Table of contents for issues of Communications of the ACM

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Volume 20, Number 10, October, 1977
Volume 31, Number 5, May, 1988
Volume 32, Number 12, December, 1989
Volume 33, Number 1, January, 1990
Volume 33, Number 2, 1990
Volume 33, Number 3, March, 1990
Volume 33, Number 4, April, 1990
Volume 33, Number 5, 1990
Volume 33, Number 6, June, 1990
Volume 33, Number 7, July, 1990
Volume 33, Number 8, August, 1990
Volume 33, Number 9, September, 1990
Volume 33, Number 10, October, 1990
Volume 33, Number 11, November, 1990
Volume 33, Number 12, December, 1990
Volume 34, Number 1, January, 1991
Volume 34, Number 2, September, 1991
Volume 34, Number 3, March, 1991
Volume 34, Number 4, April, 1991
Volume 34, Number 5, May, 1991
Volume 34, Number 6, June, 1991
Volume 34, Number 7, July, 1991
Volume 34, Number 8, August, 1991
Volume 34, Number 9, September, 1991
Volume 34, Number 10, October, 1991
Volume 34, Number 11, November, 1991
Volume 34, Number 12, December, 1991
Volume 34, Number ??, 1991
Volume 35, Number 1, January, 1992
Volume 35, Number 2, February, 1992
Volume 35, Number 3, March, 1992
Volume 35, Number 4, April, 1992
Volume 35, Number 5, May, 1992
Volume 35, Number 6, June, 1992
Volume 35, Number 7, July, 1992
Volume 35, Number 8, August, 1992
Volume 35, Number 9, September, 1992
Volume 35, Number 10, October, 1992
Volume 35, Number 11, November, 1992
Volume 35, Number 12, December, 1992
Volume 36, Number 1, January, 1993
Volume 36, Number 2, February, 1993
Volume 36, Number 3, March, 1993
Volume 36, Number 4, April, 1993
Volume 36, Number 5, May, 1993
Volume 36, Number 6, June, 1993
Volume 36, Number 7, July, 1993
Volume 36, Number 8, August, 1993
Volume 36, Number 9, September, 1993
Volume 36, Number 10, October, 1993
Volume 36, Number 11, November, 1993
Volume 36, Number 12, December, 1993
Volume 37, Number 1, January, 1994
Volume 37, Number 2, February, 1994
Volume 37, Number 3, March, 1994
Volume 37, Number 4, April, 1994
Volume 37, Number 5, May, 1994
Volume 37, Number 6, June, 1994
Volume 37, Number 7, July, 1994
Volume 37, Number 8, August, 1994
Volume 37, Number 9, September, 1994
Volume 37, Number 10, October, 1994
Volume 37, Number 11, November, 1994
Volume 37, Number 12, December, 1994
Volume 38, Number 1, January, 1995
Volume 38, Number 2, February, 1995
Volume 38, Number 3, March, 1995
Volume 38, Number 4, April, 1995
Volume 38, Number 5, May, 1995
Volume 38, Number 6, June, 1995
Volume 38, Number 7, July, 1995
Volume 38, Number 8, August, 1995
Volume 38, Number 9, September, 1995
Volume 38, Number 10, October, 1995
Volume 38, Number 11, November, 1995
Volume 38, Number 12, December, 1995
Volume 39, Number 1, January, 1996
Volume 39, Number 2 (supplement), February, 1996
Volume 39, Number 2, February, 1996
Volume 39, Number 3, March, 1996
Volume 39, Number 4, April, 1996
Volume 39, Number 5, May, 1996
Volume 39, Number 6, June, 1996
Volume 39, Number 7, July, 1996
Volume 39, Number 8 (supplement), August, 1996
Volume 39, Number 8, August, 1996
Volume 39, Number 8 (supplement), August, 1996
Volume 39, Number 8, August, 1996
Volume 39, Number 9, September, 1996
Volume 39, Number 10, October, 1996
Volume 39, Number 11, November, 1996
Volume 39, Number 12, December, 1996
Volume 39, Number 12es, 1996
Volume 40, Number 1, January, 1997
Volume 40, Number 2S, February, 1997
Volume 40, Number 2, February, 1997
Volume 40, Number 2S, February, 1997
Volume 40, Number 2, February, 1997
Volume 40, Number 3, March, 1997
Volume 40, Number 4, April, 1997
Volume 40, Number 5 (supplement), May, 1997
Volume 40, Number 5, May, 1997
Volume 40, Number 5 (supplement), May, 1997
Volume 40, Number 5, May, 1997
Volume 40, Number 6, June, 1997
Volume 40, Number 7, July, 1997
Volume 40, Number 8, August, 1997
Volume 40, Number 9, September, 1997
Volume 40, Number 10, October, 1997
Volume 40, Number 11(S), November, 1997
Volume 40, Number 11, November, 1997
Volume 40, Number 11(S), November, 1997
Volume 40, Number 11, November, 1997
Volume 40, Number 12, December, 1997
Volume 41, Number 1, January, 1998
Volume 41, Number 2, February, 1998
Volume 41, Number 3, March, 1998
Volume 41, Number 4, April, 1998
Volume 41, Number 5, May, 1998
Volume 41, Number 5es, May, 1998
Volume 41, Number 6, June, 1998
Volume 41, Number 7, July, 1998
Volume 41, Number 8, August, 1998
Volume 41, Number 9, September, 1998
Volume 41, Number 10, October, 1998
Volume 41, Number 11, November, 1998
Volume 41, Number 12, December, 1998
Volume 42, Number 1, January, 1999
Volume 42, Number 2, February, 1999
Volume 42, Number 3, March, 1999
Volume 42, Number 4, April, 1999
Volume 42, Number 5, May, 1999
Volume 42, Number 6, June, 1999
Volume 42, Number 7, July, 1999
Volume 42, Number 8, August, 1999
Volume 42, Number 9, September, 1999
Volume 42, Number 10, October, 1999
Volume 42, Number 11, November, 1999
Volume 42, Number 12, December, 1999
Volume 17, Number 2, March / April, 1997
Volume 6, Number 2, June, 1977


Communications of the ACM
Volume 20, Number 10, October, 1977

                R. S. Boyer and   
                    J. S. Moore   A fast string searching algorithm  . . . 762--772


Communications of the ACM
Volume 31, Number 5, May, 1988

              Thomas E. Gerasch   An insertion algorithm for a minimal
                                  internal path length binary search tree  579--585


Communications of the ACM
Volume 32, Number 12, December, 1989

             Edsger W. Dijkstra   On the Cruelty of Really Teaching
                                  Computer Science . . . . . . . . . . . . 1398--1404


Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 1, January, 1990

          Forouzan Golshani and   
            Thaddeus Regulinski   Prologue: On the Synergism of Computers
                                  and Communication  . . . . . . . . . . . 8--10
       Michael W. Marcellin and   
              Thomas R. Fischer   Generalized predictive TCQ of speech . . 11--19
             S. S. Gaitonde and   
           Doug W. Jacobson and   
                     A. V. Pohm   Bounding Delay on a Multifarious Token
                                  Ring Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20--28
         Philip K. McKinley and   
                 Jane W. S. Liu   Multicast tree construction in bus-based
                                  networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29--42
           Krishnan Padmanabhan   Cube structures for multiprocessors  . . 43--52
    Bjorn N. Freeman-Benson and   
               John Maloney and   
                   Alan Borning   An incremental constraint solver . . . . 54--63
                Edgar H. Sibley   Editorial: New and Improved Computing
                                  Practices  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--69
                 Chin-Wan Chung   DATAPLEX: an access to heterogeneous
                                  distributed databases  . . . . . . . . . 70--80
                     Jason Gait   Phoenix: a Safe In-Memory File System    81--86
                 David G. Carta   Two Fast Implementations of the
                                  ``Minimal Standard'' Random Number
                                  Generator  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87--88

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 2, 1990

                    Larry Press   Wings for the Mind: The 1989 SIGCHI
                                  National Conference  . . . . . . . . . . 115--119
                  Ellen Hoadley   Investigating the Effects of Color . . . 120--125
               Dinesh Batra and   
         Jeffrey A. Hoffler and   
              Robert P. Bostrom   Comparing Representations with
                                  Relational and EER Models  . . . . . . . 126--139
               David K. Gifford   Polychannel systems for mass digital
                                  communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141--151
             Anders Kierulf and   
                   Ken Chen and   
                Jurg Nievergelt   Smart Game Board and Go Explorer: a
                                  study in software and knowledge
                                  engineering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152--166
                 Rick Joyce and   
                    Gopal Gupta   Identity authentication based on
                                  keystroke latencies  . . . . . . . . . . 168--176
             Bezalel Gavish and   
            Olivia R. Liu Sheng   Dynamic file migration in distributed
                                  computer systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 177--189
               J. Rosenberg and   
               A. L. Ananda and   
                  B. Srinivasan   Self-Assessment Procedure XX . . . . . . 190--201
                  Kuldeep Kumar   Post implementation evaluation of
                                  computer-based information systems:
                                  current practices  . . . . . . . . . . . 203--212
         Matthew A. Tillman and   
            David Chi-Chung Yen   SNA and OSI: Three Strategies for
                                  Interconnection  . . . . . . . . . . . . 214--224
              Johnny Martin and   
                     W. T. Tsai   ${N}$-Fold Inspection: a Requirements
                                  Analysis Technique . . . . . . . . . . . 225--232

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 3, March, 1990

      Danielle R. Bernstein and   
               Joshua Stern and   
             William Ehrich and   
        Michael R. Dunlavey and   
             Leonard Zettel and   
           Bruce B. Herbert and   
                Mark Nelson and   
                W. F. Smyth and   
            Bruce W. Walker and   
           Robert M. Gordon and   
            Stephen N. Cole and   
            David B. Lightstone   ACM Forum: Debatable . . . . . . . . . . 264--271
                    Larry Press   SIGGRAPH '89 --- Tomorrows's PC Today    274--279
           Computer Science and   
               Technology Board   Scaling Up: a Research Agenda for
                                  Software Engineering . . . . . . . . . . 281--293
                  Jakob Nielsen   The art of navigating through hypertext  296--310
           David A. Carlson and   
                      Sudha Ram   HyperIntelligence: The Next Frontier . . 311--321
                Vasant Dhar and   
              Nicky Ranganathan   Integer programming vs. expert systems:
                                  an experimental comparison . . . . . . . 323--336
                Rolf Molich and   
                  Jakob Nielsen   Improving a Human-Computer Dialogue  . . 338--348
           Farahangiz Arefi and   
           Charles E. Hughs and   
               David A. Workman   Automatically Generating Visual
                                  Syntax-Directed Editors  . . . . . . . . 349--360
         Christopher J. Van Wyk   Literate Programming\emdashAn Assessment 361, 365

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 4, April, 1990

             Martin Wielgus and   
          Marvin L. Watkins and   
            Edward Sacharuk and   
           Srinivasarao Damerla   ACM Forum: More Debatable  . . . . . . . 396--397
              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computer Security in the Business World  399--401
               Karen A. Frenkel   The European community and information
                                  technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404--410
                  Gerrit Jeelof   Europe 1992: Fraternity or Fortress? . . 412--416
          Roger A. Chiarodo and   
               Judee M. Mussehl   The semiconductor market in the European
                                  community  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417--423
                     Eiichi Ono   Japan's view of EC '92 . . . . . . . . . 424--425
                      Anonymous   EC commission communication on
                                  establishing an information services
                                  market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426--432
                      Anonymous   Council decision of July 26, 1988  . . . 434--438
                 Kurt Geihs and   
                   Ulf Hollberg   A Retrospective on DACNOS  . . . . . . . 439--448
       Daniel S. Hirschberg and   
               Debra A. Lelewer   Efficient decoding of prefix codes . . . 449--459

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 5, 1990

           Pamela Samuelson and   
              Robert J. Glushko   Survey on the Look and Feel Lawsuits . . 483--487
                Edgar H. Sibley   Special Section on Alphabets and
                                  Language: Introduction . . . . . . . . . 488--490
                 Jinan Qiao and   
               Yizheng Qiao and   
                  Sanzheng Qiao   Six-digit coding method  . . . . . . . . 491--494
                Murat Tayli and   
          Abdulla I. Al-Salamah   Building Bilingual Microcomputer Systems 495--504
               Paul W. Oman and   
                 Curtis R. Cook   Typographic Style is More than Cosmetic  506--520
          Subramanian Raman and   
                Narayanan Alwar   An AI-based approach to machine
                                  translation in Indian languages  . . . . 521--527
              Kuldeep Kumar and   
           Niels Bjorn-Andersen   A Cross-Cultural Comparison of IS
                                  Designer Values  . . . . . . . . . . . . 528--538
               Alan H. Karp and   
                Horace P. Flatt   Measuring parallel processor performance 539--543
             Jason L. Frand and   
                 Julia A. Britt   Sixth annual UCLA survey of business
                                  school computer usage  . . . . . . . . . 544--562
               Brain A. Rudolph   Self-assessment procedure XXI: a
                                  self-assessment procedure on concurrency 563--576
                   M. M. Lehman   Technical Correspondence: Uncertainty in
                                  Computer Application . . . . . . . . . . 584--586
               Peter J. Denning   Alan J. Perlis: 1922--1990: a founding
                                  father of computer science as a separate
                                  discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604--605

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 6, June, 1990

                   Bryan Kocher   President's Letter: Eschew Obfuscation   625--625
              H. M. Gladney and   
             M. L. Rinehart and   
                  F. Wagner and   
          David H. Thornley and   
                Justin H. Coven   Letters to the Editor: More on the
                                  Cruelty  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 628--630, 633
                 Maurice Wilkes   Networks, Email and Fax  . . . . . . . . 631--633
            David L. Parnas and   
       A. John van Schouwen and   
                    Shu Po Kwan   Evaluation of safety-critical software   636--648
               Renate Rohde and   
                    Jim Haskett   Disaster recovery planning for academic
                                  computing centers  . . . . . . . . . . . 652--657
          E. Burton Swanson and   
           Cynthia Mathis Beath   Departmentalization in software
                                  development and maintenance  . . . . . . 658--667
                   William Pugh   Skip Lists: a Probabilistic Alternative
                                  to Balanced Trees  . . . . . . . . . . . 668--676
               Peter K. Pearson   Fast hashing of variable-length text
                                  strings  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677--680
                    Vijay Kumar   Concurrent operations on extendible
                                  hashing and its performance  . . . . . . 681--694

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 7, July, 1990

                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Simple Complexity
                                  and COMDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--26
                 Diane Crawford   From Washington -- Budget FY 1991: The
                                  Numbers Tell the R&D Story  . . . . . . . 27--29
              Thomas E. Linehan   Digital Image: Digital Cinema  . . . . . 30--37
               Karen A. Frenkel   The Politics of Standards and the EC . . 40--51
                  Jacques Cohen   Constraint logic programming languages   52--68
               Alain Colmerauer   An introduction to Prolog III  . . . . . 69--90
              Monty Newborn and   
                    Danny Kopec   The 20th Annual ACM North American
                                  Computer Chess Championship  . . . . . . 92--104
          S. Jerrold Kaplan and   
          Mitchell D. Kapor and   
           Edward J. Belove and   
        Richard A. Landsman and   
                  Todd R. Drake   AGENDA: a Personal Information Manager   105--116
                    Chenho Kung   Object Subclass Hierarchy in SQL: a
                                  Simple Approach  . . . . . . . . . . . . 117--125
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Some reflections on a
                                  telephone switching problem  . . . . . . 154--154

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 8, August, 1990

              Maurice V. Wilkes   The bandwidth famine . . . . . . . . . . 19--21
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally speaking: Should Program
                                  Algorithms be Patented?  . . . . . . . . 23--27
           Douglas B. Lenat and   
         Ramanathan V. Guha and   
              Karen Pittman and   
               Dexter Pratt and   
                  Mary Shepherd   Cyc: Toward Programs With Common Sense   30--49
                Jim Barnett and   
               Kevin Knight and   
             Inderjeet Mani and   
                    Elaine Rich   Knowledge and natural language
                                  processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50--71
                George M. White   Natural language understanding and
                                  speech recognition . . . . . . . . . . . 72--82
               Karen A. Frenkel   Highlights from The Second Annual
                                  Computer Bowl  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84--95
               Mark D. Hill and   
                 James R. Larus   Cache considerations for multiprocessor
                                  programmers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97--102
              Leslie G. Valiant   A bridging model for parallel
                                  computation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103--111
        Theodor D. Sterling and   
               James J. Weinkam   Sharing scientific data  . . . . . . . . 112--119
              Mark L. Gillenson   Physical design equivalencies in
                                  database conversion  . . . . . . . . . . 120--131
               Daniel M. Sunday   A Very Fast Substring Search Algorithm   132--142
               Peter G. Neumann   Insecurity about security? . . . . . . . 170--170

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 9, September, 1990

                    J. R. White   President's Letter: Reflections on
                                  Snowbird . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--20
                 Diane Crawford   EC directives aim for market harmony . . 21--24
                    Larry Press   Compuvision or Teleputer?  . . . . . . . 29--36
           John D. McGregor and   
                     Tim Korson   Introduction to the Special Issue on
                                  Object-Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . 38--39
                 Tim Korson and   
               John D. McGregor   Understanding Object-Oriented: a
                                  Unifying Paradigm  . . . . . . . . . . . 40--60
                   David Jordan   Implementation benefits of C++ language
                                  mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61--64
              Michael F. Kilian   Trellis: turning designs into programs   65--67
                 Bertrand Meyer   Lessons from the design of the Eiffel
                                  libraries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68--88
                Simon Gibbs and   
         Dennis Tsichritzis and   
             Eduardo Casais and   
           Oscar Nierstrasz and   
                 Xavier Pintado   Class management for software
                                  communities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90--103
     Rebecca J. Wirfs-Brock and   
               Ralph E. Johnson   Surveying current research in
                                  object-oriented design . . . . . . . . . 104--124
                       Gul Agha   Concurrent object-oriented programming   125--141
    Brian Henderson-Sellers and   
              Julian M. Edwards   The object-oriented systems life cycle   142--159
                David Gries and   
                  Dorothy Marsh   The 1988--89 Taulbee survey report . . . 160--169
               Peter G. Neumann   A few old coincidences . . . . . . . . . 202--202

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 10, October, 1990

              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing Perspectives: It's All
                                  Software, Now  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--21
                    Marc Rettig   Practical Programmer: Software Teams . . 23--27
            Philip Heidelberger   Introduction: discrete event simulation  28--29
            Richard M. Fujimoto   Parallel discrete event simulation . . . 30--53
                Sanjay Jain and   
               Karon Barber and   
                David Osterfeld   Expert simulation for on-line scheduling 54--60
            Alexander Dupuy and   
               Jed Schwartz and   
             Yechiam Yemini and   
                    David Bacon   NEST: a Network Simulation and
                                  Prototyping Testbed  . . . . . . . . . . 63--74
                 Peter W. Glynn   Likelihood ratio gradient estimation for
                                  stochastic systems . . . . . . . . . . . 75--84
                Pierre L'Ecuyer   Random Numbers for Simulation  . . . . . 85--97
                David J. Miller   Simulation of a semiconductor
                                  manufacturing line . . . . . . . . . . . 98--108
                  Jakob Nielsen   Traditional Dialogue Design Applied to
                                  Modern User Interfaces . . . . . . . . . 109--118
             Brian D. Lynch and   
             H. Rarghav Rao and   
                 Winston T. Lin   Economic Analysis of Microcomputer
                                  Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119--129
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Ghosts, Mysteries, and
                                  Uncertainty  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170--170

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 11, November, 1990

                    Larry Press   Personal computing: Windows, DOS and the
                                  MAC  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--26
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally speaking: how to interpret the
                                  Lotus decision (and how not to)  . . . . 27--33
               Karen A. Frenkel   Women and computing  . . . . . . . . . . 34--46
                  Amy Pearl and   
          Martha E. Pollack and   
                 Eve Riskin and   
               Becky Thomas and   
             Elizabeth Wolf and   
                       Alice Wu   Becoming a Computer Scientist  . . . . . 47--57
                   Kevin Knight   Connectionist Ideas and Algorithms . . . 58--74
            Philip A. Bernstein   Transaction processing monitors  . . . . 75--86
             Paul S. Jacobs and   
                    Lisa F. Rau   SCISOR: Extracting Information from
                                  On-line News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88--97
      William J. Premerlani and   
           Michael R. Blaha and   
          James E. Rumbaugh and   
               Thomas A. Varwig   An Object-Oriented Relational Database   99--109
                  Eric A. Weiss   The XXII Self-Assessment: The Ethics of
                                  Computing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110--132
             Gio Wiederhold and   
              John McCarthy and   
                  Ed Feigenbaum   Obituary: Arthur Samuel (1901--1990).
                                  Pioneer in machine learning  . . . . . . 137--138
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Risks in Computerized
                                  Elections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170--170

Communications of the ACM
Volume 33, Number 12, December, 1990

              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing perspectives: the rise of the
                                  VLSI processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16--17, 44
           John F. Muratore and   
            Troy A. Heindel and   
            Terri B. Murphy and   
           Arthur Rasmussen and   
            Robert Z. McFarland   Real-time data acquisition at mission
                                  control  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18--31
           Barton P. Miller and   
            Lars Fredriksen and   
                       Bryan So   An empirical study of the reliability of
                                  UNIX utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32--44
        Andrew S. Tanenbaum and   
        Robbert van Renesse and   
          Hans van Staveren and   
           Gregory J. Sharp and   
          Sape J. Mullender and   
                Jack Jansen and   
               Guido van Rossum   Experiences with the Amoeba distributed
                                  operating system . . . . . . . . . . . . 46--63
                Vijay Gurbaxani   Diffusion in computing networks: the
                                  case of BITNET . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65--75
                 Jonathan Jacky   Inside RISKS: risks in medical
                                  electronics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138--138


Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 1, January, 1991

             Seymour E. Goodman   International Perspectives: The
                                  Globalization of Computing: Perspectives
                                  on a Changing World  . . . . . . . . . . 19--21
                Eric K. Clemons   Evaluation of strategic investments in
                                  information technology . . . . . . . . . 22--36
                C. A. Ellis and   
                S. J. Gibbs and   
                     G. L. Rein   Groupware: Some Issues and Experiences   38--58
            Vijay Gurbaxani and   
                 Seungjin Whang   The impact of information systems on
                                  organizations and markets  . . . . . . . 59--73
              John D. Gould and   
           Stephen J. Boies and   
                  Clayton Lewis   Making usable, useful,
                                  productivity-enhancing computer
                                  applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74--85
        Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa and   
                 Blake Ives and   
                Gordon B. Davis   Supply/Demand of IS Doctorates in the
                                  1990s  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86--99
                 Gary L. Eerkes   Profiling Computer Science Master's
                                  Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100--109
                 Leslie Lamport   The Mutual Exclusion Problem has been
                                  Solved (letter)  . . . . . . . . . . . . 110--113
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: The Clock Grows at
                                  Midnight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170--170

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 2, September, 1991

                Steve Steinberg   Viewpoint: a Student's View of
                                  Cryptography in Computer Science . . . . 15--17
                    Larry Press   Personal computing: personal computers
                                  and the world software market  . . . . . 23--28
                 Elliot Soloway   Log on education: Quick, where do the
                                  computers go?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29--33
               Nancy G. Leveson   Software safety: in embedded computer
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34--46
                   K. W. Yu and   
                    Tong Lai Yu   Superimposing Encrypted Data . . . . . . 48--54
                Flaviu Cristian   Understanding fault-tolerant distributed
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56--78
               Isabelle Richard   On Gerasch's Insertion Algorithm . . . . 79--80
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Certifying Professionals   130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 3, March, 1991

               Pamela Samuelson   Legally speaking: is information
                                  property?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--18
                 John P. Barlow   Electronic frontier: coming into the
                                  country  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--21
         Dorothy E. Denning and   
             Donn B. Parker and   
                Steven Levy and   
            Eugene Spafford and   
             Paula Hawthorn and   
             Marc Rotenberg and   
     J. J. Buck BloomBecker and   
               Richard Stallman   The United States vs. Craig Neidorf: a
                                  debate on electronic publishing,
                                  Constitutional rights and hacking  . . . 22--43
             Donn D. Parker and   
               Stephen Levy and   
            Eugene Spafford and   
             Paula Hawthorn and   
             Marc Rotenberg and   
     J. J. Buck BloomBecker and   
               Richard Stallman   Colleagues Debate Denning's Comments . . 33--41
             Dorothy E. Denning   Denning's Rebuttal . . . . . . . . . . . 42--43
                    David Gries   Teaching Calculation and Discrimination:
                                  a More Effective Curriculum  . . . . . . 44--55
            Daniel Nussbaum and   
                  Anant Agarwal   Scalability of Parallel Machines . . . . 56--61
              Jukka Teuhola and   
                    Lutz Wegner   Minimal Space, Average Linear Time
                                  Duplicate Deletion . . . . . . . . . . . 62--73
                Deborah Hix and   
             Robert S. Schulman   Human-Computer Interface Development
                                  Tools: A Methodology for Their
                                  Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74--87
          Dorothea Blostein and   
                  Lippold Haken   Justification of printed music . . . . . 88--99
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: putting on your best
                                  interface  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 4, April, 1991

