%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%% BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.07",
%%%     date            = "14 October 2014",
%%%     time            = "17:40:34 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "tiis.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "19899 3580 20353 192407",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography; BibTeX; ACM Transactions on
%%%                        Interactive Intelligent Systems (TIIS)",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent
%%%                        Systems (TIIS) (CODEN ????, ISSN 2160-6455
%%%                        (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)), covering
%%%                        all journal issues from 2011 -- date.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.07, the COMPLETE journal
%%%                        coverage looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             2011 (   6)    2013 (  20)
%%%                             2012 (  24)    2014 (  20)
%%%
%%%                             Article:         70
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:   70
%%%
%%%                        The journal Web site can be found at:
%%%
%%%                            http://tiis.acm.org/
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/tiis/
%%%
%%%                        The journal table of contents page is at:
%%%
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341
%%%
%%%                        Qualified subscribers can retrieve the full
%%%                        text of recent articles in PDF form.
%%%
%%%                        The initial draft was extracted from the ACM
%%%                        Web pages.
%%%
%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
%%%                        included in this bibliography wherever
%%%                        available.  Article reviews have been
%%%                        omitted, until their copyright status has
%%%                        been clarified.
%%%
%%%                        bibsource keys in the bibliography entries
%%%                        below indicate the entry originally came
%%%                        from the computer science bibliography
%%%                        archive, even though it has likely since
%%%                        been corrected and updated.
%%%
%%%                        URL keys in the bibliography point to
%%%                        World Wide Web locations of additional
%%%                        information about the entry.
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%%%
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%%%                        publication order, using ``bibsort -byvolume.''
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-TIIS                  = "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent
                                  Systems (TIIS)"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:

@Article{Jameson:2011:ITI,
  author =       "Anthony Jameson and John Riedl",
  title =        "Introduction to the {Transactions on Interactive
                 Intelligent Systems}",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2030365.2030366",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 3 17:51:10 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Kulesza:2011:WOE,
  author =       "Todd Kulesza and Simone Stumpf and Weng-Keen Wong and
                 Margaret M. Burnett and Stephen Perona and Andrew Ko
                 and Ian Oberst",
  title =        "Why-oriented end-user debugging of naive {Bayes} text
                 classification",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2030365.2030367",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 3 17:51:10 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Hoi:2011:AMK,
  author =       "Steven C. H. Hoi and Rong Jin",
  title =        "Active multiple kernel learning for interactive {$3$D}
                 object retrieval systems",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2030365.2030368",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 3 17:51:10 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Hammond:2011:RSM,
  author =       "Tracy Hammond and Brandon Paulson",
  title =        "Recognizing sketched multistroke primitives",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2030365.2030369",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 3 17:51:10 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Okita:2011:MAA,
  author =       "Sandra Y. Okita and Victor Ng-Thow-Hing and Ravi K.
                 Sarvadevabhatla",
  title =        "Multimodal approach to affective human-robot
                 interaction design with children",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2030365.2030370",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 3 17:51:10 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Gibet:2011:SSD,
  author =       "Sylvie Gibet and Nicolas Courty and Kyle Duarte and
                 Thibaut Le Naour",
  title =        "The {SignCom} system for data-driven animation of
                 interactive virtual signers: Methodology and
                 Evaluation",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2030365.2030371",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 3 17:51:10 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Castellano:2012:ISI,
  author =       "Ginevra Castellano and Laurel D. Riek and Christopher
                 Peters and Kostas Karpouzis and Jean-Claude Martin and
                 Louis-Philippe Morency",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on affective
                 interaction in natural environments",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133366.2133367",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 12:34:07 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Affect-sensitive systems such as social robots and
                 virtual agents are increasingly being investigated in
                 real-world settings. In order to work effectively in
                 natural environments, these systems require the ability
                 to infer the affective and mental states of humans and
                 to provide appropriate timely output that helps to
                 sustain long-term interactions. This special issue,
                 which appears in two parts, includes articles on the
                 design of socio-emotional behaviors and expressions in
                 robots and virtual agents and on computational
                 approaches for the automatic recognition of social
                 signals and affective states.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Beck:2012:EBL,
  author =       "Aryel Beck and Brett Stevens and Kim A. Bard and Lola
                 Ca{\~n}amero",
  title =        "Emotional body language displayed by artificial
                 agents",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133366.2133368",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 12:34:07 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Complex and natural social interaction between
                 artificial agents (computer-generated or robotic) and
                 humans necessitates the display of rich emotions in
                 order to be believable, socially relevant, and
                 accepted, and to generate the natural emotional
                 responses that humans show in the context of social
                 interaction, such as engagement or empathy. Whereas
                 some robots use faces to display (simplified) emotional
                 expressions, for other robots such as Nao, body
                 language is the best medium available given their
                 inability to convey facial expressions. Displaying
                 emotional body language that can be interpreted whilst
                 interacting with the robot should significantly improve
                 naturalness. This research investigates the creation of
                 an affect space for the generation of emotional body
                 language to be displayed by humanoid robots. To do so,
                 three experiments investigating how emotional body
                 language displayed by agents is interpreted were
                 conducted. The first experiment compared the
                 interpretation of emotional body language displayed by
                 humans and agents. The results showed that emotional
                 body language displayed by an agent or a human is
                 interpreted in a similar way in terms of recognition.
                 Following these results, emotional key poses were
                 extracted from an actor's performances and implemented
                 in a Nao robot. The interpretation of these key poses
                 was validated in a second study where it was found that
                 participants were better than chance at interpreting
                 the key poses displayed. Finally, an affect space was
                 generated by blending key poses and validated in a
                 third study. Overall, these experiments confirmed that
                 body language is an appropriate medium for robots to
                 display emotions and suggest that an affect space for
                 body expressions can be used to improve the
                 expressiveness of humanoid robots.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Hiolle:2012:ECB,
  author =       "Antoine Hiolle and Lola Ca{\~n}amero and Marina
                 Davila-Ross and Kim A. Bard",
  title =        "Eliciting caregiving behavior in dyadic human-robot
                 attachment-like interactions",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133366.2133369",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 12:34:07 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "We present here the design and applications of an
                 arousal-based model controlling the behavior of a Sony
                 AIBO robot during the exploration of a novel
                 environment: a children's play mat. When the robot
                 experiences too many new perceptions, the increase of
                 arousal triggers calls for attention towards its human
                 caregiver. The caregiver can choose to either calm the
                 robot down by providing it with comfort, or to leave
                 the robot coping with the situation on its own. When
                 the arousal of the robot has decreased, the robot moves
                 on to further explore the play mat. We gathered results
                 from two experiments using this arousal-driven control
                 architecture. In the first setting, we show that such a
                 robotic architecture allows the human caregiver to
                 influence greatly the learning outcomes of the
                 exploration episode, with some similarities to a
                 primary caregiver during early childhood. In a second
                 experiment, we tested how human adults behaved in a
                 similar setup with two different robots: one `needy',
                 often demanding attention, and one more independent,
                 requesting far less care or assistance. Our results
                 show that human adults recognise each profile of the
                 robot for what they have been designed, and behave
                 accordingly to what would be expected, caring more for
                 the needy robot than for the other. Additionally, the
                 subjects exhibited a preference and more positive
                 affect whilst interacting and rating the robot we
                 designed as needy. This experiment leads us to the
                 conclusion that our architecture and setup succeeded in
                 eliciting positive and caregiving behavior from adults
                 of different age groups and technological background.
                 Finally, the consistency and reactivity of the robot
                 during this dyadic interaction appeared crucial for the
                 enjoyment and engagement of the human partner.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Scherer:2012:SLN,
  author =       "Stefan Scherer and Michael Glodek and Friedhelm
                 Schwenker and Nick Campbell and G{\"u}nther Palm",
  title =        "Spotting laughter in natural multiparty conversations:
                 a comparison of automatic online and offline approaches
                 using audiovisual data",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133366.2133370",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 12:34:07 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "It is essential for the advancement of human-centered
                 multimodal interfaces to be able to infer the current
                 user's state or communication state. In order to enable
                 a system to do that, the recognition and interpretation
                 of multimodal social signals (i.e., paralinguistic and
                 nonverbal behavior) in real-time applications is
                 required. Since we believe that laughs are one of the
                 most important and widely understood social nonverbal
                 signals indicating affect and discourse quality, we
                 focus in this work on the detection of laughter in
                 natural multiparty discourses. The conversations are
                 recorded in a natural environment without any specific
                 constraint on the discourses using unobtrusive
                 recording devices. This setup ensures natural and
                 unbiased behavior, which is one of the main foci of
                 this work. To compare results of methods, namely
                 Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) supervectors as input to a
                 Support Vector Machine (SVM), so-called Echo State
                 Networks (ESN), and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM)
                 approach, are utilized in online and offline detection
                 experiments. The SVM approach proves very accurate in
                 the offline classification task, but is outperformed by
                 the ESN and HMM approach in the online detection (F 1
                 scores: GMM SVM 0.45, ESN 0.63, HMM 0.72). Further, we
                 were able to utilize the proposed HMM approach in a
                 cross-corpus experiment without any retraining with
                 respectable generalization capability (F 1 score:
                 0.49). The results and possible reasons for these
                 outcomes are shown and discussed in the article. The
                 proposed methods may be directly utilized in practical
                 tasks such as the labeling or the online detection of
                 laughter in conversational data and affect-aware
                 applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Song:2012:CBH,
  author =       "Yale Song and David Demirdjian and Randall Davis",
  title =        "Continuous body and hand gesture recognition for
                 natural human-computer interaction",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133366.2133371",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 12:34:07 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Intelligent gesture recognition systems open a new era
                 of natural human-computer interaction: Gesturing is
                 instinctive and a skill we all have, so it requires
                 little or no thought, leaving the focus on the task
                 itself, as it should be, not on the interaction
                 modality. We present a new approach to gesture
                 recognition that attends to both body and hands, and
                 interprets gestures continuously from an unsegmented
                 and unbounded input stream. This article describes the
                 whole procedure of continuous body and hand gesture
                 recognition, from the signal acquisition to processing,
                 to the interpretation of the processed signals. Our
                 system takes a vision-based approach, tracking body and
                 hands using a single stereo camera. Body postures are
                 reconstructed in 3D space using a generative
                 model-based approach with a particle filter, combining
                 both static and dynamic attributes of motion as the
                 input feature to make tracking robust to
                 self-occlusion. The reconstructed body postures guide
                 searching for hands. Hand shapes are classified into
                 one of several canonical hand shapes using an
                 appearance-based approach with a multiclass support
                 vector machine. Finally, the extracted body and hand
                 features are combined and used as the input feature for
                 gesture recognition. We consider our task as an online
                 sequence labeling and segmentation problem. A
                 latent-dynamic conditional random field is used with a
                 temporal sliding window to perform the task
                 continuously. We augment this with a novel technique
                 called multilayered filtering, which performs filtering
                 both on the input layer and the prediction layer.
                 Filtering on the input layer allows capturing
                 long-range temporal dependencies and reducing input
                 signal noise; filtering on the prediction layer allows
                 taking weighted votes of multiple overlapping
                 prediction results as well as reducing estimation
                 noise. We tested our system in a scenario of real-world
                 gestural interaction using the NATOPS dataset, an
                 official vocabulary of aircraft handling gestures. Our
                 experimental results show that: (1) the use of both
                 static and dynamic attributes of motion in body
                 tracking allows statistically significant improvement
                 of the recognition performance over using static
                 attributes of motion alone; and (2) the multilayered
                 filtering statistically significantly improves
                 recognition performance over the nonfiltering method.
                 We also show that, on a set of twenty-four NATOPS
                 gestures, our system achieves a recognition accuracy of
                 75.37\%.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Eyben:2012:MAC,
  author =       "Florian Eyben and Martin W{\"o}llmer and Bj{\"o}rn
                 Schuller",
  title =        "A multitask approach to continuous five-dimensional
                 affect sensing in natural speech",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133366.2133372",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 12:34:07 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Automatic affect recognition is important for the
                 ability of future technical systems to interact with us
                 socially in an intelligent way by understanding our
                 current affective state. In recent years there has been
                 a shift in the field of affect recognition from `in the
                 lab' experiments with acted data to `in the wild'
                 experiments with spontaneous and naturalistic data. Two
                 major issues thereby are the proper segmentation of the
                 input and adequate description and modeling of
                 affective states. The first issue is crucial for
                 responsive, real-time systems such as virtual agents
                 and robots, where the latency of the analysis must be
                 as small as possible. To address this issue we
                 introduce a novel method of incremental segmentation to
                 be used in combination with supra-segmental modeling.
