 < \alpha < 1 $. For real
                 edge-lengths, the oracle is constructed in {$ O(n^{4 -
                 \alpha }) $} time and a query to this oracle takes {$
                 \tilde {O} (n^{2 - 2(1 - \alpha) / |S|}) $} time. For
                 integral edge-lengths in {$ \{ - M, \ldots {}, M \} $},
                 using the current $ \omega < 2.376 $ matrix
                 multiplication exponent, the oracle is constructed in
                 {$ O(M n^{3.376 - \alpha }) $} time with {$ \tilde
                 {O}({n^{2 - (1 - \alpha) / |S|}}) $} query, or
                 alternatively in {$ O(M^{0.681} n^{3.575 - \alpha }) $}
                 time with {$ \tilde {O}(n^{2 - 2(1 - \alpha) / |S|}) $}
                 query. Distance sensitivity oracles generalize the
                 replacement paths problem in which $u$ and $v$ are
                 known in advance and {$ | S | = 1 $}. In other words,
                 if {$P$} is a shortest path from $u$ to $v$ in {$G$},
                 then the replacement paths problem asks to compute, for
                 every edge $e$ on {$P$}, a shortest $u$-to-$v$ path
                 that avoids $e$. Our new technique for constructing
                 distance sensitivity oracles using fast matrix
                 multiplication also yields the first subcubic-time
                 algorithm for the replacement paths problem when the
                 edge-lengths are small integers. In particular, it
                 yields a randomized (Monte Carlo) {$ \tilde {O}(M
                 n^{2.376} + M^{2 / 3} n^{2.584}) $}-time algorithm for
                 the replacement paths problem assuming {$ M \leq
                 n^{0.624} $}. Finally, we mention that both our
                 replacement paths algorithm and our distance
                 sensitivity oracle can be made to work, in the same
                 time and space bounds, for the case of failed vertices
                 rather than edges, that is, when {$S$} is a set of
                 vertices and we seek a shortest $u$-to-$v$ path in the
                 graph obtained from {$G$} by removing all vertices in
                 {$S$} and their adjacent edges.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Roditty:2013:AG,
  author =       "Liam Roditty and Roei Tov",
  title =        "Approximating the Girth",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2438645.2438647",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:37 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article considers the problem of computing a
                 minimum weight cycle in weighted undirected graphs.
                 Given a weighted undirected graph {$ G = (V, E, w) $},
                 let {$C$} be a minimum weight cycle of G, let w (C) be
                 the weight of {$C$}, and let {$ w_{\rm max}(C) $} be
                 the weight of the maximum edge of {$C$}. We obtain
                 three new approximation algorithms for the minimum
                 weight cycle problem: (1) for integral weights from the
                 range {$ [1, M] $}, an algorithm that reports a cycle
                 of weight at most {$ 4 / 3 w (C) $} in {$ O(n^2 \log n
                 (\log n + \log M)) $} time; (2) For integral weights
                 from the range {$ [1, M] $}, an algorithm that reports
                 a cycle of weight at most {$ w(C) + w_{\rm max}(C) $}
                 in {$ O(n^2 \log n (\log n + \log M)) $} time; (3) For
                 nonnegative real edge weights, an algorithm that for
                 any $ \epsilon > 0 $ reports a cycle of weight at most
                 {$ (4 / 3 + \epsilon) w(C) $} in {$ O(1 \epsilon n^2
                 \log n (\log \log n)) $} time. In a recent
                 breakthrough, Williams and Williams [2010] showed that
                 a subcubic algorithm, that computes the exact minimum
                 weight cycle in undirected graphs with integral weights
                 from the range {$ [1, M] $}, implies a subcubic
                 algorithm for computing all-pairs shortest paths in
                 directed graphs with integral weights from the range {$
                 [ - M, M] $}. This implies that in order to get a
                 subcubic algorithm for computing a minimum weight
                 cycle, we have to relax the problem and to consider an
                 approximated solution. Lingas and Lundell [2009] were
                 the first to consider approximation in the context of
                 minimum weight cycle in weighted graphs. They presented
                 a 2-approximation algorithm for integral weights with
                 {$ O(n^2 \log n (\log n + \log M)) $} running time.
                 They also posed, as an open problem, the question
                 whether it is possible to obtain a subcubic algorithm
                 with a $c$ approximation, where $ c < 2 $. The current
                 article answers this question in the affirmative, by
                 presenting an algorithm with 4/3-approximation and the
                 same running time. Surprisingly, the approximation
                 factor of 4/3 is not accidental. We show, using the new
                 result of Williams and Williams [2010], that a subcubic
                 combinatorial algorithm with $ (4 / 3 - \epsilon)
                 $-approximation, where $ 0 < \epsilon \leq 1 / 3 $,
                 implies a subcubic combinatorial algorithm for
                 multiplying two boolean matrices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Kawarabayashi:2013:LAA,
  author =       "Ken-Ichi Kawarabayashi and Yusuke Kobayashi",
  title =        "An {$ O(\log n) $}-Approximation Algorithm for the
                 Edge-Disjoint Paths Problem in {Eulerian} Planar
                 Graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2438645.2438648",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:37 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we study an approximation algorithm
                 for the maximum edge-disjoint paths problem. In this
                 problem, we are given a graph and a collection of pairs
                 of vertices, and the objective is to find the maximum
                 number of pairs that can be connected by edge-disjoint
                 paths. We give an {$ O(\log n) $}-approximation
                 algorithm for the maximum edge-disjoint paths problem
                 when an input graph is either 4-edge-connected planar
                 or Eulerian planar. This improves an {$ O(\log^2 n)
                 $}-approximation algorithm given by Kleinberg [2005]
                 for Eulerian planar graphs. Our result also generalizes
                 the result by Chekuri et al. [2004, 2005] who gave an
                 {$ O(\log n) $}-approximation algorithm for the maximum
                 edge-disjoint paths problem with congestion two when an
                 input graph is planar.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Fraigniaud:2013:DIE,
  author =       "Pierre Fraigniaud and Andrzej Pelc",
  title =        "Delays Induce an Exponential Memory Gap for Rendezvous
                 in Trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2438645.2438649",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:37 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The aim of rendezvous in a graph is meeting of two
                 mobile agents at some node of an unknown anonymous
                 connected graph. In this article, we focus on
                 rendezvous in trees, and, analogously to the efforts
                 that have been made for solving the exploration problem
                 with compact automata, we study the size of memory of
                 mobile agents that permits to solve the rendezvous
                 problem deterministically. We assume that the agents
                 are identical, and move in synchronous rounds. We first
                 show that if the delay between the starting times of
                 the agents is arbitrary, then the lower bound on memory
                 required for rendezvous is {$ \Omega (\log n) $} bits,
                 even for the line of length n. This lower bound meets a
                 previously known upper bound of {$ O(\log n) $} bits
                 for rendezvous in arbitrary graphs of size at most $n$.