                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Personal Computers
                                  as Research Tools: SIG CHI and CSCW'90   19--25
                  Edward A. Fox   Guest Editor's Introduction: Standards
                                  and the Emergence of Digital Multimedia
                                  Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26--29
             Gregory K. Wallace   The JPEG still picture compression
                                  standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--44
              Greg Cockroft and   
                   Leo Hourvitz   NeXTstep: Putting JPEG to Multiple Uses  45, 116
                 Didier Le Gall   MPEG: a video compression standard for
                                  multimedia applications  . . . . . . . . 46--58
                      Ming Liou   Overview of the $p \times 64$ kbit/s
                                  Video Coding Standard  . . . . . . . . . 59--63
               Kevin Harney and   
                 Mike Keith and   
               Gary Lavelle and   
           Lawrence D. Ryan and   
                Daniel J. Stark   The i750 Video Processor: a Total
                                  Multimedia Solution  . . . . . . . . . . 64--78
          Frans Sijstermans and   
               Jan van der Meer   CD-I full-motion video encoding on a
                                  parallel computer  . . . . . . . . . . . 81--91
                 Andrew Lippman   Feature sets for interactive images  . . 92--102
           Michael Liebhold and   
                Eric M. Hoffert   Toward an open environment for digital
                                  video  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103--112
            Eric M. Hoffert and   
                   Greg Gretsch   The Digital News System at EDUCOM: a
                                  Convergence of Interactive Computing,
                                  Newspapers, Television and High-Speed
                                  Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113--116
        Nathaniel S. Borenstein   Multimedia electronic mail: will the
                                  dream become a reality?  . . . . . . . . 117--119
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: interpreting
                                  (MIS)information . . . . . . . . . . . . 144--144

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 5, May, 1991

               Peter J. Denning   Short Citedness (editorial)  . . . . . . 17--19
              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing perspectives: software and the
                                  programmer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--24
                    Marc Rettig   Practical programmer: testing made
                                  palatable  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25--29
           Peter A. Freeman and   
            Marie-Claude Gaudel   Building a foundation for the future of
                                  software engineering . . . . . . . . . . 30--33
          Premkumar Devanbu and   
         Ronald J. Brachman and   
         Peter G. Selfridge and   
               Bruce W. Ballard   LaSSIE: a knowledge-based software
                                  information system . . . . . . . . . . . 34--49
           Armen Gabrielian and   
            Matthew K. Franklin   Multilevel specification of real time
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50--60
       Christine Lafontaine and   
                 Yves Ledru and   
          Pierre-Yves Schobbens   An experiment in formal software
                                  development: using the B theorem prover
                                  on a VDM case study  . . . . . . . . . . 62--71, 87
            Jack C. Wileden and   
          Alexander L. Wolf and   
      William R. Rosenblatt and   
                   Peri L. Tarr   Specification-level interoperability . . 72--87
Rubén Prieto-Díaz   Implementing faceted classification for
                                  software reuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88--97
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Expecting the Unexpected
                                  Mayday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 6, June, 1991

                 Diane Crawford   From Washington: CEOs unite to influence
                                  U.S. technology policy . . . . . . . . . 15--18
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally speaking: First Amendment rights
                                  for information providers? . . . . . . . 19--23
              S. E. Goodman and   
                  W. K. McHenry   International Perspectives: The Soviet
                                  Computer Industry: a Tale of Two Sectors 25--28
                 Vadim E. Kotov   Project START  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--31
                 Vadim E. Kotov   Concurrency + modularity +
                                  programmability = MARS . . . . . . . . . 32--45
                      Enn Tyugu   Three New-Generation Software
                                  Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46--59
        Alexander S. Narin'yani   Intelligent software technology for the
                                  new decade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60--67
            Allen B. Tucker and   
            Bruce H. Barnes and   
            Robert M. Aiken and   
               Keith Barker and   
               Kim B. Bruce and   
             J. Thomas Cain and   
             Susan E. Conry and   
            Gerald L. Engel and   
         Richard G. Epstein and   
            Doris K. Lidtke and   
          Michael C. Mulder and   
             Jean B. Rogers and   
         Eugene H. Spafford and   
                  A. Joe Turner   A Summary of the ACM/IEEE-CS Joint
                                  Curriculum Task Force Report: Computing
                                  Curricula 1991 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68--84
             Robert N. Charette   Inside RISKS: Risks with Risk Analysis   106--106

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 7, July, 1991

                    Marc Rettig   Practical Programmer: Nobody Reads
                                  Documentation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--24
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Notes from COMDEX    25--29
                Isaac V. Kerlow   Art + design + computer graphics
                                  technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--39
            J. F. Nunamaker and   
             Alan R. Dennis and   
         Joseph S. Valacich and   
           Douglas R. Vogel and   
                 Joey F. George   Electronic Meeting Systems to Support
                                  Group Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40--61
             Joey F. George and   
                   John L. King   Examining the computing and
                                  centralization debate  . . . . . . . . . 62--72
            Richard L. Phillips   MediaView: a General Multimedia Digital
                                  Publication System . . . . . . . . . . . 74--83
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Computers, Ethics and
                                  Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106--106

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 8, August, 1991

              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing Perspectives: Revisiting
                                  Computer Security in the Business World  19--22
              John Perry Barlow   Electronic Frontier: Private Life in
                                  Cyberspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--25
               Marcel Schoppers   Real-time knowledge-based control
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26--30
          B. Chandrasekaran and   
               R. Bhatnagar and   
                   D. D. Sharma   Real-time disturbance control  . . . . . 32--47
            David W. Payton and   
               Thomas E. Bihari   Intelligent real-time control of robotic
                                  vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--63
                      Wolf Kohn   Declarative control architecture . . . . 64--79
                 C. J. Paul and   
             Anurag Acharya and   
                Bryan Black and   
              Jay K. Strosnider   Reducing problem-solving variance to
                                  improve predictability . . . . . . . . . 80--93
       Jeffrey E. Kottemann and   
          Michael D. Gordon and   
                  Jack W. Stott   A storage and access manager for
                                  ill-structured data  . . . . . . . . . . 94--103
          Edward H. Bersoff and   
                  Alan M. Davis   Impacts of Life Cycle Models on Software
                                  Configuration Management . . . . . . . . 104--118
                Ronni Rosenberg   Inside RISKS: Mixed Signals about Social
                                  Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146--146

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 9, September, 1991

             Seymour E. Goodman   International Perspectives: From Under
                                  the Rubble: Computing and the
                                  Resuscitation of Romania . . . . . . . . 19--22
                 Elliot Soloway   Log on Education: How the Nintendo
                                  Generation Learns  . . . . . . . . . . . 23--26, 95
                  John Foderaro   LISP: introduction . . . . . . . . . . . 27--27
         Richard P. Gabriel and   
               Jon L. White and   
               Daniel G. Bobrow   CLOS: integrating object-oriented and
                                  functional programming . . . . . . . . . 28--38
        Kenneth H. Sinclair and   
                  David A. Moon   The philosophy of Lisp . . . . . . . . . 40--47
                   Oliver Gajek   The Metal system . . . . . . . . . . . . 46--47
             D. Kevin Layer and   
               Chris Richardson   Lisp Systems in the 1990s  . . . . . . . 48--57
                    Scott McKay   CLIM: the Common Lisp interface manager  58--59
                    Hans Muller   LispView: leverage through integration   59--61
             Richard Barber and   
                   George Imlah   Delivering the goods with Lisp . . . . . 61--63
            James R. Allard and   
            Lowell B. Hawkinson   Real-time programming in Common Lisp . . 64--69
               Rocky L. Stewart   Biosphere 2 nerve system . . . . . . . . 69--71
     Fernando J. Corbató   On building systems that will fail . . . 72--81
               Karen A. Frenkel   An Interview with Fernando José Corbató    82--90
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: The Not-So-Accidental
                                  Holist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 10, October, 1991

              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing Perspectives: Could it Have
                                  Been Predicted?  . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--21
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Digital Media and the
                                  Law  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--28
               R. G. G. Cattell   Next-generation database systems . . . . 30--33
                    O. Deux and   
                         others   The ${O}_2$ system . . . . . . . . . . . 34--48
               Charles Lamb and   
              Gordon Landis and   
             Jack Orenstein and   
                    Dan Weinreb   The ObjectStore database system  . . . . 50--63
           Paul Butterworth and   
                 Allen Otis and   
                    Jacob Stein   The GemStone Object Database Management
                                  System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64--77
        Michael Stonebraker and   
                   Greg Kemnitz   The POSTGRES Next-Generation Database
                                  Management System  . . . . . . . . . . . 78--92
              Guy M. Lohman and   
              Bruce Lindsay and   
             Hamid Pirahesh and   
           K. Bernhard Schiefer   Extensions to Starburst: objects, types,
                                  functions, and rules . . . . . . . . . . 94--109
           Avi Silberschatz and   
        Michael Stonebraker and   
                    Jeff Ullman   Database systems: achievements and
                                  opportunities  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110--120
             Barbara Simons and   
          Dennis J. Frailey and   
              A. Joe Turner and   
           Stuart H. Zweben and   
               Peter J. Denning   Report: An ACM Response: The Scope and
                                  Directions for Computer Science  . . . . 121--131
                 Clark Weissman   Inside RISKS: a National Debate on
                                  Encryption Exportability . . . . . . . . 162--162

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 11, November, 1991

                  John R. White   President's Letter: Maintaining Free
                                  Access to Scientific and Professional
                                  Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13--14, 16
       Senator Albert Gore, Jr.   Viewpoint: HPCC Policy Champion Forsees
                                  Networked Nation . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--16
                 Diane Crawford   From Washington: Supercomputing Policy
                                  Links Science and the `C' Word . . . . . 25--28
             Eric S. Lander and   
           Robert Langridge and   
             Damian M. Saccocio   A Report on Computing in Molecular
                                  Biology: Mapping and Interpreting
                                  Biological Information . . . . . . . . . 32--39
               Karen A. Frenkel   A Monumental Science Adventure: The
                                  Human Genome Project and Informatics . . 40--51
              Cherri M. Pancake   Software Support for Parallel Computing:
                                  Where Are We Headed? . . . . . . . . . . 52--64
          Steven R. Newcomb and   
              Neill A. Kipp and   
            Victoria T. Newcomb   The ``HyTime'': hypermedia/time-based
                                  document structuring language  . . . . . 67--83
              Monty Newborn and   
                    Danny Kopec   The 21st ACM North American computer
                                  chess championship . . . . . . . . . . . 84--92
            Robert D. Silverman   Massively Distributed Computing and
                                  Factoring Large Integers: a Pracnique    94--103
        James E. Lumpp, Jr. and   
         Samuel A. Fineberg and   
            Wayne G. Nation and   
         Thomas L. Casavant and   
          Edward C. Bronson and   
          Howard Jay Siegel and   
             Pierre H. Pero and   
         Thomas Schwederski and   
               Dan C. Marinescu   CAPS: a Coding Aid for PASM  . . . . . . 104--117
                     I. Dittmer   Note on Fast Hashing of Variable Length
                                  Text Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118--118
                  Jacques Savoy   Note on Fast Hashing of Variable Length
                                  Text Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118--119
                  James Litsios   Note on Fast Hashing of Variable Length
                                  Text Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119--120
                  Peter Pearson   Note on Fast Hashing of Variable Length
                                  Text Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120--120
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: The Human Element  . . . . 150--150

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number 12, December, 1991

                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Wide-Area
                                  Collaboration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--24
             Seymour E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Computing in
                                  a Less-Developed Country . . . . . . . . 25--29
                Jonathan Grudin   CSCW Introduction  . . . . . . . . . . . 30--34
              Hiroshi Ishii and   
                   Naomi Miyake   Toward an open shared workspace:
                                  computer and video fusion approach of
                                  TeamWorkStation  . . . . . . . . . . . . 37--50
              Ellen Francik and   
       Susan Ehrlich Rudman and   
               Donna Cooper and   
                 Stephen Levine   Putting innovation to work: adoption
                                  strategies for multimedia communication
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52--63
                    Morten Kyng   Designing for cooperation: cooperating
                                  in design  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65--73
                Constance Perin   Electronic social fields in
                                  bureaucracies  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74--82
          Laurence C. Rosenberg   Update on National Science Foundation
                                  funding of the ``Collaboratory'' . . . . 83--83
                      Rob Kling   Cooperation, coordination and control in
                                  computer-supported work  . . . . . . . . 83--88
               Donald A. Norman   Collaborative computing: collaboration
                                  first, computing second  . . . . . . . . 88--90
         Patrick M. LaMalva and   
          David R. Reyes-Guerra   Accredited Programs in Computing,
                                  Followed by Year of Initial
                                  Accreditation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91--96
             W. Wesley Peterson   More Error-Detecting Decimal Digits  . . 110--113
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Collaborative Efforts  . . 162--162

Communications of the ACM
Volume 34, Number ??, 1991

                    Frailey and   
                     Turner and   
                         Zweben   Adequacy and Health of Academic-Industry
                                  Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ??
                         Simons   Building a Research Agenda . . . . . . . ??


Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 1, January, 1992

                R. Stallman and   
                   S. Garfinkel   Against Software Patents . . . . . . . . 17
              John Perry Barlow   Electronic Frontier: The Great Work  . . 25--28
                    Marc Rettig   Practical Programmer: Interface Design
                                  When You Don't Know How  . . . . . . . . 29--34
            Bernard J. Haan and   
                  Paul Kahn and   
            Victor A. Riley and   
            James H. Coombs and   
            Norman K. Meyrowitz   IRIS hypermedia services . . . . . . . . 36--51
                 James L. Green   The evolution of DVI system software . . 52--67
      Jeffrey S. Doerschler and   
                Herbert Freeman   A rule-based system for dense-map name
                                  placement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68--79
                Guy Lapalme and   
         Jean-Marc Rousseau and   
           Suzanne Chapleau and   
             Michel Cormier and   
            Pierre Cossette and   
                      Serge Roy   GeoRoute: a Geographic Information
                                  System for Transportation Applications   80--88
      Girish H. Subramanian and   
                 John Nosek and   
    Sankaran P. Raghunathan and   
            Santosh S. Kanitkar   A comparison of the decision table and
                                  tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89--94
             Suzanne Bunton and   
              Gaetano Borriello   Practical dictionary management for
                                  hardware data compression  . . . . . . . 95--104
              Edward A. Fox and   
           Lenwood S. Heath and   
                Qi Fan Chen and   
                 Amjad M. Daoud   Practical minimal perfect hash functions
                                  for large databases  . . . . . . . . . . 105--121
             Jason L. Frand and   
                 Julia A. Britt   Seventh Annual UCLA Survey of Business
                                  School Computer Usage  . . . . . . . . . 123--131
                   D. Gries and   
                       D. Marsh   The 1989-1990 Taulbee Report . . . . . . 132
                David Gries and   
                  Dorothy Marsh   The 1989--90 Taulbee Survey  . . . . . . 133--143
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: What's in a Name?  . . . . 186--186

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 2, February, 1992

           R. Gary Marquart and   
            Anthony Fedanzo and   
           Robert V. Binder and   
                 C. J. Paul and   
                 David Ibbetson   ACM Forum: Readers Take Exception to
                                  Rejoinder: And the Surgeon General Warns
                                  \ldots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22, 26
             Carol Wolinsky and   
                James Sylvester   From Washington: Privacy in the
                                  Telecommunications Age . . . . . . . . . 23--25
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Copyright Law and
                                  Electronic Compilations of Data  . . . . 27--32
              Magid Igbaria and   
           Jeffrey H. Greenhaus   Determinants of MIS Employees' Turnover
                                  Intentions: A Structural Equation Model  34--49
          Albert L. Lederer and   
                  Jayesh Prasad   Nine management guidelines for better
                                  cost estimating  . . . . . . . . . . . . 51--59
           Thomas D. Clark, Jr.   Corporate systems management: an
                                  overview and research perspective  . . . 61--75
           Jeffrey K. Liker and   
         Mitchell Fleischer and   
           Mitsuo Nagamachi and   
          Michael S. Zonnevylle   Designers and Their Machines: CAD Use
                                  and Support in the U.S. and Japan  . . . 77--95
            David Gelernter and   
              Nicholas Carriero   Coordination languages and their
                                  significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97--107
           Joobin Choobineh and   
         Michael V. Mannino and   
              Veronica P. Tseng   A form-based approach for database
                                  analysis and design  . . . . . . . . . . 108--120
             Robert W. Gray and   
         Vincent P. Heuring and   
             Steven P. Levi and   
          Anthony M. Sloane and   
               William M. Waite   Eli: a Complete, Flexible Compiler
                                  Construction System  . . . . . . . . . . 121--130
             Seymour E. Goodman   Political activity and international
                                  computer networks  . . . . . . . . . . . 174--174

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 3, March, 1992

         Antonio R. Quesada and   
             Paul Pritchard and   
          Richard E. James, III   Additional notes on a practical sieve
                                  algorithm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--14
              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing Perspectives: Charles Babbage:
                                  The Great Uncle of Computing?  . . . . . 15--16, 21
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Dynabook Revisited:
                                  Portable Computers Past, Present and
                                  Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25--32
                  Jacques Cohen   First specialize, then generalize:
                                  introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34--39
                 J. A. Robinson   Logic and Logic Programming  . . . . . . 40--65
                 John Grant and   
                    Jack Minker   The Impact of Logic Programming on
                                  Databases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--81
                Koichi Furukawa   Logic programming as the integrator of
                                  the Fifth Generation Computer Systems
                                  project  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82--92
                David S. Warren   Memoing for logic programs . . . . . . . 93--111
             Toshinori Munakata   Notes on implementing sets in Prolog . . 112--120
             Marcia C. Linn and   
              Michael J. Clancy   The case for case studies of programming
                                  problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121--132
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: inside ``RISKS of RISKS''  160--160

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 4, April, 1992

        Renata L. La Rovere and   
                  S. E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Computing in
                                  the Brazilian Amazon . . . . . . . . . . 21--24
           Ronald J. Norman and   
                     Gene Forte   Automating the software development
                                  process: CASE in the 90's  . . . . . . . 27--27
                 Gene Forte and   
               Ronald J. Norman   A self-assessment by the software
                                  engineering community  . . . . . . . . . 28--32
              Terry Shepard and   
              Steve Sibbald and   
                  Colin Wortley   A visual software process language . . . 37--44
               Clifford C. Huff   Elements of a realistic CASE tool
                                  adoption budget  . . . . . . . . . . . . 45--54
             Neil A. Maiden and   
          Alistair G. Sutcliffe   Exploiting reusable specifications
                                  through analogy  . . . . . . . . . . . . 55--64
                Graham Tate and   
                June Verner and   
                   Ross Jeffery   CASE: a Testbed for Modeling,
                                  Measurement and Management . . . . . . . 65--72
                  Ira D. Baxter   Design maintenance systems . . . . . . . 73--89
                Iris Vessey and   
        Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa and   
                Noam Tractinsky   Evaluation of vendor products: CASE
                                  tools as methodology companions  . . . . 90--105
             Barry G. Silverman   Survey of expert critiquing systems:
                                  practical and theoretical frontiers  . . 106--127
                    Jean Sammet   Farewell to Grace Hopper: end of an era! 128--131
        Ricardo Baeza-Yates and   
              Fred T. Krogh and   
            Bernard Ziegler and   
           Peter R. Sibbald and   
               Daniel M. Sunday   Technical Correspondence: Notes on a
                                  Very Fast Substring Search Algorithm . . 132--137
                 Marc Rotenberg   Inside RISKS: Protecting privacy . . . . 164--164

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 5, May, 1992

                    Marc Rettig   A succotash of projections and insights  25--30
         Ephraim P. Glinert and   
                 Bryant W. York   Computers and people with disabilities   32--35
                     Carl Brown   Assistive technology computers and
                                  persons with disabilities  . . . . . . . 36--45
                 Norman Alm and   
             John L. Arnott and   
                 Alan F. Newell   Prediction and conversational momentum
                                  in an augmentative communication system  46--57
                 Norman Alm and   
             John L. Arnott and   
                 Alan F. Newell   Input acceleration techniques for
                                  severely physically disabled nonspeakers
                                  using a communication system . . . . . . 54--55
               Randy Pausch and   
             Ronald D. Williams   Giving CANDY to children: user-tailored
                                  gesture input driving an
                                  articulator-based speech synthesizer . . 58--66
         Patrick W. Demasco and   
              Kathleen F. McCoy   Generating text from compressed input:
                                  an intelligent interface for people with
                                  severe motor impairments . . . . . . . . 68--78
                   Karen Kukich   Spelling correction for the
                                  telecommunications network for the deaf  80--90
                   Randy Dipner   ADA and the ACM  . . . . . . . . . . . . 90--90
           Daniel K. Davies and   
                Randy W. Dipner   ACM membership survey of disability and
                                  disability issues  . . . . . . . . . . . 91--93
             Ronald E. Anderson   ACM code of ethics and professional
                                  conduct  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94--99
               Peter G. Neumann   Survivable systems . . . . . . . . . . . 130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 6, June, 1992

            Walter F. Tichy and   
         Michael Philippsen and   
               Phil Hatcher and   
               James L. Frankel   Technical Correspondence: a Critique of
                                  the Programming Language C*  . . . . . . 21--24
                 Colin Boyd and   
                    Tong Lai Yu   Remarks on a Data Encryption Scheme of
                                  Yu and Yu (letters)  . . . . . . . . . . 24--25
                    Larry Press   Collective dynabases . . . . . . . . . . 26--32
           Pamela Samuelson and   
              Michel Denber and   
              Robert J. Glushko   Developments on the intellectual
                                  property front . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33--39
                   John C. Hart   Visualization in networked environments  42--43
                Larry Smarr and   
             Charles E. Catlett   Metacomputing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44--52
         Philip J. Mercurio and   
               T. T. Elvins and   
           Stephen J. Young and   
            Philip S. Cohen and   
              Kevin R. Fall and   
               Mark H. Ellisman   The Distributed Laboratory: An
                                  Interactive Visualization Environment
                                  for Electron Microscopy and 3D Imaging   54--63
        Carolina Cruz-Neira and   
           Daniel J. Sandin and   
          Thomas A. DeFanti and   
           Robert V. Kenyon and   
                   John C. Hart   The CAVE: audio visual experience
                                  automatic virtual environment  . . . . . 64--72
             Ingrid Carlbom and   
             William M. Hsu and   
             Gudrun Klinker and   
           Richard Szeliski and   
               Keith Waters and   
              Michael Doyle and   
                 Jim Gettys and   
          Kristen M. Harris and   
        Thomas M. Levergood and   
               Ricky Palmer and   
               Larry Palmer and   
                Marc Picart and   
        Demetri Terzopoulos and   
             David Tonnesen and   
            Michael Vannier and   
                   Greg Wallace   Modeling and analysis of empirical data
                                  in collaborative environments  . . . . . 74--84
               David DeWitt and   
                       Jim Gray   Parallel database systems: the future of
                                  high performance database systems  . . . 85--98
              Kunihiko Higa and   
              Mike Morrison and   
            Joline Morrison and   
            Olivia R. Liu Sheng   An Object-Oriented Methodology for
                                  Knowledge Base/Database Coupling . . . . 99--113
              David E. Ferguson   Bit-Tree: a data structure for fast file
                                  processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114--120
                    Paul Heckel   Debunking the software patent myths  . . 121--140
               Peter G. Neumann   Leap-year problems . . . . . . . . . . . 162--162

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 7, July, 1992

                 Elliot Soloway   Buying Computers for Your School: a
                                  Guide for the Perplexed  . . . . . . . . 21--24
              John Perry Barlow   Decrypting the puzzle palace . . . . . . 25--31
                      Anonymous   Debating encryption standards  . . . . . 32--34
National Institute of Standards and   
              Technology (NIST)   The Digital Signature Standard, Proposed
                                  by NIST  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36--40
           Ronald L. Rivest and   
          Martin E. Hellman and   
           John C. Anderson and   
                  John W. Lyons   Responses to NIST's proposal . . . . . . 41--54
                  Bala R. Vatti   A generic solution to polygon clipping   56--63
               Santosh Chokhani   Trusted products evaluation  . . . . . . 64--76
                     Alok Sinha   Client-Server Computing: Current
                                  Technology Review  . . . . . . . . . . . 77--98
              Wim Hesselink and   
               Jan Jongejan and   
              Jukka Teuhola and   
                    Lutz Wegner   Technical Correspondence: Duplicate
                                  Deletion Derived . . . . . . . . . . . . 99--107
               Peter G. Neumann   Aggravation by computer: life, death,
                                  and taxes  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 8, August, 1992

              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing Perspectives: Artificial
                                  Intelligence as the Year 2000 Approaches 17--23
              S. E. Goodman and   
                    J. D. Green   Computing in the Middle East . . . . . . 21--24
                 C. Gordon Bell   Ultracomputers: a Teraflop Before Its
                                  Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26--47
           Robert H. Creecy and   
             Brij M. Masand and   
           Stephen J. Smith and   
                 David L. Waltz   Trading MIPS and memory for knowledge
                                  engineering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--64
                    Ken Kennedy   Guest Editor's Introduction to the
                                  Special Section on Supercomputing  . . . 65--65
          Seema Hiranandani and   
                Ken Kennedy and   
                 Chau-Wen Tseng   Compiling Fortran D for MIMD
                                  distributed-memory machines  . . . . . . 66--80
                     David Cann   Retire Fortran? A Debate Rekindled . . . 81--89
         Susan Flynn Hummel and   
            Edith Schonberg and   
              Lawrence E. Flynn   Factoring: a Method for Scheduling
                                  Parallel Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90--101
                   William Pugh   A practical algorithm for exact array
                                  dependence analysis  . . . . . . . . . . 102--114
        Margaret L. Simmons and   
        Harvey J. Wasserman and   
             Olaf M. Lubeck and   
         Christopher Eoyang and   
                Raul Mendez and   
               Hiroo Harada and   
                Misako Ishiguro   A performance comparison of four
                                  supercomputers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116--124
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Fraud by Computer  . . . . 154--154