                 For modeling of continuous affective states we use Long
                 Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Networks, with which
                 we can show an improvement in performance over standard
                 recurrent neural networks and feed-forward neural
                 networks as well as Support Vector Regression. For
                 experiments we use the SEMAINE database, which contains
                 recordings of spontaneous and natural human to
                 Wizard-of-Oz conversations. The recordings are
                 annotated continuously in time and magnitude with
                 FeelTrace for five affective dimensions, namely
                 activation, expectation, intensity, power/dominance,
                 and valence. To exploit dependencies between the five
                 affective dimensions we investigate multitask learning
                 of all five dimensions augmented with inter-rater
                 standard deviation. We can show improvements for
                 multitask over single-task modeling. Correlation
                 coefficients of up to 0.81 are obtained for the
                 activation dimension and up to 0.58 for the valence
                 dimension. The performance for the remaining dimensions
                 were found to be in between that for activation and
                 valence.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Yazdani:2012:ARB,
  author =       "Ashkan Yazdani and Jong-Seok Lee and Jean-Marc Vesin
                 and Touradj Ebrahimi",
  title =        "Affect recognition based on physiological changes
                 during the watching of music videos",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2133366.2133373",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Mar 16 12:34:07 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Assessing emotional states of users evoked during
                 their multimedia consumption has received a great deal
                 of attention with recent advances in multimedia content
                 distribution technologies and increasing interest in
                 personalized content delivery. Physiological signals
                 such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) and peripheral
                 physiological signals have been less considered for
                 emotion recognition in comparison to other modalities
                 such as facial expression and speech, although they
                 have a potential interest as alternative or
                 supplementary channels. This article presents our work
                 on: (1) constructing a dataset containing EEG and
                 peripheral physiological signals acquired during
                 presentation of music video clips, which is made
                 publicly available, and (2) conducting binary
                 classification of induced positive/negative valence,
                 high/low arousal, and like/dislike by using the
                 aforementioned signals. The procedure for the dataset
                 acquisition, including stimuli selection, signal
                 acquisition, self-assessment, and signal processing is
                 described in detail. Especially, we propose a novel
                 asymmetry index based on relative wavelet entropy for
                 measuring the asymmetry in the energy distribution of
                 EEG signals, which is used for EEG feature extraction.
                 Then, the classification systems based on EEG and
                 peripheral physiological signals are presented.
                 Single-trial and single-run classification results
                 indicate that, on average, the performance of the
                 EEG-based classification outperforms that of the
                 peripheral physiological signals. However, the
                 peripheral physiological signals can be considered as a
                 good alternative to EEG signals in the case of
                 assessing a user's preference for a given music video
                 clip (like/dislike) since they have a comparable
                 performance to EEG signals while being more easily
                 measured.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Park:2012:CFM,
  author =       "Souneil Park and Seungwoo Kang and Sangyoung Chung and
                 Junehwa Song",
  title =        "A Computational Framework for Media Bias Mitigation",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2209310.2209311",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:39 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Bias in the news media is an inherent flaw of the news
                 production process. The bias often causes a sharp
                 increase in political polarization and in the cost of
                 conflict on social issues such as the Iraq war. This
                 article presents NewsCube, a novel Internet news
                 service which aims to mitigate the effect of media
                 bias. NewsCube automatically creates and promptly
                 provides readers with multiple classified views on a
                 news event. As such, it helps readers understand the
                 event from a plurality of views and to formulate their
                 own, more balanced, viewpoints. The media bias problem
                 has been studied extensively in mass communications and
                 social science. This article reviews related mass
                 communication and journalism studies and provides a
                 structured view of the media bias problem and its
                 solution. We propose media bias mitigation as a
                 practical solution and demonstrate it through NewsCube.
                 We evaluate and discuss the effectiveness of NewsCube
                 through various performance studies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Berkovsky:2012:IIF,
  author =       "Shlomo Berkovsky and Jill Freyne and Harri
                 Oinas-Kukkonen",
  title =        "Influencing Individually: Fusing Personalization and
                 Persuasion",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2209310.2209312",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:39 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Personalized technologies aim to enhance user
                 experience by taking into account users' interests,
                 preferences, and other relevant information. Persuasive
                 technologies aim to modify user attitudes, intentions,
                 or behavior through computer-human dialogue and social
                 influence. While both personalized and persuasive
                 technologies influence user interaction and behavior,
                 we posit that this influence could be significantly
                 increased if the two technologies were combined to
                 create personalized and persuasive systems. For
                 example, the persuasive power of a one-size-fits-all
                 persuasive intervention could be enhanced by
                 considering the users being influenced and their
                 susceptibility to the persuasion being offered.
                 Likewise, personalized technologies could cash in on
                 increased success, in terms of user satisfaction,
                 revenue, and user experience, if their services used
                 persuasive techniques. Hence, the coupling of
                 personalization and persuasion has the potential to
                 enhance the impact of both technologies. This new,
                 developing area clearly offers mutual benefits to both
                 research areas, as we illustrate in this special
                 issue.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Kaptein:2012:APS,
  author =       "Maurits Kaptein and Boris {De Ruyter} and Panos
                 Markopoulos and Emile Aarts",
  title =        "Adaptive Persuasive Systems: a Study of Tailored
                 Persuasive Text Messages to Reduce Snacking",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2209310.2209313",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:39 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This article describes the use of personalized short
                 text messages (SMS) to reduce snacking. First, we
                 describe the development and validation ( N = 215) of a
                 questionnaire to measure individual susceptibility to
                 different social influence strategies. To evaluate the
                 external validity of this Susceptibility to Persuasion
                 Scale (STPS) we set up a two week text-messaging
                 intervention that used text messages implementing
                 social influence strategies as prompts to reduce
                 snacking behavior. In this experiment ( N = 73) we show
                 that messages that are personalized (tailored) to the
                 individual based on their scores on the STPS, lead to a
                 higher decrease in snacking consumption than randomized
                 messages or messages that are not tailored
                 (contra-tailored) to the individual. We discuss the
                 importance of this finding for the design of persuasive
                 systems and detail how designers can use tailoring at
                 the level of social influence strategies to increase
                 the effects of their persuasive technologies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Cremonesi:2012:IPP,
  author =       "Paolo Cremonesi and Franca Garzotto and Roberto
                 Turrin",
  title =        "Investigating the Persuasion Potential of Recommender
                 Systems from a Quality Perspective: an Empirical
                 Study",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2209310.2209314",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:39 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Recommender Systems (RSs) help users search large
                 amounts of digital contents and services by allowing
                 them to identify the items that are likely to be more
                 attractive or useful. RSs play an important persuasion
                 role, as they can potentially augment the users' trust
                 towards in an application and orient their decisions or
                 actions towards specific directions. This article
                 explores the persuasiveness of RSs, presenting two vast
                 empirical studies that address a number of research
                 questions. First, we investigate if a design property
                 of RSs, defined by the statistically measured quality
                 of algorithms, is a reliable predictor of their
                 potential for persuasion. This factor is measured in
                 terms of perceived quality, defined by the overall
                 satisfaction, as well as by how users judge the
                 accuracy and novelty of recommendations. For our
                 purposes, we designed an empirical study involving 210
                 subjects and implemented seven full-sized versions of a
                 commercial RS, each one using the same interface and
                 dataset (a subset of Netflix), but each with a
                 different recommender algorithm. In each experimental
                 configuration we computed the statistical quality
                 (recall and F-measures) and collected data regarding
                 the quality perceived by 30 users. The results show us
                 that algorithmic attributes are less crucial than we
                 might expect in determining the user's perception of an
                 RS's quality, and suggest that the user's judgment and
                 attitude towards a recommender are likely to be more
                 affected by factors related to the user experience.
                 Second, we explore the persuasiveness of RSs in the
                 context of large interactive TV services. We report a
                 study aimed at assessing whether measurable persuasion
                 effects (e.g., changes of shopping behavior) can be
                 achieved through the introduction of a recommender. Our
                 data, collected for more than one year, allow us to
                 conclude that, (1) the adoption of an RS can affect
                 both the lift factor and the conversion rate,
                 determining an increased volume of sales and
                 influencing the user's decision to actually buy one of
                 the recommended products, (2) the introduction of an RS
                 tends to diversify purchases and orient users towards
                 less obvious choices (the long tail), and (3) the
                 perceived novelty of recommendations is likely to be
                 more influential than their perceived accuracy.
                 Overall, the results of these studies improve our
                 understanding of the persuasion phenomena induced by
                 RSs, and have implications that can be of interest to
                 academic scholars, designers, and adopters of this
                 class of systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Andrews:2012:SPP,
  author =       "Pierre Y. Andrews",
  title =        "System Personality and Persuasion in Human-Computer
                 Dialogue",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2209310.2209315",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:39 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "The human-computer dialogue research field has been
                 studying interaction with computers since the early
                 stage of Artificial Intelligence, however, research has
                 often focused on very practical tasks to be completed
                 with the dialogues. A new trend in the field tries to
                 implement persuasive techniques with automated
                 interactive agents; unlike booking a train ticket, for
                 example, such dialogues require the system to show more
                 anthropomorphic qualities. The influences of such
                 qualities in the effectiveness of persuasive dialogue
                 is only starting to be studied. In this article we
                 focus on one important perceived trait of the system:
                 personality, and explore how it influences the
                 persuasiveness of a dialogue system. We introduce a new
                 persuasive dialogue system and combine it with a state
                 of the art personality utterance generator. By doing
                 so, we can control the system's extraversion
                 personality trait and observe its influence on the
                 user's perception of the dialogue and its output. In
                 particular, we observe that the user's extraversion
                 influences their perception of the dialogue and its
                 persuasiveness, and that the perceived personality of
                 the system can affect its trustworthiness and
                 persuasiveness. We believe that theses observations
                 will help to set up guidelines to tailor dialogue
                 systems to the user's interaction expectations and
                 improve the persuasive interventions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Vig:2012:TGE,
  author =       "Jesse Vig and Shilad Sen and John Riedl",
  title =        "The Tag Genome: Encoding Community Knowledge to
                 Support Novel Interaction",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362394.2362395",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This article introduces the tag genome, a data
                 structure that extends the traditional tagging model to
                 provide enhanced forms of user interaction. Just as a
                 biological genome encodes an organism based on a
                 sequence of genes, the tag genome encodes an item in an
                 information space based on its relationship to a common
                 set of tags. We present a machine learning approach for
                 computing the tag genome, and we evaluate several
                 learning models on a ground truth dataset provided by
                 users. We describe an application of the tag genome
                 called Movie Tuner which enables users to navigate from
                 one item to nearby items along dimensions represented
                 by tags. We present the results of a 7-week field trial
                 of 2,531 users of Movie Tuner and a survey evaluating
                 users' subjective experience. Finally, we outline the
                 broader space of applications of the tag genome.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Lieberman:2012:ISI,
  author =       "Henry Lieberman and Catherine Havasi",
  title =        "Introduction to the {Special Issue on Common Sense for
                 Interactive Systems}",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362394.2362396",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This editorial introduction describes the aims and
                 scope of the special issue on Common Sense for
                 Interactive Systems of the ACM Transactions on
                 Interactive Intelligent Systems. It explains why the
                 common sense knowledge problem is crucial for both
                 artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction,
                 and it shows how the four articles selected for this
                 issue fit into the theme.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Gil:2012:CCK,
  author =       "Yolanda Gil and Varun Ratnakar and Timothy Chklovski
                 and Paul Groth and Denny Vrandecic",
  title =        "Capturing Common Knowledge about Tasks: Intelligent
                 Assistance for To-Do Lists",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362394.2362397",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Although to-do lists are a ubiquitous form of personal
                 task management, there has been no work on intelligent
                 assistance to automate, elaborate, or coordinate a
                 user's to-dos. Our research focuses on three aspects of
                 intelligent assistance for to-dos. We investigated the
                 use of intelligent agents to automate to-dos in an
                 office setting. We collected a large corpus from users
                 and developed a paraphrase-based approach to matching
                 agent capabilities with to-dos. We also investigated
                 to-dos for personal tasks and the kinds of assistance
                 that can be offered to users by elaborating on them on
                 the basis of substep knowledge extracted from the Web.