                 Our main result is a proof that the amount of memory
                 needed for rendezvous with simultaneous start depends
                 essentially on the number $l$ of leaves of the tree,
                 and is exponentially less impacted by the number $n$ of
                 nodes. Indeed, we present two identical agents with {$
                 O(\log l + \log \log n) $} bits of memory that solve
                 the rendezvous problem in all trees with at most $n$
                 nodes and at most $l$ leaves. Hence, for the class of
                 trees with polylogarithmically many leaves, there is an
                 exponential gap in minimum memory size needed for
                 rendezvous between the scenario with arbitrary delay
                 and the scenario with delay zero. Moreover, we show
                 that our upper bound is optimal by proving that {$
                 \Omega (\log l + \log \log n) $} bits of memory are
                 required for rendezvous, even in the class of trees
                 with degrees bounded by 3.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bansal:2013:SSA,
  author =       "Nikhil Bansal and Ho-Leung Chan and Kirk Pruhs",
  title =        "Speed Scaling with an Arbitrary Power Function",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2438645.2438650",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:37 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article initiates a theoretical investigation
                 into online scheduling problems with speed scaling
                 where the allowable speeds may be discrete, and the
                 power function may be arbitrary, and develops
                 algorithmic analysis techniques for this setting. We
                 show that a natural algorithm, which uses Shortest
                 Remaining Processing Time for scheduling and sets the
                 power to be one more than the number of unfinished
                 jobs, is 3-competitive for the objective of total flow
                 time plus energy. We also show that another natural
                 algorithm, which uses Highest Density First for
                 scheduling and sets the power to be the fractional
                 weight of the unfinished jobs, is a 2-competitive
                 algorithm for the objective of fractional weighted flow
                 time plus energy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Hochbaum:2013:AAM,
  author =       "Dorit S. Hochbaum and Asaf Levin",
  title =        "Approximation Algorithms for a Minimization Variant of
                 the Order-Preserving Submatrices and for Biclustering
                 Problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2438645.2438651",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:37 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Finding a largest Order-Preserving SubMatrix, OPSM, is
                 an important problem arising in the discovery of
                 patterns in gene expression. Ben-Dor et al. formulated
                 the problem in Ben-Dor et al. [2003]. They further
                 showed that the problem is NP-complete and provided a
                 greedy heuristic for the problem. The complement of the
                 OPSM problem, called MinOPSM, is to delete the least
                 number of entries in the matrix so that the remaining
                 submatrix is order preserving. We devise a
                 5-approximation algorithm for the MinOPSM based on a
                 formulation of the problem as a quadratic, nonseparable
                 set cover problem. An alternative formulation combined
                 with a primal-dual algorithm improves the approximation
                 factor to 3. The complexity of both algorithms for a
                 matrix of size $ m \times n $ is {$ O(m^2 n) $}. We
                 further comment on the related biclustering problem.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chawla:2013:FSI,
  author =       "Shuchi Chawla and Prasad Raghavendra and Dana
                 Randall",
  title =        "Foreword to the {Special Issue on SODA'11}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483699.2483700",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:46 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ailon:2013:AOU,
  author =       "Nir Ailon and Edo Liberty",
  title =        "An Almost Optimal Unrestricted Fast
                 {Johnson--Lindenstrauss Transform}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483699.2483701",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:46 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The problems of random projections and sparse
                 reconstruction have much in common and individually
                 received much attention. Surprisingly, until now they
                 progressed in parallel and remained mostly separate.
                 Here, we employ new tools from probability in Banach
                 spaces that were successfully used in the context of
                 sparse reconstruction to advance on an open problem in
                 random projection. In particular, we generalize and use
                 an intricate result by Rudelson and Veshynin [2008] for
                 sparse reconstruction which uses Dudley's theorem for
                 bounding Gaussian processes. Our main result states
                 that any set of {$ N = \exp (\tilde {O}(n)) $} real
                 vectors in $n$-dimensional space can be linearly mapped
                 to a space of dimension {$ k = O(\log N \polylog (n))
                 $}, while (1) preserving the pairwise distances among
                 the vectors to within any constant distortion and (2)
                 being able to apply the transformation in time {$ O(n
                 \log n) $} on each vector. This improves on the best
                 known bound {$ N = \exp (\tilde {O}(n^{1 / 2})) $}
                 achieved by Ailon and Liberty [2009] and {$ N = e x
                 p(\tilde {O}(n^{1 / 3})) $} by Ailon and Chazelle
                 [2010]. The dependence in the distortion constant
                 however is suboptimal, and since the publication of an
                 early version of the work, the gap between upper and
                 lower bounds has been considerably tightened obtained
                 by Krahmer and Ward [2011]. For constant distortion,
                 this settles the open question posed by these authors
                 up to a $ \polylog (n) $ factor while considerably
                 simplifying their constructions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chan:2013:PPS,
  author =       "Timothy M. Chan",
  title =        "Persistent Predecessor Search and Orthogonal Point
                 Location on the Word {RAM}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483699.2483702",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:46 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We answer a basic data structuring question (e.g.,
                 raised by Dietz and Raman [1991]): Can van Emde Boas
                 trees be made persistent, without changing their
                 asymptotic query/update time? We present a (partially)
                 persistent data structure that supports predecessor
                 search in a set of integers in {$ \{ 1, \ldots {}, U \}
                 $} under an arbitrary sequence of n insertions and
                 deletions, with {$ O(\log \log U) $} expected query
                 time and expected amortized update time, and {$ O(n) $}
                 space. The query bound is optimal in {$U$} for
                 linear-space structures and improves previous near-{$
                 O((\log \log U)^2) $} methods. The same method solves a
                 fundamental problem from computational geometry: point
                 location in orthogonal planar subdivisions (where edges
                 are vertical or horizontal). We obtain the first static
                 data structure achieving {$ O(\log \log U) $}
                 worst-case query time and linear space. This result is
                 again optimal in {$U$} for linear-space structures and
                 improves the previous {$ O((\log \log U)^2) $} method
                 by de Berg et al. [1995]. The same result also holds
                 for higher-dimensional subdivisions that are orthogonal
                 binary space partitions, and for certain nonorthogonal
                 planar subdivisions such as triangulations without
                 small angles. Many geometric applications follow,
                 including improved query times for orthogonal range
                 reporting for dimensions $ \geq 3 $ on the RAM. Our key
                 technique is an interesting new van-Emde-Boas--style
                 recursion that alternates between two strategies, both
                 quite simple.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Daskalakis:2013:CAN,
  author =       "Constantinos Daskalakis",
  title =        "On the Complexity of Approximating a {Nash}
                 Equilibrium",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483699.2483703",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:46 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show that computing a relatively (i.e.,
                 multiplicatively as opposed to additively) approximate
                 Nash equilibrium in two-player games is PPAD-complete,
                 even for constant values of the approximation. Our
                 result is the first constant inapproximability result
                 for Nash equilibrium, since the original results on the
                 computational complexity of the problem [Daskalakis et
                 al. 2006a; Chen and Deng 2006]. Moreover, it provides
                 an apparent---assuming that PPAD is not contained in
                 TIME({$ n^{O(\log n)} $})---dichotomy between the
                 complexities of additive and relative approximations,
                 as for constant values of additive approximation a
                 quasi-polynomial-time algorithm is known [Lipton et al.
                 2003]. Such a dichotomy does not exist for values of
                 the approximation that scale inverse-polynomially with
                 the size of the game, where both relative and additive
                 approximations are PPAD-complete [Chen et al. 2006]. As
                 a byproduct, our proof shows that (unconditionally) the
                 sparse-support lemma [Lipton et al. 2003] cannot be
                 extended to relative notions of constant
                 approximation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Eisenbrand:2013:PDP,
  author =       "Friedrich Eisenbrand and D{\"o}m{\"o}t{\"o}r
                 P{\'a}lv{\"o}lgyi and Thomas Rothvo{\ss}",
  title =        "Bin Packing via Discrepancy of Permutations",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483699.2483704",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:46 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A well-studied special case of bin packing is the
                 3-partition problem, where n items of size > 1/4 have
                 to be packed in a minimum number of bins of capacity
                 one. The famous Karmarkar-Karp algorithm transforms a
                 fractional solution of a suitable LP relaxation for
                 this problem into an integral solution that requires at
                 most {$ O(\log n) $} additional bins. The
                 three-permutations-problem of Beck is the following.