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 9, September, 1992

               Pamela Samuelson   Updating the copyright look and feel
                                  lawsuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25--31
          Timothy D. Korson and   
             Vijay K. Vaishnavi   Analysis and modeling in software
                                  development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32--34
          David E. Monarchi and   
               Gretchen I. Puhr   A Research Typology for Object-Oriented
                                  Analysis and Design  . . . . . . . . . . 35--47
           Kenneth S. Rubin and   
                 Adele Goldberg   Object behavior analysis . . . . . . . . 48--62
               Jean-Marc Nerson   Applying object-oriented analysis and
                                  design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63--74
                Bill Curtis and   
            Marc I. Kellner and   
                       Jim Over   Process modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . 75--90
               Herb Krasner and   
                 Jim Terrel and   
               Adam Linehan and   
                Paul Arnold and   
                 William H. Ett   Lessons learned from a software process
                                  modeling system  . . . . . . . . . . . . 91--100
          Timothy D. Korson and   
             Vijay K. Vaishnavi   Managing Emerging Software Technologies:
                                  A Technology Transfer Framework  . . . . 101--111
            Shamkant B. Navathe   Evolution of data modeling for databases 112--123
          B. Chandrasekaran and   
            Todd R. Johnson and   
                  Jack W. Smith   Task-structure analysis for knowledge
                                  modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124--137
           Ramayya Krishnan and   
                Xiaoping Li and   
                   David Steier   A knowledge-based mathematical model
                                  formulation system . . . . . . . . . . . 138--146
              Meilir Page-Jones   Comparing techniques by means of
                                  encapsulation and connascence  . . . . . 147--151
                     Peter Coad   Object-Oriented Patterns . . . . . . . . 152--159
           Oscar Nierstrasz and   
                Simon Gibbs and   
             Dennis Tsichritzis   Component-Oriented Software Development  160--165
      August-Wilhelm Scheer and   
                 Alexander Hars   Extending data modeling to cover the
                                  whole enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . 166--172
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Accidental Financial
                                  Losses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194--194

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 10, October, 1992

                    Marc Rettig   Practical Programmer: Hat Racks for
                                  Understanding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--24
              John Perry Barlow   Electronic Frontier: Will Japan Jack In? 27--29
       Anthony C. Stylianou and   
           Gregory R. Madey and   
                Robert D. Smith   Selection Criteria for Expert System
                                  Shells: A Socio-Technical Framework  . . 30--48
         David S. Touretzky and   
                      Peter Lee   Visualizing evaluation in applicative
                                  languages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49--59
              Yosee Feldman and   
                   Ehud Shapiro   Spatial Machines: a More Realistic
                                  Approach to Parallel Computation . . . . 60--73
        Ricardo Baeza-Yates and   
               Gaston H. Gonnet   A new approach to text searching . . . . 74--82
                     Sun Wu and   
                     Udi Manber   Fast text searching allowing errors  . . 83--91
                       Dov Dori   Dimensioning analysis: toward automatic
                                  understanding of engineering drawings    92--103
       Shailendra C. Palvia and   
               Steven R. Gordon   Tables, trees and formulas in decision
                                  analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104--113
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Where to Place Trust . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 11, November, 1992

                  Stuart Zweben   President's Letter: We Overplanting Our
                                  Seed Corn? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--16
                   Peter Likins   Viewpoint: a Breach of the Social
                                  Contract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--18, 111
               Brad Knowles and   
             Roger Schlafly and   
           Grant D. Schultz and   
                Lynn Zelvin and   
                Paul Heckel and   
               E. Robert Yoches   ACM Forum: Comments on Cryptography  . . 19--24, 112
              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing Perspectives. The Long-Term
                                  Future of Operating Systems  . . . . . . 23--24, 112
               G. M. Mesher and   
               R. O. Briggs and   
              S. E. Goodman and   
                L. I. Press and   
                   J. M. Snyder   International Perspectives: Cuba,
                                  Communism, and Computing . . . . . . . . 27--29, 112
                Juris Hartmanis   Computing the future: committee to
                                  assess the scope and direction of
                                  computer science and technology for the
                                  National Research Council  . . . . . . . 30--40
            Benjamin M. Brosgol   Ada  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41--42
           Edmond Schonberg and   
              Mark Gerhardt and   
                Charlene Hayden   A technical tour of Ada  . . . . . . . . 43--52
             Michael B. Feldman   Ada Experience in the Undergraduate
                                  Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53--67
              John W. McCormick   A model railroad for Ada and software
                                  engineering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68--70
                    J. P. Rosen   What orientation should Ada objects
                                  take?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71--76
                 S. Tucker Taft   Ada 9X: a Technical Summary  . . . . . . 77--82
                 Chris Anderson   Ada 9X Project Management  . . . . . . . 83--84
             Erhard Ploedereder   Building consensus for Ada 9X  . . . . . 85--88
             Gio Wiederhold and   
               Peter Wegner and   
                   Stefano Ceri   Toward megaprogramming . . . . . . . . . 89--99
                Danny Kopec and   
              Monty Newborn and   
                     Mike Valvo   The 22nd Annual ACM International
                                  Computer Chess Championship  . . . . . . 100--110
                Rebecca Mercuri   Inside RISKS: Voting Machine Risks . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 35, Number 12, December, 1992

             Judith L. Gersting   Viewpoint: Intangibles for Success . . . 11--12
           Patrick J. Hayes and   
       Gordon S. Novak, Jr. and   
               Wendy G. Lehnert   ACM Forum: In Defense of Artificial
                                  Intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13--16
                Joseph F. Traub   A tribute to Allen Newell: 1927--1992    20--20
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: The Net: Progress
                                  and Opportunity  . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--25
              Shoshana Loeb and   
                  Douglas Terry   Information filtering  . . . . . . . . . 26--28
         Nicholas J. Belkin and   
                 W. Bruce Croft   Information filtering and information
                                  retrieval: two sides of the same coin?   29--38
                  Shoshana Loeb   Architecting personalized delivery of
                                  multimedia information . . . . . . . . . 39--47
                   Curt Stevens   Automating the creation of information
                                  filters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--48
              Irene Stadnyk and   
                    Robert Kass   Modeling users' interests in information
                                  filters  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49--50
                Paul E. Baclace   Competitive agents for information
                                  filtering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50--50
             Peter W. Foltz and   
                Susan T. Dumais   Personalized Information Delivery: An
                                  Analysis of Information-Filtering
                                  Methods  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51--60
             David Goldberg and   
              David Nichols and   
               Brian M. Oki and   
                  Douglas Terry   Using collaborative filtering to weave
                                  an information tapestry  . . . . . . . . 61--70
                T. F. Bowen and   
                   G. Gopal and   
                  G. Herman and   
                  T. Hickey and   
                  K. C. Lee and   
            W. H. Mansfield and   
                   J. Raitz and   
                     A. Weinrib   The Datacycle architecture . . . . . . . 71--81
                     Ashwin Ram   Natural language understanding for
                                  information-filtering systems  . . . . . 80--81
               Peter J. Denning   Educating a new engineer . . . . . . . . 82--97
         Patrick M. LaMalva and   
          David R. Reyes-Guerra   Accredited Programs in Computing . . . . 98--101
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Avoiding Weak Links  . . . 146--146


Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 1, January, 1993

               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Liability for
                                  Defective Electronic Information . . . . 21--26
                Sara A. Bly and   
          Steve R. Harrison and   
                    Susan Irwin   Multimedia In The Workplace: Media
                                  Spaces: Bringing People Together in a
                                  Video, Audio, and Computing Environment  28--47
                    Bryan Lyles   Media spaces and broadband ISDN  . . . . 46--47
             Robert S. Fish and   
            Robert E. Kraut and   
             Robert W. Root and   
                 Ronald E. Rice   Video as a technology for informal
                                  communication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--61
              Ralph D. Hill and   
                 Tom Brinck and   
          John F. Patterson and   
           Steven L. Rohall and   
                Wayne T. Wilner   The Rendezvous Language and Architecture 62--67
                  M. Arango and   
                  L. Bahler and   
                   P. Bates and   
              M. Cochinwala and   
                   D. Cohrs and   
                    R. Fish and   
                   G. Gopal and   
                N. Griffeth and   
               G. E. Herman and   
                  T. Hickey and   
                  K. C. Lee and   
               W. E. Leland and   
                  C. Lowery and   
                     V. Mak and   
               J. Patterson and   
                  L. Ruston and   
                   M. Segal and   
                R. C. Sekar and   
               M. P. Vecchi and   
                 A. Weinrib and   
                      S.-Y. Wuu   Touring Machine System . . . . . . . . . 68--77
                   Robin Milner   Elements of interaction: Turing Award
                                  Lecture  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78--89
               Karen A. Frenkel   An interview with Robin Milner . . . . . 90--97
  Jean-Pierre Banâtre and   
       Daniel Le Métayer   Programming by multiset transformation   98--111
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Risks Considered
                                  Global(ly) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154--154

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 2, February, 1993

                  Rob Kling and   
               Peter Wegner and   
               John R. Rice and   
                  Eric A. Weiss   Technical Correspondence: Broadening
                                  Computer Science . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--20
              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing Perspectives: Light Amplifiers
                                  and Solitons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--23
                  M. Odedra and   
                 M. Bennett and   
                 S. Goodman and   
                      M. Lawrie   International Perspectives: Sub-Saharan
                                  Africa: A Technological Desert . . . . . 25--29
               Robert M. Supnik   Introduction to Special Issue on
                                  Digital's Alpha Chip Project . . . . . . 30--32
               Richard L. Sites   Alpha AXP Architecture . . . . . . . . . 33--44
           Nancy Kronenberg and   
           Thomas R. Benson and   
           Wayne M. Cardoza and   
      Ravindran Jagannathan and   
             Benjamin J. Thomas   Porting OpenVMS from VAX to Alpha AXP    45--53
         Charles P. Thacker and   
            David G. Conroy and   
            Lawrence C. Stewart   The Alpha Demonstration Unit: a
                                  High-Performance Multiprocessor  . . . . 55--67
                     Ralph Katz   Tales from the Front . . . . . . . . . . 67--67
           Richard L. Sites and   
             Anton Chernoff and   
            Matthew B. Kirk and   
           Maurice P. Marks and   
              Scott G. Robinson   Binary translation . . . . . . . . . . . 69--81
          Daniel Dobberpuhl and   
                 Kevin Fielding   Design of EV-4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82--82
          Richard Hollingsworth   Advanced semiconductor technology  . . . 83--83
               Chris F. Kemerer   Reliability of Function Points
                                  Measurement: a Field Experiment  . . . . 85--97
         Ronald E. Anderson and   
         Deborah G. Johnson and   
          Donald Gotterbarn and   
                Judith Perrolle   Using the new ACM code of ethics in
                                  decision making  . . . . . . . . . . . . 98--107
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Are Dependable Systems
                                  Feasible?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146--146

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 3, March, 1993

               Varun Grover and   
                  Martin Goslar   Information technologies for the 1990s:
                                  the executives' view . . . . . . . . . . 17--19
              John Perry Barlow   Electronic Frontier: Bill O' Rights  . . 21--23
             Dorothy E. Denning   To tap or not to tap . . . . . . . . . . 24--33
                Mike Godwin and   
           William A. Bayse and   
             Marc Rotenberg and   
         Lewis M. Branscomb and   
          Anne M. Branscomb and   
           Ronald L. Rivest and   
              Andrew Grosso and   
                   Gary T. Marx   Commentators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34--41
             Dorothy E. Denning   Final thoughts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42--44
               Ehud Shapiro and   
             David H. D. Warren   The Fifth Generation Project: Personal
                                  Perspectives: Introduction . . . . . . . 46--49
             Kazuhiro Fuchi and   
            Robert Kowalski and   
            Koichi Furukawa and   
              Kazunori Ueda and   
                   Ken Kahn and   
          Takashi Chikayama and   
                      Evan Tick   Launching the new era  . . . . . . . . . 49--100
               Ehud Shapiro and   
             David H. D. Warren   Epilogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100--101
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Risks of Technology  . . . 130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 4, April, 1993

               David Billington   Using the context-free pumping lemma . . 21, 81
                    Marc Rettig   Practical Programmer: Cooperative
                                  Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--28
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: The Ups and Downs of
                                  Look and Feel  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29--35
               David Mandelkern   Graphical User Interfaces: The Next
                                  Generation: Introduction . . . . . . . . 36--39
            Jeff A. Johnson and   
            Bonnie A. Nardi and   
            Craig L. Zarmer and   
                James R. Miller   ACE: Building Interactive Graphical
                                  Interactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40--55
        George G. Robertson and   
             Stuart K. Card and   
              Jock D. Mackinlay   Information Visualization Using 3D
                                  Interactive Animation  . . . . . . . . . 56--71
                 Alan Morse and   
                George Reynolds   Overcoming current growth limits in UI
                                  development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72--81
                  Jakob Nielsen   Noncommand user interfaces . . . . . . . 82--99
                   Aaron Marcus   Human communications issues in advanced
                                  UIs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101--109
                Jonathan Grudin   Interface: an evolving concept . . . . . 110--119
               C. Dianne Martin   The myth of the awesome thinking machine 120--133
               Donald A. Norman   Inside RISKS: Using Names As Identifiers 154--154

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 5, May, 1993

                     Gary Beach   Building a foundation  . . . . . . . . . 13--14
                    Herb Grosch   Forum: In Defense of Maurice Wilkes
                                  (letter) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16--16
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Technetronic
                                  Education: Answers on the cultural
                                  Horizon  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--22
                 Elliot Soloway   Log on Education: Reading and Writing in
                                  the 21st Century . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--27
                 Elliot Soloway   Introduction to the Issue on Technology
                                  in Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28--30
                    Jan Hawkins   Technology and the organization of
                                  schooling  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--35
                 Dick Ruopp and   
                     Shahaf Gal   The LabNetwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35--36
        Marlene Scardamalia and   
                  Carl Bereiter   Technologies for knowledge-building
                                  discourse  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37--41
                 Beverly Hunter   Internetworking: coordinating technology
                                  for systemic reform  . . . . . . . . . . 42--46
                Robert Pearlman   Designing the new American schools . . . 46--49
                   Denis Newman   School networks: delivery or access  . . 49--51
              Brigid Barron and   
               Ronald J. Kantor   Tools to enhance math education: the
                                  Jasper series  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52--54
                Roger C. Schank   Learning via multimedia computers  . . . 54--56
                 Wayne C. Grant   Wireless Coyote: a computer-supported
                                  field trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57--59
                     Roy D. Pea   The collaborative visualization project  60--63
                    Andee Rubin   Video laboratories: tools for scientific
                                  investigation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64--65
                   Ludwig Braun   Help for all the students  . . . . . . . 66--69
               Henry Jay Becker   Teaching with and about computers in
                                  secondary schools  . . . . . . . . . . . 69--72
             Ronald E. Anderson   The technology infrastructure of U.S.
                                  schools  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72--73
                Jan Hawkins and   
           John Frederiksen and   
              Allan Collins and   
            Dorothy Bennett and   
              Elizabeth Collins   Assessment and technology  . . . . . . . 74--76
                  Carol Edwards   Life-long learning . . . . . . . . . . . 76--78
          Yolanda S. George and   
         Shirley M. Malcolm and   
                  Laura Jeffers   Computer equity for the future . . . . . 78--81
                      Coco Conn   SIGKids at SIGGRAPH  . . . . . . . . . . 81--82
                      Teri Perl   ACM task force on K-12 education and
                                  technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82--83
            Doris K. Lidtke and   
                 David Moursund   Computers in schools: past, present, and
                                  how we can change the future . . . . . . 84--87
           Susan M. Merritt and   
            Charles J. Buen and   
                Philip East and   
           Darlene Grantham and   
               Charles Rice and   
            Viera K. Proulx and   
                Gerry Segal and   
                     Carol Wolf   ACM Model High School Computer Science
                                  Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87--90
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: The Role of Software
                                  Engineering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114--114

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 6, June, 1993

             S. R. Nidumolu and   
                  S. E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Computing in
                                  India: An Asian Elephant Learning to
                                  Dance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--22
                 Sarah Kuhn and   
              Michael J. Muller   Introduction with taxonomy of PD
                                  practices: a brief practitioner's guide  24--28
          Michael J. Muller and   
          Daniel M. Wildman and   
                 Ellen A. White   Taxonomy of PD Practices: a Brief
                                  Practitioner's Guide . . . . . . . . . . 26--27
             Andrew Clement and   
        Peter Van den Besselaar   A retrospective look at PD projects  . . 29--37
               Steven E. Miller   From system design to democracy  . . . . 38--39
                   Gro Bjerknes   Some PD advice . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39--39
               Erran Carmel and   
        Randall D. Whitaker and   
                 Joey F. George   PD and Joint Application Design: A
                                  Transatlantic Comparison . . . . . . . . 40--48
                 Joan Greenbaum   PD a personal statement  . . . . . . . . 47--47
        William L. Anderson and   
              William T. Crocca   Engineering practice and codevelopment
                                  of product prototypes  . . . . . . . . . 49--56
                Jim Euchner and   
                 Patricia Sachs   The benefits of intentional tension  . . 53--53
         Kim Halskov Madsen and   
                 Peter H. Aiken   Experiences using cooperative
                                  interactive storyboard prototyping . . . 57--64
                  Darlene Crane   Graphic facilitation . . . . . . . . . . 64--65
          Michael J. Muller and   
          Daniel M. Wildman and   
                 Ellen A. White   ``Equal opportunity'' PD using PICTIVE   64--66
   Kaj Grònbæk and   
                Morten Kyng and   
                Preben Mogensen   CSCW challenges: cooperative design in
                                  engineering projects . . . . . . . . . . 67--77
                   Susan Harker   User participation in prototyping  . . . 77--81
               Finn Kensing and   
            Andreas Munk-Madsen   PD: structure in the toolbox . . . . . . 78--85
                   Enid Mumford   The ETHICS approach  . . . . . . . . . . 82--82
               Christiane Floyd   STEPS: a methodical approach to PD . . . 83--83
         Barbara Katzenberg and   
                    Peter Piela   Work language analysis and the naming
                                  problem  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86--92
          Jeanette Blomberg and   
          Denise McLaughlin and   
                   Lucy Suchman   Work-oriented design at Xerox  . . . . . 91--91
               David Novick and   
                   Eleanor Wynn   Participatory conversation in PD . . . . 93--93
                     Ina Wagner   A web of fuzzy problems: confronting the
                                  ethical issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94--101
         Marian G. Williams and   
                  Vivienne Begg   Translation between software designers
                                  and users  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102--103
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Modeling and Simulation    124--124

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 7, July, 1993

                Judith R. Brown   Looking toward the year 2000 . . . . . . 13--14
                  Ian O. Angell   Intelligence: logical or biological  . . 15--16, 119
         Guy L. Steele, Jr. and   
               Danny Hillis and   
           Richard Stallman and   
          Gerald J. Sussman and   
              Marvin Minsky and   
              John McCarthy and   
                John Backus and   
    Fernando Corbató and   
             Ronald E. Anderson   Forum: Code of Ethics Reconsidered . . . 17--20
              Maurice V. Wilkes   Computing Perspectives: From Fortran and
                                  Algol to Object-Oriented Languages . . . 21--23
             Pierre Wellner and   
               Wendy Mackay and   
                      Rich Gold   Guest Editors' Introduction to the
                                  Special Issue on Computer-Augmented
                                  Environments: Back to the Real World . . 24--27
          Michael Spreitzer and   
                 Marvin Theimer   Scalable, secure, mobile computing with
                                  location information . . . . . . . . . . 27--27
              Thomas Baudel and   
         Michel Beaudouin-Lafon   Charade: Remote Control of Objects using
                                  Free-Hand Gestures . . . . . . . . . . . 28--35
               Myron W. Krueger   Environmental technology: making the
                                  real world virtual . . . . . . . . . . . 36--37
          George W. Fitzmaurice   Situated Information Spaces and
                                  Spatially Aware Palmtop Computers  . . . 38--49
                   Ronald Azuma   Tracking requirements for augmented
                                  reality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50--51
              Steven Feiner and   
            Blair Macintyre and   
         Dorée Seligmann   Knowledge-based augmented reality  . . . 53--62
                Mitchel Resnick   Behavior construction kits . . . . . . . 64--71
                      Rich Gold   This is not a pipe . . . . . . . . . . . 72--72
                    Mark Weiser   Some Computer Science Issues in
                                  Ubiquitous Computing . . . . . . . . . . 74--84
                Scott Elrod and   
                  Gene Hall and   
              Rick Costanza and   
              Michael Dixon and   
             Jim Des Rivi\`eres   Responsive office environments . . . . . 84--85
                 Pierre Wellner   Interacting with Paper on the
                                  DigitalDesk  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86--96
               Wendy Mackay and   
               Gilles Velay and   
               Kathy Carter and   
                Chaoying Ma and   
                 Daniele Pagani   Augmenting reality: adding computational
                                  dimensions to paper  . . . . . . . . . . 96--97
               Peter J. Denning   Designing New Principles to Sustain
                                  Research in our Universities . . . . . . 99--104
               George Marsaglia   Technical Correspondence: Remarks on
                                  Choosing and Implementing Random Number
                                  Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105--108
            Stephen J. Sullivan   Another Test for Randomness  . . . . . . 108--108
            Stephen K. Park and   
            Keith W. Miller and   
             Paul K. Stockmeyer   Another Test for Randomness: Response    108--110
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: RISKS on the Rails . . . . 130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 8, August, 1993

   Jean-François Colonna   Technical Correspondence: The
                                  subjectivity of computers  . . . . . . . 15--18
                Marc Rettig and   
                Gary Simons and   
                   John Thomson   Practical Programmer: Extended Objects   19--24
             Fred W. Weingarten   From Washington: Happenings on the Hill  25--27
            Haruhisa Ishida and   
          Lawrence H. Landweber   Introduction to the Special Issue on
                                  Internetworking  . . . . . . . . . . . . 28--30
                     Randy Bush   FidoNet: technology, tools, and history  31--35
                   Janet Murray   K12 network: global education through
                                  telecommunications . . . . . . . . . . . 36--41
                George Sadowsky   Network connectivity for developing
                                  countries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42--47
                Stephen T. Kent   Internet Privacy Enhanced Mail . . . . . 48--60
                 Marc Rotenberg   Communications privacy: implications for
                                  network design . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61--68
           Frank M. Tuerkheimer   The underpinnings of privacy protection  69--73
             Tsuyoshi Hiramatsu   Protecting telecommunications privacy in
                                  Japan  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74--77
        Michael F. Schwartz and   
               David C. M. Wood   Discovering shared interests using graph
                                  analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78--89
          Bradford W. Hesse and   
             Lee S. Sproull and   
            Sara B. Kiesler and   
                  John P. Walsh   Returns to science: computer networks in
                                  oceanography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90--101
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Risks of Surveillance  . . 122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 9, September, 1993

               Lance J. Hoffman   Clipping Clipper . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--17
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Computer Programs and
                                  Copyright's Fair Use Doctrine  . . . . . 19--25
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Before the Altair:
                                  The History of Personal Computing  . . . 27--33
                      Anonymous   Introduction to the Special Issue on
                                  Concurrent Object-Oriented Programming   34
                  Jacques Cohen   Concurrent object-oriented programming   35--36
                 Rodger Lea and   
        Christian Jacquemot and   
                Eric Pillevesse   COOL: system support for distributed
                                  programming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37--46
                  Bruno Achauer   The DOWL distributed object-oriented
                                  language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--55
                 Bertrand Meyer   Systematic concurrent object-oriented
                                  programming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56--80
          Klaus-Peter Löhr   Concurrency annotations for reusable
                                  software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81--89
                  Denis Caromel   Toward a method of object-oriented
                                  concurrent programming . . . . . . . . . 90--102
            Murat Karaorman and   
                     John Bruno   Introducing concurrency to a sequential
                                  language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103--115
            Roy H. Campbell and   
               Nayeem Islam and   
                David Raila and   
                   Peter Madany   Designing and implementing \em Choices:
                                  an object-oriented system in C++ . . . . 117--126
   Max Mühlhäuser and   
           Wolfgang Gerteis and   
                    Lutz Heuser   DOCASE: a methodic approach to
                                  distributed programming  . . . . . . . . 127--138
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Animal Crackers  . . . . . 162--162

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 10, October, 1993

               Sasa Dekleva and   
                Stanley Martens   Technical Correspondence: First Normal
                                  Form Reconsidered  . . . . . . . . . . . 19--20
                 Elliot Soloway   Log on Education: Should We Teach
                                  Students to Program? . . . . . . . . . . 21--24
                 P. Wolcott and   
                  S. E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Under the
                                  Stress of Reform: High-Performance
                                  Computing in the Former Soviet Union . . 25--29
       Larry L. Constantine and   
            Lucy A. D. Lockwood   Introduction to the Special Section on
                                  Project Organization and Management  . . 30--32
       Larry L. Constantine and   
            Lucy A. D. Lockwood   Orchestrating project organization and
                                  management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31--32
           Larry L. Constantine   Work organization: paradigms for project
                                  management and organization  . . . . . . 35--43
                Marc Rettig and   
                    Gary Simons   A project planning and development
                                  process for small teams  . . . . . . . . 45--55
                  Risa B. Hyman   Creative chaos in high-performance
                                  teams: an experience report  . . . . . . 57--60
              Diane B. Walz and   
              Joyce J. Elam and   
                    Bill Curtis   Inside a software design team: knowledge
                                  acquisition, sharing, and integration    63--77
             Richard E. Zultner   TQM for technical teams  . . . . . . . . 79--91
           Karen Holtzblatt and   
                     Hugh Beyer   Making customer-centered design work for
                                  teams  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92--103
             Tony Hutchings and   
            Michael G. Hyde and   
                David Marca and   
                      Lou Cohen   Process improvement that lasts: an
                                  integrated training and consulting
                                  method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104--113
            Richard A. Zahniser   Design by walking around . . . . . . . . 114--123
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: System Development Woes    146--146

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 11, November, 1993

              John Perry Barlow   The Electronic Frontier: a Plain Text on
                                  Crypto Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--26
             Fred W. Weingarten   From Washington: HPCC Research
                                  Questioned . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27--29
           W. Daniel Hillis and   
                Lewis W. Tucker   The CM-5 Connection Machine: a Scalable
                                  Supercomputer  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31--40
            Clark D. Thomborson   Does your workstation computation belong
                                  on a vector supercomputer? . . . . . . . 41--49
             John C. Knight and   
                   E. Ann Myers   An improved inspection technique . . . . 51--61
                Robert B. Grady   Practical results from measuring
                                  software quality . . . . . . . . . . . . 62--68
             Bev Littlewood and   
               Lorenzo Strigini   Validation of ultrahigh dependability
                                  for software-based systems . . . . . . . 69--80
            Rajiv D. Banker and   
           Srikant M. Datar and   
           Chris F. Kemerer and   
                     Dani Zweig   Software complexity and maintenance
                                  costs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81--94
                Rebecca Mercuri   Inside Risks: Corrupted Polling  . . . . 122, 94