                 Finally, we explored coordination of user tasks with
                 other users through a to-do management application
                 deployed in a popular social networking site. We
                 discuss the emergence of Social Task Networks, which
                 link users` tasks to their social network as well as to
                 relevant resources on the Web. We show the benefits of
                 using common sense knowledge to interpret and elaborate
                 to-dos. Conversely, we also show that to-do lists are a
                 valuable way to create repositories of common sense
                 knowledge about tasks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Swanson:2012:SAU,
  author =       "Reid Swanson and Andrew S. Gordon",
  title =        "Say Anything: Using Textual Case-Based Reasoning to
                 Enable Open-Domain Interactive Storytelling",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362394.2362398",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe Say Anything, a new interactive
                 storytelling system that collaboratively writes textual
                 narratives with human users. Unlike previous attempts,
                 this interactive storytelling system places no
                 restrictions on the content or direction of the user's
                 contribution to the emerging storyline. In response to
                 these contributions, the computer continues the
                 storyline with narration that is both coherent and
                 entertaining. This capacity for open-domain interactive
                 storytelling is enabled by an extremely large
                 repository of nonfiction personal stories, which is
                 used as a knowledge base in a case-based reasoning
                 architecture. In this article, we describe the three
                 main components of our case-based reasoning approach: a
                 million-item corpus of personal stories mined from
                 internet weblogs, a case retrieval strategy that is
                 optimized for narrative coherence, and an adaptation
                 strategy that ensures that repurposed sentences from
                 the case base are appropriate for the user's emerging
                 fiction. We describe a series of evaluations of the
                 system's ability to produce coherent and entertaining
                 stories, and we compare these narratives with
                 single-author stories posted to internet weblogs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Kuo:2012:PRM,
  author =       "Yen-Ling Kuo and Jane Yung-Jen Hsu",
  title =        "Planning for Reasoning with Multiple Common Sense
                 Knowledge Bases",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362394.2362399",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Intelligent user interfaces require common sense
                 knowledge to bridge the gap between the functionality
                 of applications and the user's goals. While current
                 reasoning methods have been used to provide contextual
                 information for interface agents, the quality of their
                 reasoning results is limited by the coverage of their
                 underlying knowledge bases. This article presents
                 reasoning composition, a planning-based approach to
                 integrating reasoning methods from multiple common
                 sense knowledge bases to answer queries. The reasoning
                 results of one reasoning method are passed to other
                 reasoning methods to form a reasoning chain to the
                 target context of a query. By leveraging different weak
                 reasoning methods, we are able to find answers to
                 queries that cannot be directly answered by querying a
                 single common sense knowledge base. By conducting
                 experiments on ConceptNet and WordNet, we compare the
                 reasoning results of reasoning composition, directly
                 querying merged knowledge bases, and spreading
                 activation. The results show an 11.03\% improvement in
                 coverage over directly querying merged knowledge bases
                 and a 49.7\% improvement in accuracy over spreading
                 activation. Two case studies are presented, showing how
                 reasoning composition can improve performance of
                 retrieval in a video editing system and a dialogue
                 assistant.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Dinakar:2012:CSR,
  author =       "Karthik Dinakar and Birago Jones and Catherine Havasi
                 and Henry Lieberman and Rosalind Picard",
  title =        "Common Sense Reasoning for Detection, Prevention, and
                 Mitigation of Cyberbullying",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362394.2362400",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 6 19:14:40 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Cyberbullying (harassment on social networks) is
                 widely recognized as a serious social problem,
                 especially for adolescents. It is as much a threat to
                 the viability of online social networks for youth today
                 as spam once was to email in the early days of the
                 Internet. Current work to tackle this problem has
                 involved social and psychological studies on its
                 prevalence as well as its negative effects on
                 adolescents. While true solutions rest on teaching
                 youth to have healthy personal relationships, few have
                 considered innovative design of social network software
                 as a tool for mitigating this problem. Mitigating
                 cyberbullying involves two key components: robust
                 techniques for effective detection and reflective user
                 interfaces that encourage users to reflect upon their
                 behavior and their choices. Spam filters have been
                 successful by applying statistical approaches like
                 Bayesian networks and hidden Markov models. They can,
                 like Google's GMail, aggregate human spam judgments
                 because spam is sent nearly identically to many people.
                 Bullying is more personalized, varied, and contextual.
                 In this work, we present an approach for bullying
                 detection based on state-of-the-art natural language
                 processing and a common sense knowledge base, which
                 permits recognition over a broad spectrum of topics in
                 everyday life. We analyze a more narrow range of
                 particular subject matter associated with bullying
                 (e.g. appearance, intelligence, racial and ethnic
                 slurs, social acceptance, and rejection), and construct
                 BullySpace, a common sense knowledge base that encodes
                 particular knowledge about bullying situations. We then
                 perform joint reasoning with common sense knowledge
                 about a wide range of everyday life topics. We analyze
                 messages using our novel AnalogySpace common sense
                 reasoning technique. We also take into account social
                 network analysis and other factors. We evaluate the
                 model on real-world instances that have been reported
                 by users on Formspring, a social networking website
                 that is popular with teenagers. On the intervention
                 side, we explore a set of reflective user-interaction
                 paradigms with the goal of promoting empathy among
                 social network participants. We propose an ``air
                 traffic control''-like dashboard, which alerts
                 moderators to large-scale outbreaks that appear to be
                 escalating or spreading and helps them prioritize the
                 current deluge of user complaints. For potential
                 victims, we provide educational material that informs
                 them about how to cope with the situation, and connects
                 them with emotional support from others. A user
                 evaluation shows that in-context, targeted, and dynamic
                 help during cyberbullying situations fosters end-user
                 reflection that promotes better coping strategies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Jameson:2012:ISI,
  author =       "Anthony Jameson and John Riedl",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on highlights of the
                 decade in interactive intelligent systems",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395123.2395124",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This editorial introduction explains the motivation
                 and origin of the TiiS special issue on Highlights of
                 the Decade in Interactive Intelligent Systems and shows
                 how its five articles exemplify the types of research
                 contribution that TiiS aims to encourage and publish.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Hoey:2012:PSD,
  author =       "Jesse Hoey and Craig Boutilier and Pascal Poupart and
                 Patrick Olivier and Andrew Monk and Alex Mihailidis",
  title =        "People, sensors, decisions: Customizable and adaptive
                 technologies for assistance in healthcare",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395123.2395125",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "The ratio of healthcare professionals to care
                 recipients is dropping at an alarming rate,
                 particularly for the older population. It is estimated
                 that the number of persons with Alzheimer's disease,
                 for example, will top 100 million worldwide by the year
                 2050 [Alzheimer's Disease International 2009]. It will
                 become harder and harder to provide needed health
                 services to this population of older adults. Further,
                 patients are becoming more aware and involved in their
                 own healthcare decisions. This is creating a void in
                 which technology has an increasingly important role to
                 play as a tool to connect providers with recipients.
                 Examples of interactive technologies range from
                 telecare for remote regions to computer games promoting
                 fitness in the home. Currently, such technologies are
                 developed for specific applications and are difficult
                 to modify to suit individual user needs. The future
                 potential economic and social impact of technology in
                 the healthcare field therefore lies in our ability to
                 make intelligent devices that are customizable by
                 healthcare professionals and their clients, that are
                 adaptive to users over time, and that generalize across
                 tasks and environments. A wide application area for
                 technology in healthcare is for assistance and
                 monitoring in the home. As the population ages, it
                 becomes increasingly dependent on chronic healthcare,
                 such as assistance for tasks of everyday life (washing,
                 cooking, dressing), medication taking, nutrition, and
                 fitness. This article will present a summary of work
                 over the past decade on the development of intelligent
                 systems that provide assistance to persons with
                 cognitive disabilities. These systems are unique in
                 that they are all built using a common framework, a
                 decision-theoretic model for general-purpose assistance
                 in the home. In this article, we will show how this
                 type of general model can be applied to a range of
                 assistance tasks, including prompting for activities of
                 daily living, assistance for art therapists, and stroke
                 rehabilitation. This model is a Partially Observable
                 Markov Decision Process (POMDP) that can be customized
                 by end-users, that can integrate complex sensor
                 information, and that can adapt over time. These three
                 characteristics of the POMDP model will allow for
                 increasing uptake and long-term efficiency and
                 robustness of technology for assistance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Carberry:2012:AMA,
  author =       "Sandra Carberry and Stephanie Elzer Schwartz and
                 Kathleen Mccoy and Seniz Demir and Peng Wu and Charles
                 Greenbacker and Daniel Chester and Edward Schwartz and
                 David Oliver and Priscilla Moraes",
  title =        "Access to multimodal articles for individuals with
                 sight impairments",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395123.2395126",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Although intelligent interactive systems have been the
                 focus of many research efforts, very few have addressed
                 systems for individuals with disabilities. This article
                 presents our methodology for an intelligent interactive
                 system that provides individuals with sight impairments
                 with access to the content of information graphics
                 (such as bar charts and line graphs) in popular media.