                 Given any three permutations on n symbols, color the
                 symbols red and blue, such that in any interval of any
                 of those permutations, the number of red and blue
                 symbols is roughly the same. The necessary difference
                 is called the discrepancy. We establish a surprising
                 connection between bin packing and Beck's problem: The
                 additive integrality gap of the 3-partition linear
                 programming relaxation can be bounded by the
                 discrepancy of three permutations. This connection
                 yields an alternative method to establish an {$ O(\log
                 n) $} bound on the additive integrality gap of the
                 3-partition. Conversely, making use of a recent example
                 of three permutations, for which a discrepancy of {$
                 \Omega (\log n) $} is necessary, we prove the
                 following: The {$ O(\log^2 n) $} upper bound on the
                 additive gap for bin packing with arbitrary item sizes
                 cannot be improved by any technique that is based on
                 rounding up items. This lower bound holds for a large
                 class of algorithms including the Karmarkar-Karp
                 procedure.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Gawrychowski:2013:OPM,
  author =       "Pawel Gawrychowski",
  title =        "Optimal Pattern Matching in {LZW} Compressed Strings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483699.2483705",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:46 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/string-matching.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the following variant of the classical
                 pattern matching problem: given an uncompressed pattern
                 $ p [1 \ldots {} m] $ and a compressed representation
                 of a string {$ t [1 \ldots {} N] $}, does $p$ occur in
                 $t$ ? When $t$ is compressed using the LZW method, we
                 are able to detect the occurrence in optimal linear
                 time, thus answering a question of Amir et al. [1994].
                 Previous results implied solutions with complexities {$
                 O(n \log m + m) $} Amir et al. [1994], {$ O(n + m^{1 +
                 \epsilon }) $} [Kosaraju 1995], or (randomized) {$ O(n
                 \log N n + m) $} [Farach and Thorup 1995], where $n$ is
                 the size of the compressed representation of $t$. Our
                 algorithm is conceptually simple and fully
                 deterministic.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Jayram:2013:OBJ,
  author =       "T. S. Jayram and David P. Woodruff",
  title =        "Optimal Bounds for {Johnson--Lindenstrauss Transforms}
                 and Streaming Problems with Subconstant Error",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483699.2483706",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:46 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The Johnson--Lindenstrauss transform is a
                 dimensionality reduction technique with a wide range of
                 applications to theoretical computer science. It is
                 specified by a distribution over projection matrices
                 from {$ R^n \to R^k $} where $ k ? n $ and states that
                 {$ k = O(\epsilon^{-2} \log 1 / \delta) $} dimensions
                 suffice to approximate the norm of any fixed vector in
                 {$ R^n $} to within a factor of $ 1 \pm {} \epsilon $
                 with probability at least $ 1 - \delta $. In this
                 article, we show that this bound on $k$ is optimal up
                 to a constant factor, improving upon a previous {$
                 \Omega ((\epsilon^{-2} \log 1 / \delta) / \log (1 /
                 \epsilon)) $} dimension bound of Alon. Our techniques
                 are based on lower bounding the information cost of a
                 novel one-way communication game and yield the first
                 space lower bounds in a data stream model that depend
                 on the error probability $ \delta $. For many streaming
                 problems, the most na{\"\i}ve way of achieving error
                 probability $ \delta $ is to first achieve constant
                 probability, then take the median of {$ O(\log 1 /
                 \delta) $} independent repetitions. Our techniques show
                 that for a wide range of problems, this is in fact
                 optimal! As an example, we show that estimating the $
                 l_p $-distance for any $ p \in [0, 2] $ requires {$
                 \Omega (\epsilon^{-2} \log n \log 1 / \delta) $} space,
                 even for vectors in $ \{ 0, 1 \}^n $. This is optimal
                 in all parameters and closes a long line of work on
                 this problem. We also show the number of distinct
                 elements requires {$ \Omega (\epsilon^{-2} \log 1 /
                 \delta + \log n) $} space, which is optimal if {$
                 \epsilon^{-2} = \Omega (\log n) $}. We also improve
                 previous lower bounds for entropy in the strict
                 turnstile and general turnstile models by a
                 multiplicative factor of {$ \Omega (\log 1 / \delta)
                 $}. Finally, we give an application to one-way
                 communication complexity under product distributions,
                 showing that, unlike the case of constant \delta, the
                 VC-dimension does not characterize the complexity when
                 $ \delta = o (1) $.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Lacki:2013:IDA,
  author =       "Jakub Lacki",
  title =        "Improved Deterministic Algorithms for Decremental
                 Reachability and Strongly Connected Components",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483699.2483707",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:46 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents a new deterministic algorithm
                 for decremental maintenance of the transitive closure
                 in a directed graph. The algorithm processes any
                 sequence of edge deletions in {$ O(m n) $} time and
                 answers queries in constant time. Previously, such time
                 bound has only been achieved by a randomized Las Vegas
                 algorithm. In addition to that, a few decremental
                 algorithms for maintaining strongly connected
                 components are shown, whose time complexity is {$
                 O(n^{1.5}) $} for planar graphs, {$ O(n \log n) $} for
                 graphs with bounded treewidth and {$ O(m n) $} for
                 general digraphs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Solomon:2013:SES,
  author =       "Shay Solomon",
  title =        "Sparse {Euclidean} Spanners with Tiny Diameter",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2483699.2483708",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 24 09:39:46 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In STOC'95, Arya et al. [1995] showed that for any set
                 of $n$ points in {$ R^d $}, a $ (1 + \epsilon)
                 $-spanner with diameter at most $2$ (respectively, $3$
                 ) and {$ O(n \log n) $} edges (respectively, {$ O(n
                 \log \log n) $} edges) can be built in {$ O(n \log n)
                 $} time. Moreover, it was shown in Arya et al. [1995]
                 and Narasimhan and Smid [2007] that for any $ k \geq 4
                 $, one can build in {$ O(n (\log n) 2^k \alpha_k(n)) $}
                 time a $ (1 + \epsilon) $-spanner with diameter at most
                 $ 2 k $ and {$ O(n 2^k \alpha_k(n)) $} edges. The
                 function $ \alpha_k $ is the inverse of a certain
                 function at the $ k / 2 $-th level of the primitive
                 recursive hierarchy, where $ \alpha_0 (n) = n / 2 $, $
                 \alpha_1 (n) = \sqrt n $, $ \alpha_2 (n) = \log n $, $
                 \alpha_3 (n) = \log \log n $, $ \alpha_4 (n) = \log * n
                 $, $ \alpha_5 (n) = 12 \log * n $, \ldots{} , etc. It
                 is also known [Narasimhan and Smid 2007] that if one
                 allows quadratic time, then these bounds can be
                 improved. Specifically, for any $ k \geq 4 $, a $ (1 +
                 \epsilon) $-spanner with diameter at most $k$ and {$
                 O(n k \alpha_k(n)) $} edges can be constructed in {$
                 O(n^2) $} time [Narasimhan and Smid 2007]. A major open
                 question in this area is whether one can construct
                 within time {$ O(n \log n + n k \alpha_k(n)) $} a $ (1
                 + \epsilon) $-spanner with diameter at most $k$ and {$
                 O(n k \alpha_k(n)) $} edges. In this article, we answer
                 this question in the affirmative. Moreover, in fact, we
                 provide a stronger result. Specifically, we show that
                 for any $ k \geq 4 $, a $ (1 + \epsilon) $-spanner with
                 diameter at most $k$ and {$ O(n \alpha_k(n)) $} edges
                 can be built in optimal time {$ O(n \log n) $}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Biedl:2013:MOP,
  author =       "Therese Biedl and Anna Lubiw and Mark Petrick and
                 Michael Spriggs",
  title =        "Morphing orthogonal planar graph drawings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2500118",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:29 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We give an algorithm to morph between two planar
                 orthogonal drawings of a graph, preserving planarity
                 and orthogonality. The morph uses a quadratic number of
                 steps, where each step is a linear morph (a linear
                 interpolation between two drawings). This is the first
                 algorithm to provide planarity-preserving morphs with
                 well-behaved complexity for a significant class of
                 graph drawings. Our method is to morph until each edge
                 is represented by a sequence of segments, with
                 corresponding segments parallel in the two drawings.
                 Then, in a result of independent interest, we morph
                 such parallel planar orthogonal drawings, preserving
                 edge directions and planarity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Marx:2013:FSS,
  author =       "D{\'a}aniel Marx and Barry O'sullivan and Igor
                 Razgon",
  title =        "Finding small separators in linear time via treewidth
                 reduction",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2500119",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:29 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a method for reducing the treewidth of a
                 graph while preserving all of its minimal $s$--$t$
                 separators up to a certain fixed size $k$. This
                 technique allows us to solve $s$--$t$ Cut and Multicut
                 problems with various additional restrictions (e.g.,
                 the vertices being removed from the graph form an
                 independent set or induce a connected graph) in linear
                 time for every fixed number $k$ of removed vertices.