Communications of the ACM
Volume 36, Number 12, December, 1993

                       Roy Rada   Sharing Standards: Standards: The
                                  Language for Success . . . . . . . . . . 17--23
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: The Internet and
                                  Interactive Television . . . . . . . . . 19--23
            Henry C. Lucas, Jr.   Market expert surveillance system  . . . 27--34
              Kenneth P. Birman   The process group approach to reliable
                                  distributed computing  . . . . . . . . . 37--53
           M. K. El-Najdawi and   
           Anthony C. Stylianou   Expert support systems: integrating AI
                                  technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55--65
              Erik Brynjolfsson   The productivity paradox of information
                                  technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--77
          Leon A. Kappelman and   
           John P. Thompson and   
              Ephraim R. McLean   Converging end-user and corporate
                                  computing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79--92
              H. Raghav Rao and   
                 Brian D. Lynch   Hedonic price analysis of workstation
                                  attributes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95--102
                  H. Jeff Smith   Privacy policies and practices: inside
                                  the organizational maze  . . . . . . . . 104--122
               Peter J. Denning   Inside Risks: a World Lit by Flame . . . 170--170


Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 1, January, 1994

       Edward A. Feigenbaum and   
         Peter E. Friedland and   
           Bruce B. Johnson and   
               H. Penny Nii and   
            Herbert Schnorr and   
           Howard E. Shrobe and   
            Robert S. Engelmore   Knowledge-Based Systems in Japan (Report
                                  of the JTEC Panel) . . . . . . . . . . . 17--20
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Copyright's Fair Use
                                  Doctrine and Digital Data  . . . . . . . 21--27
                   Doug Schuler   Social computing . . . . . . . . . . . . 28--29
                   Gary Chapman   The National Forum on Science and
                                  Technology Goals: building a democratic,
                                  post-Cold War science and technology
                                  policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--37
                   Doug Schuler   Community networks: building a new
                                  participatory medium . . . . . . . . . . 38--51
                 Andrew Clement   Computing at work: empowering action by
                                  ``low-level users''  . . . . . . . . . . 52--63
             Batya Friedman and   
             Peter H. Kahn, Jr.   Educating computer scientists: linking
                                  the social and the technical . . . . . . 64--70
               Helen Nissenbaum   Computing and accountability . . . . . . 72--80
          W. Robert Collins and   
            Keith W. Miller and   
        Bethany J. Spielman and   
                 Phillip Wherry   How good is good enough?: an ethical
                                  analysis of software construction and
                                  use  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81--91
                Jonathan Grudin   Groupware and social dynamics: eight
                                  challenges for developers  . . . . . . . 92--105
                      Anonymous   Renewing the commitment to a public
                                  interest telecommunications policy . . . 106--108
              Robert D. Dorsett   Inside RISKS: Risks In Aviation (part 1
                                  of 2)  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154--154

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 2, February, 1994

                 Elliot Soloway   Log on Education: Ways of Seeing . . . . 15--20
                  S. E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Computing in
                                  South Africa: An End to ``Apartness''?   21--25
   Kaj Grònbæk and   
               Randall H. Trigg   Hypermedia system design applying the
                                  Dexter model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26--29
               Frank Halasz and   
                 Mayer Schwartz   The Dexter hypertext reference model . . 30--39
   Kaj Grònbæk and   
               Randall H. Trigg   Design issues for a Dexter-based
                                  hypermedia system  . . . . . . . . . . . 40--49
              Lynda Hardman and   
       Dick C. A. Bulterman and   
               Guido van Rossum   The Amsterdam hypermedia model: adding
                                  time and context to the Dexter model . . 50--62
   Kaj Grònbæk and   
                Jens A. Hem and   
              Ole L. Madsen and   
                  Lennert Sloth   Cooperative hypermedia systems: a
                                  Dexter-based architecture  . . . . . . . 64--74
            John J. Leggett and   
                John L. Schnase   Viewing Dexter with open eyes  . . . . . 76--86
                Ehud Rivlin and   
           Rodrigo Botafogo and   
                Ben Shneiderman   Navigating in hyperspace: designing a
                                  structure-based toolbox  . . . . . . . . 87--96
              Gerard Salton and   
                James Allan and   
                  Chris Buckley   Automatic structuring and retrieval of
                                  large text files . . . . . . . . . . . . 97--108
             Jan Vanthienen and   
         Girish Subramanian and   
                     John Nosek   Technical Correspondence: a More General
                                  Comparison of the Decision Table and
                                  Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109--113
              Robert D. Dorsett   Inside Risks: Safety in the Air  . . . . 146--146

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 3, March, 1994

                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Emerging Dynabase
                                  Tools  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--16
             Fred W. Weingarten   From Washington: Public interest and the
                                  NII  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--19
             Toshinori Munakata   Commercial and industrial AI . . . . . . 23--26
       Frederick Hayes-Roth and   
                Neil Jacobstein   The State of Knowledge-Based Systems . . 26--39
               Bradley P. Allen   Case-based reasoning: business
                                  applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40--42
           W. E. L. Grimson and   
                    J. L. Mundy   Computer vision applications . . . . . . 44--51
      Alexander I. Rudnicky and   
     Alexander G. Hauptmann and   
                     Kai-Fu Lee   Survey of current speech technology  . . 52--57
               Takeo Kanade and   
            Michael L. Reed and   
                   Lee E. Weiss   New technologies and applications in
                                  robotics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58--67
         Toshinori Munakata and   
                  Yashvant Jani   Fuzzy systems: an overview . . . . . . . 68--76
                 Lotfi A. Zadeh   Fuzzy logic, neural networks, and soft
                                  computing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77--84
         David E. Rumelhart and   
             Bernard Widrow and   
                Michael A. Lehr   The basic ideas in neural networks . . . 87--92
             Bernard Widrow and   
         David E. Rumelhart and   
                Michael A. Lehr   Neural Networks: Applications in
                                  Industry, Business, and Science  . . . . 93--105
              Kazuo Asakawa and   
                Hideyuki Takagi   Neural networks in Japan . . . . . . . . 106--112
              David E. Goldberg   Genetic and evolutionary algorithms come
                                  of age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113--119
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Technology, Laws, and
                                  Society  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 4, April, 1994

                   Roy Rada and   
           George S. Carson and   
             Christopher Haynes   Sharing Standards: The Role of Consensus 15--16
                    Marc Rettig   Practical Programmer: Prototyping for
                                  Tiny Fingers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--27
              Adrian M. Tentner   High performance computing grand
                                  challenges in simulation . . . . . . . . 28--29
                 W. J. Camp and   
             S. J. Plimpton and   
          B. A. Hendrickson and   
                   R. W. Leland   Massively parallel methods for
                                  engineering and science problems . . . . 30--41
          Allan S. Jacobson and   
           Andrew L. Berkin and   
                Martin N. Orton   LinkWinds: interactive scientific data
                                  analysis and visualization . . . . . . . 42--52
              A. M. Tentner and   
            R. N. Blomquist and   
               P. L. Garner and   
              E. M. Gelbard and   
                K. C. Gross and   
                 M. Minkoff and   
             R. A. Valentin and   
                 T. R. Canfield   Advances in parallel computing for
                                  reactor analysis and safety  . . . . . . 54--64
              Jakob Nielsen and   
                  Jonathan Levy   Measuring usability: preference vs.
                                  performance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--75
            Richard A. Coll and   
               Joan H. Coll and   
                  Ganesh Thakur   Graphs and Tables: a Four-Factor
                                  Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76--86
           Computer Science and   
       Telecommunications Board   Academic Careers for Experimental
                                  Computer Scientists and Engineers  . . . 87--90
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Risks of Passwords . . . . 126--126

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 5, May, 1994

              John Perry Barlow   Electronic Frontier: Dad's Invisible
                                  Guard-All Shield . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--17
                Roger C. Schank   Log on Education: Tractor Factories and
                                  Research in Software Design  . . . . . . 19--21
          Richard G. Waters and   
               Elliot Chikofsky   Reverse engineering: progress along many
                                  dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22--25
                Peter Aiken and   
                Alice Muntz and   
                  Russ Richards   DoD legacy systems: reverse engineering
                                  data requirements  . . . . . . . . . . . 26--41
      William J. Premerlani and   
               Michael R. Blaha   An approach for reverse engineering of
                                  relational databases . . . . . . . . . . 42--49
                Jim Q. Ning and   
             Andre Engberts and   
          W. Voytek Kozaczynski   Automated support for legacy code
                                  understanding  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50--57
         Lawrence Markosian and   
             Philip Newcomb and   
              Russell Brand and   
               Scott Burson and   
                 Ted Kitzmiller   Using an enabling technology to
                                  reengineer legacy systems  . . . . . . . 58--70
         Ted J. Biggerstaff and   
        Bharat G. Mitbander and   
              Dallas E. Webster   Program understanding and the concept
                                  assignment problem . . . . . . . . . . . 72--82
                   Alex Quilici   A memory-based approach to recognizing
                                  programming plans  . . . . . . . . . . . 84--93
         Karl J. Lieberherr and   
         Ignacio Silva-Lepe and   
                       Cun Xiao   Adaptive object-oriented programming
                                  using graph-based customization  . . . . 94--101
                Iris Vessey and   
                  Sue A. Conger   Requirements specification: learning
                                  object, process, and data methodologies  102--113
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Alternative Passwords  . . 146--146

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 6, June, 1994

             Fred W. Weingarten   From Washington: The Politicizing of
                                  Science Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13--15
                   G. Ariav and   
                  S. E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Israel: Of
                                  Swords and Software Plowshares . . . . . 17--21
                 Nasr Ullah and   
           Philip K. Brownfield   The making of the PowerPC: introduction  22--22
           Charles R. Moore and   
           Russell C. Stanphill   The PowerPC alliance . . . . . . . . . . 25--27
              Keith Diefendorff   History of the PowerPC architecture  . . 28--33
               Brad Burgess and   
                 Nasr Ullah and   
           Peter Van Overen and   
                    Deene Ogden   The PowerPC 603 microprocessor . . . . . 34--42
          Brad W. Suessmith and   
               George Paap, III   PowerPC 603 microprocessor power
                                  management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43--46
                 Ali Poursepanj   The PowerPC performance modeling
                                  methodology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47--55
              Julie Shipnes and   
                   Mike Phillip   A modular approach to Motorola PowerPC
                                  compilers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56--63
               William Anderson   An overview of Motorola's PowerPC
                                  simulator family . . . . . . . . . . . . 64--69
              Stuart M. Shieber   Lessons from a Restricted Turing Test    70--78
              Hugh Gene Loebner   In response  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79--82
              Stuart M. Shieber   On Loebner's lessons . . . . . . . . . . 83--84
         Patrick M. LaMalva and   
             George D. Peterson   Accredited Programs in Computing . . . . 85--88
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Risks on the Information
                                  Superhighway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114--114

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 7, July, 1994

                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Tomorrow's campus    13--17
                   Doug Riecken   Intelligent agents . . . . . . . . . . . 18--21
              Marvin Minsky and   
                   Doug Riecken   A conversation with Marvin Minsky about
                                  agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22--29
                    Pattie Maes   Agents that reduce work and information
                                  overload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--40
          Ernest A. Edmonds and   
                Linda Candy and   
               Rachel Jones and   
                   Bassel Soufi   Support for collaborative design: agents
                                  and emergence  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41--47
      Michael R. Genesereth and   
             Steven P. Ketchpel   Software agents  . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--53
       David Canfield Smith and   
               Allen Cypher and   
                    Jim Spohrer   KidSim: programming agents without a
                                  programming language . . . . . . . . . . 54--67
               Donald A. Norman   How might people interact with agents    68--71
               Oren Etzioni and   
                    Daniel Weld   A softbot-based interface to the
                                  Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72--76
            Tom M. Mitchell and   
               Rich Caruana and   
              Dayne Freitag and   
             John McDermott and   
                 David Zabowski   Experience with a learning personal
                                  assistant  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80--91
                     Ted Selker   COACH: a Teaching Agent that Learns  . . 92--99
                    Irene Greif   Desktop agents in group-enabled products 100--105
                   Doug Riecken   M: an architecture of integrated agents  106--116
              Margaret A. Boden   Agents and creativity  . . . . . . . . . 117--121
                   Joseph Bates   The role of emotion in believable agents 122--125
                 R. V. Guha and   
               Douglas B. Lenat   Enabling agents to work together . . . . 126--142
             Henry A. Kautz and   
                Bart Selman and   
                   Michael Coen   Bottom-up design of software agents  . . 143--146
                 Barbara Simons   Inside RISKS: Questions about the NII    170, 146

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 8, August, 1994

                 Robert E. Kahn   Viewpoint: The Role of Government in the
                                  Evolution of the Internet  . . . . . . . 15--19
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Self-Plagiarism or
                                  Fair Use?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--25
              S. E. Goodman and   
                L. I. Press and   
                 S. R. Ruth and   
                A. M. Rutkowski   International Perspectives: The Global
                                  Diffusion of the Internet: Patterns and
                                  Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27--31
                Barry M. Leiner   Internet Technology  . . . . . . . . . . 32--33
         Kimberly C. Claffy and   
          Hans-Werner Braun and   
              George C. Polyzos   Tracking Long-Term Growth of the NSFNET  34--45
            Håvard Eidnes   Practical considerations for network
                                  addressing using CIDR  . . . . . . . . . 46--53
                  Hans Eriksson   MBONE: the multicast backbone  . . . . . 54--60
                       John Moy   Multicast routing extensions for OSPF    61--66
              Fumio Teraoka and   
             Keisuke Uehara and   
            Hideki Sunahara and   
                      Jun Murai   VIP: a Protocol Providing Host Mobility  67--75
            Tim Berners-Lee and   
            Robert Cailliau and   
               Ari Luotonen and   
     Henrik Frystyk Nielsen and   
                  Arthur Secret   The World-Wide Web . . . . . . . . . . . 76--82
              Hiroshi Ishii and   
           Minoru Kobayashi and   
                   Kazuho Arita   Iterative design of seamless
                                  collaboration media  . . . . . . . . . . 83--97
              C. Mic Bowman and   
            Peter B. Danzig and   
                 Udi Manber and   
            Michael F. Schwartz   Scalable Internet resource discovery:
                                  research problems and approaches . . . . 98--107
           Katherine Fithen and   
                 Barbara Fraser   CERT Incident Response and the Internet  108--114
               Susan Landau and   
               Stephen Kent and   
          Clinton C. Brooks and   
              Scott Charney and   
         Dorothy E. Denning and   
           Whitfield Diffie and   
              Anthony Lauck and   
             Douglas Miller and   
           Peter G. Neumann and   
                 David L. Sobel   Crypto policy perspectives . . . . . . . 115--121
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Friendly Fire  . . . . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 9, September, 1994

               Yasmin Kafai and   
                 Elliot Soloway   Log on Education: Computational Gifts
                                  for the Barney Generation  . . . . . . . 19--22
                   Roy Rada and   
               George S. Carson   Sharing Standards: The New Media . . . . 23--25
               Robert V. Binder   Object-Oriented Software Testing . . . . 28--29
          Paul C. Jorgensen and   
                  Carl Erickson   Object-Oriented Integration Testing  . . 30--38
             Gail C. Murphy and   
              Paul Townsend and   
                   Pok Sze Wong   Experiences with cluster and class
                                  testing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39--47
               Robert M. Poston   Automated testing from object models . . 48--58
           John D. McGregor and   
              Timothy D. Korson   Integrated Object-Oriented Testing and
                                  Development Processes  . . . . . . . . . 59--77
           Thomas R. Arnold and   
               William A. Fuson   Testing ``In A Perfect World'' . . . . . 78--86
               Robert V. Binder   Design for testability in
                                  object-oriented systems  . . . . . . . . 87--101
                 George W. Hart   To decode short cryptograms  . . . . . . 102--108
           Lance J. Hoffman and   
               Faraz A. Ali and   
          Steven L. Heckler and   
                 Ann Huybrechts   Cryptography policy  . . . . . . . . . . 109--117
          Kenneth Baclawski and   
                Bipin Indurkhya   Technical Correspondence: The Notion of
                                  Inheritance in Object-Oriented
                                  Programming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118--119
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Expectations of Security
                                  and Privacy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 10, October, 1994

             Fred W. Weingarten   From Washington: University Research in
                                  a Squeeze  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--17
        Tomasz Imieli\'nski and   
                B. R. Badrinath   Mobile wireless computing: challenges in
                                  data management  . . . . . . . . . . . . 18--28
                        Effy Oz   When Professional Standards are Lax: The
                                  CONFIRM Failure and its Lessons  . . . . 29--36
                Juris Hartmanis   Turing Award Lecture: On Computational
                                  Complexity and the Nature of Computer
                                  Science  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37--43
          Richard T. Watson and   
                Teck Hua Ho and   
                    K. S. Raman   Culture: a Fourth Dimension of Group
                                  Support Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . 44--55
                    H. Chen and   
                     P. Hsu and   
                   R. Orwig and   
                  L. Hoopes and   
                J. F. Nunamaker   Automatic concept classification of text
                                  from electronic meetings . . . . . . . . 56--73
           Martin D. Fraser and   
              Kuldeep Kumar and   
             Vijay K. Vaishnavi   Strategies for incorporating formal
                                  specifications in software development   74--86
           Rosemary H. Wild and   
     Joseph J. Pignatiello, Jr.   Finding Stable System Designs: a Reverse
                                  Simulation Technique . . . . . . . . . . 87--98
                Benjamin Wright   Inside RISKS: The Verdict on Plaintext
                                  Signatures: They're Legal  . . . . . . . 122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 11, November, 1994

        Jay J. Buck BloomBecker   Viewpoint: My Three Computer
                                  Criminological Sins  . . . . . . . . . . 15--16
                    Larry Press   Commercialization of the Internet  . . . 17--21
                Brian A. Nejmeh   Internet: a Strategic Tool for the
                                  Software Enterprise  . . . . . . . . . . 23--27
               Ravi Ganesan and   
                    Ravi Sandhu   Securing cyberspace  . . . . . . . . . . 28--31
               Ross J. Anderson   Why cryptosystems fail . . . . . . . . . 32--40
               Roger M. Needham   Denial of service: an example  . . . . . 42--46
                 Ralf C. Hauser   Does Licensing Require New Access
                                  Control Technologies?  . . . . . . . . . 48--55
            Gustavus J. Simmons   Cryptanalysis and protocol failures  . . 56--65
              Paul C. Clark and   
               Lance J. Hoffman   BITS: A Smartcard Protected Operating
                                  System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--70
          Shekhar H. Kirani and   
        Imran A. Zualkernan and   
                   Wei-Tek Tsai   Evaluation of expert system testing
                                  methods  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71--81
                  Bruce I. Blum   A taxonomy of software development
                                  methods  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82--94
          Richard Edwin Stearns   Turing Award Lecture: It's Time to
                                  Reconsider Time  . . . . . . . . . . . . 95--99
                    Herb Grosch   Dehumanizing the workplace . . . . . . . 122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 37, Number 12, December, 1994

                   Robin Hanson   Viewpoint: Can Wiretaps Remain
                                  Cost-Effective?  . . . . . . . . . . . . 13--15
                  Karen Frenkel   In memory: Gordon Smith 1919--1994 . . . 16--16
             James W. Moore and   
                David Emery and   
                       Roy Rada   Sharing Standards: Language-Independent
                                  Standards  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--20
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: The NII Intellectual
                                  Property Report  . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--27
                John M. Carroll   Making \em Use a Design Representation   28--35
            Gerald L. Lohse and   
               Kevin Biolsi and   
                Neff Walker and   
                Henry H. Rueter   A classification of visual
                                  representations  . . . . . . . . . . . . 36--49
            Stephen G. Eick and   
          Michael C. Nelson and   
             Jeffery D. Schmidt   Graphical analysis of computer log files 50--56
             Kim Halskov Madsen   A guide to metaphorical design . . . . . 57--62
           Steven C. Bagley and   
                  Gary E. Kopec   Editing images of text . . . . . . . . . 63--72
             Manojit Sarkar and   
                  Marc H. Brown   Graphical Fisheye Views  . . . . . . . . 73--84
                D. E. Stevenson   Science, computational science, and
                                  computer science: at a crossroads  . . . 85--96
              Gerald J. Johnson   Of metaphor and the difficulty of
                                  computer discourse . . . . . . . . . . . 97--102
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside RISKS: Inside ``Inside RISKS.''   154--154


Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 1, January, 1995

              S. E. Goodman and   
                    L. I. Press   International Perspectives: Computing in
                                  Vietnam: An Asian Tiger in the Rough . . 11--16
                 Elliot Soloway   Log on Education: Beware, Techies
                                  Bearing Gifts  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--24
                      Amy Pearl   Women in Computing: Introduction . . . . 26--28
                Maria Klawe and   
                  Nancy Leveson   Women in computing: where are we now?    29--35
                 Pavani Diwanji   Corporate Supported Women's Groups . . . 36--36
          Sandra Johnson Baylor   Graduate Fellowship Programs . . . . . . 37--42
                    Alison Adam   Women and Computing in the UK  . . . . . 43--43
                Laura L. Downey   Announcing a New Resource: The WCAR List 43--44
          Elisabeth Freeman and   
                 Susanne Hupfer   TAP: Tapping Internet Resources for
                                  Women in Computer Science  . . . . . . . 44--44
           Denise W. Gürer   Pioneering women in computer science . . 45--54
                 Anita Borg and   
                  Telle Whitney   The Grace Hopper Celebration . . . . . . 50--51
              Kathleen Hemenway   Human nature and the glass ceiling in
                                  industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55--62
                   Ellen Isaacs   Gender Discrimination in the Workplace:
                                  a Literature Review  . . . . . . . . . . 58--59
                     Tracy Camp   Diversity Recruiting . . . . . . . . . . 61--61
    Shari Lawrence Pfleeger and   
                    Norma Mertz   Executive mentoring: what makes it work? 63--73
                    Amita Goyal   Mentoring Resources and Programs for
                                  Women  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--67
        Veronika Oechtering and   
                Roswitha Behnke   Situations and advancement measures in
                                  Germany  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75--82
                Iris Vessey and   
          Ajay Paul Sravanapudi   CASE tools as collaborative support
                                  technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83--95
              Kurt Mehlhorn and   
              Stefan Näher   LEDA: a Platform for Combinatorial and
                                  Geometric Computing  . . . . . . . . . . 96--102
            Jeffrey G. Long and   
             Dorothy E. Denning   Ultra-Structure: a Design Theory for
                                  Complex Systems and Processes  . . . . . 103--120
            Charles Herring and   
              Julian I. Palmore   Technical Correspondence: Random Number
                                  Generators are Chaotic . . . . . . . . . 121--122
                     D. E. Ross   Technical Correspondence: Pseudo-Random
                                  Number Generators for a Calculator . . . 122--124
                Ben Shneiderman   Inside Risks: The Info Superhighway: For
                                  the People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162--162

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 2, February, 1995

                  Stuart Zweben   President's letter: ACM Computing Week
                                  '95  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13--14
             Fred W. Weingarten   From Washington: Reforming
                                  Telecommunications Law . . . . . . . . . 19--22
                   Roy Rada and   
                      John Berg   Sharing Standards: Standards: Free or
                                  Sold?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--27
           Ronald J. Vetter and   
                 David H. C. Du   Issues and challenges in ATM networks    28--29
               Ronald J. Vetter   ATM concepts, architectures, and
                                  protocols  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--38
                  B. G. Kim and   
                        P. Wang   ATM network: goals and challenges  . . . 39--44
           Daniel Stevenson and   
             Nathan Hillery and   
                      Greg Byrd   Secure communications in ATM networks    45--52
           James A. Schnepf and   
             David H. C. Du and   
        E. Russell Ritenour and   
              Aaron J. Fahrmann   Building future medical education
                                  environments over ATM networks . . . . . 54--69
                   A. Iwata and   
                    N. Mori and   
                   C. Ikeda and   
                  H. Suzuki and   
                         M. Ott   ATM Connection and Traffic Management
                                  Schemes for Multimedia Internetworking   72--89
            Michael Perloff and   
                     Kurt Reiss   Improvements to TCP Performance in
                                  High-Speed ATM Networks  . . . . . . . . 90--100
              Shivi Fotedar and   
                Mario Gerla and   
             Paola Crocetti and   
                   Luigi Fratta   ATM virtual private networks . . . . . . 101--109
         Patrick M. LaMalva and   
             George D. Peterson   Accredited Programs in Computing . . . . 110--114
               Xavier A. Debest   Technical Correspondence: Remark About
                                  Self-Stabilizing Systems . . . . . . . . 115--117
                  Peter A. Buhr   Technical Correspondence: Are Safe
                                  Concurrency Libraries Possible . . . . . 117--120
              C. C. Demchak and   
                  S. E. Goodman   Inside Risks: Computers as Substitute
                                  Soldiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154--154

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 3, March, 1995

                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: The Internet is Not
                                  TV: Web Publishing . . . . . . . . . . . 17--23
            David Heckerman and   
                Abe Mamdani and   
             Michael P. Wellman   Real-World Applications of Bayesian
                                  Networks: Introduction . . . . . . . . . 24--26
            David Heckerman and   
             Michael P. Wellman   Bayesian networks  . . . . . . . . . . . 27--30
               Lisa Burnell and   
                   Eric Horvitz   Structure and chance: melding logic and
                                  probability for software debugging . . . 31--41, 57
                Robert Fung and   
             Brendan Del Favero   Applying Bayesian networks to
                                  information retrieval  . . . . . . . . . 42--48
            David Heckerman and   
             John S. Breese and   
                  Koos Rommelse   Decision-Theoretic Troubleshooting . . . 49--57
                 Gerald Tesauro   Temporal Difference Learning and
                                  TD-Gammon  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58--68
            Robert E. Kraut and   
               Lynn A. Streeter   Coordination in software development . . 69--81
              Magid Igbaria and   
               Wayne M. Wormley   Race differences in job performance and
                                  career success . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82--92
           Kent A. Walstrom and   
          Bill C. Hardgrave and   
                 Rick L. Wilson   Forums for management information
                                  systems scholars . . . . . . . . . . . . 93--107
         Andrew Arensburger and   
               Azriel Rosenfeld   Technical Opinion: To Take Arms Against
                                  a Sea of Email . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108--109
               Peter G. Neumann   Reassessing the crypto debate  . . . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 4, April, 1995