                 The article describes the methodology underlying the
                 system's intelligent behavior, its interface for
                 interacting with users, examples processed by the
                 implemented system, and evaluation studies both of the
                 methodology and the effectiveness of the overall
                 system. This research advances universal access to
                 electronic documents.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Chen:2012:MBI,
  author =       "Fang Chen and Natalie Ruiz and Eric Choi and Julien
                 Epps and M. Asif Khawaja and Ronnie Taib and Bo Yin and
                 Yang Wang",
  title =        "Multimodal behavior and interaction as indicators of
                 cognitive load",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395123.2395127",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "High cognitive load arises from complex time and
                 safety-critical tasks, for example, mapping out flight
                 paths, monitoring traffic, or even managing nuclear
                 reactors, causing stress, errors, and lowered
                 performance. Over the last five years, our research has
                 focused on using the multimodal interaction paradigm to
                 detect fluctuations in cognitive load in user behavior
                 during system interaction. Cognitive load variations
                 have been found to impact interactive behavior: by
                 monitoring variations in specific modal input features
                 executed in tasks of varying complexity, we gain an
                 understanding of the communicative changes that occur
                 when cognitive load is high. So far, we have identified
                 specific changes in: speech, namely acoustic, prosodic,
                 and linguistic changes; interactive gesture; and
                 digital pen input, both interactive and freeform. As
                 ground-truth measurements, galvanic skin response,
                 subjective, and performance ratings have been used to
                 verify task complexity. The data suggest that it is
                 feasible to use features extracted from behavioral
                 changes in multiple modal inputs as indices of
                 cognitive load. The speech-based indicators of load,
                 based on data collected from user studies in a variety
                 of domains, have shown considerable promise. Scenarios
                 include single-user and team-based tasks; think-aloud
                 and interactive speech; and single-word, reading, and
                 conversational speech, among others. Pen-based
                 cognitive load indices have also been tested with some
                 success, specifically with pen-gesture, handwriting,
                 and freeform pen input, including diagraming. After
                 examining some of the properties of these measurements,
                 we present a multimodal fusion model, which is
                 illustrated with quantitative examples from a case
                 study. The feasibility of employing user input and
                 behavior patterns as indices of cognitive load is
                 supported by experimental evidence. Moreover,
                 symptomatic cues of cognitive load derived from user
                 behavior such as acoustic speech signals, transcribed
                 text, digital pen trajectories of handwriting, and
                 shapes pen, can be supported by well-established
                 theoretical frameworks, including O'Donnell and
                 Eggemeier's workload measurement [1986] Sweller's
                 Cognitive Load Theory [Chandler and Sweller 1991], and
                 Baddeley's model of modal working memory [1992] as well
                 as McKinstry et al.'s [2008] and Rosenbaum's [2005]
                 action dynamics work. The benefit of using this
                 approach to determine the user's cognitive load in real
                 time is that the data can be collected implicitly that
                 is, during day-to-day use of intelligent interactive
                 systems, thus overcomes problems of intrusiveness and
                 increases applicability in real-world environments,
                 while adapting information selection and presentation
                 in a dynamic computer interface with reference to
                 load.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Dmello:2012:AAA,
  author =       "Sidney D'mello and Art Graesser",
  title =        "{AutoTutor} and {Affective Autotutor}: Learning by
                 talking with cognitively and emotionally intelligent
                 computers that talk back",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395123.2395128",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "We present AutoTutor and Affective AutoTutor as
                 examples of innovative 21$^{st}$ century interactive
                 intelligent systems that promote learning and
                 engagement. AutoTutor is an intelligent tutoring system
                 that helps students compose explanations of difficult
                 concepts in Newtonian physics and enhances computer
                 literacy and critical thinking by interacting with them
                 in natural language with adaptive dialog moves similar
                 to those of human tutors. AutoTutor constructs a
                 cognitive model of students' knowledge levels by
                 analyzing the text of their typed or spoken responses
                 to its questions. The model is used to dynamically
                 tailor the interaction toward individual students'
                 zones of proximal development. Affective AutoTutor
                 takes the individualized instruction and human-like
                 interactivity to a new level by automatically detecting
                 and responding to students' emotional states in
                 addition to their cognitive states. Over 20 controlled
                 experiments comparing AutoTutor with ecological and
                 experimental controls such reading a textbook have
                 consistently yielded learning improvements of
                 approximately one letter grade after brief
                 30--60-minute interactions. Furthermore, Affective
                 AutoTutor shows even more dramatic improvements in
                 learning than the original AutoTutor system,
                 particularly for struggling students with low domain
                 knowledge. In addition to providing a detailed
                 description of the implementation and evaluation of
                 AutoTutor and Affective AutoTutor, we also discuss new
                 and exciting technologies motivated by AutoTutor such
                 as AutoTutor-Lite, Operation ARIES, GuruTutor,
                 DeepTutor, MetaTutor, and AutoMentor. We conclude this
                 article with our vision for future work on interactive
                 and engaging intelligent tutoring systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Kay:2012:CPS,
  author =       "Judy Kay and Bob Kummerfeld",
  title =        "Creating personalized systems that people can
                 scrutinize and control: Drivers, principles and
                 experience",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395123.2395129",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Widespread personalized computing systems play an
                 already important and fast-growing role in diverse
                 contexts, such as location-based services,
                 recommenders, commercial Web-based services, and
                 teaching systems. The personalization in these systems
                 is driven by information about the user, a user model.
                 Moreover, as computers become both ubiquitous and
                 pervasive, personalization operates across the many
                 devices and information stores that constitute the
                 user's personal digital ecosystem. This enables
                 personalization, and the user models driving it, to
                 play an increasing role in people's everyday lives.
                 This makes it critical to establish ways to address key
                 problems of personalization related to privacy,
                 invisibility of personalization, errors in user models,
                 wasted user models, and the broad issue of enabling
                 people to control their user models and associated
                 personalization. We offer scrutable user models as a
                 foundation for tackling these problems. This article
                 argues the importance of scrutable user modeling and
                 personalization, illustrating key elements in case
                 studies from our work. We then identify the broad roles
                 for scrutable user models. The article describes how to
                 tackle the technical and interface challenges of
                 designing and building scrutable user modeling systems,
                 presenting design principles and showing how they were
                 established over our twenty years of work on the
                 Personis software framework. Our contributions are the
                 set of principles for scrutable personalization linked
                 to our experience from creating and evaluating
                 frameworks and associated applications built upon them.
                 These constitute a general approach to tackling
                 problems of personalization by enabling users to
                 scrutinize their user models as a basis for
                 understanding and controlling personalization.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Giunchiglia:2013:ISS,
  author =       "Fausto Giunchiglia and David Robertson",
  title =        "Introduction to the special section on
                 {Internet}-scale human problem solving",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:17 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This editorial introduction first outlines some of the
                 research challenges raised by the emerging forms of
                 internet-scale human problem solving. It then explains
                 how the two articles in this special section can serve
                 as illuminating complementary case studies, providing
                 concrete examples embedded in general conceptual
                 frameworks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Yu:2013:ISI,
  author =       "Lixiu Yu and Jeffrey V. Nickerson",
  title =        "An {Internet}-scale idea generation system",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:17 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "A method of organizing the crowd to generate ideas is
                 described. It integrates crowds using evolutionary
                 algorithms. The method increases the creativity of
                 ideas across generations, and it works better than
                 greenfield idea generation. Specifically, a design
                 space of internet-scale idea generation systems is
                 defined, and one instance is tested: a crowd idea
                 generation system that uses combination to improve
                 previous designs. The key process of the system is the
                 following: A crowd generates designs, then another
                 crowd combines the designs of the previous crowd. In an
                 experiment with 540 participants, the combined designs
                 were compared to the initial designs and to the designs
                 produced by a greenfield idea generation system. The
                 results show that the sequential combination system
                 produced more creative ideas in the last generation and
                 outperformed the greenfield idea generation system. The
                 design space of crowdsourced idea generation developed
                 here may be used to instantiate systems that can be
                 applied to a wide range of design problems. The work
                 has both pragmatic and theoretical implications: New
                 forms of coordination are now possible, and, using the
                 crowd, it is possible to test existing and emerging
                 theories of coordination and participatory design.
                 Moreover, it may be possible for human designers,
                 organized as a crowd, to codesign with each other and
                 with automated algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Poesio:2013:PDU,
  author =       "Massimo Poesio and Jon Chamberlain and Udo Kruschwitz
                 and Livio Robaldo and Luca Ducceschi",
  title =        "Phrase detectives: Utilizing collective intelligence
                 for {Internet}-scale language resource creation",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:17 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "We are witnessing a paradigm shift in Human Language
                 Technology (HLT) that may well have an impact on the
                 field comparable to the statistical revolution:
                 acquiring large-scale resources by exploiting
                 collective intelligence. An illustration of this new
                 approach is Phrase Detectives, an interactive online
                 game with a purpose for creating anaphorically
                 annotated resources that makes use of a highly
                 distributed population of contributors with different
                 levels of expertise. The purpose of this article is to
                 first of all give an overview of all aspects of Phrase
                 Detectives, from the design of the game and the HLT
                 methods we used to the results we have obtained so far.
                 It furthermore summarizes the lessons that we have
                 learned in developing this game which should help other
                 researchers to design and implement similar games.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Console:2013:ISN,
  author =       "Luca Console and Fabrizio Antonelli and Giulia Biamino
                 and Francesca Carmagnola and Federica Cena and Elisa
                 Chiabrando and Vincenzo Cuciti and Matteo Demichelis
                 and Franco Fassio and Fabrizio Franceschi and Roberto
                 Furnari and Cristina Gena and Marina Geymonat and
                 Piercarlo Grimaldi and Pierluige Grillo and Silvia
                 Likavec and Ilaria Lombardi and Dario Mana and
                 Alessandro Marcengo and Michele Mioli and Mario
                 Mirabelli and Monica Perrero and Claudia Picardi and
                 Federica Protti and Amon Rapp and Rossana Simeoni and
                 Daniele Theseider Dupr{\'e} and Ilaria Torre and Andrea
                 Toso and Fabio Torta and Fabiana Vernero",
  title =        "Interacting with social networks of intelligent things
                 and people in the world of gastronomy",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:17 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This article introduces a framework for creating rich
                 augmented environments based on a social web of
                 intelligent things and people. We target outdoor
                 environments, aiming to transform a region into a smart
                 environment that can share its cultural heritage with
                 people, promoting itself and its special qualities.
                 Using the applications developed in the framework,
                 people can interact with things, listen to the stories
                 that these things tell them, and make their own
                 contributions. The things are intelligent in the sense
                 that they aggregate information provided by users and
                 behave in a socially active way. They can autonomously
                 establish social relationships on the basis of their
                 properties and their interaction with users. Hence when
                 a user gets in touch with a thing, she is also
                 introduced to its social network consisting of other
                 things and of users; she can navigate this network to
                 discover and explore the world around the thing itself.
                 Thus the system supports serendipitous navigation in a
                 network of things and people that evolves according to
                 the behavior of users. An innovative interaction model
                 was defined that allows users to interact with objects
                 in a natural, playful way using smartphones without the
                 need for a specially created infrastructure. The
                 framework was instantiated into a suite of applications
                 called WantEat, in which objects from the domain of
                 tourism and gastronomy (such as cheese wheels or
                 bottles of wine) are taken as testimonials of the
                 cultural roots of a region. WantEat includes an
                 application that allows the definition and registration
                 of things, a mobile application that allows users to
                 interact with things, and an application that supports
                 stakeholders in getting feedback about the things that
                 they have registered in the system. WantEat was
                 developed and tested in a real-world context which
                 involved a region and gastronomy-related items from it
                 (such as products, shops, restaurants, and recipes),
                 through an early evaluation with stakeholders and a
                 final evaluation with hundreds of users.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Song:2013:PII,
  author =       "Wei Song and Andrew Finch and Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii and
                 Keiji Yasuda and Eiichiro Sumita",
  title =        "{picoTrans}: an intelligent icon-driven interface for
                 cross-lingual communication",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 30 18:37:17 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "picoTrans is a prototype system that introduces a
                 novel icon-based paradigm for cross-lingual
                 communication on mobile devices. Our approach marries a
                 machine translation system with the popular picture
                 book. Users interact with picoTrans by pointing at
                 pictures as if it were a picture book; the system
                 generates natural language from these icons and the
                 user is able to interact with the icon sequence to
                 refine the meaning of the words that are generated.