                 Our results have applications for problems that are not
                 directly defined by separators, but the known solution
                 methods depend on some variant of separation. For
                 example, we can solve similarly restricted
                 generalizations of Bipartization (delete at most $k$
                 vertices from $G$ to make it bipartite) in almost
                 linear time for every fixed number $k$ of removed
                 vertices. These results answer a number of open
                 questions in the area of parameterized complexity.
                 Furthermore, our technique turns out to be relevant for
                 $ (H, C, K) $- and $ (H, C, \leq K) $-coloring problems
                 as well, which are cardinality constrained variants of
                 the classical H -coloring problem. We make progress in
                 the classification of the parameterized complexity of
                 these problems by identifying new cases that can be
                 solved in almost linear time for every fixed
                 cardinality bound.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ambuhl:2013:OLB,
  author =       "Christoph Amb{\"u}hl and Bernd G{\"a}rtner and
                 Bernhard von Stengel",
  title =        "Optimal lower bounds for projective list update
                 algorithms",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2500120",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:29 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The list update problem is a classical online problem,
                 with an optimal competitive ratio that is still open,
                 known to be somewhere between 1.5 and 1.6. An algorithm
                 with competitive ratio 1.6, the smallest known to date,
                 is COMB, a randomized combination of BIT and the
                 TIMESTAMP algorithm TS. This and almost all other list
                 update algorithms, like MTF, are projective in the
                 sense that they can be defined by looking only at any
                 pair of list items at a time. Projectivity (also known
                 as ``list factoring'') simplifies both the description
                 of the algorithm and its analysis, and so far seems to
                 be the only way to define a good online algorithm for
                 lists of arbitrary length. In this article, we
                 characterize all projective list update algorithms and
                 show that their competitive ratio is never smaller than
                 1.6 in the partial cost model. Therefore, COMB is a
                 best possible projective algorithm in this model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bateni:2013:SSP,
  author =       "Mohammadhossein Bateni and Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi
                 and Morteza Zadimoghaddam",
  title =        "Submodular secretary problem and extensions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2500121",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:29 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Online auction is the essence of many modern markets,
                 particularly networked markets, in which information
                 about goods, agents, and outcomes is revealed over a
                 period of time, and the agents must make irrevocable
                 decisions without knowing future information. Optimal
                 stopping theory, especially the classic secretary
                 problem, is a powerful tool for analyzing such online
                 scenarios which generally require optimizing an
                 objective function over the input. The secretary
                 problem and its generalization the multiple-choice
                 secretary problem were under a thorough study in the
                 literature. In this article, we consider a very general
                 setting of the latter problem called the submodular
                 secretary problem, in which the goal is to select k
                 secretaries so as to maximize the expectation of a (not
                 necessarily monotone) submodular function which defines
                 efficiency of the selected secretarial group based on
                 their overlapping skills. We present the first
                 constant-competitive algorithm for this case. In a more
                 general setting in which selected secretaries should
                 form an independent (feasible) set in each of $l$ given
                 matroids as well, we obtain an $ O(l \log^2 r)
                 $-competitive algorithm generalizing several previous
                 results, where $r$ is the maximum rank of the matroids.
                 Another generalization is to consider $l$ knapsack
                 constraints (i.e., a knapsack constraint assigns a
                 nonnegative cost to each secretary, and requires that
                 the total cost of all the secretaries employed be no
                 more than a budget value) instead of the matroid
                 constraints, for which we present an $ O(l)
                 $-competitive algorithm. In a sharp contrast, we show
                 for a more general setting of subadditive secretary
                 problem, there is no $ {\tilde o}(\sqrt n)
                 $-competitive algorithm and thus submodular functions
                 are the most general functions to consider for
                 constant-competitiveness in our setting. We complement
                 this result by giving a matching $ O(\sqrt n)
                 $-competitive algorithm for the subadditive case. At
                 the end, we consider some special cases of our general
                 setting as well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Kaltofen:2013:MBM,
  author =       "Erich Kaltofen and George Yuhasz",
  title =        "On the matrix {Berlekamp--Massey} algorithm",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "33:1--33:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2500122",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:29 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We analyze the Matrix Berlekamp/Massey algorithm,
                 which generalizes the Berlekamp/Massey algorithm
                 [Massey 1969] for computing linear generators of scalar
                 sequences. The Matrix Berlekamp/Massey algorithm
                 computes a minimal matrix generator of a linearly
                 generated matrix sequence and has been first introduced
                 by Rissanen [1972a], Dickinson et al. [1974], and
                 Coppersmith [1994]. Our version of the algorithm makes
                 no restrictions on the rank and dimensions of the
                 matrix sequence. We also give new proofs of correctness
                 and complexity for the algorithm, which is based on
                 self-contained loop invariants and includes an explicit
                 termination criterion for a given determinantal degree
                 bound of the minimal matrix generator.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "33",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Gandhi:2013:CIR,
  author =       "Rajiv Gandhi and Magn{\'u}s M. Halld{\'o}rsson and Guy
                 Kortsarz and Hadas Shachnai",
  title =        "Corrigendum: {Improved results for data migration and
                 open shop scheduling}",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "34:1--34:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2500123",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:29 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Gandhi:2006:IRD}.",
  abstract =     "In Gandhi et al. [2006], we gave an algorithm for the
                 data migration and non-deterministic open shop
                 scheduling problems in the minimum sum version, that
                 was claimed to achieve a 5.06-approximation.
                 Unfortunately, it was pointed to us by Maxim Sviridenko
                 that the argument contained an unfounded assumption
                 that has eluded all of its readers until now. We detail
                 in this document how this error can be amended. A side
                 effect is an improved approximation ratio of 4.96.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "34",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Bansal:2014:LAU,
  author =       "Nikhil Bansal and Zachary Friggstad and Rohit
                 Khandekar and Mohammad R. Salavatipour",
  title =        "A logarithmic approximation for unsplittable flow on
                 line graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2532645",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:30 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the unsplittable flow problem on a line.
                 In this problem, we are given a set of n tasks, each
                 specified by a start time $ s_i $, an end time $ t_i $,
                 a demand $ d_i > 0 $, and a profit $ p_i > 0 $. A task,
                 if accepted, requires $ d_i $ units of ``bandwidth''
                 from time $ s_i $ to $ t_i $ and accrues a profit of $
                 p_i $. For every time t, we are also specified the
                 available bandwidth c$_t$, and the goal is to find a
                 subset of tasks with maximum profit subject to the
                 bandwidth constraints. We present the first polynomial
                 time $ O(\log n) $ approximation algorithm for this
                 problem. This significantly advances the state of the
                 art, as no polynomial time $ o(n) $ approximation was
                 known previously. Previous results for this problem
                 were known only in more restrictive settings; in
                 particular, either the instance satisfies the so-called
                 ``no-bottleneck'' assumption: $ \max_i d_i \leq \min_t
                 c_t $, or the ratio of both maximum to minimum demands
                 and maximum to minimum capacities are polynomially (or
                 quasi-polynomially) bounded in n. Our result, on the
                 other hand, does not require these assumptions. Our
                 algorithm is based on a combination of dynamic
                 programming and rounding a natural linear programming
                 relaxation for the problem. While there is an $ \Omega
                 (n) $ integrality gap known for this LP relaxation, our
                 key idea is to exploit certain structural properties of
                 the problem to show that instances that are bad for the
                 LP can in fact be handled using dynamic programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Mestre:2014:WPM,
  author =       "Juli{\'a}n Mestre",
  title =        "Weighted popular matchings",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2556951",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:30 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study the problem of assigning jobs to applicants.