               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Copyright and Digital
                                  Libraries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--21, 110
              Edward A. Fox and   
           Robert M. Akscyn and   
          Richard K. Furuta and   
                John J. Leggett   Digital Libraries: Introduction  . . . . 22--28
                 Ramana Rao and   
            Jan O. Pedersen and   
            Marti A. Hearst and   
          Jock D. Mackinlay and   
             Stuart K. Card and   
             Larry Masinter and   
     Per-Kristian Halvorsen and   
            George G. Robertson   Rich Interaction in the Digital Library  29--39
            Timothy C. Bell and   
            Alistair Moffat and   
              Ian H. Witten and   
                   Justin Zobel   The MG retrieval system: compressing for
                                  space and speed  . . . . . . . . . . . . 41--42
                 W. Bruce Croft   NSF Center for Intelligent Information
                                  Retrieval  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42--43
                  Edward A. Fox   World-Wide Web and Computer Science
                                  Reports  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43--44
            James C. French and   
              Edward A. Fox and   
                  Kurt Maly and   
                 Alan L. Selman   Wide Area Technical Report Service:
                                  Technical Reports Online . . . . . . . . 45--45
             Charles Kacmar and   
                       Dean Jue   The information zone system  . . . . . . 46--47
                Carl Lagoze and   
                 James R. Davis   Dienst: An Architecture for Distributed
                                  Document Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . 47--47
       Christoph Hüser and   
        Klaus Reichenberger and   
              Lothar Rostek and   
             Norbert A. Streitz   Knowledge-based editing and
                                  visualization for hypermedia
                                  encyclopedias  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49--51
              Deane Merrill and   
              Nathan Parker and   
                Fredric Gey and   
                   Chris Stuber   The University of California CD-ROM
                                  Information System . . . . . . . . . . . 51--52
           Lenwood S. Heath and   
                Deborah Hix and   
             Lucy T. Nowell and   
            William C. Wake and   
      Guillermo A. Averboch and   
                 Eric Labow and   
             Scott A. Guyer and   
           Dennis J. Brueni and   
           Robert K. France and   
              Kaushal Dalal and   
                  Edward A. Fox   Envision: a User-Centered Database for
                                  Computer Science Literature  . . . . . . 52--53
            Richard Entlich and   
              Lorrin Garson and   
               Michael Lesk and   
           Lorraine Normore and   
                  Jan Olsen and   
                  Stuart Weibel   Making a digital library: the chemistry
                                  online retrieval experiment  . . . . . . 54--54
                  Gary M. Olson   An appreciation of Laurence Rosenberg    55--55
                M. Christel and   
                  T. Kanade and   
                 M. Mauldin and   
                   R. Reddy and   
                   M. Sirbu and   
                 S. Stevens and   
                     H. Wactlar   Informedia Digital Video Library . . . . 57--58
The Stanford Digital Libraries Group   The Stanford Digital Library Project . . 59--60
                Robert Wilensky   UC Berkeley's Digital Library project    60--60
           Terence R. Smith and   
                     James Frew   Alexandria Digital Library . . . . . . . 61--62
                   Bruce Schatz   Building the Interspace: The Illinois
                                  Digital Library Project  . . . . . . . . 62--63
                    Laurie Crum   University of Michigan Digital Library
                                  Project  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63--64
                Jonathan Purday   The British Library's initiatives for
                                  access projects  . . . . . . . . . . . . 65--66
              Herbert S. Becker   Library of Congress Digital Library
                                  Effort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--66
           Gary Marchionini and   
                 Hermann Maurer   The roles of digital libraries in
                                  teaching and learning  . . . . . . . . . 67--75
              David M. Levy and   
          Catherine C. Marshall   Going Digital: a Look at Assumptions
                                  Underlying Digital Libraries . . . . . . 77--84
                 Gio Wiederhold   Digital libraries, value, and
                                  productivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85--96
           Peter J. Denning and   
                   Bernard Rous   The ACM electronic publishing plan . . . 97--109
               Peter J. Denning   Inside Risks: Information Superhighway
                                  2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 5, May, 1995

                 Stuart Robbins   Viewpoint: Turbulent Times for
                                  Information Technology . . . . . . . . . 15--16
              John Perry Barlow   Electronic Frontier: Death From Above    17--20
              J. L. Dedrick and   
              S. E. Goodman and   
                  K. L. Kraemer   International Perspectives: Little
                                  Engines that Could: Computing in Small
                                  Energetic Countries  . . . . . . . . . . 21--26
           Karen Holtzblatt and   
                  Hugh R. Beyer   Requirements Gathering: The Human
                                  Factor: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 30--32
                  Mark Keil and   
                   Erran Carmel   Customer-Developer Links in Software
                                  Development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33--44
              Hugh R. Beyer and   
               Karen Holtzblatt   Apprenticing with the customer . . . . . 45--52
            Arne Kjær and   
             Kim Halskov Madsen   Participatory analysis of flexibility    53--60
Françoise Brun-Cottan and   
                  Patricia Wall   Using Video to Re-Present the User . . . 61--71
       Anthony F. Hutchings and   
                  Steve T. Knox   Creating products customers demand . . . 72--80
                C. Dennis Allen   Succeeding as a clandestine change agent 81--86
            Mitchell H. Clifton   Self-Assessment Procedure XXIII:
                                  Programming Languages  . . . . . . . . . 89--97
                  L. F. Johnson   Technical Opinion: C in the First Course
                                  Considered Harmful . . . . . . . . . . . 99--101
             Robert N. Charette   Inside Risks: How to Create a Successful
                                  Failure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 6, June, 1995

              David G. Moursund   Viewpoint: Site-Based Management Saving
                                  Our Schools  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13--15
              David G. Moursund   Site-based management: saving our
                                  schools  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--17
                Brian A. Nejmeh   Enterprising Innovations: Process Cost
                                  and Value Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 19--24
                   Saul Rockman   Log on Education: In School or Out:
                                  Technology, Equity, and the Future of
                                  our Kids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25--29
                     Webb Stacy   Cognition and software development . . . 31--31
                   Marian Petre   Why looking isn't always seeing:
                                  readership skills and graphical
                                  programming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33--44
               Joseph Dumas and   
                  Paige Parsons   Discovering the way programmers think
                                  about new programming environments . . . 45--56
                 Webb Stacy and   
                Jean MacMillian   Cognitive bias in software engineering   57--63
                 Terry Winograd   From programming environments to
                                  environments for designing . . . . . . . 65--74
          William B. Frakes and   
             Christopher J. Fox   Sixteen questions about software reuse   75--87, 112
           Ross A. Gagliano and   
           Martin D. Fraser and   
               Mark E. Schaefer   Auction allocation of computing
                                  resources  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88--102
              Young-Gul Kim and   
             Salvatore T. March   Comparing data modeling formalisms . . . 103--115
                Hal Abelson and   
                  Kim Bruce and   
               Andy van Dam and   
               Brian Harvey and   
               Allen Tucker and   
                   Peter Wegner   The first-course conundrum . . . . . . . 116--117
              Susan Horwitz and   
              Kenneth Appel and   
             Theresa Cuprak and   
                  David Kay and   
        Christopher Nevison and   
                Leon Schram and   
               Mark Stehlik and   
                 Owen Astrachan   The first-course conundrum, why change?  117--118
               Peter G. Neumann   Computer vulnerabilities: exploitation
                                  or avoidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 7, July, 1995

                 John Nosek and   
                 Garth Shephard   Viewpoint: Making Groupware Payoff: The
                                  British Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--13
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: McLuhan Meets the
                                  Net  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--20
                Fred Weingarten   From Washington: The HPCC: Still a
                                  Percheron Horse  . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--23
            Deborah Compeau and   
               Lorne Olfman and   
                  Maung Sei and   
                   Jane Webster   End-User Training and Learning . . . . . 24--26
             R. Ryan Nelson and   
          Ellen M. Whitener and   
               Henry H. Philcox   The Assessment of End-User Training
                                  Needs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27--39
            John M. Carroll and   
               Mary Beth Rosson   Managing evaluation goals for training   40--48
       Edmond P. Fitzgerald and   
             Aileen Cater-Steel   Champagne training on a beer budget  . . 49--60
                   Judy Kay and   
              Richard C. Thomas   Studying Long-Term System Use  . . . . . 61--69
         Dennis F. Galletta and   
                Manju Ahuja and   
               Amir Hartman and   
               Thompson Teo and   
                A. Graham Peace   Social influence and end-user training   70--79
            Joline Morrison and   
                 Joey F. George   Exploring the software engineering
                                  component in MIS research  . . . . . . . 80--91
                    Gary Newman   Organizing arrays for paged memory
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93--103, 108--110
                 Philip E. Agre   Inside Risks: My Top 10 Email Hassles    122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 8, August, 1995

               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Software Compatibility
                                  and the Law  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--22
                 Brock N. Meeks   Electronic Frontier: Target: Internet    23--25
             Michael Bieber and   
         Tomás Isakowitz   Designing hypermedia applications  . . . 26--29
           Douglas C. Engelbart   Toward Augmenting the Human Intellect
                                  and Boosting our Collective IQ . . . . . 30, 32--33
            Theodor Holm Nelson   The heart of connection: hypermedia
                                  unified by transclusion  . . . . . . . . 31--33
     Tomás Isakowitz and   
            Edward A. Stohr and   
             P. Balasubramanian   RMM: a Methodology for Structured
                                  Hypermedia Design  . . . . . . . . . . . 34--44
             Daniel Schwabe and   
                  Gustavo Rossi   The Object-Oriented Hypermedia Design
                                  Model  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45--46
         V. Balasubramanian and   
                Bang Min Ma and   
                    Joonhee Yoo   A systematic approach to designing a WWW
                                  application  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47--48
            Jocelyne Nanard and   
                    Marc Nanard   Hypertext design environments and the
                                  hypertext design process . . . . . . . . 49--56
       Manfred Thüring and   
        Jörg Hannemann and   
             Jörg M. Haake   Hypermedia and cognition: designing for
                                  comprehension  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57--66
                      Paul Kahn   Visual cues for local and global
                                  coherence in the WWW . . . . . . . . . . 67--69
             Norbert A. Streitz   Designing Hypermedia: a Collaborative
                                  Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70--71
            John L. Schnase and   
          Edward L. Cunnius and   
                S. Bruce Dowton   The StudySpace Project: Collaborative
                                  Hypermedia in Nomadic Computing
                                  Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72--73
            Franca Garzotto and   
              Luca Mainetti and   
                  Paolo Paolini   Hypermedia design, analysis, and
                                  evaluation issues  . . . . . . . . . . . 74--86
                  Scott Johnson   Control for hypertext construction . . . 87--87
      Catherine C. Marshall and   
          Frank M. Shipman, III   Spatial hypertext: designing for change  88--97
          Andreas Dieberger and   
                  Jay D. Bolter   On the Design of Hyper ``Spaces''  . . . 98--98
             Michael Bieber and   
                 Charles Kacmar   Designing hypertext support for
                                  computational applications . . . . . . . 99--107
                     Hugh Davis   To Embed or Not to Embed \ldots  . . . . 108--109
                   Uffe K. Wiil   Hyperform: Rapid Prototyping of
                                  Hypermedia Services  . . . . . . . . . . 109--111
             Richard Furuta and   
                   David Stotts   Dynamic hyperdocuments: authoring
                                  replaces programming . . . . . . . . . . 111--112
                 Joel M. Snyder   Inside Risks: Research on the Internet   130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 9, September, 1995

              William E. Snizek   Virtual offices: some neglected
                                  considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--17
              Maurice V. Wilkes   A tribute to Presper Eckert  . . . . . . 20--22
          R. A. Baeza-Yates and   
               D. A. Fuller and   
                 J. A. Pino and   
                  S. E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Computing in
                                  Chile: The Jaguar of the Pacific Rim?    23--28
             Fred W. Weingarten   From Washington: Obituary for an Agency  29--32
                   Lucy Suchman   Representations of work  . . . . . . . . 33--35
                 Patricia Sachs   Transforming Work: Collaboration,
                                  Learning, and Design . . . . . . . . . . 36--44
           Susan Leigh Star and   
             Geoffrey C. Bowker   Work and Infrastructure  . . . . . . . . 41--41
            Brigitte Jordan and   
                Ron Goldman and   
                 Patricia Sachs   Tools for the Workplace  . . . . . . . . 42--42
                 Helga Wild and   
            Chris Darrouzet and   
                   Ted Kahn and   
                Susan U. Stucky   Rhythms of Collaboration . . . . . . . . 45--45
                    Morten Kyng   Making Representations Work  . . . . . . 46--55
                   Lucy Suchman   Making Work Visible  . . . . . . . . . . 56--64
                    Rogers Hall   Exploring design oriented mathematical
                                  practices in school and work settings    62--64
              Michael J. Muller   Ethnocritical Questions for Working with
                                  Translations, Interpretation and the
                                  Stakeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64--65
                 Liam J. Bannon   The politics of design: representing
                                  work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--68
             Robert Klepper and   
                   Douglas Bock   Third and Fourth Generation Language
                                  Productivity Differences . . . . . . . . 69--79
               M. P. Papazoglou   Unraveling the Semantics of Conceptual
                                  Schemas  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80--94
                      Sudha Ram   Deriving functional dependencies from
                                  the entity-relationship model  . . . . . 95--107
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Risks of Easy Answers  . . 130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 10, October, 1995

                  Stuart Zweben   President's Letter: Widening
                                  International Boundaries . . . . . . . . 15--16
                       Roy Rada   Sharing Standards: Consensus Versus
                                  Speed  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--23
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Net.Speech: Audio
                                  Comes to the Net . . . . . . . . . . . . 25--31
              Cherri M. Pancake   The Promise and the Cost of Object
                                  Technology: A Five-Year Forecast . . . . 33--49
           Mohamed E. Fayad and   
                   Wei-Tek Tsai   Object-Oriented Experiences  . . . . . . 50--53
               William Berg and   
             Marshall Cline and   
                     Mike Girou   Lessons Learned from the OS/400 OO
                                  Project  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54--64
             Douglas C. Schmidt   Using Design Patterns to Develop
                                  Reusable Object-Oriented Communication
                                  Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65--74
                 David Kung and   
                  Jerry Gao and   
                   Pei Hsia and   
         Yasufumi Toyoshima and   
                 Chris Chen and   
               Young-Si Kim and   
                 Young-Kee Song   Developing an Object-Oriented Software
                                  Testing and Maintenance Environment  . . 75--87
          Charles D. Norton and   
      Boleslaw K. Szymanski and   
                Viktor K. Decyk   Object-Oriented Parallel Computation for
                                  Plasma Simulation  . . . . . . . . . . . 88--100
                  Yen-Ping Shan   Introduction: Smalltalk on the Rise  . . 102--104
                 Adele Goldberg   Why Smalltalk? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105--107
                   Jim Adamczyk   Smalltalk Reaches Crossroads in the
                                  Insurance Industry . . . . . . . . . . . 107--109
             Jerrold M. Grochow   Smalltalk in the Telecommunications
                                  Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110--111
                    Dave Thomas   Ubiquitous Applications: Embedded
                                  Systems to Mainframe . . . . . . . . . . 112--114
                       Ken Auer   Smalltalk Training: As Innovative as the
                                  Environment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115--117
            Simson L. Garfinkel   Inside Risks: Risks of Social Security
                                  Numbers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146--146

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 11, November, 1995

              Robert D. Rachlin   Viewpoint: Learning from Litigation:
                                  Trade Secret Misappropriation  . . . . . 15--17
            Ben Shneiderman and   
              Maryann Alavi and   
                Kent Norman and   
             Ellen Yu Borkowski   Log On Education: Windows of Opportunity
                                  in Electronic Classrooms . . . . . . . . 19--24
                    Hal Berghel   Digital Village: Maiden Voyage . . . . . 25--27
             Toshinori Munakata   Introduction: New Horizons in Commercial
                                  and Industrial AI  . . . . . . . . . . . 28--31
               Douglas B. Lenat   CYC: a Large-Scale Investment in
                                  Knowledge Infrastructure . . . . . . . . 33--38
               George A. Miller   WordNet: a Lexical Database for English  39--41
                   Toshio Yokoi   The EDR Electronic Dictionary  . . . . . 42--44
           Douglas B. Lenat and   
           George A. Miller and   
                   Toshio Yokoi   CYC, WordNet, and EDR: Critiques and
                                  Responses  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45--48
                  B. Chaib-draa   Industrial Applications of Distributed
                                  AI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49--53
                Pat Langley and   
               Herbert A. Simon   Applications of machine learning and
                                  rule induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54--64
                Ivan Bratko and   
              Stephen Muggleton   Applications of Inductive Logic
                                  Programming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65--70
          Kenneth W. Church and   
                    Lisa F. Rau   Commercial Applications of Natural
                                  Language Processing  . . . . . . . . . . 71--79
                    Paul Harmon   Object-Oriented AI: a Commercial
                                  Perspective  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80--86
            Zdzislaw Pawlak and   
       Jerzy Grzymala-Busse and   
            Roman Slowinski and   
                Wojciech Ziarko   Rough sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88--95
              William Ditto and   
             Toshinori Munakata   Principles and Applications of Chaotic
                                  Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96--102
            Kazuyuki Aihara and   
                   Ryu Katayama   Chaos Engineering in Japan . . . . . . . 103--107
                    Pattie Maes   Artificial Life Meets Enfertainment:
                                  Lifelike Autonomous Agents . . . . . . . 108--114
                 R. A. Coldwell   Australian attitudes toward legal
                                  intervention into hacking  . . . . . . . 115--117
               Nancy G. Leveson   Inside Risks: Safety as a System
                                  Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146--146

Communications of the ACM
Volume 38, Number 12, December, 1995

                  Dan Lynch and   
                    Bert Herzog   Guest President's Letter: a time for
                                  celebration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--12
               Lisa M. Zurk and   
             Barbara Simons and   
            Rebecca Parsons and   
                     Dawn Cohen   Viewpoint: When an Advantage is Not an
                                  Advantage  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--18
              John Perry Barlow   Electronic Frontier: Property and
                                  Speech: Who Owns What You Say in
                                  Cyberspace?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--22
             A. K. Danowitz and   
                  Y. Nassef and   
                  S. E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Cyberspace
                                  Across the Sahara: Computing in North
                                  Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--28
               Peter J. Denning   Editorial: Plagiarism in the Web . . . . 29--29
                 Sue Conger and   
                  Karen D. Loch   Ethics and Computer Use  . . . . . . . . 30--32
              Kenneth C. Laudon   Ethical Concepts and Information
                                  Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33--39
        Suzanne P. Weisband and   
                Bruce A. Reinig   Managing User Perceptions of Email
                                  Privacy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40--47
           Janice C. Sipior and   
                  Burke T. Ward   The Ethical and Legal Quandary of Email
                                  Privacy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--54
               Richard O. Mason   Applying Ethics to Information
                                  Technology Issues  . . . . . . . . . . . 55--57
         Deborah G. Johnson and   
                 John M. Mulvey   Accountability and Computer Decision
                                  Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58--64
          Sandra J. Milberg and   
            Sandra J. Burke and   
              H. Jeff Smith and   
              Ernest A. Kallman   Values, Personal Information Privacy,
                                  and Regulatory Approaches  . . . . . . . 65--74
                 Chuck Huff and   
               C. Dianne Martin   Computing Consequences: a Framework for
                                  Teaching Ethical Computing . . . . . . . 75--84
                      Anonymous   Communications of the ACM 1995 subject
                                  index  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85--90
                      Anonymous   Communications of the ACM 1995 author
                                  index  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91--99
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Reviewing the Risks
                                  Archives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138--138


Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 1, January, 1996

                     Robert Fox   Newstrack  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                  Stuart Zweben   President's Letter: Computing Week '96   11--12
                Thomas Erickson   Viewpoint: The World-Wide Web as Social
                                  Hypertext  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--17
                       Roy Rada   Sharing Standards: Who Will Test
                                  Conformance? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--22
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Intellectual Property
                                  Rights and the Global Information
                                  Economy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--28
                    Hal Berghel   The client's side of the World-Wide Web  30--40
               Stephen Haag and   
                 M. K. Raja and   
                  L. L. Schkade   Qaulity Function Deployment: Usage in
                                  Software Development . . . . . . . . . . 41--49
            Matthew Cheyney and   
                Peter Gloor and   
          Donald B. Johnson and   
             Fillia Makedon and   
             James Matthews and   
       Panagiotis Takis Metaxas   Toward Multimedia Conference Proceedings 50--59
                   Yorick Wilks   Natural Language Processing  . . . . . . 60--62
             Louise Guthrie and   
          James Pustejovsky and   
               Yorick Wilks and   
                Brian M. Slator   The role of Lexicons in natural language
                                  processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63--72
                  Margaret King   Evaluating Natural Language Processing
                                  Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73--79
                  Jim Cowie and   
                  Wendy Lehnert   Information Extraction . . . . . . . . . 80--91
             David D. Lewis and   
             Karen Sparck Jones   Natural Language Processing for
                                  Information Retrieval  . . . . . . . . . 92--101
               Janyce Wiebe and   
               Graeme Hirst and   
                   Diane Horton   Language Use in Context  . . . . . . . . 102--111
               Peter G. Neumann   Risks in Digital Commerce  . . . . . . . 154--154

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 2 (supplement), February, 1996

                      Franz Alt   Franz Alt remembers the early years of
                                  computing and the creation of ACM  . . . 1, 5, 6
                      Anonymous   Computing week 96 ushers in ACM's 50th
                                  anniversary  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1--2
                      Anonymous   Finals teams: 1996 international
                                  collegiate programming contest . . . . . 3--3
                      Anonymous   Entering its fourth decade, SIGPLAN
                                  looks ahead  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4--4
                      Anonymous   ACM E-guide to debut this spring. Two
                                  new books from ACM Press books . . . . . 7--7
                      Anonymous   New on-line journal. TODAES begins
                                  publications. New focus added: Asia
                                  Pacific region . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8--8

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 2, February, 1996

                   Jeff Johnson   Viewpoint: The Information Superhighway:
                                  A Worst-Case Scenario  . . . . . . . . . 15--17
                    Hal Berghel   Digital Village: HTML Compliance and the
                                  Return of the Test Pattern . . . . . . . 19--22
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: The Role of Computer
                                  Networks in Development  . . . . . . . . 23--30
           Michael J. Woxny and   
               William C. Regli   Computer science in manufacturing  . . . 32--33
           Michael J. Wozny and   
               William C. Regli   Computer Science in Manufacturing  . . . 33--33
                J. W. Erkes and   
                K. B. Kenny and   
                J. W. Lewis and   
             B. D. Sarachan and   
           M. W. Sobolewski and   
                 R. N. Sum, Jr.   Implementing shared manufacturing
                                  services on the World-Wide Web . . . . . 34--45
            Martin Hardwick and   
           David L. Spooner and   
                  Tom Rando and   
                   K. C. Morris   Sharing Manufacturing Information in
                                  Virtual Enterprises  . . . . . . . . . . 46--54
                Vijay Kumar and   
              Ruzena Bajcsy and   
             William Harwin and   
                 Patrick Harker   Rapid Design and Prototyping of
                                  Customized Rehabilitation Aids . . . . . 55--61
                George A. Bekey   Commentary: Trends in Robotics . . . . . 62--62
                  S. Finger and   
                    M. Terk and   
            E. Subrahmanian and   
                C. Kasabach and   
                   F. Prinz and   
            D. P. Siewiorek and   
               A. Smailagic and   
                J. Stivoric and   
                       L. Weiss   Rapid Design and Manufacture of Wearable
                                  Computers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63--70
       Aristides A. G. Requicha   Geometric Reasoning for Intelligent
                                  Manufacturing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71--76
   Martti Mäntylä and   
                   Dana Nau and   
                      Jami Shah   Challenges in Feature-Based
                                  Manufacturing Research . . . . . . . . . 77--85
            Philip A. Bernstein   Middleware: a Model for Distributed
                                  System Services  . . . . . . . . . . . . 86--98
           James W. Candler and   
         Prashant C. Palvia and   
           Jane D. Thompson and   
             Steven M. Zeltmann   The ORION Project: Staged Business
                                  Process Reengineering at FedEx . . . . . 99--107
           Mohamed E. Fayad and   
               Wei-Tek Tsai and   
              Milton L. Fulghum   Transition to Object-Oriented Software
                                  Development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108--121
           Peter G. Neumann and   
               Peter J. Denning   W(h)ither Research and Education?  . . . 154--154