                 When users are satisfied that the sentence generated
                 represents what they wish to express, they tap a
                 translate button and picoTrans displays the
                 translation. Structuring the process of communication
                 in this way has many advantages. First, tapping icons
                 is a very natural method of user input on mobile
                 devices; typing is cumbersome and speech input
                 errorful. Second, the sequence of icons which is
                 annotated both with pictures and bilingually with words
                 is meaningful to both users, and it opens up a second
                 channel of communication between them that conveys the
                 gist of what is being expressed. We performed a number
                 of evaluations of picoTrans to determine: its coverage
                 of a corpus of in-domain sentences; the input
                 efficiency in terms of the number of key presses
                 required relative to text entry; and users' overall
                 impressions of using the system compared to using a
                 picture book. Our results show that we are able to
                 cover 74\% of the expressions in our test corpus using
                 a 2000-icon set; we believe that this icon set size is
                 realistic for a mobile device. We also found that
                 picoTrans requires fewer key presses than typing the
                 input and that the system is able to predict the
                 correct, intended natural language sentence from the
                 icon sequence most of the time, making user interaction
                 with the icon sequence often unnecessary. In the user
                 evaluation, we found that in general users prefer using
                 picoTrans and are able to communicate more rapidly and
                 expressively. Furthermore, users had more confidence
                 that they were able to communicate effectively using
                 picoTrans.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Schreiber:2013:ISI,
  author =       "Daniel Schreiber and Kris Luyten and Max
                 M{\"u}hlh{\"a}user and Oliver Brdiczka and Melanie
                 Hartman",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on interaction with
                 smart objects",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499474.2499475",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:45 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Smart objects can be smart because of the information
                 and communication technology that is added to
                 human-made artifacts. It is not, however, the
                 technology itself that makes them smart but rather the
                 way in which the technology is integrated, and their
                 smartness surfaces through how people are able to
                 interact with these objects. Hence, the key challenge
                 for making smart objects successful is to design usable
                 and useful interactions with them. We list five
                 features that can contribute to the smartness of an
                 object, and we discuss how smart objects can help
                 resolve the simplicity-featurism paradox. We conclude
                 by introducing the three articles in this special
                 issue, which dive into various aspects of smart object
                 interaction: augmenting objects with projection,
                 service-oriented interaction with smart objects via a
                 mobile portal, and an analysis of input-output
                 relations in interaction with tangible smart objects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Molyneaux:2013:CAM,
  author =       "David Molyneaux and Hans Gellersen and Joe Finney",
  title =        "Cooperative augmentation of mobile smart objects with
                 projected displays",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499474.2499476",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:45 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Sensors, processors, and radios can be integrated
                 invisibly into objects to make them smart and sensitive
                 to user interaction, but feedback is often limited to
                 beeps, blinks, or buzzes. We propose to redress this
                 input-output imbalance by augmentation of smart objects
                 with projected displays, that-unlike physical
                 displays-allow seamless integration with the natural
                 appearance of an object. In this article, we
                 investigate how, in a ubiquitous computing world, smart
                 objects can acquire and control a projection. We
                 consider that projectors and cameras are ubiquitous in
                 the environment, and we develop a novel conception and
                 system that enables smart objects to spontaneously
                 associate with projector-camera systems for cooperative
                 augmentation. Projector-camera systems are conceived as
                 generic, supporting standard computer vision methods
                 for different appearance cues, and smart objects
                 provide a model of their appearance for method
                 selection at runtime, as well as sensor observations to
                 constrain the visual detection process. Cooperative
                 detection results in accurate location and pose of the
                 object, which is then tracked for visual augmentation
                 in response to display requests by the smart object. In
                 this article, we define the conceptual framework
                 underlying our approach; report on computer vision
                 experiments that give original insight into natural
                 appearance-based detection of everyday objects; show
                 how object sensing can be used to increase speed and
                 robustness of visual detection; describe and evaluate a
                 fully implemented system; and describe two smart object
                 applications to illustrate the system's cooperative
                 augmentation process and the embodied interactions it
                 enables with smart objects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Thebault:2013:ESP,
  author =       "Pierrick Thebault and Dominique Decotter and Mathieu
                 Boussard and Monique Lu",
  title =        "Embodying services into physical places: Toward the
                 design of a mobile environment browser",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499474.2499477",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:45 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "The tremendous developments in mobile computing and
                 handheld devices have allowed for an increasing usage
                 of the resources of the World Wide Web. People today
                 consume information and services on the go, through
                 smart phones applications capable of exploiting their
                 location in order to adapt the content according to the
                 context of use. As location-based services gain
                 traction and reveal their limitations, we argue there
                 is a need for intelligent systems to be created to
                 better support people's activities in their experience
                 of the city, especially regarding their decision-making
                 processes. In this article, we explore the opportunity
                 to move closer to the realization of the ubiquitous
                 computing vision by turning physical places into smart
                 environments capable of cooperatively and autonomously
                 collecting, processing, and transporting information
                 about their characteristics (e.g., practical
                 information, presence of people, and ambience).
                 Following a multidisciplinary approach which leverages
                 psychology, design, and computer science, we propose to
                 investigate the potential of building communication and
                 interaction spaces, called information spheres, on top
                 of physical places such as businesses, homes, and
                 institutions. We argue that, if the latter are exposed
                 on the Web, they can act as a platform delivering
                 information and services and mediating interactions
                 with smart objects without requiring too much effort
                 for the deployment of the architecture. After
                 presenting the inherent challenges of our vision, we go
                 through the protocol of two preliminary experiments
                 that aim to evaluate users' perception of different
                 types of information (i.e., reviews, check-in
                 information, video streams, and real-time
                 representations) and their influence on the
                 decision-making process. Results of this study lead us
                 to elaborate the design considerations that must be
                 taken into account to ensure the intelligibility and
                 user acceptance of information spheres. We finally
                 describe a research prototype application called
                 Environment Browser (Env-B) and present the underlying
                 smart space middleware, before evaluating the user
                 experience with our system through quantitative and
                 qualitative methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{vandeGarde-Perik:2013:AIO,
  author =       "Evelien van de Garde-Perik and Serge Offermans and
                 Koen van Boerdonk and Kars-Michiel Lenssen and Elise
                 van den Hoven",
  title =        "An analysis of input-output relations in interaction
                 with smart tangible objects",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499474.2499478",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:45 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This article focuses on the conceptual relation
                 between the user's input and a system's output in
                 interaction with smart tangible objects. Understanding
                 this input-output relation (IO relation) is a
                 prerequisite for the design of meaningful interaction.
                 A meaningful IO relation allows the user to know what
                 to do with a system to achieve a certain goal and to
                 evaluate the outcome. The work discussed in this
                 article followed a design research process in which
                 four concepts were developed and prototyped. An
                 evaluation was performed using these prototypes to
                 investigate the effect of highly different IO relations
                 on the user's understanding of the interaction. The
                 evaluation revealed two types of IO relations differing
                 in functionality and the number of mappings between the
                 user and system actions. These two types of relations
                 are described by two IO models that provide an overview
                 of these mappings. Furthermore, they illustrate the
                 role of the user and the influence of the system in the
                 process of understanding the interaction. The analysis
                 of the two types of IO models illustrates the value of
                 understanding IO relations for the design of smart
                 tangible objects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Andre:2013:ISS,
  author =       "Elisabeth Andr{\'e} and Joyce Chai",
  title =        "Introduction to the special section on eye gaze and
                 conversation",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499474.2499479",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:45 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This editorial introduction first explains the origin
                 of this special section. It then outlines how each of
                 the two articles included sheds light on possibilities
                 for conversational dialog systems to use eye gaze as a
                 signal that reflects aspects of participation in the
                 dialog: degree of engagement and turn taking behavior,
                 respectively.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Ishii:2013:GAC,
  author =       "Ryo Ishii and Yukiko I. Nakano and Toyoaki Nishida",
  title =        "Gaze awareness in conversational agents: Estimating a
                 user's conversational engagement from eye gaze",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499474.2499480",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:45 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "In face-to-face conversations, speakers are
                 continuously checking whether the listener is engaged
                 in the conversation, and they change their
                 conversational strategy if the listener is not fully
                 engaged. With the goal of building a conversational
                 agent that can adaptively control conversations, in
                 this study we analyze listener gaze behaviors and
                 develop a method for estimating whether a listener is
                 engaged in the conversation on the basis of these
                 behaviors. First, we conduct a Wizard-of-Oz study to
                 collect information on a user's gaze behaviors. We then
                 investigate how conversational disengagement, as
                 annotated by human judges, correlates with gaze
                 transition, mutual gaze (eye contact) occurrence, gaze
                 duration, and eye movement distance. On the basis of
                 the results of these analyses, we identify useful
                 information for estimating a user's disengagement and
                 establish an engagement estimation method using a
                 decision tree technique. The results of these analyses
                 show that a model using the features of gaze
                 transition, mutual gaze occurrence, gaze duration, and
                 eye movement distance provides the best performance and
                 can estimate the user's conversational engagement
                 accurately. The estimation model is then implemented as
                 a real-time disengagement judgment mechanism and
                 incorporated into a multimodal dialog manager in an
                 animated conversational agent. This agent is designed
                 to estimate the user's conversational engagement and
                 generate probing questions when the user is distracted
                 from the conversation. Finally, we evaluate the
                 engagement-sensitive agent and find that asking probing
                 questions at the proper times has the expected effects
                 on the user's verbal/nonverbal behaviors during
                 communication with the agent. We also find that our
                 agent system improves the user's impression of the
                 agent in terms of its engagement awareness, behavior
                 appropriateness, conversation smoothness, favorability,
                 and intelligence.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Jokinen:2013:GTT,
  author =       "Kristiina Jokinen and Hirohisa Furukawa and Masafumi
                 Nishida and Seiichi Yamamoto",
  title =        "Gaze and turn-taking behavior in casual conversational
                 interactions",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499474.2499481",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:45 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Eye gaze is an important means for controlling
                 interaction and coordinating the participants' turns
                 smoothly. We have studied how eye gaze correlates with
                 spoken interaction and especially focused on the
                 combined effect of the speech signal and gazing to
                 predict turn taking possibilities. It is well known
                 that mutual gaze is important in the coordination of
                 turn taking in two-party dialogs, and in this article,
                 we investigate whether this fact also holds for
                 three-party conversations. In group interactions, it
                 may be that different features are used for managing
                 turn taking than in two-party dialogs. We collected
                 casual conversational data and used an eye tracker to
                 systematically observe a participant's gaze in the
                 interactions. By studying the combined effect of speech
                 and gaze on turn taking, we aimed to answer our main
                 questions: How well can eye gaze help in predicting
                 turn taking? What is the role of eye gaze when the
                 speaker holds the turn? Is the role of eye gaze as
                 important in three-party dialogs as in two-party
                 dialogue? We used Support Vector Machines (SVMs) to
                 classify turn taking events with respect to speech and
                 gaze features, so as to estimate how well the features
                 signal a change of the speaker or a continuation of the
                 same speaker. The results confirm the earlier
                 hypothesis that eye gaze significantly helps in
                 predicting the partner's turn taking activity, and we
                 also get supporting evidence for our hypothesis that
                 the speaker is a prominent coordinator of the
                 interaction space. Such a turn taking model could be
                 used in interactive applications to improve the
                 system's conversational performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Jameson:2013:MJR,
  author =       "Anthony Jameson",
  title =        "In Memoriam: {John Riedl}",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2533670.2533671",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:47 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This recollection of John Riedl, founding
                 coeditor-in-chief of the ACM Transactions on
                 Interactive Intelligent Systems, presents a picture by
                 editors of the journal of what it was like to
                 collaborate and interact with him.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Amershi:2013:LAW,
  author =       "Saleema Amershi and Jalal Mahmud and Jeffrey Nichols
                 and Tessa Lau and German Attanasio Ruiz",
  title =        "{LiveAction}: Automating {Web} Task Model Generation",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2533670.2533672",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:47 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Task automation systems promise to increase human
                 productivity by assisting us with our mundane and
                 difficult tasks. These systems often rely on people to
                 (1) identify the tasks they want automated and (2)
                 specify the procedural steps necessary to accomplish
                 those tasks (i.e., to create task models). However, our
                 interviews with users of a Web task automation system
                 reveal that people find it difficult to identify tasks
                 to automate and most do not even believe they perform
                 repetitive tasks worthy of automation. Furthermore,
                 even when automatable tasks are identified, the
                 well-recognized difficulties of specifying task steps
                 often prevent people from taking advantage of these
                 automation systems. In this research, we analyze real
                 Web usage data and find that people do in fact repeat
                 behaviors on the Web and that automating these
                 behaviors, regardless of their complexity, would reduce
                 the overall number of actions people need to perform
                 when completing their tasks, potentially saving time.
                 Motivated by these findings, we developed LiveAction, a
                 fully-automated approach to generating task models from
                 Web usage data. LiveAction models can be used to
                 populate the task model repositories required by many
                 automation systems, helping us take advantage of
                 automation in our everyday lives.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Wetzler:2013:CPM,
  author =       "Philipp Wetzler and Steven Bethard and Heather Leary
                 and Kirsten Butcher and Soheil Danesh Bahreini and Jin
                 Zhao and James H. Martin and Tamara Sumner",
  title =        "Characterizing and Predicting the Multifaceted Nature
                 of Quality in Educational {Web} Resources",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2533670.2533673",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:47 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Efficient learning from Web resources can depend on
                 accurately assessing the quality of each resource. We
                 present a methodology for developing computational
                 models of quality that can assist users in assessing
                 Web resources. The methodology consists of four steps:
                 1) a meta-analysis of previous studies to decompose
                 quality into high-level dimensions and low-level
                 indicators, 2) an expert study to identify the key
                 low-level indicators of quality in the target domain,
                 3) human annotation to provide a collection of example
                 resources where the presence or absence of quality
                 indicators has been tagged, and 4) training of a
                 machine learning model to predict quality indicators
                 based on content and link features of Web resources. We
                 find that quality is a multifaceted construct, with
                 different aspects that may be important to different
                 users at different times. We show that machine learning
                 models can predict this multifaceted nature of quality,
                 both in the context of aiding curators as they evaluate
                 resources submitted to digital libraries, and in the
                 context of aiding teachers as they develop online
                 educational resources. Finally, we demonstrate how
                 computational models of quality can be provided as a
                 service, and embedded into applications such as Web
                 search.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Amir:2013:PRV,
  author =       "Ofra Amir and Ya'akov (Kobi) Gal",
  title =        "Plan Recognition and Visualization in Exploratory
                 Learning Environments",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2533670.2533674",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:47 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Modern pedagogical software is open-ended and
                 flexible, allowing students to solve problems through
                 exploration and trial-and-error. Such exploratory
                 settings provide for a rich educational environment for
                 students, but they challenge teachers to keep track of
                 students' progress and to assess their performance.