                 Each applicant has a weight and provides a preference
                 list, which may contain ties, ranking a subset of the
                 jobs. An applicant $x$ may prefer one matching to
                 another (or be indifferent between them, in case of a
                 tie) based on the jobs $x$ gets in the two matchings
                 and $x$'s personal preference. A matching $M$ is
                 popular if there is no other matching $ M' $ such that
                 the weight of the applicants who prefer $ M' $ to $M$
                 exceeds the weight of those who prefer $M$ to $ M' $.
                 We present algorithms to find a popular matching, or if
                 none exists, to establish so. For instances with strict
                 preference lists, we give an $ O(n + m) $ time
                 algorithm. For preference lists with ties, we give a
                 more involved algorithm that solves the problem in $
                 O(\min (k \sqrt n, n) m) $ time, where $k$ is the
                 number of distinct weights the applicants are given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Har-Peled:2014:FDR,
  author =       "Sariel Har-Peled and Benjamin Raichel",
  title =        "The {Fr{\'e}chet} distance revisited and extended",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2532646",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:30 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Given two simplicial complexes in $ R^d $ and start
                 and end vertices in each complex, we show how to
                 compute curves (in each complex) between these
                 vertices, such that the weak Fr{\'e}chet distance
                 between these curves is minimized. As a polygonal curve
                 is a complex, this generalizes the regular notion of
                 weak Fr{\'e}chet distance between curves. We also
                 generalize the algorithm to handle an input of $k$
                 simplicial complexes. Using this new algorithm, we can
                 solve a slew of new problems, from computing a mean
                 curve for a given collection of curves to various
                 motion planning problems. Additionally, we show that
                 for the mean curve problem, when the $k$ input curves
                 are $c$-packed, one can $ (1 + \epsilon) $-approximate
                 the mean curve in near-linear time, for fixed $k$ and $
                 \epsilon $. Additionally, we present an algorithm for
                 computing the strong Fr{\'e}chet distance between two
                 curves, which is simpler than previous algorithms and
                 avoids using parametric search.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Vigneron:2014:GOS,
  author =       "Antoine Vigneron",
  title =        "Geometric optimization and sums of algebraic
                 functions",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2532647",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:30 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a new optimization technique that yields
                 the first FPTAS for several geometric problems. These
                 problems reduce to optimizing a sum of nonnegative,
                 constant description complexity algebraic functions. We
                 first give an FPTAS for optimizing such a sum of
                 algebraic functions, and then we apply it to several
                 geometric optimization problems. We obtain the first
                 FPTAS for two fundamental geometric shape-matching
                 problems in fixed dimension: maximizing the volume of
                 overlap of two polyhedra under rigid motions and
                 minimizing their symmetric difference. We obtain the
                 first FPTAS for other problems in fixed dimension, such
                 as computing an optimal ray in a weighted subdivision,
                 finding the largest axially symmetric subset of a
                 polyhedron, and computing minimum-area hulls.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Goel:2014:PBP,
  author =       "Ashish Goel and Hamid Nazerzadeh",
  title =        "Price-based protocols for fair resource allocation:
                 Convergence time analysis and extension to {Leontief}
                 utilities",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2556949",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:32 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We analyze several distributed, continuous time
                 protocols for a fair allocation of bandwidths to flows
                 in a network (or resources to agents). Our protocols
                 converge to an allocation that is a logarithmic
                 approximation, simultaneously, to all canonical social
                 welfare functions (i.e., functions that are symmetric,
                 concave, and nondecreasing). These protocols can be
                 started in an arbitrary state. Although a similar
                 protocol was known before, it only applied to the
                 simple bandwidth allocation problem, and its stability
                 and convergence time were not understood. In contrast,
                 our protocols also apply to the more general case of
                 Leontief utilities, where each user may place a
                 different requirement on each resource. Furthermore, we
                 prove that our protocols converge in polynomial time.
                 The best convergence time we prove is $ O(n \log n
                 c_{\rm MAX} a_{\rm MAX} / c_{\rm MIN} a_{\rm MIN}) $,
                 where $n$ is the number of agents in the network, $
                 c_{\rm MAX} $ and $ c_{\rm MIN} $ are the maximum and
                 minimum capacity of the links, and $ a_{\rm max} $, $
                 a_{\rm min} $ are respectively the largest and smallest
                 Leontief coefficients. This time is achieved by a
                 simple Multiplicative Increase, Multiplicative Decrease
                 (MIMD) protocol that had not been studied before in
                 this setting. We also identify combinatorial properties
                 of these protocols that may be useful in proving
                 stronger convergence bounds. The final allocations by
                 our protocols are supported by usage-sensitive dual
                 prices that are fair in the sense that they shield
                 light users of a resource from the impact of heavy
                 users. Thus, our protocols can also be thought of as
                 efficient distributed schemes for computing fair
                 prices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Rue:2014:DPG,
  author =       "Juanjo Ru{\'e} and Ignasi Sau and Dimitrios M.
                 Thilikos",
  title =        "Dynamic programming for graphs on surfaces",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2556952",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:32 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We provide a framework for the design and analysis of
                 dynamic programming algorithms for surface-embedded
                 graphs on $n$ vertices and branchwidth at most $k$. Our
                 technique applies to general families of problems where
                 standard dynamic programming runs in $ 2^O(k \cdot \log
                 k) \cdot n $ steps. Our approach combines tools from
                 topological graph theory and analytic combinatorics. In
                 particular, we introduce a new type of branch
                 decomposition called surface cut decomposition,
                 generalizing sphere cut decompositions of planar
                 graphs, which has nice combinatorial properties.
                 Namely, the number of partial solutions that can be
                 arranged on a surface cut decomposition can be
                 upper-bounded by the number of noncrossing partitions
                 on surfaces with boundary. It follows that partial
                 solutions can be represented by a single-exponential
                 (in the branchwidth $k$ ) number of configurations.
                 This proves that, when applied on surface cut
                 decompositions, dynamic programming runs in $ 2^{O(k)}
                 \cdot n $ steps. That way, we considerably extend the
                 class of problems that can be solved in running times
                 with a single-exponential dependence on branchwidth and
                 unify/improve most previous results in this
                 direction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Albers:2014:RIN,
  author =       "Susanne Albers and Antonios Antoniadis",
  title =        "Race to idle: New algorithms for speed scaling with a
                 sleep state",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2556953",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 08:49:32 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We study an energy conservation problem where a
                 variable-speed processor is equipped with a sleep
                 state. Executing jobs at high speeds and then setting
                 the processor asleep is an approach that can lead to
                 further energy savings compared to standard dynamic
                 speed scaling. We consider classical deadline-based
                 scheduling, that is, each job is specified by a release
                 time, a deadline and a processing volume. For general
                 convex power functions, Irani et al. [2007] devised an
                 offline 2-approximation algorithm. Roughly speaking,
                 the algorithm schedules jobs at a critical speed $
                 s_{crit} $ that yields the smallest energy consumption
                 while jobs are processed. For power functions $ P(s) =
                 s^\alpha \& \gamma $ , where $s$ is the processor
                 speed, Han et al. [2010] gave an $ \alpha^(\alpha + 2)
                 $-competitive online algorithm. We investigate the
                 offline setting of speed scaling with a sleep state.
                 First, we prove NP-hardness of the optimization
                 problem. Additionally, we develop lower bounds, for
                 general convex power functions: No algorithm that
                 constructs $ s_{\rm crit} $-schedules, which execute
                 jobs at speeds of at least $ s_{\rm crit} $, can
                 achieve an approximation factor smaller than $2$.
                 Furthermore, no algorithm that minimizes the energy
                 expended for processing jobs can attain an
                 approximation ratio smaller than $2$. We then present
                 an algorithmic framework for designing good
                 approximation algorithms. For general convex power
                 functions, we derive an approximation factor of $ 4 / 3
                 $. For power functions $ P(s) = \beta s^\alpha + \gamma
                 $, we obtain an approximation of $ 137 / 117 > 1.171 $.