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 3, March, 1996

                    Gordon Bell   Viewpoint: 1995 Observations on
                                  Supercomputing Alternatives: Did the MPP
                                  Bandwagon Lead to a Cul-de-Sac?  . . . . 11--15
                       Roy Rada   Sharing standards: ISO 9000 Reflects the
                                  Best in Standards  . . . . . . . . . . . 17--20
              Randall Davis and   
           Pamela Samuelson and   
             Mitchell Kapor and   
                Jerome Reichman   A New View of Intellectual Property and
                                  Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--30
                   Ravi Ganesan   How To Use Key Escrow  . . . . . . . . . 33--33
         Dorothy E. Denning and   
             Dennis K. Branstad   A Taxonomy for Key Escrow Encryption
                                  Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34--40
          Stephen T. Walker and   
           Steven B. Lipner and   
            Carl M. Ellison and   
              David M. Balenson   Commercial Key Recovery  . . . . . . . . 41--47
               David Paul Maher   Crypto Backup and Key Escrow . . . . . . 48--53
                   Ravi Ganesan   The Yaksha Security System . . . . . . . 55--60
       Frederick P. Brooks, Jr.   The Computer Scientist as Toolsmith II   61--68
          A. T. Wood-Harper and   
               Steve Corder and   
              J. R. G. Wood and   
                 Heather Watson   How We Profess: The Ethical Systems
                                  Analyst  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69--77
                Anthony Ralston   The Demographics of Candidates for
                                  Faculty Positions in Computer Science    78--84
                Guy E. Blelloch   Programming Parallel Algorithms  . . . . 85--97
                      Anonymous   Information for Authors  . . . . . . . . 98--99
                Art Goldschmidt   Technical Opinion: Report on NIIIP . . . 100--103
             Robert N. Charette   Taking Responsibility for Our Risks  . . 122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 4, April, 1996

               Michael D. Myers   International Perspectives: Can Kiwis
                                  Fly? Computing in New Zealand  . . . . . 11--15
             Elliot Soloway and   
                   Amanda Pryor   Log on Education: The Next Generation in
                                  Human-Computer Interaction . . . . . . . 16--18
           Donald A. Norman and   
               James C. Spohrer   Learner-centered education . . . . . . . 24--27
            Roger C. Schank and   
                      Alex Kass   A Goal-Based Scenario for High School
                                  Students . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28--29
             Beverly Park Woolf   Intelligent Multimedia Tutoring Systems  30--31
          Daniel C. Edelson and   
                 Roy D. Pea and   
                 Louis M. Gomez   The Collaboratory Notebook . . . . . . . 32--33
                 Marcia C. Linn   Key to the Information Highway . . . . . 34--35
        Marlene Scardamalia and   
                  Carl Bereiter   Student Communities for the Advancement
                                  of Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36--37
                Yasmin B. Kafai   Software by Kids for Kids  . . . . . . . 38--39
                   Hal Eden and   
             Mike Eisenberg and   
            Gerhard Fischer and   
            Alexander Repenning   Making Learning a Part of Life . . . . . 40--42
                 M. Guzdial and   
                J. Kolodner and   
                   C. Hmelo and   
               H. Narayanan and   
                 D. Carlson and   
                  N. Rappin and   
           R. Hübscher and   
                   J. Turns and   
                  W. Newstetter   Computer Support for Learning through
                                  Complex Problem Solving  . . . . . . . . 43--45
           Mary Beth Rosson and   
                John M. Carroll   Scaffolded Examples for Learning
                                  Object-Oriented Design . . . . . . . . . 46--47
           Shari L. Jackson and   
        Steven J. Stratford and   
             Joseph Krajcik and   
                 Elliot Soloway   A Learner-Centered Tool for Students
                                  Building Models  . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--49
                   David Powell   Group communication  . . . . . . . . . . 50--53
            Louise E. Moser and   
        P. M. Melliar-Smith and   
         Deborah A. Agarwal and   
             Ravi K. Budhia and   
Colleen A. Lingley-Papadopoulos   Totem: a Fault-Tolerant Multicast Group
                                  Communication System . . . . . . . . . . 54--63
                Danny Dolev and   
                    Dalia Malki   The Transis Approach to High
                                  Availability Cluster Communication . . . 64--70
              Michael K. Reiter   Distributing Trust with the Rampart
                                  Toolkit  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71--74
        Robbert van Renesse and   
          Kenneth P. Birman and   
                Silvano Maffeis   Horus: a Flexible Group Communication
                                  System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76--83
       André Schiper and   
                 Michael Raynat   From Group Communication to Transactions
                                  in Distributed Systems . . . . . . . . . 84--87
                Flaviu Cristian   Synchronous and Asynchronous Group
                                  Communication  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88--97
                      Anonymous   Information for Authors  . . . . . . . . 98--99
                      Anonymous   Calendar of Events . . . . . . . . . . . 100--101, 107--109
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: a Risks Related Bookshelf  122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 5, May, 1996

                     Robert Fox   News Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--12
                  Randy H. Katz   Viewpoint: Professor Katz Goes to
                                  Washington . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13--17
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Windows NT as a
                                  Personal or Intranet Server  . . . . . . 19--23
                 Brock N. Meeks   Electronic Frontier: The Game Plan to
                                  Save Cyberspace  . . . . . . . . . . . . 24--26
               Peter J. Denning   The university's next challenges . . . . 27--31
            Gurminder Singh and   
           Steven K. Feiner and   
                Daniel Thalmann   Virtual reality: software and technology 35--36
             Timothy Poston and   
                     Luis Serra   Dextrous Virtual Work  . . . . . . . . . 37--45
                 Mark Green and   
                  Sean Halliday   A Geometric Modeling and Animation
                                  System for Virtual Reality . . . . . . . 46--53
             Michael F. Deering   The HoloSketch VR Sketching System . . . 54--61
                   Steve Bryson   Virtual Reality in Scientific
                                  Visualization  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62--71
           Salvador Bayarri and   
           Marcos Fernandez and   
                  Mariano Perez   Virtual Reality for Driving Simulation   72--76
               Ronald Fagin and   
                  Moni Naor and   
                  Peter Winkler   Comparing Information Without Leaking It 77--85
        Henry C. Lucas, Jr. and   
           Donald J. Berndt and   
                    Greg Truman   A Reengineering Framework for Evaluating
                                  a Financial Imaging System . . . . . . . 86--96
           Edward A. Feigenbaum   Turing Award Lecture: How the ``What''
                                  Becomes the ``How''  . . . . . . . . . . 97--104
                      Raj Reddy   Turing Award Lecture: To Dream The
                                  Possible Dream . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105--112
            Raymond McLeod, Jr.   Comparing Undergraduate Courses in
                                  Systems Analysis and Design  . . . . . . 113--121
                      Anonymous   Accredited Programs in Computing . . . . 122--127
                      Anonymous   ACM General Elections  . . . . . . . . . 128--135
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Linguistic Risks . . . . . 154--154

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 6, June, 1996

                 Elliot Soloway   Log on Education: Teachers are the Key   11--14
                    Hal Berghel   Digital Village: U.S. Technology Policy
                                  in the Information Age . . . . . . . . . 15--18
                   Raymond Pyle   Electronic Commerce and the Internet . . 22--23
                 John R. Sivori   Evaluated Receipts and Settlement at
                                  Bell Atlantic  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24--28
                  Anish Bhimani   Securing the Commercial Internet . . . . 29--35
        Nathaniel S. Borenstein   Perils and Pitfalls of Practical
                                  Cybercommerce  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36--44
               Patiwat Panurach   Money in electronic commerce: digital
                                  cash, electronic fund transfer, and
                                  Ecash  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45--50
Matti Hämäläinen and   
         Andrew B. Whinston and   
                Svetlana Vishik   Electronic Markets for Learning:
                                  Education Brokerages on the Internet . . 51--58
                    Kilnam Chon   Internet Inroads . . . . . . . . . . . . 59--60
               Robert M. Hinden   IP Next Generation Overview  . . . . . . 61--71
               Peng Hwa Ang and   
             Berlinda Nadarajan   Censorship and the Internet: A Singapore
                                  Perspective  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72--78
                   Tim O'Reilly   Publishing Models for Internet Commerce  79--86
             Peter Kirstein and   
         Goli Montasser-Kohsari   The C-ODA Project: Online Access to
                                  Electronic Journals  . . . . . . . . . . 87--99
                  Bruno Mannoni   Bringing Museums Online  . . . . . . . . 100--105
            James E. Pitkow and   
               Colleen M. Kehoe   Emerging Trends in the WWW User
                                  Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106--108
                 Teresa F. Lunt   Inside Risks: Securing the Information
                                  Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 7, July, 1996

            L. T. Greenberg and   
                  S. E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Is Big
                                  Brother Hanging by His Bootstraps? . . . 11--16
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Regulation of
                                  Technologies to Protect Copyrighted
                                  Works  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--24
                  Andrew Grosso   Viewpoint: Why Won't the President
                                  Enforce the Constitution?  . . . . . . . 25--26
              H. Raghav Rao and   
                 Kichan Nam and   
                   A. Chaudhury   Information systems outsourcing  . . . . 27--28
                Paul Nelson and   
           William Richmond and   
               Abraham Seidmann   Two Dimensions of Software Acquisition   29--35
                 Kichan Nam and   
             S. Rajagopalan and   
              H. Raghav Rao and   
                   A. Chaudhury   A Two-Level Investigation of Information
                                  Systems Outsourcing  . . . . . . . . . . 36--44
                Vijay Gurbaxani   The New World of Information Technology
                                  Outsourcing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45--46
        Sandra A. Slaughter and   
                       Soon Ang   Employment Outsourcing in Information
                                  Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47--54
                Gordon Bell and   
                    Jim Gemmell   On-ramp prospects for the information
                                  superhighway dream: will the goal of a
                                  single, universally available network
                                  carrying a wide variety of data types
                                  ever be achieved?  . . . . . . . . . . . 55--61
           Lynn A. Streeter and   
            Robert E. Kraut and   
        Henry C. Lucas, Jr. and   
                  Laurence Caby   How Open Data Networks Influence
                                  Business Performance and Market
                                  Structure  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62--73
              Karen D. Loch and   
                     Sue Conger   Evaluating Ethical Decision Making and
                                  Computer Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74--83
           Jack J. Dongarra and   
              Steve W. Otto and   
                  Marc Snir and   
                   David Walker   A message passing standard for MPP and
                                  workstations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84--90
             Toshinori Munakata   Thoughts on Deep Blue vs. Kasparov . . . 91--92
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Using Formal Methods to
                                  Reduce Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114--114

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 8 (supplement), August, 1996

                      Anonymous   New Publishing Directions for ACM  . . . 3--3
                      Anonymous   New E-Guide CD-ROM Demo. Price Update    4--4
                      Anonymous   SIGCHI Development Consortium Reaches
                                  Out  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7--7
                      Anonymous   Electronic Services Working Group  . . . 8--8

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 8, August, 1996

                     Robert Fox   News Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--12
                   Jonah Sieger   From Washington: Communications Decency
                                  Act is Defeated: Landmark Victory for
                                  Netizens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13--15

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 8 (supplement), August, 1996

                      Anonymous   ACM Group Insurance Program Offers Term
                                  Life Insurance at Special Rate . . . . . 14--15

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 8, August, 1996

             James W. Moore and   
                       Roy Rada   Sharing Standards: Organizational Badge
                                  Collecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--21
                     Steve Mann   Viewpoint: Smart Clothing: The Shift to
                                  Wearable Computing . . . . . . . . . . . 23--24
                     Ted Selker   New paradigms for computing  . . . . . . 28--30
               John Seely Brown   To Dream the Invisible Dream . . . . . . 30--30
                 Nolan Bushnell   Relationships between Fun and the
                                  Computer Business  . . . . . . . . . . . 31--37
                Henry Lieberman   Intelligent Graphics . . . . . . . . . . 38--48
                       Ken Kahn   Drawings on Napkins, Video-Game
                                  Animation, and Other Ways to Program
                                  Computers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49--59
                     Ted Selker   New Paradigms for Using Computers  . . . 60--69
                Don Gentner and   
                  Jakob Nielson   The Anti-Mac Interface . . . . . . . . . 70--82
             Elliot Soloway and   
                   Amanda Pryor   Introduction: Using computational media
                                  to facilitate learning . . . . . . . . . 83--83
                Andee Rubin and   
            Scott Bresnahan and   
                      Ted Ducas   Cartwheeling Through CamMotion . . . . . 84--85
               Jere Confrey and   
                   Alan Maloney   Function Probe . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86--87
           Wallace Feurzeig and   
                  John Richards   Function Machines  . . . . . . . . . . . 88--90
                Marge Cappo and   
                  Kathy Darling   Measurement in Motion  . . . . . . . . . 91--93
              Judah L. Schwartz   Motion Toys for Eye and Mind . . . . . . 94--96
           Jeremy Roschelle and   
                 James J. Kaput   SimCalc MathWorlds for the mathematics
                                  of change  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97--99
               Paul Horwitz and   
               Eric Neumann and   
                 Joyce Schwartz   Teaching Science at Multiple Space-Time
                                  Scales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100--102
         Pierre Dillenbourg and   
                     J. A. Self   What if the Computer Doesn't Know the
                                  Answer?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103--105
                      Anonymous   A Multimedia Literacy Series: The
                                  Cognition and Technology Group at
                                  Vanderbilt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106--109
                    Herbert Lin   Inside Risks: Cryptography's Role in
                                  Securing Information . . . . . . . . . . 131--131

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 9, September, 1996

                Thomas Sterling   The Scientific Workstation of the Future
                                  May Be a Pile of PCs . . . . . . . . . . 11--12
                 Brock N. Meeks   Dragging a Kicking-and-Screaming
                                  Government into the 21st Century . . . . 13--15
            Ellen A. Isaacs and   
                   John C. Tang   Technology transfer: so much research,
                                  so few good products . . . . . . . . . . 22--25
                   Jean Scholtz   Technology Transfer Through Prototypes   26--27
                Allan Kuchinsky   Transfer Means More Than Just Technology 28--29
                      Jim Foley   Technology Transfer from University to
                                  Industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--31
                   Jeff Johnson   R-D, not R&D  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32--34
                John L. Bennett   Building Relationships for Technology
                                  Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35--36
               Nayeem Islam and   
                Roy H. Campbell   Latest developments in operating systems 38--40
                 Peter Druschel   Operating system support for high-speed
                                  communication: techniques to eliminate
                                  processing bottlenecks in high-speed
                                  networking are presented . . . . . . . . 41--51
           Mendel Rosenblum and   
                John Chapin and   
               Dan Teodosiu and   
               Scott Devine and   
          Tirthankar Lahiri and   
                    Anoop Gupta   Implementing efficient fault containment
                                  for multiprocessors: confining faults in
                                  a shared-memory multiprocessor
                                  environment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52--61
             John Rosenberg and   
                Alan Dearle and   
                David Hulse and   
      Anders Lindström and   
                 Stephen Norris   Operating System Support for Persistant
                                  and Recoverable Computations . . . . . . 62--69
                 Jochen Liedtke   Toward Real Microkernels . . . . . . . . 70--77
           Mark R. Cutkosky and   
           Jay M. Tenenbaum and   
                  Jay Glicksman   Madefast: Collaborative Engineering over
                                  the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78--87
                    Uzi Vishkin   Can Parallel Algorithms Enhance Serial
                                  Implementation?  . . . . . . . . . . . . 88--91
              Kenneth C. Laudon   Markets and Privacy  . . . . . . . . . . 92--104
                  Richard Baker   The corporate politics of CMM ratings    105--106
               Lauren Weinstein   Inside Risks: Behind the State of the
                                  Art  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 10, October, 1996

                    Larry Press   Seeding Networks: The Federal Role . . . 11--18
                    Hal Berghel   Digital politics . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--25
                     Mark Luker   Viewpoint: NSF's New Program for
                                  High-Performance Internet Connections    27--28
                   Roy Rada and   
            Anne Mette Hass and   
         Don Herbison-Evans and   
            John Waterworth and   
                   Magnus Kempe   ACM forum: Request for a virtual IT
                                  college  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29--35
         Douglas C. Schmidt and   
              Mohamed Fayad and   
               Ralph E. Johnson   Software patterns: introductions . . . . 36--39
              Alistair Cockburn   The interaction of social issues and
                                  software architecture  . . . . . . . . . 40--46
              Marshall P. Cline   The pros and cons of adopting and
                                  applying design patterns in the real
                                  world  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47--49
              Amund Aarsten and   
             Davide Brugali and   
                 Giuseppe Menga   Designing concurrent and distributed
                                  control systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . 50--58
              Mohamed Fayad and   
              Marshall P. Cline   Aspects of Software Adaptability . . . . 58--59
         Brandon Goldfedder and   
                   Linda Rising   A training experience with patterns  . . 60--64
               Nayeem Islam and   
             Murthy Devarakonda   An essential design pattern for
                                  fault-tolerant distributed state sharing 65--74
               Paul E. McKenney   Selecting locking primitives and
                                  parallel programming . . . . . . . . . . 75--82
                      Anonymous   Where to Look for Patterns . . . . . . . 82--82
               Paul Resnick and   
                   James Miller   PICS: Internet access controls without
                                  censorship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87--93
                  Juhani Iivari   Why are case tools not used? . . . . . . 94--103
           Victor R. Basili and   
           Lionel C. Briand and   
        Walcélio L. Melo   How reuse influences productivity in
                                  object-oriented systems  . . . . . . . . 104--116
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Disinformation Theory  . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 11, November, 1996

                Robert L. Glass   Practical Programmer: The Relationship
                                  Between Theory and Practice in Software
                                  Engineering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--13
                     Neil Munro   From Washington: Sketching a National
                                  Information Warfare Defense Plan . . . . 15--17
               Usama Fayyad and   
            Ramasamy Uthurusamy   Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery in
                                  Databases  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24--27
               Usama Fayyad and   
  Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro and   
                 Padhraic Smyth   The KDD Process for Extracting Useful
                                  Knowledge From Volumes of Data . . . . . 27--34
              Clark Glymour and   
              David Madigan and   
             Daryl Pregibon and   
                 Padhraic Smyth   Statistical Inference and Data Mining    35--41
         Ronald J. Brachman and   
                Tom Khabaza and   
             Willi Kloesgen and   
  Gregory Piatetsky-Shapiro and   
             Evangelos Simoudis   Mining Business Databases  . . . . . . . 42--48
                    W. H. Inmon   The Data Warehouse and Data Mining . . . 49--50
               Usama Fayyad and   
             David Haussler and   
                   Paul Stolorz   Mining Scientific Data . . . . . . . . . 51--57
          Tomasz Imielinski and   
                 Heikki Mannila   A Database Perspective on Knowledge
                                  Discovery  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58--64
                   Oren Etzioni   The World-Wide Web: Quagmire or Gold
                                  Mine?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65--77
             David Abramson and   
                 Ian Foster and   
            John Michalakes and   
                    Rok Soci\vc   Relative Debugging: a New Methodology
                                  for Debugging Scientific Applications    69--77
            David E. Culler and   
            Rachard M. Karp and   
            David Patterson and   
              Abhijit Sahay and   
           Eunice E. Santos and   
        Klaus Erik Schauser and   
         Ramesh Subramonian and   
            Thorsten von Eicken   LogP: a Practical Model of Parallel
                                  Computation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78--85
                  Yair Wand and   
                Rachard Y. Wang   Anchoring Data Quality Dimensions in
                                  Ontological Foundations  . . . . . . . . 86--95
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Distributed Systems Have
                                  Distributed Risks  . . . . . . . . . . . 130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 12, December, 1996

                  S. E. Goodman   International Perspectives: War,
                                  Information Technologies, and
                                  International Asymmetries  . . . . . . . 11--15
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: Legal Protection for
                                  Database Contents  . . . . . . . . . . . 17--23
                A. Michael Noll   CyberNetwork Technology: Issues and
                                  Uncertainties  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27--31
                   Robert Kraut   The Internet@Home  . . . . . . . . . . . 32--35
           Donna L. Hoffman and   
        William D. Kalsbeek and   
                Thomas P. Novak   Internet and Web Use in the U.S. . . . . 36--46
               Alladi Venkatesh   Computers and Other Interactive
                                  Technologies for the Home  . . . . . . . 47--54
               Robert Kraut and   
           William Scherlis and   
        Tridas Mukhopadhyay and   
               Jane Manning and   
                   Sara Kiesler   The HomeNet Field Trial of Residential
                                  Internet Services  . . . . . . . . . . . 55--63
             Marita Franzke and   
                   Anne McClard   Winona Gets Wired: Technical
                                  Difficulties in the Home . . . . . . . . 64--66
               George T. Duncan   Is My Research Ethical?  . . . . . . . . 67--68
            John M. Carroll and   
               Mary Beth Rosson   Developing the Blacksburg Electronic
                                  Village  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69--74
           C. Dianne Martin and   
                 Chuck Huff and   
          Donald Gotterbarn and   
                   Keith Miller   Implementing a Tenth Strand in the CS
                                  Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75--84
            Henry M. Walker and   
           G. Michael Schneider   A Revised Model Curriculum for a Liberal
                                  Arts Degree in Computer Science  . . . . 85--95
               Robert Geist and   
        Madhu Chetuparambil and   
         Stephen Hedetniemi and   
                  A. Joe Turner   Computing Research Programs in the U.S.  96--99
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Risks of Anonymity . . . . 162--162

Communications of the ACM
Volume 39, Number 12es, 1996

                  C. David Kemp   The Construction of Fast Portable
                                  Multiplicative Congruential Random
                                  Number Generators  . . . . . . . . . . . 163--166
              Alejandro Barrero   Implementation of Abstract Data Types
                                  with Arrays of Unbounded Dimensions  . . 167--174
       Zbigniew Michalewicz and   
              Cezary Z. Janikow   GENOCOP: a Genetic Algorithm for
                                  Numerical Optimization Problems with
                                  Linear Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . 175--201
           Barak A. Pearlmutter   Garbage Collection with Pointers to
                                  Individual Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . 202--206
              Raúl Rojas   A Graph Labelling Proof of the
                                  Backpropagation Algorithm  . . . . . . . 207--215
              Wesley W. Chu and   
             Kuorong Chiang and   
             Chih-Cheng Hsu and   
                    Henrick Yau   An Error-based Conceptual Clustering
                                  Method for Providing Approximate Query
                                  Answers  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216--230
             Randolph D. Nelson   Including Queueing Effects in Amdahl's
                                  Law  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231--238
              Ronald E. Prather   Harmonic Analysis from the Computer
                                  Representation of a Musical Score  . . . 239--255
             Mark G. Staskausas   An Experience in the Formal Verification
                                  of Industrial Software . . . . . . . . . 256--272
            Guy E. Blelloch and   
       Charles E. Leiserson and   
             Bruce M. Maggs and   
            C. Greg Plaxton and   
           Stephen J. Smith and   
                    Marco Zagha   A Comparison of Sorting Algorithms for
                                  the Connection Machine CM-2  . . . . . . 273--297
           Nathaniel Borenstein   CMU's Andrew Project: a Retrospective    298--311
                James H. Morris   War Stories from Andrew  . . . . . . . . 312--321


Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 1, January, 1997

                     Neil Munro   From Washington: If It Grows, Tax It . . 11--13
                Robert L. Glass   Practical Programmer: The Next Date
                                  Crisis and the Ones After That . . . . . 15--17
                     Robert Fox   On Site: Tomorrow's Library Today  . . . 20--21
                 Alex Peleg and   
                 Sam Wilkie and   
                     Uri Weiser   Intel MMX for Multimedia PCs . . . . . . 24--38
         Andrew S. Grimshaw and   
                William A. Wulf   The Legion vision of a worldwide virtual
                                  computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39--45
               Carey Nachenberg   Computer Virus: Antivirus Coevolution    46--51
          Daniel E. O'Leary and   
              Daniel Kuokka and   
                   Robert Plant   Artificial Intelligence and Virtual
                                  Organizations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52--59
             Deborah G. Johnson   Ethics Online  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60--65
        Sourav Bhattacharya and   
                Akira Onoma and   
                 Farokh Bastani   Guest Editor's Introduction:
                                  High-Assurance Systems . . . . . . . . . 67--67
                 Nuno Neves and   
                  W. Kent Fuchs   Adaptive Recovery for Mobile
                                  Environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68--74
                  K. H. Kim and   
             Chittur Subbaraman   Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Objects . . . . 75--82
         Jeffrey J. P. Tsai and   
                    Bing Li and   
                Eric Y. T. Juan   Parallel Evaluation of Software
                                  Architecture Specifications  . . . . . . 83--86
           David B. Stewart and   
              Pradeep K. Khosla   Mechanisms for Detecting and Handling
                                  Timing Errors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87--93
          Sherman R. Alpert and   
                 Richard B. Lam   The Ultimately Publishable Computer
                                  Science Paper for the Latter '90s: a Tip
                                  for Authors  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94--94
                 Bruce Schneier   Inside Risks: Cryptography, Security,
                                  and the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138--138

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 2S, February, 1997

                      Anonymous   ACM plus five other leading computing
                                  societies met to discuss international
                                  cooperation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
                      Anonymous   Member value Plus keeps on growing . . . 5
                      Anonymous   ACM Committee on the Status of Women in
                                  Computing moves ahead with new projects  8

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 2, February, 1997

                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Technology in Bloom:
                                  Implications for the Next 50 Years . . . 11--17

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 2S, February, 1997

                      Anonymous   New ACM Transactions on Information and
                                  System Security will begin publication   14