                 This article presents techniques for recognizing
                 students' activities in such pedagogical software and
                 visualizing these activities to teachers. It describes
                 a new plan recognition algorithm that uses a recursive
                 grammar that takes into account repetition and
                 interleaving of activities. This algorithm was
                 evaluated empirically using an exploratory environment
                 for teaching chemistry used by thousands of students in
                 several countries. It was always able to correctly
                 infer students' plans when the appropriate grammar was
                 available. We designed two methods for visualizing
                 students' activities for teachers: one that visualizes
                 students' inferred plans, and one that visualizes
                 students' interactions over a timeline. Both of these
                 visualization methods were preferred to and found more
                 helpful than a baseline method which showed a movie of
                 students' interactions. These results demonstrate the
                 benefit of combining novel AI techniques and
                 visualization methods for the purpose of designing
                 collaborative systems that support students in their
                 problem solving and teachers in their understanding of
                 students' performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Chen:2013:HDM,
  author =       "Li Chen and Marco de Gemmis and Alexander Felfernig
                 and Pasquale Lops and Francesco Ricci and Giovanni
                 Semeraro",
  title =        "Human Decision Making and Recommender Systems",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2533670.2533675",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:47 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Recommender systems have already proved to be valuable
                 for coping with the information overload problem in
                 several application domains. They provide people with
                 suggestions for items which are likely to be of
                 interest for them; hence, a primary function of
                 recommender systems is to help people make good choices
                 and decisions. However, most previous research has
                 focused on recommendation techniques and algorithms,
                 and less attention has been devoted to the decision
                 making processes adopted by the users and possibly
                 supported by the system. There is still a gap between
                 the importance that the community gives to the
                 assessment of recommendation algorithms and the current
                 range of ongoing research activities concerning human
                 decision making. Different decision-psychological
                 phenomena can influence the decision making of users of
                 recommender systems, and research along these lines is
                 becoming increasingly important and popular. This
                 special issue highlights how the coupling of
                 recommendation algorithms with the understanding of
                 human choice and decision making theory has the
                 potential to benefit research and practice on
                 recommender systems and to enable users to achieve a
                 good balance between decision accuracy and decision
                 effort.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Dodson:2013:ELA,
  author =       "Thomas Dodson and Nicholas Mattei and Joshua T. Guerin
                 and Judy Goldsmith",
  title =        "An {English}-Language Argumentation Interface for
                 Explanation Generation with {Markov} Decision Processes
                 in the Domain of Academic Advising",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2513564",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:47 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "A Markov Decision Process (MDP) policy presents, for
                 each state, an action, which preferably maximizes the
                 expected utility accrual over time. In this article, we
                 present a novel explanation system for MDP policies.
                 The system interactively generates conversational
                 English-language explanations of the actions suggested
                 by an optimal policy, and does so in real time. We rely
                 on natural language explanations in order to build
                 trust between the user and the explanation system,
                 leveraging existing research in psychology in order to
                 generate salient explanations. Our explanation system
                 is designed for portability between domains and uses a
                 combination of domain-specific and domain-independent
                 techniques. The system automatically extracts implicit
                 knowledge from an MDP model and accompanying policy.
                 This MDP-based explanation system can be ported between
                 applications without additional effort by knowledge
                 engineers or model builders. Our system separates
                 domain-specific data from the explanation logic,
                 allowing for a robust system capable of incremental
                 upgrades. Domain-specific explanations are generated
                 through case-based explanation techniques specific to
                 the domain and a knowledge base of concept mappings
                 used to generate English-language explanations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Freyne:2013:RBP,
  author =       "Jill Freyne and Shlomo Berkovsky and Gregory Smith",
  title =        "Rating Bias and Preference Acquisition",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499673",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:47 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Personalized systems and recommender systems exploit
                 implicitly and explicitly provided user information to
                 address the needs and requirements of those using their
                 services. User preference information, often in the
                 form of interaction logs and ratings data, is used to
                 identify similar users, whose opinions are leveraged to
                 inform recommendations or to filter information. In
                 this work we explore a different dimension of
                 information trends in user bias and reasoning learned
                 from ratings provided by users to a recommender system.
                 Our work examines the characteristics of a dataset of
                 100,000 user ratings on a corpus of recipes, which
                 illustrates stable user bias towards certain features
                 of the recipes (cuisine type, key ingredient, and
                 complexity). We exploit this knowledge to design and
                 evaluate a personalized rating acquisition tool based
                 on active learning, which leverages user biases in
                 order to obtain ratings bearing high-value information
                 and to reduce prediction errors with new users.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Knijnenburg:2013:MDA,
  author =       "Bart P. Knijnenburg and Alfred Kobsa",
  title =        "Making Decisions about Privacy: Information Disclosure
                 in Context-Aware Recommender Systems",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499670",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:47 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Recommender systems increasingly use contextual and
                 demographical data as a basis for recommendations.
                 Users, however, often feel uncomfortable providing such
                 information. In a privacy-minded design of
                 recommenders, users are free to decide for themselves
                 what data they want to disclose about themselves. But
                 this decision is often complex and burdensome, because
                 the consequences of disclosing personal information are
                 uncertain or even unknown. Although a number of
                 researchers have tried to analyze and facilitate such
                 information disclosure decisions, their research
                 results are fragmented, and they often do not hold up
                 well across studies. This article describes a unified
                 approach to privacy decision research that describes
                 the cognitive processes involved in users' ``privacy
                 calculus'' in terms of system-related perceptions and
                 experiences that act as mediating factors to
                 information disclosure. The approach is applied in an
                 online experiment with 493 participants using a mock-up
                 of a context-aware recommender system. Analyzing the
                 results with a structural linear model, we demonstrate
                 that personal privacy concerns and disclosure
                 justification messages affect the perception of and
                 experience with a system, which in turn drive
                 information disclosure decisions. Overall, disclosure
                 justification messages do not increase disclosure.
                 Although they are perceived to be valuable, they
                 decrease users' trust and satisfaction. Another result
                 is that manipulating the order of the requests
                 increases the disclosure of items requested early but
                 decreases the disclosure of items requested later.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Apostolopoulos:2014:IOL,
  author =       "Ilias Apostolopoulos and Navid Fallah and Eelke Folmer
                 and Kostas E. Bekris",
  title =        "Integrated online localization and navigation for
                 people with visual impairments using smart phones",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499669",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:49 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Indoor localization and navigation systems for
                 individuals with Visual Impairments (VIs) typically
                 rely upon extensive augmentation of the physical space,
                 significant computational resources, or heavy and
                 expensive sensors; thus, few systems have been
                 implemented on a large scale. This work describes a
                 system able to guide people with VIs through indoor
                 environments using inexpensive sensors, such as
                 accelerometers and compasses, which are available in
                 portable devices like smart phones. The method takes
                 advantage of feedback from the human user, who confirms
                 the presence of landmarks, something that users with
                 VIs already do when navigating in a building. The
                 system calculates the user's location in real time and
                 uses it to provide audio instructions on how to reach
                 the desired destination. Initial early experiments
                 suggested that the accuracy of the localization depends
                 on the type of directions and the availability of an
                 appropriate transition model for the user. A critical
                 parameter for the transition model is the user's step
                 length. Consequently, this work also investigates
                 different schemes for automatically computing the
                 user's step length and reducing the dependence of the
                 approach on the definition of an accurate transition
                 model. In this way, the direction provision method is
                 able to use the localization estimate and adapt to
                 failed executions of paths by the users. Experiments
                 are presented that evaluate the accuracy of the overall
                 integrated system, which is executed online on a smart
                 phone. Both people with VIs and blindfolded sighted
                 people participated in the experiments, which included
                 paths along multiple floors that required the use of
                 stairs and elevators.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Zamborlin:2014:FGI,
  author =       "Bruno Zamborlin and Frederic Bevilacqua and Marco
                 Gillies and Mark D'inverno",
  title =        "Fluid gesture interaction design: Applications of
                 continuous recognition for the design of modern
                 gestural interfaces",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2543921",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:49 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents Gesture Interaction DEsigner
                 (GIDE), an innovative application for gesture
                 recognition. Instead of recognizing gestures only after
                 they have been entirely completed, as happens in
                 classic gesture recognition systems, GIDE exploits the
                 full potential of gestural interaction by tracking
                 gestures continuously and synchronously, allowing users
                 to both control the target application moment to moment
                 and also receive immediate and synchronous feedback
                 about system recognition states. By this means, they
                 quickly learn how to interact with the system in order
                 to develop better performances. Furthermore, rather
                 than learning the predefined gestures of others, GIDE
                 allows users to design their own gestures, making
                 interaction more natural and also allowing the
                 applications to be tailored by users' specific needs.
                 We describe our system that demonstrates these new
                 qualities-that combine to provide fluid gesture
                 interaction design-through evaluations with a range of
                 performers and artists.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Young:2014:DET,
  author =       "James E. Young and Takeo Igarashi and Ehud Sharlin and
                 Daisuke Sakamoto and Jeffrey Allen",
  title =        "Design and evaluation techniques for authoring
                 interactive and stylistic behaviors",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499671",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:49 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a series of projects for end-user authoring
                 of interactive robotic behaviors, with a particular
                 focus on the style of those behaviors: we call this
                 approach Style-by-Demonstration (SBD). We provide an
                 overview introduction of three different SBD platforms:
                 SBD for animated character interactive locomotion
                 paths, SBD for interactive robot locomotion paths, and
                 SBD for interactive robot dance. The primary
                 contribution of this article is a detailed
                 cross-project SBD analysis of the interaction designs
                 and evaluation approaches employed, with the goal of
                 providing general guidelines stemming from our
                 experiences, for both developing and evaluating SBD
                 systems. In addition, we provide the first full account
                 of our Puppet Master SBD algorithm, with an explanation
                 of how it evolved through the projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Kumar:2014:TES,
  author =       "Rohit Kumar and Carolyn P. Ros{\'e}",
  title =        "Triggering effective social support for online
                 groups",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2499672",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:49 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Conversational agent technology is an emerging
                 paradigm for creating a social environment in online
                 groups that is conducive to effective teamwork. Prior
                 work has demonstrated advantages in terms of learning
                 gains and satisfaction scores when groups learning
                 together online have been supported by conversational
                 agents that employ Balesian social strategies. This
                 prior work raises two important questions that are
                 addressed in this article. The first question is one of
                 generality. Specifically, are the positive effects of
                 the designed support specific to learning contexts? Or
                 are they in evidence in other collaborative task
                 domains as well? We present a study conducted within a
                 collaborative decision-making task where we see that
                 the positive effects of the Balesian social strategies
                 extend to this new context. The second question is
                 whether it is possible to increase the effectiveness of
                 the Balesian social strategies by increasing the
                 context sensitivity with which the social strategies
                 are triggered. To this end, we present technical work
                 that increases the sensitivity of the triggering. Next,
                 we present a user study that demonstrates an
                 improvement in performance of the support agent with
                 the new, more sensitive triggering policy over the
                 baseline approach from prior work. The technical
                 contribution of this article is that we extend prior
                 work where such support agents were modeled using a
                 composition of conversational behaviors integrated
                 within an event-driven framework. Within the present
                 approach, conversation is orchestrated through
                 context-sensitive triggering of the composed behaviors.