                 We finally show that our framework yields the best
                 approximation guarantees for the class of $ s_{\rm
                 crit} $ -schedules. For general convex power functions,
                 we give another $2$-approximation algorithm. For
                 functions $ P(s) = \beta s^\alpha + \gamma $, we
                 present tight upper and lower bounds on the best
                 possible approximation factor. The ratio is exactly $ e
                 W_{-1} ( - e^{-1 - 1 / e}) / (e W_{-1} ( - e^{-1 - 1 /
                 e}) + 1) > 1.211 $, where $ W_{-1} $ is the lower
                 branch of the Lambert $W$ function.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Cheung:2014:AAL,
  author =       "Ho Yee Cheung and Lap Chi Lau and Kai Man Leung",
  title =        "Algebraic Algorithms for Linear Matroid Parity
                 Problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2601066",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 07:33:55 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We present fast and simple algebraic algorithms for
                 the linear matroid parity problem and its applications.
                 For the linear matroid parity problem, we obtain a
                 simple randomized algorithm with running time $ O(m
                 r^{\omega - 1}) $, where $m$ and $r$ are the number of
                 columns and the number of rows, respectively, and $
                 \omega \approx 2.3727$ is the matrix multiplication
                 exponent. This improves the $ O(m r^\omega)$-time
                 algorithm by Gabow and Stallmann and matches the
                 running time of the algebraic algorithm for linear
                 matroid intersection, answering a question of Harvey.
                 We also present a very simple alternative algorithm
                 with running time $ O(m r^2)$, which does not need fast
                 matrix multiplication. We further improve the algebraic
                 algorithms for some specific graph problems of
                 interest. For the Mader's disjoint $S$-path problem, we
                 present an $ O(n^\omega)$-time randomized algorithm
                 where $n$ is the number of vertices. This improves the
                 running time of the existing results considerably and
                 matches the running time of the algebraic algorithms
                 for graph matching. For the graphic matroid parity
                 problem, we give an $ O(n^4)$-time randomized algorithm
                 where $n$ is the number of vertices, and an $
                 O(n^3)$-time randomized algorithm for a special case
                 useful in designing approximation algorithms. These
                 algorithms are optimal in terms of $n$ as the input
                 size could be $ \Omega (n^4)$ and $ \Omega (n^3)$,
                 respectively. The techniques are based on the algebraic
                 algorithmic framework developed by Mucha and Sankowski,
                 Harvey, and Sankowski. While linear matroid parity and
                 Mader's disjoint $S$-path are challenging
                 generalizations for the design of combinatorial
                 algorithms, our results show that both the algebraic
                 algorithms for linear matroid intersection and graph
                 matching can be extended nicely to more general
                 settings. All algorithms are still faster than the
                 existing algorithms even if fast matrix multiplication
                 is not used. These provide simple algorithms that can
                 be easily implemented in practice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Feigenbaum:2014:APF,
  author =       "Joan Feigenbaum and Aaron D. Jaggard and Michael
                 Schapira",
  title =        "Approximate Privacy: Foundations and Quantification",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2601067",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 07:33:55 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The proliferation of online sensitive data about
                 individuals and organizations makes concern about the
                 privacy of these data a top priority. There have been
                 many formulations of privacy and, unfortunately, many
                 negative results about the feasibility of maintaining
                 privacy of sensitive data in realistic networked
                 environments. We formulate
                 communication-complexity-based definitions, both worst
                 case and average case, of a problem's
                 privacy-approximation ratio. We use our definitions to
                 investigate the extent to which approximate privacy is
                 achievable in a number of standard problems: the
                 2$^{nd}$ -price Vickrey auction, Yao's millionaires
                 problem, the public-good problem, and the set-theoretic
                 disjointness and intersection problems. For both the
                 2$^{nd}$ -price Vickrey auction and the millionaires
                 problem, we show that not only is perfect privacy
                 impossible or infeasibly costly to achieve, but even
                 close approximations of perfect privacy suffer from the
                 same lower bounds. By contrast, if the inputs are drawn
                 uniformly at random from $\{0, \ldots{}, 2^k - 1\}$,
                 then, for both problems, simple and natural
                 communication protocols have privacy-approximation
                 ratios that are linear in $k$ (i.e., logarithmic in the
                 size of the input space). We also demonstrate tradeoffs
                 between privacy and communication in a family of
                 auction protocols. We show that the
                 privacy-approximation ratio provided by any protocol
                 for the disjointness and intersection problems is
                 necessarily exponential (in $k$). We also use these
                 ratios to argue that one protocol for each of these
                 problems is significantly fairer than the others we
                 consider (in the sense of relative effects on the
                 privacy of the different players).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ta-Shma:2014:DRT,
  author =       "Amnon Ta-Shma and Uri Zwick",
  title =        "Deterministic Rendezvous, Treasure Hunts, and Strongly
                 Universal Exploration Sequences",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2601068",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 07:33:55 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We obtain several improved solutions for the
                 deterministic rendezvous problem in general undirected
                 graphs. Our solutions answer several problems left open
                 by Dessmark et al. We also introduce an interesting
                 variant of the rendezvous problem, which we call the
                 deterministic treasure hunt problem. Both the
                 rendezvous and the treasure hunt problems motivate the
                 study of universal traversal sequences and universal
                 exploration sequences with some strengthened
                 properties. We call such sequences strongly universal
                 traversal (exploration) sequences. We give an explicit
                 construction of strongly universal exploration
                 sequences. The existence of strongly universal
                 traversal sequences, as well as the solution of the
                 most difficult variant of the deterministic treasure
                 hunt problem, are left as intriguing open problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Demaine:2014:NWS,
  author =       "Erik D. Demaine and Mohammadtaghi Hajiaghayi and
                 Philip N. Klein",
  title =        "Node-Weighted {Steiner} Tree and Group {Steiner} Tree
                 in Planar Graphs",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2601070",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 07:33:55 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We improve the approximation ratios for two
                 optimization problems in planar graphs. For
                 node-weighted Steiner tree, a classical
                 network-optimization problem, the best achievable
                 approximation ratio in general graphs is $ \Theta (\log
                 n) $, and nothing better was previously known for
                 planar graphs. We give a constant-factor approximation
                 for planar graphs. Our algorithm generalizes to allow
                 as input any nontrivial minor-closed graph family, and
                 also generalizes to address other optimization problems
                 such as Steiner forest, prize-collecting Steiner tree,
                 and network-formation games. The second problem we
                 address is group Steiner tree: given a graph with edge
                 weights and a collection of groups (subsets of nodes),
                 find a minimum-weight connected subgraph that includes
                 at least one node from each group. The best
                 approximation ratio known in general graphs is $
                 O(\log^3 n) $, or $ O(\log^2 n) $ when the host graph
                 is a tree. We obtain an $ O(\log n \polyloglog n) $
                 approximation algorithm for the special case where the
                 graph is planar embedded and each group is the set of
                 nodes on a face. We obtain the same approximation ratio
                 for the minimum-weight tour that must visit each
                 group.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Fakcharoenphol:2014:FAS,
  author =       "Jittat Fakcharoenphol and Bundit Laekhanukit and
                 Danupon Nanongkai",
  title =        "Faster Algorithms for Semi-Matching Problems",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2601071",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 07:33:55 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider the problem of finding semi-matching in
                 bipartite graphs, which is also extensively studied
                 under various names in the scheduling literature. We
                 give faster algorithms for both weighted and unweighted
                 cases. For the weighted case, we give an $ O(n m \log
                 n)$-time algorithm, where $n$ is the number of vertices
                 and $m$ is the number of edges, by exploiting the
                 geometric structure of the problem. This improves the
                 classical $ O(n^3)$-time algorithms by Horn [1973] and
                 Bruno et al. [1974b]. For the unweighted case, the
                 bound can be improved even further. We give a simple
                 divide-and-conquer algorithm that runs in $ O(\sqrt n m
                 \log n)$ time, improving two previous $ O(n m)$-time
                 algorithms by Abraham [2003] and Harvey et al. [2003,
                 2006]. We also extend this algorithm to solve the
                 Balanced Edge Cover problem in $ O(\sqrt n m \log n)$
                 time, improving the previous $ O(n m)$-time algorithm
                 by Harada et al. [2008].",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Chan:2014:FCC,
  author =       "T.-H. Hubert Chan and Li Ning",
  title =        "Fast Convergence for Consensus in Dynamic Networks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2601072",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 07:33:55 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we study the convergence time
                 required to achieve consensus in dynamic networks. In
                 each timestep, a node's value is updated to some
                 weighted average of its neighbors and its old values.
                 We study the case when the underlying network is
                 dynamic and investigate different averaging models.
                 Both our analysis and experiments show that dynamic
                 networks exhibit fast convergence behavior, even under
                 very mild connectivity assumptions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Navarro:2014:FFS,
  author =       "Gonzalo Navarro and Kunihiko Sadakane",
  title =        "Fully Functional Static and Dynamic Succinct Trees",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2601073",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 16 07:33:55 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose new succinct representations of ordinal
                 trees and match various space/time lower bounds. It is
                 known that any $n$-node static tree can be represented
                 in $ 2 n + o(n)$ bits so that a number of operations on
                 the tree can be supported in constant time under the
                 word-RAM model. However, the data structures are
                 complicated and difficult to dynamize. We propose a
                 simple and flexible data structure, called the range
                 min-max tree, that reduces the large number of relevant
                 tree operations considered in the literature to a few
                 primitives that are carried out in constant time on
                 polylog-sized trees. The result is extended to trees of
                 arbitrary size, retaining constant time and reaching $
                 2 n + O(n / \polylog (n))$ bits of space. This space is
                 optimal for a core subset of the operations supported
                 and significantly lower than in any previous proposal.
                 For the dynamic case, where insertion/deletion (indels)
                 of nodes is allowed, the existing data structures
                 support a very limited set of operations. Our data
                 structure builds on the range min-max tree to achieve $
                 2 n + O(n / \log n)$ bits of space and $ O(\log n)$
                 time for all operations supported in the static
                 scenario, plus indels. We also propose an improved data
                 structure using $ 2 n + O(n \log \log n / \log n)$ bits
                 and improving the time to the optimal $ O(\log n / \log
                 \log n)$ for most operations. We extend our support to
                 forests, where whole subtrees can be attached to or
                 detached from others, in time $ O(\log^{1 + \epsilon }
                 n)$ for any $ \epsilon > 0$. Such operations had not
                 been considered before. Our techniques are of
                 independent interest. An immediate derivation yields an
                 improved solution to range minimum/maximum queries
                 where consecutive elements differ by $ \pm {} 1$,
                 achieving $ n + O(n / \polylog (n))$ bits of space. A
                 second one stores an array of numbers supporting
                 operations sum and search and limited updates, in
                 optimal time $ O(\log n / \log \log n)$. A third one
                 allows representing dynamic bitmaps and sequences over
                 alphabets of size $ \sigma $, supporting rank/select
                 and indels, within zero-order entropy bounds and time $
                 O(\log n \log \sigma / (\log \log n)^2)$ for all
                 operations. This time is the optimal $ O(\log n / \log
                 \log n)$ on bitmaps and polylog-sized alphabets. This
                 improves upon the best existing bounds for
                 entropy-bounded storage of dynamic sequences,
                 compressed full-text self-indexes, and compressed-space
                 construction of the Burrows--Wheeler transform.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Ron:2014:TPS,
  author =       "Dana Ron and Gilad Tsur",
  title =        "Testing Properties of Sparse Images",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2635806",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 1 11:11:53 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We initiate the study of testing properties of images
                 that correspond to sparse $0$ /$1$-valued matrices of
                 size $ n \times n$. Our study is related to but
                 different from the study initiated by Raskhodnikova
                 (Proceedings of RANDOM, 2003 ), where the images
                 correspond to dense $0$ /$1$-valued matrices.
                 Specifically, in the model studied by Raskhodnikova,
                 the distance that an image has to a specific property
                 is the number of entries that should be modified in the
                 corresponding matrix so that the property can be
                 obtained, divided by the total number of entries: $
                 n^2$. In the model we consider, the distance is the
                 number of entries that should be modified divided by
                 the actual number of 1's in the matrix, which may be
                 much smaller than $ n^2$. We study several natural
                 properties: connectivity, convexity, monotonicity, and
                 being a line. In all cases, we give testing algorithms
                 with sublinear complexity, and, in some of the cases,
                 we also provide corresponding lower bounds.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Makarychev:2014:MQA,
  author =       "Konstantin Makarychev and Rajsekar Manokaran and Maxim
                 Sviridenko",
  title =        "Maximum Quadratic Assignment Problem: Reduction from
                 Maximum Label Cover and {LP}-based Approximation
                 Algorithm",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2629672",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 1 11:11:53 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show that for every positive $ \epsilon > 0 $,
                 unless NP $ \subset $ BPQP, it is impossible to
                 approximate the maximum quadratic assignment problem
                 within a factor better than $ 2^{\log (1 - \epsilon) n}
                 $ by a reduction from the maximum label cover problem.
                 Our result also implies that Approximate Graph
                 Isomorphism is not robust and is, in fact, $ 1 -
                 \epsilon $ versus $ \epsilon $ hard assuming the Unique
                 Games Conjecture. Then, we present an $ O(\sqrt
                 n)$-approximation algorithm for the problem based on
                 rounding of the linear programming relaxation often
                 used in state-of-the-art exact algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Kratsch:2014:CNC,
  author =       "Stefan Kratsch",
  title =        "Co-Nondeterminism in Compositions: a Kernelization
                 Lower Bound for a {Ramsey}-Type Problem",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2635808",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 1 11:11:53 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The field of kernelization offers a rigorous way of
                 studying the ubiquitous technique of data reduction and
                 preprocessing for combinatorially hard problems. A
                 widely accepted definition of useful data reduction is
                 that of a polynomial kernelization where the output
                 instance is guaranteed to be of size polynomial in some
                 parameter of the input. The fairly recent development
                 of a framework for kernelization lower bounds has made
                 this notion even more attractive as we can now classify
                 many problems into admitting or not admitting
                 polynomial kernelizations. The central notion of the
                 framework is that of a polynomial-time composition
                 algorithm due to Bodlaender et al. (ICALP 2008, JSCC
                 2009): given $t$ input instances, an or-composition
                 algorithm returns a single-output instance with bounded
                 parameter value that is yes if and only if one of $t$
                 input instances is yes; it encodes the logical OR of
                 the input instances. Based on a result of Fortnow and
                 Santhanam (STOC 2008, JSCC 2011), Bodlaender et al.
                 show that an or-composition for an NP-hard problem
                 rules out polynomial kernelizations for it unless NP $
                 \subseteq $ coNP/poly (which is known to imply a
                 collapse of the polynomial hierarchy). It is implicit
                 in the work of Fortnow and Santhanam that even
                 co-nondeterministic composition algorithms suffice to
                 rule out polynomial kernelizations. This was first
                 observed in unpublished work of Chen and M{\"u}ller,
                 and it is an explicit conclusion of recent results by
                 Dell and van Melkebeek (STOC 2010). However, in
                 contrast to the numerous applications of deterministic
                 composition, the added power of co-nondeterminism has
                 not yet been harnessed to obtain kernelization lower
                 bounds. In this work, we present the first example of
                 how co-nondeterminism can help to make a composition
                 algorithm. We study the existence of polynomial kernels
                 for a Ramsey-type problem where, given a graph $G$ and
                 an integer $k$, the question is whether $G$ contains an
                 independent set or a clique of size at least $k$. It
                 was asked by Rod Downey whether this problem admits a
                 polynomial kernelization with respect to k; such a
                 result would greatly speed up the computation of Ramsey
                 numbers. We provide a co-nondeterministic composition
                 based on embedding $t$ instances into a single host
                 graph $H$. The crux is that the host graph $H$ needs to
                 observe a bound of $ l \in O(\log t)$ on both its
                 maximum independent set and maximum clique size, while
                 also having a cover of its vertex set by independent
                 sets and cliques all of size l; the co-nondeterministic
                 composition is built around the search for such graphs.