                 The core effort involved in applying this approach
                 involves building a set of triggering policies that
                 achieve this orchestration in a time-sensitive and
                 coherent manner. In line with recent developments in
                 data-driven approaches for building dialog systems, we
                 present a novel technique for learning
                 behavior-specific triggering policies, deploying it as
                 part of our efforts to improve a socially capable
                 conversational tutor agent that supports collaborative
                 learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Kritikos:2014:TMD,
  author =       "K. Kritikos and D. Plexousakis and F. Patern{\`o}",
  title =        "Task model-driven realization of interactive
                 application functionality through services",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2559979",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:49 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "The Service-Oriented Computing (SOC) paradigm is
                 currently being adopted by many developers, as it
                 promises the construction of applications through reuse
                 of existing Web Services (WSs). However, current SOC
                 tools produce applications that interact with users in
                 a limited way. This limitation is overcome by
                 model-based Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) approaches
                 that support the development of applications whose
                 functionality is realized with WSs and whose User
                 Interface (UI) is adapted to the user's context.
                 Typically, such approaches do not consider various
                 functional issues, such as the applications' semantics
                 and their syntactic robustness in terms of the WSs
                 selected to implement their functionality and the
                 automation of the service discovery and selection
                 processes. To this end, we propose a model-driven
                 design method for interactive service-based
                 applications that is able to consider the functional
                 issues and their implications for the UI. This method
                 is realized by a semiautomatic environment that can be
                 integrated into current model-based HCI tools to
                 complete the development of interactive service
                 front-ends. The proposed method takes as input an HCI
                 task model, which includes the user's view of the
                 interactive system, and produces a concrete service
                 model that describes how existing services can be
                 combined to realize the application's functionality. To
                 achieve its goal, our method first transforms system
                 tasks into semantic service queries by mapping the task
                 objects onto domain ontology concepts; then it sends
                 each resulting query to a semantic service engine so as
                 to discover the corresponding services. In the end,
                 only one service from those associated with a system
                 task is selected, through the execution of a novel
                 service concretization algorithm that ensures message
                 compatibility between the selected services.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Rafailidis:2014:CBT,
  author =       "Dimitrios Rafailidis and Apostolos Axenopoulos and
                 Jonas Etzold and Stavroula Manolopoulou and Petros
                 Daras",
  title =        "Content-based tag propagation and tensor factorization
                 for personalized item recommendation based on social
                 tagging",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2487164",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 13 06:46:49 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, a novel method for personalized item
                 recommendation based on social tagging is presented.
                 The proposed approach comprises a content-based tag
                 propagation method to address the sparsity and ``cold
                 start'' problems, which often occur in social tagging
                 systems and decrease the quality of recommendations.
                 The proposed method exploits (a) the content of items
                 and (b) users' tag assignments through a relevance
                 feedback mechanism in order to automatically identify
                 the optimal number of content-based and conceptually
                 similar items. The relevance degrees between users,
                 tags, and conceptually similar items are calculated in
                 order to ensure accurate tag propagation and
                 consequently to address the issue of ``learning tag
                 relevance.'' Moreover, the ternary relation among
                 users, tags, and items is preserved by performing tag
                 propagation in the form of triplets based on users'
                 personal preferences and ``cold start'' degree. The
                 latent associations among users, tags, and items are
                 revealed based on a tensor factorization model in order
                 to build personalized item recommendations. In our
                 experiments with real-world social data, we show the
                 superiority of the proposed approach over other
                 state-of-the-art methods, since several problems in
                 social tagging systems are successfully tackled.
                 Finally, we present the recommendation methodology in
                 the multimodal engine of I-SEARCH, where users'
                 interaction capabilities are demonstrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Callaway:2014:EMD,
  author =       "Charles Callaway and Oliviero Stock and Elyon
                 Dekoven",
  title =        "Experiments with Mobile Drama in an Instrumented
                 Museum for Inducing Conversation in Small Groups",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2584250",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 12 11:14:27 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Small groups can have a better museum visit when that
                 visit is both a social and an educational occasion. The
                 unmediated discussion that often ensues during a shared
                 cultural experience, especially when it is with a small
                 group whose members already know each other, has been
                 shown by ethnographers to be important for a more
                 enriching experience. We present DRAMATRIC, a mobile
                 presentation system that delivers hour-long dramas to
                 small groups of museum visitors. DRAMATRIC continuously
                 receives sensor data from the museum environment during
                 a museum visit and analyzes group behavior from that
                 data. On the basis of that analysis, DRAMATRIC delivers
                 a series of dynamically coordinated dramatic scenes
                 about exhibits that the group walks near, each designed
                 to stimulate group discussion. Each drama presentation
                 contains small, complementary differences in the
                 narrative content heard by the different members of the
                 group, leveraging the tension/release cycle of
                 narrative to naturally lead visitors to fill in missing
                 pieces in their own drama by interacting with their
                 fellow group members. Using four specific techniques to
                 produce these coordinated narrative variations, we
                 describe two experiments: one in a neutral, nonmobile
                 environment, and the other a controlled experiment with
                 a full-scale drama in an actual museum. The first
                 experiment tests the hypothesis that narrative
                 differences will lead to increased conversation
                 compared to hearing identical narratives, whereas the
                 second experiment tests whether switching from
                 presenting a drama using one technique to using another
                 technique for the subsequent drama will result in
                 increased conversation. The first experiment shows that
                 hearing coordinated narrative variations can in fact
                 lead to significantly increased conversation. The
                 second experiment also serves as a framework for future
                 studies that evaluate strategies for similar adaptive
                 systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Martens:2014:ISI,
  author =       "Jean-Bernard Martens",
  title =        "Interactive Statistics with {Illmo}",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2509108",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 12 11:14:27 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Progress in empirical research relies on adequate
                 statistical analysis and reporting. This article
                 proposes an alternative approach to statistical
                 modeling that is based on an old but mostly forgotten
                 idea, namely Thurstone modeling. Traditional
                 statistical methods assume that either the measured
                 data, in the case of parametric statistics, or the
                 rank-order transformed data, in the case of
                 nonparametric statistics, are samples from a specific
                 (usually Gaussian) distribution with unknown
                 parameters. Consequently, such methods should not be
                 applied when this assumption is not valid. Thurstone
                 modeling similarly assumes the existence of an
                 underlying process that obeys an a priori assumed
                 distribution with unknown parameters, but combines this
                 underlying process with a flexible response mechanism
                 that can be either continuous or discrete and either
                 linear or nonlinear. One important advantage of
                 Thurstone modeling is that traditional statistical
                 methods can still be applied on the underlying process,
                 irrespective of the nature of the measured data itself.
                 Another advantage is that Thurstone models can be
                 graphically represented, which helps to communicate
                 them to a broad audience. A new interactive statistical
                 package, Interactive Log Likelihood MOdeling ( Illmo ),
                 was specifically designed for estimating and rendering
                 Thurstone models and is intended to bring Thurstone
                 modeling within the reach of persons who are not
                 experts in statistics. Illmo is unique in the sense
                 that it provides not only extensive graphical
                 renderings of the data analysis results but also an
                 interface for navigating between different model
                 options. In this way, users can interactively explore
                 different models and decide on an adequate balance
                 between model complexity and agreement with the
                 experimental data. Hypothesis testing on model
                 parameters is also made intuitive and is supported by
                 both textual and graphical feedback. The flexibility
                 and ease of use of Illmo means that it is also
                 potentially useful as a didactic tool for teaching
                 statistics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Riveiro:2014:ENM,
  author =       "Maria Riveiro",
  title =        "Evaluation of Normal Model Visualization for Anomaly
                 Detection in Maritime Traffic",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2591511",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 12 11:14:27 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Monitoring dynamic objects in surveillance
                 applications is normally a demanding activity for
                 operators, not only because of the complexity and high
                 dimensionality of the data but also because of other
                 factors like time constraints and uncertainty. Timely
                 detection of anomalous objects or situations that need
                 further investigation may reduce operators' cognitive
                 load. Surveillance applications may include anomaly
                 detection capabilities, but their use is not
                 widespread, as they usually generate a high number of
                 false alarms, they do not provide appropriate cognitive
                 support for operators, and their outcomes can be
                 difficult to comprehend and trust. Visual analytics can
                 bridge the gap between computational and human
                 approaches to detecting anomalous behavior in traffic
                 data, making this process more transparent. As a step
                 toward this goal of transparency, this article presents
                 an evaluation that assesses whether visualizations of
                 normal behavioral models of vessel traffic support two
                 of the main analytical tasks specified during our field
                 work in maritime control centers. The evaluation
                 combines quantitative and qualitative usability
                 assessments. The quantitative evaluation, which was
                 carried out with a proof-of-concept prototype, reveals
                 that participants who used the visualization of normal
                 behavioral models outperformed the group that did not
                 do so. The qualitative assessment shows that domain
                 experts have a positive attitude toward the provision
                 of automatic support and the visualization of normal
                 behavioral models, as these aids may reduce reaction
                 time and increase trust in and comprehensibility of the
                 system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Chen:2014:EPM,
  author =       "Yingjie Victor Chen and Zhenyu Cheryl Qian and Robert
                 Woodbury and John Dill and Chris D. Shaw",
  title =        "Employing a Parametric Model for Analytic Provenance",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2591510",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 12 11:14:27 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a propagation-based parametric symbolic
                 model approach to supporting analytic provenance. This
                 approach combines a script language to capture and
                 encode the analytic process and a parametrically
                 controlled symbolic model to represent and reuse the
                 logic of the analysis process. Our approach first
                 appeared in a visual analytics system called CZSaw.
                 Using a script to capture the analyst's interactions at
                 a meaningful system action level allows the creation of
                 a parametrically controlled symbolic model in the form
                 of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). Using the DAG allows
                 propagating changes. Graph nodes correspond to
                 variables in CZSaw scripts, which are results (data and
                 data visualizations) generated from user interactions.
                 The user interacts with variables representing entities
                 or relations to create the next step's results. Graph
                 edges represent dependency relationships among nodes.
                 Any change to a variable triggers the propagation
                 mechanism to update downstream dependent variables and
                 in turn updates data views to reflect the change. The
                 analyst can reuse parts of the analysis process by
                 assigning new values to a node in the graph. We
                 evaluated this symbolic model approach by solving three
                 IEEE VAST Challenge contest problems (from IEEE VAST
                 2008, 2009, and 2010). In each of these challenges, the
                 analyst first created a symbolic model to explore,
                 understand, analyze, and solve a particular subproblem
                 and then reused the model via its dependency graph
                 propagation mechanism to solve similar subproblems.
                 With the script and model, CZSaw supports the analytic
                 provenance by capturing, encoding, and reusing the
                 analysis process. The analyst can recall the
                 chronological states of the analysis process with the
                 CZSaw script and may interpret the underlying rationale
                 of the analysis with the symbolic model.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Chan:2014:RCT,
  author =       "Yu-Hsuan Chan and Carlos D. Correa and Kwan-Liu Ma",
  title =        "{Regression Cube}: a Technique for Multidimensional
                 Visual Exploration and Interactive Pattern Finding",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2590349",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:17:36 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Scatterplots are commonly used to visualize
                 multidimensional data; however, 2D projections of data
                 offer limited understanding of the high-dimensional
                 interactions between data points. We introduce an
                 interactive 3D extension of scatterplots called the
                 Regression Cube (RC), which augments a 3D scatterplot
                 with three facets on which the correlations between the
                 two variables are revealed by sensitivity lines and
                 sensitivity streamlines. The sensitivity visualization
                 of local regression on the 2D projections provides
                 insights about the shape of the data through its
                 orientation and continuity cues. We also introduce a
                 series of visual operations such as clustering,
                 brushing, and selection supported in RC. By iteratively
                 refining the selection of data points of interest, RC
                 is able to reveal salient local correlation patterns
                 that may otherwise remain hidden with a global
                 analysis. We have demonstrated our system with two
                 examples and a user-oriented evaluation, and we show
                 how RCs enable interactive visual exploration of
                 multidimensional datasets via a variety of
                 classification and information retrieval tasks. A video
                 demo of RC is available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Jawaheer:2014:MUP,
  author =       "Gawesh Jawaheer and Peter Weller and Patty Kostkova",
  title =        "Modeling User Preferences in Recommender Systems: a
                 Classification Framework for Explicit and Implicit User
                 Feedback",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2512208",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:15:34 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Recommender systems are firmly established as a
                 standard technology for assisting users with their
                 choices; however, little attention has been paid to the
                 application of the user model in recommender systems,
                 particularly the variability and noise that are an
                 intrinsic part of human behavior and activity. To
                 enable recommender systems to suggest items that are
                 useful to a particular user, it can be essential to
                 understand the user and his or her interactions with
                 the system. These interactions typically manifest
                 themselves as explicit and implicit user feedback that
                 provides the key indicators for modeling users'
                 preferences for items and essential information for
                 personalizing recommendations. In this article, we
                 propose a classification framework for the use of
                 explicit and implicit user feedback in recommender
                 systems based on a set of distinct properties that
                 include Cognitive Effort, User Model, Scale of
                 Measurement, and Domain Relevance. We develop a set of
                 comparison criteria for explicit and implicit user
                 feedback to emphasize the key properties. Using our
                 framework, we provide a classification of recommender
                 systems that have addressed questions about user
                 feedback, and we review state-of-the-art techniques to
                 improve such user feedback and thereby improve the
                 performance of the recommender system. Finally, we
                 formulate challenges for future research on improvement
                 of user feedback.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Fang:2014:CLM,
  author =       "Yi Fang and Ziad Al Bawab and Jean-Francois Crespo",
  title =        "Collaborative Language Models for Localized Query
                 Prediction",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2622617",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:15:34 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Localized query prediction (LQP) is the task of
                 estimating web query trends for a specific location.