                 Thus, we show that, unless NP \subseteq coNP/poly, the
                 problem does not admit a kernelization with polynomial
                 size guarantee.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Kratsch:2014:CMR,
  author =       "Stefan Kratsch and Magnus Wahlstr{\"o}m",
  title =        "Compression via Matroids: a Randomized Polynomial
                 Kernel for Odd Cycle Transversal",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2635810",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 1 11:11:53 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "The Odd Cycle Transversal problem (OCT) asks whether a
                 given undirected graph can be made bipartite by
                 deleting at most $k$ of its vertices. In a breakthrough
                 result, Reed, Smith, and Vetta (Operations Research
                 Letters, 2004) gave a $ O(4^k k m n)$ time algorithm
                 for it; this also implies that instances of the problem
                 can be reduced to a so-called problem kernel of size $
                 O(4^k)$. Since then, the existence of a polynomial
                 kernel for OCT (i.e., a kernelization with size bounded
                 polynomially in $k$) has turned into one of the main
                 open questions in the study of kernelization, open even
                 for the special case of planar input graphs. This work
                 provides the first (randomized) polynomial
                 kernelization for OCT. We introduce a novel
                 kernelization approach based on matroid theory, where
                 we encode all relevant information about a problem
                 instance into a matroid with a representation of size
                 polynomial in k. This represents the first application
                 of matroid theory to kernelization.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Dell:2014:ETC,
  author =       "Holger Dell and Thore Husfeldt and D{\'a}niel Marx and
                 Nina Taslaman and Martin Wahl{\'e}n",
  title =        "Exponential Time Complexity of the Permanent and the
                 {Tutte} Polynomial",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2635812",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 1 11:11:53 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "We show conditional lower bounds for well-studied
                 \#P-hard problems: The number of satisfying assignments
                 of a 2-CNF formula with $n$ variables cannot be
                 computed in time $ \exp (o(n))$, and the same is true
                 for computing the number of all independent sets in an
                 $n$-vertex graph. The permanent of an $ n \times n$
                 matrix with entries $0$ and $1$ cannot be computed in
                 time $ \exp (o(n))$. The Tutte polynomial of an
                 $n$-vertex multigraph cannot be computed in time $ \exp
                 (o(n))$ at most evaluation points $ (x, y)$ in the case
                 of multigraphs, and it cannot be computed in time $
                 \exp (o(n / \polylog n))$ in the case of simple graphs.
                 Our lower bounds are relative to (variants of) the
                 Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH), which says that the
                 satisfiability of $n$-variable 3-CNF formulas cannot be
                 decided in time $ \exp (o(n))$. We relax this
                 hypothesis by introducing its counting version \#ETH;
                 namely, that the satisfying assignments cannot be
                 counted in time $ \exp (o(n))$. In order to use \#ETH
                 for our lower bounds, we transfer the sparsification
                 lemma for $d$-CNF formulas to the counting setting.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Breslauer:2014:RTS,
  author =       "Dany Breslauer and Zvi Galil",
  title =        "Real-Time Streaming String-Matching",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2635814",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 1 11:11:53 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/string-matching.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents a real-time randomized streaming
                 string-matching algorithm that uses $ O(\log m) $
                 space. The algorithm only makes one-sided small
                 probability false-positive errors, possibly reporting
                 phantom occurrences of the pattern, but never missing
                 an actual occurrence.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Belazzougui:2014:AIC,
  author =       "Djamal Belazzougui and Gonzalo Navarro",
  title =        "Alphabet-Independent Compressed Text Indexing",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2635816",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 1 11:11:53 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/datacompression.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "Self-indexes are able to represent a text
                 asymptotically within the information-theoretic lower
                 bound under the $k$ th order entropy model and offer
                 access to any text substring and indexed pattern
                 searches. Their time complexities are not optimal,
                 however; in particular, they are always multiplied by a
                 factor that depends on the alphabet size. In this
                 article, we achieve, for the first time, full alphabet
                 independence in the time complexities of self-indexes
                 while retaining space optimality. We also obtain some
                 relevant byproducts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Awerbuch:2014:PRM,
  author =       "Baruch Awerbuch and Andrea Richa and Christian
                 Scheideler and Stefan Schmid and Jin Zhang",
  title =        "Principles of Robust Medium Access and an Application
                 to Leader Election",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2635818",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 1 11:11:53 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "This article studies the design of medium access
                 control (MAC) protocols for wireless networks that are
                 provably robust against arbitrary and unpredictable
                 disruptions (e.g., due to unintentional external
                 interference from co-existing networks or due to
                 jamming). We consider a wireless network consisting of
                 a set of $n$ honest and reliable nodes within
                 transmission (and interference) range of each other,
                 and we model the external disruptions with a powerful
                 adaptive adversary. This adversary may know the
                 protocol and its entire history and can use this
                 knowledge to jam the wireless channel at will at any
                 time. It is allowed to jam a $ (1 - \epsilon)$-fraction
                 of the timesteps, for an arbitrary constant $ \epsilon
                 > 0$ unknown to the nodes. The nodes cannot distinguish
                 between the adversarial jamming or a collision of two
                 or more messages that are sent at the same time. We
                 demonstrate, for the first time, that there is a
                 local-control MAC protocol requiring only very limited
                 knowledge about the adversary and the network that
                 achieves a constant (asymptotically optimal) throughput
                 for the nonjammed time periods under any of the
                 aforementioned adversarial strategies. The derived
                 principles are also useful to build robust applications
                 on top of the MAC layer, and we present an exemplary
                 study for leader election, one of the most fundamental
                 tasks in distributed computing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Dieudonne:2014:GDM,
  author =       "Yoann Dieudonn{\'e} and Andrzej Pelc and David Peleg",
  title =        "Gathering Despite Mischief",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2629656",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1549-6325",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 8 09:09:02 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/talg.bib",
  abstract =     "A team consisting of an unknown number of mobile
                 agents, starting from different nodes of an unknown
                 network, have to meet at the same node. Agents move in
                 synchronous rounds. Each agent has a different
                 label. Up to $f$ of the agents are Byzantine. We
                 consider two levels of Byzantine behavior. A strongly
                 Byzantine agent can choose an arbitrary port when it
                 moves and it can convey arbitrary information to other
                 agents, while a weakly Byzantine agent can do the same,
                 except changing its label. What is the minimum number
                 of good agents that guarantees deterministic gathering
                 of all of them, with termination? We solve exactly this
                 Byzantine gathering problem in arbitrary networks for
                 weakly Byzantine agents and give approximate solutions
                 for strongly Byzantine agents, both when the size of
                 the network is known and when it is unknown. It turns
                 out that both the strength versus the weakness of
                 Byzantine behavior and the knowledge of network size
                 significantly impact the results. For weakly Byzantine
                 agents, we show that any number of good agents permits
                 solving the problem for networks of known size. If the
                 size is unknown, then this minimum number is $f +
                 2$. More precisely, we show a deterministic polynomial
                 algorithm that gathers all good agents in an arbitrary
                 network, provided that there are at least $f + 2$ of
                 them. We also provide a matching lower bound: we prove
                 that if the number of good agents is at most $f + 1$,
                 then they are not able to gather deterministically with
                 termination in some networks. For strongly Byzantine
                 agents, we give a lower bound of $f + 1$, even when the
                 graph is known: we show that f good agents cannot
                 gather deterministically in the presence of f Byzantine
                 agents even in a ring of known size. On the positive
                 side, we give deterministic gathering algorithms for at
                 least $2 f + 1$ good agents when the size of the
                 network is known and for at least $4 f + 2$ good agents
                 when it is unknown.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Algorithms (TALG)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J982",
}

@Article{Berenbrink:2014:DSL,
  author =       "Petra Berenbrink and Martin Hoefer and Thomas
                 Sauerwald",
  title =        "Distributed Selfish Load Balancing on Networks",
  journal =      j-TALG,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2629671",
  ISSN =         "1549-6325 (print), 1549-6333 (electron