                 This problem subsumes many interesting personalized web
                 applications such as personalization for buzz query
                 detection, for query expansion, and for query
                 recommendation. These personalized applications can
                 greatly enhance user interaction with web search
                 engines by providing more customized information
                 discovered from user input (i.e., queries), but the LQP
                 task has rarely been investigated in the literature.
                 Although exist abundant work on estimating global web
                 search trends does exist, it often encounters the big
                 challenge of data sparsity when personalization comes
                 into play. In this article, we tackle the LQP task by
                 proposing a series of collaborative language models
                 (CLMs). CLMs alleviate the data sparsity issue by
                 collaboratively collecting queries and trend
                 information from the other locations. The traditional
                 statistical language models assume a fixed background
                 language model, which loses the taste of
                 personalization. In contrast, CLMs are personalized
                 language models with flexible background language
                 models customized to various locations. The most
                 sophisticated CLM enables the collaboration to adapt to
                 specific query topics, which further advances the
                 personalization level. An extensive set of experiments
                 have been conducted on a large-scale web query log to
                 demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed models.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Castellano:2014:CSA,
  author =       "Ginevra Castellano and Iolanda Leite and Andr{\'e}
                 Pereira and Carlos Martinho and Ana Paiva and Peter W.
                 Mcowan",
  title =        "Context-Sensitive Affect Recognition for a Robotic
                 Game Companion",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2622615",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:15:34 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Social perception abilities are among the most
                 important skills necessary for robots to engage humans
                 in natural forms of interaction. Affect-sensitive
                 robots are more likely to be able to establish and
                 maintain believable interactions over extended periods
                 of time. Nevertheless, the integration of affect
                 recognition frameworks in real-time human-robot
                 interaction scenarios is still underexplored. In this
                 article, we propose and evaluate a context-sensitive
                 affect recognition framework for a robotic game
                 companion for children. The robot can automatically
                 detect affective states experienced by children in an
                 interactive chess game scenario. The affect recognition
                 framework is based on the automatic extraction of task
                 features and social interaction-based features.
                 Vision-based indicators of the children's nonverbal
                 behaviour are merged with contextual features related
                 to the game and the interaction and given as input to
                 support vector machines to create a context-sensitive
                 multimodal system for affect recognition. The affect
                 recognition framework is fully integrated in an
                 architecture for adaptive human-robot interaction.
                 Experimental evaluation showed that children's affect
                 can be successfully predicted using a combination of
                 behavioural and contextual data related to the game and
                 the interaction with the robot. It was found that
                 contextual data alone can be used to successfully
                 predict a subset of affective dimensions, such as
                 interest toward the robot. Experiments also showed that
                 engagement with the robot can be predicted using
                 information about the user's valence, interest and
                 anticipatory behaviour. These results provide evidence
                 that social engagement can be modelled as a state
                 consisting of affect and attention components in the
                 context of the interaction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Steichen:2014:IVT,
  author =       "Ben Steichen and Cristina Conati and Giuseppe
                 Carenini",
  title =        "Inferring Visualization Task Properties, User
                 Performance, and User Cognitive Abilities from Eye Gaze
                 Data",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2633043",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:15:34 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Information visualization systems have traditionally
                 followed a one-size-fits-all model, typically ignoring
                 an individual user's needs, abilities, and preferences.
                 However, recent research has indicated that
                 visualization performance could be improved by adapting
                 aspects of the visualization to the individual user. To
                 this end, this article presents research aimed at
                 supporting the design of novel user-adaptive
                 visualization systems. In particular, we discuss
                 results on using information on user eye gaze patterns
                 while interacting with a given visualization to predict
                 properties of the user's visualization task; the user's
                 performance (in terms of predicted task completion
                 time); and the user's individual cognitive abilities,
                 such as perceptual speed, visual working memory, and
                 verbal working memory. We provide a detailed analysis
                 of different eye gaze feature sets, as well as
                 over-time accuracies. We show that these predictions
                 are significantly better than a baseline classifier
                 even during the early stages of visualization usage.
                 These findings are then discussed with a view to
                 designing visualization systems that can adapt to the
                 individual user in real time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Cuayahuitl:2014:ISI,
  author =       "Heriberto Cuay{\'a}huitl and Lutz Frommberger and Nina
                 Dethlefs and Antoine Raux and Mathew Marge and Hendrik
                 Zender",
  title =        "Introduction to the Special Issue on Machine Learning
                 for Multiple Modalities in Interactive Systems and
                 Robots",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12e:1--12e:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2670539",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 14 17:38:05 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "This special issue highlights research articles that
                 apply machine learning to robots and other systems that
                 interact with users through more than one modality,
                 such as speech, gestures, and vision. For example, a
                 robot may coordinate its speech with its actions,
                 taking into account (audio-)visual feedback during
                 their execution. Machine learning provides interactive
                 systems with opportunities to improve performance not
                 only of individual components but also of the system as
                 a whole. However, machine learning methods that
                 encompass multiple modalities of an interactive system
                 are still relatively hard to find. The articles in this
                 special issue represent examples that contribute to
                 filling this gap.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12e",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Ngo:2014:EIM,
  author =       "Hung Ngo and Matthew Luciw and Jawas Nagi and
                 Alexander Forster and J{\"u}rgen Schmidhuber and Ngo
                 Anh Vien",
  title =        "Efficient Interactive Multiclass Learning from Binary
                 Feedback",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2629631",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:15:36 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a novel algorithm called upper confidence
                 --- weighted learning (UCWL) for online multiclass
                 learning from binary feedback (e.g., feedback that
                 indicates whether the prediction was right or wrong).
                 UCWL combines the upper confidence bound (UCB)
                 framework with the soft confidence-weighted (SCW)
                 online learning scheme. In UCB, each instance is
                 classified using both score and uncertainty. For a
                 given instance in the sequence, the algorithm might
                 guess its class label primarily to reduce the class
                 uncertainty. This is a form of informed exploration,
                 which enables the performance to improve with lower
                 sample complexity compared to the case without
                 exploration. Combining UCB with SCW leads to the
                 ability to deal well with noisy and nonseparable data,
                 and state-of-the-art performance is achieved without
                 increasing the computational cost. A potential
                 application setting is human-robot interaction (HRI),
                 where the robot is learning to classify some set of
                 inputs while the human teaches it by providing only
                 binary feedback-or sometimes even the wrong answer
                 entirely. Experimental results in the HRI setting and
                 with two benchmark datasets from other settings show
                 that UCWL outperforms other state-of-the-art algorithms
                 in the online binary feedback setting-and surprisingly
                 even sometimes outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms
                 that get full feedback (e.g., the true class label),
                 whereas UCWL gets only binary feedback on the same data
                 sequence.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Benotti:2014:INL,
  author =       "Luciana Benotti and Tessa Lau and Mart{\'\i}n
                 Villalba",
  title =        "Interpreting Natural Language Instructions Using
                 Language, Vision, and Behavior",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2629632",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:15:36 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "We define the problem of automatic instruction
                 interpretation as follows. Given a natural language
                 instruction, can we automatically predict what an
                 instruction follower, such as a robot, should do in the
                 environment to follow that instruction? Previous
                 approaches to automatic instruction interpretation have
                 required either extensive domain-dependent rule writing
                 or extensive manually annotated corpora. This article
                 presents a novel approach that leverages a large amount
                 of unannotated, easy-to-collect data from humans
                 interacting in a game-like environment. Our approach
                 uses an automatic annotation phase based on artificial
                 intelligence planning, for which two different
                 annotation strategies are compared: one based on
                 behavioral information and the other based on
                 visibility information. The resulting annotations are
                 used as training data for different automatic
                 classifiers. This algorithm is based on the intuition
                 that the problem of interpreting a situated instruction
                 can be cast as a classification problem of choosing
                 among the actions that are possible in the situation.
                 Classification is done by combining language, vision,
                 and behavior information. Our empirical analysis shows
                 that machine learning classifiers achieve 77\% accuracy
                 on this task on available English corpora and 74\% on
                 similar German corpora. Finally, the inclusion of human
                 feedback in the interpretation process is shown to
                 boost performance to 92\% for the English corpus and
                 90\% for the German corpus.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Keizer:2014:MLS,
  author =       "Simon Keizer and Mary Ellen Foster and Zhuoran Wang
                 and Oliver Lemon",
  title =        "Machine Learning for Social Multiparty Human--Robot
                 Interaction",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2600021",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 14 17:38:05 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe a variety of machine-learning techniques
                 that are being applied to social multiuser human--robot
                 interaction using a robot bartender in our scenario. We
                 first present a data-driven approach to social state
                 recognition based on supervised learning. We then
                 describe an approach to social skills execution-that
                 is, action selection for generating socially
                 appropriate robot behavior-which is based on
                 reinforcement learning, using a data-driven simulation
                 of multiple users to train execution policies for
                 social skills. Next, we describe how these components
                 for social state recognition and skills execution have
                 been integrated into an end-to-end robot bartender
                 system, and we discuss the results of a user
                 evaluation. Finally, we present an alternative
                 unsupervised learning framework that combines social
                 state recognition and social skills execution based on
                 hierarchical Dirichlet processes and an infinite POMDP
                 interaction manager. The models make use of data from
                 both human--human interactions collected in a number of
                 German bars and human--robot interactions recorded in
                 the evaluation of an initial version of the system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}

@Article{Cuayahuitl:2014:NHR,
  author =       "Heriberto Cuay{\'a}huitl and Ivana
                 Kruijff-Korbayov{\'a} and Nina Dethlefs",
  title =        "Nonstrict Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning for
                 Interactive Systems and Robots",
  journal =      j-TIIS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2659003",
  ISSN =         "2160-6455 (print), 2160-6463 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 14 17:38:05 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tiis.bib",
  abstract =     "Conversational systems and robots that use
                 reinforcement learning for policy optimization in large
                 domains often face the problem of limited scalability.
                 This problem has been addressed either by using
                 function approximation techniques that estimate the
                 approximate true value function of a policy or by using
                 a hierarchical decomposition of a learning task into
                 subtasks. We present a novel approach for dialogue
                 policy optimization that combines the benefits of both
                 hierarchical control and function approximation and
                 that allows flexible transitions between dialogue
                 subtasks to give human users more control over the
                 dialogue. To this end, each reinforcement learning
                 agent in the hierarchy is extended with a subtask
                 transition function and a dynamic state space to allow
                 flexible switching between subdialogues. In addition,
                 the subtask policies are represented with linear
                 function approximation in order to generalize the
                 decision making to situations unseen in training. Our
                 proposed approach is evaluated in an interactive
                 conversational robot that learns to play quiz games.
                 Experimental results, using simulation and real users,
                 provide evidence that our proposed approach can lead to
                 more flexible (natural) interactions than strict
                 hierarchical control and that it is preferred by human
                 users.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems
                 (TIIS)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1341",
}