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 2, February, 1997

                    Hal Berghel   Digital Village: Cyberspace 2000:
                                  Dealing with Information Overload  . . . 19--24
                Nathan Myhrvold   ACM 97: speakers corner  . . . . . . . . 27--28
                 Diane Crawford   The next 50 years  . . . . . . . . . . . 29--29
                    Gordon Bell   The Human Connection: The Body Electric  30--32
                   Tim O'Reilly   The Human Connection: Hardware,
                                  Software, and Infoware . . . . . . . . . 33--34
                   Esther Dyson   The Human Connection: Education and Jobs
                                  in the Digital World . . . . . . . . . . 35--36
                   Danny Hillis   The Human Connection: a Time of
                                  Transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37--39
                  Joel Birnbaum   The Human Connection: Pervasive
                                  Information Systems  . . . . . . . . . . 40--41
                     Marc Davis   The Human Connection: Garage Cinema and
                                  the Future of Media Technology . . . . . 42--48
             Dennis Tsichritzis   The Human Connection: How to Surf the
                                  Technology Waves We Created  . . . . . . 49--54
                   Jaron Lanier   The Human Connection: The Frontier
                                  Between Us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55--56
                Tim Berners-Lee   The Human Connection: World-Wide
                                  Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57--58
                Ben Shneiderman   The Human Connection: Between Hope and
                                  Fear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59--62
                Andries van Dam   The Human Connection: Post-WIMP User
                                  Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63--67
              John Perry Barlow   Societal Dimensions: The Best of All
                                  Possible Worlds  . . . . . . . . . . . . 68--74
                 Brock N. Meeks   Societal Dimensions: Better Democracy
                                  Through Technology . . . . . . . . . . . 75--78
                 Bruce Sterling   Societal Dimensions: The Digital
                                  Revolution in Retrospect . . . . . . . . 79--79
                  Steve Talbott   Societal Dimensions: Asleep at the
                                  Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80--82
               Jerry Berman and   
             Daniel J. Weitzner   Societal Dimensions: Directing
                                  Policy-Making Beyond the Net's Metaphor  83--84
               Richard Stallman   Societal Dimensions: The Right to Read   85--87
                     Ted Selker   Societal Dimensions: What Will Happen in
                                  the Next 50 Years? . . . . . . . . . . . 88--89
            Theodor Holm Nelson   Societal Dimensions: Crush and Crash:
                                  Logic of a Terrible Tomorrow . . . . . . 90--91
                     Paul Saffo   The Science of Future Technology:
                                  Sensors: The Next Wave of Innovation . . 92--97
                     Jef Raskin   The Science of Future Technology:
                                  Looking for a Humane Interface: Will
                                  Computers Ever Become Easy to Use? . . . 98--101
            Barry M. Leiner and   
             Vinton G. Cerf and   
             David D. Clark and   
             Robert E. Kahn and   
          Leonard Kleinrock and   
            Daniel C. Lynch and   
                 Jon Postel and   
        Lawrence G. Roberts and   
               Stephen S. Wolff   The Science of Future Technology: The
                                  Past and Future History of the Internet  102--108
                    Wm. A. Wulf   The Science of Future Technology: Look
                                  in the Spaces for Tomorrow's Innovations 109--111
                Gordon E. Moore   The Science of Future Technology: The
                                  Microprocessor: Engine of the Technology
                                  Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112--114
                 Nabil Adam and   
            Baruch Awerbuch and   
               Jacob Slonim and   
               Peter Wegner and   
                   Yelena Yesha   The Science of Future Technology:
                                  Globalizing Business, Education, Culture
                                  Through the Internet . . . . . . . . . . 115--121
                  Charlie Rosen   The Science of Future Technology: My
                                  Computer-Related Wish List for the Next
                                  50 Years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122--124
            Sachem Web Slingers   The Science of Future Technology:
                                  Spinning Webs into the 21st Century  . . 125--128
               Nancy G. Leveson   The Science of Future Technology:
                                  Software Engineering: Stretching the
                                  Limits of Complexity . . . . . . . . . . 129--131
               Peter J. Denning   The Science of Future Technology: a New
                                  Social Contract for Research . . . . . . 132--134
                David J. Farber   The Science of Future Technology:
                                  Communications Technology and its Impact
                                  by 2010  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135--138
             Henry F. Korth and   
           Abraham Silberschatz   The Science of Future Technology:
                                  Database Research Faces the Information
                                  Explosion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139--142
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Hopes for Fewer Risks  . . 170--170

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 3, March, 1997

      Seán ÓRiain   International Perspectives: The Birth of
                                  a Celtic Tiger . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--16
                   Roy Rada and   
                    James Moore   Sharing Standards: Standardizing Reuse   19--23
               Carl Friedlander   On Site: Speech Facilities for the
                                  Reading Disabled . . . . . . . . . . . . 24--25
              David Sallach and   
                    Andrew Oram   Forum: Digital politics  . . . . . . . . 26--27
               Michael G. Jones   Forum: Inside the Beltway warfare plans  27--28
               Steven Pemberton   Forum: U.S. and them . . . . . . . . . . 28--28
                   Vir V. Phoha   Forum: Theory and practice in software
                                  engineering  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28--28
                Anthony Fedanzo   Forum: Distributed systems registry  . . 29--29
                Robert L. Glass   Forum: Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . 29--29
            Randall D. Beer and   
             Roger D. Quinn and   
            Hillel J. Chiel and   
                Roy E. Ritzmann   Biologically inspired approaches to
                                  robotics: what can we learn from
                                  insects? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--38
                 Milton Mueller   Universal Service and the
                                  Telecommunications Act: Myth Made Law    39--47
               Daniel G. Aliaga   Virtual Objects in the Real World  . . . 49--54
               Paul Resnick and   
                  Hal R. Varian   Recommender systems  . . . . . . . . . . 56--58
              Loren Terveen and   
                  Will Hill and   
               Brian Amento and   
             David McDonald and   
                    Josh Creter   PHOAKS: a System for Sharing
                                  Recommendations  . . . . . . . . . . . . 59--62
                Henry Kautz and   
                Bart Selman and   
                     Mehul Shah   Referral Web: Combining Social Networks
                                  and Collaborative Filtering  . . . . . . 63--65
   Marko Balabanovíc and   
                    Yoav Shoham   Fab: Content-Based, Collaborative
                                  Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--72
               James Rucker and   
              Marcos J. Polanco   Siteseer: Personalized Navigation for
                                  the Web  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73--76
          Joseph A. Konstan and   
          Bradley N. Miller and   
                David Maltz and   
      Jonathan L. Herlocker and   
              Lee R. Gordon and   
                     John Riedl   GroupLens: Applying Collaborative
                                  Filtering to Usenet News . . . . . . . . 77--87
          Christopher Avery and   
             Richard Zeckhauser   Recommender Systems for Evaluating
                                  Computer Messages  . . . . . . . . . . . 88--89
             Adamantios Koumpis   Situation room analysis in the
                                  information technologies market  . . . . 90--92
                Richard I. Cook   Inside Risks: Observations on RISKS and
                                  Risks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122--122

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 4, April, 1997

                    Hal Berghel   Digital Village: Email: The Good, The
                                  Bad, and The Ugly  . . . . . . . . . . . 11--15
                Robert L. Glass   Practical Programmer: The Ups and Downs
                                  of Programmer Stress . . . . . . . . . . 17--19
                   Jeff Johnson   Forum: The Military Impact of
                                  Information Technology . . . . . . . . . 20--20
            Ronald L. Davis and   
               Roger W. Webster   Forum: Questioning Proposed CS Knowledge
                                  Units  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20--21
                  Crispin Cowan   Forum: Amazing Transformation  . . . . . 21--21
                    Frank Exner   Forum: The Subject of Indexing . . . . . 21--21
                    Mayur Patel   Forum: Filling a Niche . . . . . . . . . 21--22
                Barry Goldstein   Forum: URL Corrections . . . . . . . . . 22--22
                 Michael Lingle   Forum: What Price Books  . . . . . . . . 22--22
               Carey Nachenberg   Forum: Response  . . . . . . . . . . . . 22--22
                   James K. Yun   Forum: Missing Step  . . . . . . . . . . 22--22
                 Richard C. Hsu   Viewpoint: Taking Stock for University
                                  Patents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--25
                Henry Lieberman   Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26--29
                Marc Eisenstadt   My Hairiest Bug War Stories  . . . . . . 30--37
                David Ungar and   
            Henry Lieberman and   
                Christopher Fry   Debugging and the Experience of
                                  Immediacy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38--43
                Ron Baecker and   
              Chris DiGiano and   
                   Aaron Marcus   Software Visualization for Debugging . . 44--54
                Christopher Fry   Programming on an Already Full Brain . . 55--64
              John Domingue and   
                Paul Mulholland   Fostering Debugging Communities on the
                                  Web  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65--71
           Randall B. Smith and   
              Mario Wolczko and   
                    David Ungar   From Kansas to Oz: Collaborative
                                  Debugging When a Shared World Breaks . . 72--78
           D. James Gemmell and   
                 C. Gordon Bell   Noncollaborative Telepresentations Come
                                  of Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79--89
               Don Hardaway and   
                Richard P. Will   Digital Multimedia Offers Key To
                                  Educational Reform . . . . . . . . . . . 90--96
                 James Katz and   
                  Philip Aspden   Motives, Hurdles, and Dropouts . . . . . 97--102
             Shashi Shekhar and   
                 Mark Coyle and   
              Brajesh Goyal and   
               Duen-Ren Liu and   
             Shyamsundar Sarkar   Data Models in Geographic Information
                                  Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103--111
                      Dave West   Technical Opinion: Hermeneutic Computer
                                  Science  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115--116
               Edward W. Felten   Inside Risks: Webware Security . . . . . 130--130

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 5 (supplement), May, 1997

                      Anonymous   Beyond Calculation: The Next 50 years of
                                  Computing is published . . . . . . . . . 2
                      Anonymous   Award winners are honored at 1997 ACM
                                  Awards ceremony  . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 5, May, 1997

             Elliot Soloway and   
                  Raven Wallace   Log on Education: Does the Internet
                                  Support Student Inquiry? Don't Ask . . . 11--16

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 5 (supplement), May, 1997

                      Anonymous   ACM Executive Committee will meet in
                                  Stockholm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
                      Anonymous   Two new books are published by ACM Press 15
                      Anonymous   ACM states policy on refereed electronic
                                  publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 5, May, 1997

               Pamela Samuelson   Legally Speaking: The Never-Ending
                                  Struggle for Balance . . . . . . . . . . 17--21
                Abbe Mowshowitz   Viewpoint: Lessons From a Cautionary
                                  Tale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--25
               Charles H. House   ACM 97: an event to remember . . . . . . 31--34
             Robert Laddaga and   
                   James Veitch   Dynamic object technology  . . . . . . . 36--38
                 Paul Robertson   Integrating Legacy Systems with Modern
                                  Corporate Applications . . . . . . . . . 39--46
              Daniel D. Corkill   Countdown to success: dynamic objects,
                                  GBB, and RADARSAT-1  . . . . . . . . . . 48--58
             Robert E. Phillips   Dynamic Objects for Engineering
                                  Automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59--65
               Byron Davies and   
          Victoria Bryan Davies   Patching onto the Web: Common Lisp
                                  Hypermedia for the Intranet  . . . . . . 66--69
             Amarnath Gupta and   
                    Ramesh Jain   Visual Information Retrieval . . . . . . 70--79
                   Peter Wegner   Why Interaction Is More Powerful Than
                                  Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80--91
                  Rolf Oppliger   Internet Security: Firewalls and Beyond  92--102
            Diane M. Strong and   
                Yang W. Lee and   
                Richard Y. Wang   Data Quality in Context  . . . . . . . . 103--110
                    Dick Lefkon   Technical Opinion(s): Seven Work Plans
                                  for Year-2000 Upgrade Projects . . . . . 111--113
                Georges Brigham   The Year 2000  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113--115
               Robert A. Wagner   Solving the Date Crisis  . . . . . . . . 115--117
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: The Big Picture  . . . . . 136--136

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 6, June, 1997

                Robert L. Glass   Revisiting the industry/academe
                                  communication chasm  . . . . . . . . . . 11--13
                     Neil Munro   The magnetic poles of data collection    17--19
                     Jeff Kraus   Counting furtive beasts by computer:
                                  where have all the rhinos gone?  . . . . 20--23
            Christopher Fox and   
                 William Frakes   The quality approach: is it delivering?  24--29
             James Herbsleb and   
               David Zubrow and   
           Dennis Goldenson and   
                 Will Hayes and   
                     Mark Paulk   Software quality and the Capability
                                  Maturity Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--40
           Craig Hollenbach and   
                Ralph Young and   
                Al Pflugrad and   
                     Doug Smith   Combining quality and software
                                  improvement  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41--45
              Lowell Jay Arthur   Quantum improvements in software system
                                  quality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46--52
        Michael A. Cusumano and   
               Richard W. Selby   How Microsoft builds software  . . . . . 53--61
            Jeffrey Parsons and   
                      Yair Wand   Choosing classes in conceptual modeling  63--69
             Soumitra Dutta and   
            Berend Wierenga and   
                  Arco Dalebout   Designing management support systems
                                  using an integrative perspective . . . . 70--79
                 Bo Dahlbom and   
                Lars Mathiassen   The future of our profession . . . . . . 80--89
                David H. Bailey   Technical Opinion: Onward to Petaflops
                                  Computing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90--92

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 7, July, 1997

                    Hal Berghel   Digital Village: Informal Logic on Both
                                  Sides of the CDA Debate  . . . . . . . . 11--15
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Toward an Access
                                  Rights Policy  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--21
                          Talin   Viewpoint: The Power of Negative
                                  Thinking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25--27
               Peter J. Denning   The ACM digital library goes live  . . . 28--29
            Olivier Fischer and   
                   Richard Horn   Electronic performance support systems   31--32
                     John Karat   Evolving the Scope of User-Centered
                                  Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33--38
        Michel C. Desmarais and   
            Richard Leclair and   
            Jean-Yves Fiset and   
                   Hichem Talbi   Cost-Justifying Electronic Performance
                                  Support Systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . 39--48
                 Kevin Cole and   
            Olivier Fischer and   
               Phyllis Saltzman   Just-in-Time Knowledge Delivery  . . . . 49--53
                    Gloria Gery   Granting Three Wishes through
                                  Performance-Centered Design  . . . . . . 54--59
               Shelia Benko and   
                Shelley Webster   Preparing for EPSS Projects  . . . . . . 60--63
               Samir Chatterjee   Requirements for Success in Gigabit
                                  Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64--73
              Andrew S. Patrick   Media Lessons from the National Capital
                                  FreeNet  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74--80
            Jesper Simonsen and   
                   Finn Kensing   Using Ethnography in Contextual Design   82--88
                   Arun Rai and   
           Ravi Patnayakuni and   
            Nainika Patnayakuni   Technology Investment and Business
                                  Performance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89--97
                 Domenico Talia   Technical Opinion: Parallel Computation
                                  Still Not Ready for the Mainstream . . . 98--99
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Identity-Related Misuse    112--112

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 8, August, 1997

                 Brock N. Meeks   From Washington: Privacy Lost, Anytime,
                                  Anywhere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--13
             Will A. Foster and   
       Anthony M. Rutkowski and   
             Seymour E. Goodman   International Perspectives: Who Governs
                                  the Internet?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--20
                Yasser Seirawan   Viewpoint: Kasparov vs. Deep Blue: The
                                  Aftermath Still No Match for the Human
                                  Brain  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--22
           Herbert A. Simon and   
             Toshinori Munakata   Viewpoint: Kasparov vs. Deep Blue: AI
                                  Lessons  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21, 23--25
                     Robert Fox   On Site: Socializing Around Arcade
                                  Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26--28
             Dorothy Strickland   VR and health care . . . . . . . . . . . 32--32
         Dorothy Strickland and   
               Larry Hodges and   
                  Max North and   
               Suzanne Weghorst   Overcoming Phobias by Virtual Exposure   34--39
                     Erik Viire   Health and safety issues for VR  . . . . 40--41
            Walter J. Greenleaf   Applying VR to Physical Medicine and
                                  Rehabilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42--46
               Suzanne Weghorst   Augmented Reality and Parkinson's
                                  Disease  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47--48
               John P. Wann and   
           Simon K. Rushton and   
               Martin Smyth and   
                    David Jones   Rehabilitative Environments for
                                  Attention and Movement Disorders . . . . 49--52
              Dean P. Inman and   
                   Ken Loge and   
                   John Leavens   VR Education and Rehabilitation  . . . . 53--58
                     Tim Bowman   VR Meets Physical Therapy  . . . . . . . 59--60
              David Zeltzer and   
                Rita K. Addison   Responsive Virtual Environments  . . . . 61--64
             Kay M. Stanney and   
              Robert S. Kennedy   The Psychometrics of Cybersickness . . . 66--68
              Giuseppe Riva and   
                 Luca Melis and   
                  Mirco Bolzoni   Treating Body-Image Disturbances . . . . 69--71
             David J. Brown and   
                Steven Kerr and   
                 John R. Wilson   Virtual Environments in Special-Needs
                                  Education  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72--75
              Nigel Foreman and   
                Paul Wilson and   
                  Danae Stanton   VR and Spatial Awareness in Disabled
                                  Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76--77
                  W. Raghupathi   Health care information systems  . . . . 80--82
              James G. Anderson   Clearing the Way for Physicians' Use of
                                  Clinical Information Systems . . . . . . 83--90
          Thomas C. Rindfleisch   Privacy, Information Technology, and
                                  Health Care  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93--100
          William M. Detmer and   
           Edward H. Shortliffe   Using the Internet to Improve Knowledge
                                  Diffusion in Medicine  . . . . . . . . . 101--108
            David G. Kilman and   
              David W. Forslund   An International Collaboratory Based on
                                  Virtual Patient Records  . . . . . . . . 110--117
                A. Michael Noll   Technical Opinion: Internet Pricing vs.
                                  Reality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118--121
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Crypto Key Management  . . 136--136

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 9, September, 1997

                      Anonymous   ACM Executive Committee meets in
                                  Stockholm  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
                      Anonymous   Visit ACM's Digital Library Open House   5
                      Anonymous   The Grace Murray Hopper Celebration will
                                  be held in September . . . . . . . . . . 6
                      Anonymous   ACM will provide professional liability
                                  insurance  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                Robert L. Glass   Practical Programmer: Cobol: a
                                  Contradiction and an Enigma  . . . . . . 11--13
                   Roy Rada and   
             James R. Schoening   Sharing Standards: Educational
                                  Technology Standards . . . . . . . . . . 15--18
                      Anonymous   Joe Halpern is the new Editor-in-Chief
                                  of Journal of the ACM  . . . . . . . . . 15
                 Diane Crawford   Forum: The power of interactive
                                  computing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20--23
                 Neil Munro and   
                 Brock N. Meeks   Viewpoint: Debating (What Once Was) the
                                  CDA. For: Neil Munro; Against: Brock N.
                                  Meeks  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25--28
                Abbe Mowshowitz   Virtual organization: a virtually
                                  organized company dynamically links its
                                  business goals with the procedures
                                  needed to achieve them . . . . . . . . . 30--37
                  Murray Turoff   Virtuality: Allowing users to negotiate
                                  an agreed-upon reality, virtuality
                                  requires system designers to anticipate
                                  how their technology alters the social
                                  order of the real world  . . . . . . . . 38--43
        Starr Roxanne Hiltz and   
                  Barry Wellman   Asynchronous Learning Networks as a
                                  Virtual Classroom  . . . . . . . . . . . 44--49
                Claude Faucheux   How Virtual Organizing Is Transforming
                                  Management Science . . . . . . . . . . . 50--55
          Ramnath Chellappa and   
              Anitesh Barua and   
             Andrew B. Whinston   An Electronic Infrastructure for a
                                  Virtual University . . . . . . . . . . . 56--58
            Martin Hardwick and   
                 Richard Bolton   The Industrial Virtual Enterprise  . . . 59--60
                  Bruno Mannoni   A Virtual Museum . . . . . . . . . . . . 61--62
              Russ Zajtchuk and   
              Richard M. Satava   Medical Applications of Virtual Reality  63--64
      Jeremy R. Cooperstock and   
             Sidney S. Fels and   
             William Buxton and   
               Kenneth C. Smith   Reactive Environments  . . . . . . . . . 65--73
             Kweku Ewusi-Mensah   Critical Issues in Abandoned Information
                                  Systems Development Projects . . . . . . 74--80
               Gail L. Rein and   
            Daniel L. McCue and   
                Judith A. Slein   A Case for Document Management Functions
                                  on the Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81--89
             Herbert Maisel and   
                Catherine Gaddy   Employment and Salaries of Recent
                                  Doctorates in Computer Science . . . . . 90--93
         J. Michael Pearson and   
                Leon Crosby and   
                     J. P. Shim   Measuring the Importance of Ethical
                                  Behavior Criteria  . . . . . . . . . . . 94--100
               Mohamed E. Fayad   Thinking Objectively: Software
                                  Development Process: A Necessary Evil    101--103
             David Lorge Parnas   Inside Risks: Software Engineering: An
                                  Unconsummated Marriage . . . . . . . . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 10, October, 1997

               Pamela Samuelson   Embedding technical self-help in
                                  licensed software  . . . . . . . . . . . 13--17
               Tung Lai Lai and   
                  Efraim Turban   One organization's use of Lotus Notes    19--21
             David R. R. Webber   Forum: More on debugging . . . . . . . . 23--24
             Richard C. Hsu and   
            William E. Mitchell   After 400 years, print is still superior 27--28
              Mohamed Fayad and   
             Douglas C. Schmidt   Object-oriented application frameworks   32--38
               Ralph E. Johnson   Frameworks = (components + patterns) . . 39--42
           Edward J. Posnak and   
           R. Greg Lavender and   
                 Harrick M. Vin   An adaptive framework for developing
                                  multeda software componets . . . . . . . 43--47
            Han Albrecht Schmid   Systematic framework design  . . . . . . 48--51
           Dirk Bäumer and   
              Guido Gryczan and   
                 Rolf Knoll and   
          Carola Linienthal and   
                Dirk Riehle and   
         Heinz Züllighoven   Framwork development for large systems   53--59
              Serge Demeyer and   
          Theo Dirk Meijlar and   
               Oscar Nierstrasz   Design guidelines for ``tailorable''
                                  frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60--64
             Davide Brugali and   
               Giusee Menga and   
                  Amund Aarsten   The framework life span  . . . . . . . . 65--68
                Wim Codenie and   
              Koen De Hondt and   
           Patrick Steyaert and   
              Arlette Vercammen   From custom applications to
                                  domain-specific framworks  . . . . . . . 71--77
             Adele Goldberg and   
            Steven T. Abell and   
                    David Leibs   The LearningWorks development and
                                  delivery frameworks  . . . . . . . . . . 78--81
              David Doscher and   
                  Robert Hodges   SEMATECH's experiences with the CIM
                                  framework  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82--84
           Mohamed E. Fayad and   
             Douglas C. Schmidt   Lessons learned building reusable OO
                                  frameworks for distributed software  . . 85--87
           Stephane Forrest and   
          Steven A. Hofmeyr and   
                  Anil Somayaji   Computer immunology  . . . . . . . . . . 88--96
              Annette Weintraub   Art on the Web, the Web as art . . . . . 97--102
                     Tracy Camp   The incredible shrinking pipeline  . . . 103--110
                D. Scott Brandt   Constructivism: teaching for
                                  understanding of the Internet  . . . . . 112--117
                     Ivan Ryant   Why inheritance means extra trouble  . . 118--119
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Integrity in software
                                  development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144--144

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 11(S), November, 1997

                      Anonymous   Carver Mead receives the ACM Allen
                                  Newell Award . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
                      Anonymous   ACM outreaches to Mexico . . . . . . . . 4
                      Anonymous   USACM participates in protest against
                                  restrictions on cryptography research
                                  and development  . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
                      Anonymous   David Nicol is the new Editor-in-Chief
                                  of TOMACS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 11, November, 1997

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: Tracking the Global
                                  Diffusion of the Internet  . . . . . . . 11--17

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 11(S), November, 1997

                      Anonymous   ACM Member Value Plus program adds the
                                  Gartner Group  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 11, November, 1997

                    Hal Berghel   Digital Village --- Watermarking
                                  Cyberspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--24
                 Diane Crawford   The mainstreaming of parallel
                                  computation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25--26
                    Larry Smarr   Toward the 21st century  . . . . . . . . 28--32
                Philip M. Smith   The NSF partnerships and the tradition
                                  of U. S. science and engineering . . . . 34--37
             Daniel A. Reed and   
            Roscoe C. Giles and   
             Charles E. Catlett   Distributed Data and Immersive
                                  Collaboration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38--48
               Rick Stevens and   
              Paul Woodward and   
                Tom DeFanti and   
                Charlie Catlett   From the I-WAY to the National
                                  Technology Grid  . . . . . . . . . . . . 50--60
                Ken Kennedy and   
          Charles F. Bender and   
        John W. D. Connolly and   
           John L. Hennessy and   
             Mary K. Vernon and   
                    Larry Smarr   A Nationwide Parallel Computing
                                  Environment  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62--72
               Gregory J. McRae   How Application Domains Define
                                  Requirements for the Grid  . . . . . . . 74--83
       Jeremiah P. Ostriker and   
              Michael L. Norman   Cosmology of the Early Universe Viewed
                                  Through the New Infrastructure . . . . . 84--94
              Celia T. Romm and   
                   Nava Pliskin   Toward a Virtual Politicking Model . . . 95--100
             Gezinus J. Hidding   Reinventing Methodology: Who Reads It
                                  and Why? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102--109
             Don Gotterbarn and   
               Keith Miller and   
                 Simon Rogerson   Software Engineering Code of Ethics  . . 110--118
          Bill C. Hardgrave and   
               Kent A. Walstrom   Forums for MIS Scholars  . . . . . . . . 119--124
           Mohamed E. Fayad and   
                 Mauri Laitinen   Thinking Objectively --- Process
                                  Assessment Considered Wasteful . . . . . 125--128
                Peter B. Ladkin   Inside Risks --- Risks of Technological
                                  Remedy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160--160

Communications of the ACM
Volume 40, Number 12, December, 1997

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
           Zixiang Alex Tan and   
             Milton Mueller and   
                    Will Foster   China's new Internet regulations: two
                                  steps forward, one step back . . . . . . 11--16
                Robert L. Glass   How best to provide the services IS
                                  programmers need . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--19
          Neil A. M. Maiden and   
           Cornelious Ncube and   
                   Andrew Moore   Lessons learned during requirements
                                  acquisition for COTS systems . . . . . . 21--25
                 Diane Crawford   Forum: Cobol in question . . . . . . . . 27--29
                    Ramesh Jain   Visual information management  . . . . . 30--32
             Amarnath Gupta and   
             Simone Santini and   
                    Ramesh Jain   In search of information in visual media 34--42
              Boon-Lock Yeo and   
               Minerva M. Yeung   Retrieving and visualizing video . . . . 43--52
            Rainer Lienhart and   
            Silvia Pfeiffer and   
            Wolfgang Effelsberg   Video abstracting  . . . . . . . . . . . 54--62
              Shih-Fu Chang and   
              John R. Smith and   
               Mandis Beigi and   
                    Ana Benitez   Visual information retrieval from large
                                  distributed online repositories  . . . . 63--71
              William I. Grosky   Managing multimedia information in
                                  database systems . . . . . . . . . . . . 72--80
              James E. Katz and   
                  Philip Aspden   A nation of strangers? . . . . . . . . . 81--86
              Michael Franz and   
                 Thomas Kistler   Slim binaries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87--94
           Martin D. Fraser and   
             Vijay K. Vaishnavi   A formal specifications maturity model   95--103
            Jeffrey Parsons and   
                      Yair Wand   Using objects for systems analysis . . . 104--110
                   Neal Coulter   ACM's computing classification system
                                  reflects changing times  . . . . . . . . 111--112
                     Nigel Ward   Programming as a discipline? . . . . . . 113--114
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: System Development Woes    160--160


Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 1, January, 1998

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                       Roy Rada   Sharing standards: Corporate shortcut to
                                  standardization  . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--15
                     Neil Munro   From Washington: Access charges under
                                  scrutiny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--19
                Nora H. Sabelli   Viewpoint: We are no longer a priesthood 20--21
           Jennifer J. Burg and   
                 Stan J. Thomas   Computers across campus  . . . . . . . . 22--25
             David G. Brown and   
           Jennifer J. Burg and   
                Jay L. Dominick   A strategic plan for ubiquitous laptop
                                  computing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26--35
               Glenn MacDougall   Acadia University's ``Sandbox''  . . . . 32--33
             Alan Candiotti and   
                    Neil Clarke   Combining universal access with faculty
                                  development and academic facilities  . . 36--41
                    Mark Weiser   The future of ubiquitous computing on
                                  campus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41--42
                   Janice Biros   Changes in computer purchase,
                                  distribution, and maintenance  . . . . . 43--44
                 Lynn Kiaer and   
             David Mutchler and   
                  Jeffrey Froyd   Laptop computers in an integrated
                                  first-year curriculum  . . . . . . . . . 45--49
            Carolyn Watters and   
            Marshall Conley and   
              Cynthia Alexander   The digital agora: using technology for
                                  learning in the social sciences  . . . . 50--57
                      Ann Deden   Computers and systemic change in higher
                                  education  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58--63
    Richard J. LeBlanc, Jr. and   
                 Steven L. Teal   Hardware and software choices for
                                  student computer initiatives . . . . . . 64--69
            Samuel L. Grier and   
                Larry W. Bryant   The case for desktops  . . . . . . . . . 70--71
                    Ho Guen Lee   Do electronic marketplaces lower the
                                  price of goods?  . . . . . . . . . . . . 73--80
            Sonya Freeman Cohen   Quest for Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81--83
               Peter G. Neumann   Protecting the infrastructures . . . . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 2, February, 1998

                     Robert Fox   News Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--11
                 Elliot Soloway   Long on Education: no one is making
                                  money in education software  . . . . . . 11--16
                 Brock N. Meeks   Electronic frontier: no justice, no
                                  peace  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--20
           Jan Guynes Clark and   
                 Vincent S. Lai   On site: Internet comes to Morocco . . . 21--26
             Diane Crawford and   
             Larry Brunelle and   
             Morton Grosser and   
         Danielle Bernstein and   
             George Mallard and   
              Louis A. Russ and   
                   Magnus Kempe   Forum: Questioning Technical Self-Helf;
                                  Women and Computer Science; Title by
                                  License; Citizens of the Republic Speak  24--26
           Brian C. Behrens and   
               Reuven R. Levary   Practical legal aspects of software
                                  reverse engineering  . . . . . . . . . . 27--29
          Leon A. Kappelman and   
                 Darla Fent and   
          Kellie B. Keeling and   
                Victor Prybutok   Calculating the cost of Year-2000
                                  compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30--39
               Varun Grover and   
           James T. C. Teng and   
                Kirk D. Fiedler   IS investment priorities in contemporary
                                  organizations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40--48
              Philip M. Johnson   Reengineering inspection . . . . . . . . 49--53
            Giri Kumar Tayi and   
               Donald P. Ballou   Special section: examining data quality  54--57
                Richard Y. Wang   A product perspective on total data
                                  quality management . . . . . . . . . . . 58--65
                        Ken Orr   Data Quality and systems theory  . . . . 66--71
               David Kaplan and   
               Ramayya Krishnan   Assessing data quality in accounting
                                  information systems  . . . . . . . . . . 72--78
               Thomas C. Redman   The impact of poor data quality on the
                                  typical enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . 79--82
             Mauri Laitinen and   
               Mohamed E. Fayad   Thinking objectively: surviving a
                                  process performance crash  . . . . . . . 83--86
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside risks: Internet gambling  . . . . 112--112

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 3, March, 1998

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--11
                    Hal Berghel   Digital village: the Year-2000 problem
                                  and the new riddle of induction  . . . . 13--17
                 Diane Crawford   ACM fellows  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18--18
           Grey E. Burkhart and   
             Seymour E. Goodman   International perspectives: the Internet
                                  gains acceptance in the Persian Gulf . . 19--25
             Diane Crawford and   
            Jimmy A. Castro and   
               Raman Kannan and   
              Mark C. Kilby and   
              Mohamed Fayad and   
              Earl F. Glynn and   
                 Tracy Camp and   
                 Mike Yaphe and   
            Abbe Mowshowitz and   
                 Domenico Talla   Forum: Praises come with a hitch; OO
                                  Frameworks; Response; More Studies
                                  Needed; Response; Metamanagement
                                  Definition; Response; Parallel Computers
                                  Revisited  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26--29
               Charles H. House   It's time for a change . . . . . . . . . 31--31
              H. Raghav Rao and   
                A. F. Salam and   
                Brian DosSantos   Marketing and the Internet . . . . . . . 32--34
               P. K. Kannan and   
               Ai-Mei Chang and   
             Andrew B. Whinston   Marketing information on the I-Way data
                                  junkyard or information gold mine? . . . 35--43
         Jonathan W. Palmer and   
              David A. Griffith   An emerging model of Web site design for
                                  marketing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44--51
             Lauren B. Eder and   
               Marvin E. Darter   Physicians in cyberspace . . . . . . . . 52--54
               Greg Elofson and   
            William N. Robinson   Creating a custom mass-production
                                  channel on the Internet  . . . . . . . . 56--62
              Huaiqing Wang and   
          Matthew K. O. Lee and   
                      Chen Wang   Consumer privacy concerns about Internet
                                  marketing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63--70
          Robert M. O'Keefe and   
                  Tim McEachern   Web-based customer decision support
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71--76
                A. F. Salam and   
                  H. R. Rao and   
                   C. C. Pegels   Content of corporate Web pages as
                                  advertising media  . . . . . . . . . . . 76--77
                      Mark Bohr   Silicon trends and limits for advanced
                                  microprocessors  . . . . . . . . . . . . 80--87
                 Robert J. Hall   How to avoid unwanted email  . . . . . . 88--95
            Bonnie A. Nardi and   
            James R. Miller and   
                David J. Wright   Collaborative, programmable intelligent
                                  agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96--104
                  John T. Nosek   Technical opinion: the case for
                                  collaborative programming  . . . . . . . 105--108
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside risks: Are computer addictive?    128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 4, April, 1998

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--12
               Pamela Samuelson   Encoding the law into digital libraries  13--18
        Nathaniel S. Borenstein   Whose net is it anyway?  . . . . . . . . 19--20
                 Diane Crawford   Forum: Readers ``Thinking Objectively''  22--27
              Edward A. Fox and   
               Gary Marchionini   Toward a worldwide digital library:
                                  introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28--32
            Andreas Paepcke and   
        Chen-Chuan K. Chang and   
             Terry Winograd and   
Héctor García-Molina   Interoperability for digital libraries
                                  worldwide  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33--42
                William E. Moen   Accessing distributed cultural heritage
                                  information  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44--48
           Henry M. Gladney and   
               Fred Mintzer and   
        Fabio Schiattarella and   
Julián Bescós and   
                    Martin Treu   Digital access to antiquities  . . . . . 49--57
               Cathryn S. Dippo   FedStats promotes statistical literacy   58--60
                D. D. Cowan and   
             C. I. Mayfield and   
                F. W. Tompa and   
                   W. Gasparini   New role for community networks  . . . . 61--63
                Akira Maeda and   
             Myriam Dartois and   
            Takehisa Fujita and   
           Tetsuo Sakaguchi and   
            Shigeo Sugimoto and   
                  Koichi Tabata   Viewing multilingual documents on your
                                  local Web browser  . . . . . . . . . . . 64--65
                M. K. Leong and   
                     L. Cao and   
                          Y. Lu   Distributed Chinese bibliographic
                                  searching  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66--68
          Judith L. Klavans and   
              Peter Scha\``uble   NSF-EU multilingual information access   69--70
              Ian H. Witten and   
       Craig Nevill-Manning and   
               Rodger McNab and   
            Sally Jo Cunningham   A public library based on full-text
                                  retrieval  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71--75
              Albert Endres and   
                   Norbert Fuhr   Students access books and journals
                                  through MeDoc  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76--77
László Kovács   Discovery of resources within a
                                  distributed library system . . . . . . . 78--79
Marcos André Gonçalves and   
        Claudia Bauzer Medieros   Initiatives that center on scientific
                                  dissemination  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80--81
               Sung Hyon Myaeng   R&D for a nationwide general-purpose
                                  system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82--85
                 Cliff McKnight   Many projects that depend on
                                  collaboration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86--87
              Andrew E. Treloar   Libraries' new role in electronic
                                  scholarly publishing . . . . . . . . . . 88--89
        Annelise Mark Pejtersen   Semantic information retrieval . . . . . 90--92
                Sanna Talja and   
              Rami Heinisuo and   
      Eija-Liisa Kasesniemi and   
             Harri Kemainen and   
         Sinikka Luukkainen and   
                Kirsi Pispa and   
          Kalervo Järvelin   Discourse analysis of user requests  . . 93--94
            Ben Shneiderman and   
                Donald Byrd and   
                 W. Burce Croft   Sorting out searching: a user-interface
                                  framework for text searches  . . . . . . 95--98
                Iris Vessey and   
                   Robert Glass   Strong vs. weak approaches to systems
                                  development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99--102
                    A. C. Sodan   Yin and Yang in computer science . . . . 103--114
              Fred B. Schneider   On concurrent programming  . . . . . . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 5, May, 1998

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--11
                 Brock N. Meeks   Don't shoot me, I'm famous . . . . . . . 13--15
                   Robert Glass   Everything old is new again  . . . . . . 17--20
                 Diane Crawford   Flogging the wrong house?  . . . . . . . 22--27
                 Diane Crawford   Virtual extension  . . . . . . . . . . . 28--28
                Bruce H. Barnes   Assessing computer technology in Europe  29--32
               James Veitch and   
                 Robert Laddaga   Distributed dynamic systems  . . . . . . 34--36
                 Narinder Singh   Unifying heterogeneous information
                                  models: semantic tags support knowledge
                                  webs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37--44
                Jeffrey Morrill   Distributed recognition of patterns in
                                  time series data: from sensors to
                                  informed decisions . . . . . . . . . . . 45--51
                     Jim Veitch   A conversation with Paul Graham  . . . . 52--54
              David N. Gray and   
             John Hotchkiss and   
               Seth LaForge and   
              Andrew Shalit and   
                  Toby Weinberg   Modern languages and Microsoft's
                                  component object model: programming COM
                                  made simple  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55--65
         Janos Sztipanovits and   
               Gabor Karsai and   
                      Ted Bapty   Self-adaptive software for signal
                                  processing: evolving systems in changing
                                  environments without growing pains . . . 66--73
              Vicky Hardman and   
       Martina Angela Sasse and   
                Isidor Kouvelas   Successful multiparty audio
                                  communication over the Internet  . . . . 74--80
             Akira K. Onoma and   
               Wei-Tek Tsai and   
          Mustafa Poonawala and   
               Hiroshi Suganuma   Regressing testing in an industrial
                                  environment: progress is attained by
                                  looking backward . . . . . . . . . . . . 81--86
             Deter Duchessi and   
     InduShobha Chengalur-Smith   Client/server benefits, problems, best
                                  practices: the goal: not just better
                                  technology but better business processes
                                  that make a company more competitive . . 87--94
        William N. Robinson and   
               Vecheslav Volkov   Supporting the negotiation life cycle    95--102
               Mohamed E. Fayad   The art of managing multiple processes   103--105
                Rebecca Mercuri   In search of academic integrity  . . . . 136--136

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 5es, May, 1998

               David Alan Grier   Politics, control, and computer
                                  networks: the Chinese Student Lobby of
                                  1989 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137--145
              Michel Keable and   
             Maurice Landry and   
                Claude Banville   The legitimacy gap between IS
                                  professionals and users  . . . . . . . . 146--156
          Albert A. Angehrn and   
                 Soumitra Dutta   Case-based decision support  . . . . . . 157--165
           Christine Parent and   
           Stefano Spaccapietra   Issues and approaches of database
                                  integration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166--178
                   Uma G. Gupta   Automatic tools for testing expert
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179--184
               J. K. Joiner and   
                     W. T. Tsai   Re-engineering legacy Cobol programs . . 185--197
          Takashi Nishiyama and   
               Junji Nomura and   
             Ryoji Nakajima and   
                Tetsuji Miyanoh   A semi-autonomous security robot
                                  employing telepresence . . . . . . . . . 198--205
                       Arun Sen   From DSS to DSP: a taxonomic
                                  retrospective  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206--216

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 6, June, 1998

                     Robert Fox   News Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
         Stephen J. Lukasik and   
      Lawrence T. Greenberg and   
             Seymour E. Goodman   Protecting an invaluable and
                                  ever-widening infrastructure . . . . . . 11--16
                    Larry Press   Low-cost estimation of travel trade-offs 17--20
              Paul Carlisle and   
              Mike Anderson and   
                  Ray Brown and   
             James Mitchell and   
            Anthony Ralston and   
                Herb Grosch and   
       Stewart A. Denenberg and   
              Rainer Schoenrank   Who needs educational software?  . . . . 22--26
                   Wayne Madsen   Internet malcontents of the world ---
                                  unite! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27--28
             Christopher Morgan   Building an informational bridge to
                                  China  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29--30
             Diane Crawford and   
             Thomas Lambert and   
                 Robert Fox and   
              Andrew Rosenbloom   Information for authors  . . . . . . . . 31--33
            Sandeep Singhal and   
                    Binh Nguyen   The Java factor: Introduction  . . . . . 34--37
                      Paul Tyma   Why are we using Java again? . . . . . . 38--42
               Kathy Bohrer and   
             Verlyn Johnson and   
             Anders Nilsson and   
                  Bradley Rubin   Business process components for
                                  distributed object applications  . . . . 43--48
                  Kelvin Nilsen   Adding real-time capabilities to Java    49--56
                   Don Brutzman   The Virtual Reality Modeling Language
                                  and Java . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57--64
                James W. Cooper   Using design patterns  . . . . . . . . . 65--68
              Annie Chabert and   
                Ed Grossman and   
           Larry S. Jackson and   
       Stephen R. Pietrowiz and   
                   Chris Seguin   Java object-sharing in Habanero  . . . . 69--76
             Soumitra Dutta and   
      Luk N. Van Wassenhove and   
           Selvan Kulandaiswamy   Benchmarking European software
                                  management practices . . . . . . . . . . 77--86
                      Larry Wos   Programs that offer fast, flowless,
                                  logical reasoning  . . . . . . . . . . . 87--95
           James T. C. Teng and   
           Seung Ryul Jeong and   
                   Varun Grover   Profiling successful reengineering
                                  projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96--102
               Harold W. Lawson   Infrastructure risk reduction  . . . . . 120--120

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 7, July, 1998

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--11
                Robert L. Glass   Practical programmer: Short-term and
                                  long-term remedies for runaway projects  13--15
                   Roy Rada and   
               Carl Cargill and   
                   John Klensin   Sharing standards: Consensus and the Web 17--22
                Roger C. Schank   Viewpoint: Horses for courses  . . . . . 23--25
                 Diane Crawford   Forum: Hindsight is not always 20/20 . . 26--28
               Minerva M. Yeung   Digital watermarking . . . . . . . . . . 30--33
                Nasir Memon and   
                  Ping Wah Wong   Protecting digital media content . . . . 35--43
               Scott Craver and   
              Boon-Lock Yeo and   
                  Minerva Yeung   Technical trials and legal tribulations  45--54
               Fred Mintzer and   
        Gordon W. Braudaway and   
                   Alan E. Bell   Opportunities for watermarking standards 57--64
                  Jian Zhao and   
               Eckhard Koch and   
                   Chenghui Luo   In Business Today and Tomorrow . . . . . 66--72
                  John M. Acken   How watermarking adds value to digital
                                  content  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75--77
     Tomás Isakowitz and   
             Michael Bieber and   
                   Fabio Vitali   Web information systems  . . . . . . . . 78--80
            Gerald L. Lohse and   
                  Peter Spiller   Electronic shopping  . . . . . . . . . . 81--87
               Jay M. Tenenbaum   WISs and electronic commerce . . . . . . 89--90
                Ajit Kambil and   
                  Mark Ginsberg   Public access Web information systems:
                                  Lessons from the Internet EDGAR project  91--97
          Albert L. Lederer and   
      Dinesh A. Mirchandani and   
                   Kenneth Sims   Using WISs to enhance Competitiveness    94--95
           Harri Oinas-Kukkonen   What is inside a link? . . . . . . . . . 98--98
              Eric van Heck and   
                  Peter Vervest   How should CIOs deal with Web-based
                                  auctions?  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99--100
            Gustavo Arocena and   
              Alberto Mendelzon   Viewing WISs as database applications    101--102
                Kenji Takahashi   Metalevel links: More power to your
                                  links  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103--105
         V. Balasubramanian and   
                    Alf Bashian   Document management and Web technologies 107--115
                 Alan R. Dennis   Lessons from Three Years of Web
                                  Development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112--113
              Hermann A. Maurer   Modern WISs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114--115
              Murray Turoff and   
            Starr Roxanne Hiltz   Superconnectivity  . . . . . . . . . . . 116--116
                  James A. Senn   WISs at Federal Express  . . . . . . . . 117--118
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside risks: Laptops in Congress? . . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 8, August, 1998

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
             Elliot Soloway and   
                  Cathie Norris   Log on education: using technology to
                                  address old problems in new ways . . . . 11--18
                 Diane Crawford   From Washington: shaping public policy
                                  in the information age . . . . . . . . . 21--24
              Roger A. Coldwell   Viewpoint: did Chuck Babbage predict
                                  software piracy? . . . . . . . . . . . . 25--27
                 Diane Crawford   Only the names have changed  . . . . . . 28--31
         Robert J. Kauffman and   
           Frederick J. Riggins   Information systems and economics  . . . 32--34
                   Yannis Bakos   The emerging role of electronic
                                  marketplaces on the Internet . . . . . . 35--42
             Rajiv M. Dewan and   
        Marshall L. Freimer and   
               Abraham Seidmann   Internet service providers, proprietary
                                  content, and the battle for users'
                                  dollars  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43--48
          Erik Brynjolfsson and   
                     Lorin Hitt   Beyond the productivity paradox  . . . . 49--55
              Sanjeev Dewan and   
             Kenneth L. Kraemer   International dimensions of the
                                  productivity paradox . . . . . . . . . . 56--62
               Chris F. Kemerer   Progress, obstacles, and opportunities
                                  in software engineering economics  . . . 63--66
        Sandra A. Slaughter and   
           Donald E. Harter and   
            Mayuram S. Krishnan   Evaluating the cost of software quality  67--73
         Lorre Faith Cranor and   
             Brian A. LaMacchia   Spam!  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74--83
            Roy T. Fielding and   
    E. James Whitehead, Jr. and   
        Kenneth M. Anderson and   
          Gregory A. Bolcer and   
              Peyman Oreizy and   
              Richard N. Taylor   Web-based development of complex
                                  information products . . . . . . . . . . 84--92
              Stan Jarzabek and   
                     Riri Huang   The case for user-centered CASE tools    93--99
              Sandeep Purao and   
                Hemant Jain and   
                 Derek Narareth   Effective distribution of
                                  object-oriented applications . . . . . . 100--108
              David S. Hamu and   
               Mohamed E. Fayad   Thinking objectively: achieving
                                  bottom-line improvements with enterprise
                                  frameworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110--113
               Peter J. Denning   Inside Risks: Computer science and
                                  software engineering: filing for
                                  divorce? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 9, September, 1998

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                 Brock N. Meeks   Electronic frontier: mainstream media
                                  heartburn  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--13
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally speaking: does information
                                  really have to be licensed?  . . . . . . 15--20
                      Don Smith   Viewpoint: computerizing computer
                                  science  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--23
                 Diane Crawford   Forum: peeling the Y2K onion . . . . . . 24--27
                   Arun Sen and   
              Varghese S. Jacob   Industrial-strength data warehousing . . 28--31
             Hugh J. Watson and   
               Barbara J. Haley   Managerial considerations  . . . . . . . 32--37
           Charles Bontempo and   
                 George Zagelow   The IBM data warehouse architecture  . . 38--48
                  Michael Sigal   A Common Sense Development Strategy  . . 42--43
                James R. Sutter   Project-based warehouses . . . . . . . . 49--51
             Stephen R. Gardner   Building the data warehouse  . . . . . . 52--60
                Cecilia Claudio   Health care management . . . . . . . . . 58--59
              Katherine Glassey   Seducing the end user  . . . . . . . . . 62--69
                      Jim Scott   Warehousing over the Web . . . . . . . . 64--65
                    Linda Huber   Users drive move from mainframe  . . . . 66--67
             Jennifer Kreie and   
            Timothy Paul Cronan   How men and women view ethics  . . . . . 70--76
            Judith Gal-Ezer and   
                    David Harel   What (else) should CS educators know?    77--84
           Rudolf K. Keller and   
               Jean Tessier and   
            Gregor von Bochmann   A pattern system for network management
                                  interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86--93
               Asuman Dogac and   
               Cevdet Dengi and   
             M. Tamer Öszu   Distributed object computing platforms   95--103
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside risks: Y2K update . . . . . . . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 10, October, 1998

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--11
                    Hal Berghel   Who won the Mosaic War?  . . . . . . . . 13--16
                 Barbara Simons   Outlawing technology . . . . . . . . . . 17--18
                Larry Press and   
              Grey Burkhart and   
                Will Foster and   
                 Sy Goodman and   
              Peter Wolcott and   
                    Jon Woodard   An Internet diffusion framework  . . . . 21--26
                 Richard C. Hsu   Viewpoint: Maintaining high living
                                  standards through innovation, strong
                                  patents  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27--28
                 Diane Crawford   Forum: The dirty secrets of runaway
                                  projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29--33
           Krishnan Seetharaman   The CORBA connection . . . . . . . . . . 34--36
                     Jon Siegel   OMG overview: CORBA and the OMA in
                                  enterprise computing . . . . . . . . . . 37--43
                  Steve Vinoski   New features for CORBA 3.0 . . . . . . . 44--52
             Douglas C. Schmidt   Evaluating architectures for
                                  multithreaded object request brokers . . 54--60
                  Michi Henning   Binding, migration, and scalability in
                                  CORBA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62--71
              Paul Haggerty and   
           Krishnan Seetharaman   The benefits of CORBA-based network
                                  management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73--79
                 Arie Segev and   
                Jaana Porra and   
                    Malu Roldan   Internet security and the case of Bank
                                  of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81--87
       Frederick J. Riggins and   
           Hyeun-Suk (Sue) Rhee   Toward a unified view of electronic
                                  commerce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88--95
                   Arun Rai and   
            T. Ravichandran and   
            Subhashish Samaddar   How to anticipate the Internet's global
                                  diffusion  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97--106
            Richard Gisselquist   Engineering in software  . . . . . . . . 107--108
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside Risks: Risks of E-education . . . 136--136

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 11, November, 1998

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                 Diane Crawford   Forum: Stop, in the Name of Spam . . . . 11--14
             Herbert Schorr and   
            Salvatore J. Stolfo   From Washington: digital government for
                                  the 21st century . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--19
           Grey E. Burkhart and   
         Seymour E. Goodman and   
                 Arun Mehta and   
                    Larry Press   International perspectives: the Internet
                                  in India: better times ahead?  . . . . . 21--26
              Peter Wolcott and   
              Patrick Homer and   
                Seymour Goodman   Viewpoint: HPC export controls:
                                  navigating choppy waters . . . . . . . . 27--30
               Sidney Karin and   
                   Susan Graham   The high-performance computing continuum 32--35
               Paul Messina and   
               David Culler and   
             Wayne Pfeiffer and   
              Wiliam Martin and   
            J. Tinsley Oden and   
                     Gary Smith   Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36--44
            Andrew Grimshaw and   
               Adam Ferrari and   
               Greg Lindahl and   
              Katherine Holcomb   Metasystems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46--55
               Reagan Moore and   
           Thomas A. Prince and   
                  Mark Ellisman   Data-intensive computing and digital
                                  libraries  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56--62
              Joel H. Saltz and   
               Alan Sussman and   
               Susan Graham and   
               James Demmel and   
                Scott Baden and   
                  Jack Dongarra   Programming tools and environments . . . 64--73
                 Amy Finley and   
                Ann Redelfs and   
                     Greg Moses   Education, outreach, and training  . . . 74--75
                  Mark Keil and   
                  Paul Cule and   
             Kalle Lyytinen and   
                    Roy Schmidt   A framework for identifying software
                                  projects risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76--83
               John C. Kunz and   
       Tore R. Christiansen and   
             Geoff P. Cohen and   
                    Yan Jin and   
              Raymond E. Levitt   The virtual design team  . . . . . . . . 84--91
             Geng-Sheng Kuo and   
                   Jing-Pei Lin   New design concepts for an intelligent
                                  Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93--98
             Herbert Maisel and   
                Catherine Gaddy   Employment and salaries of recent CS
                                  doctorates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99--101
      Waldemar W. Koczkodaj and   
            Marian Orlowski and   
                Victor W. Marek   Technical opinion: myths about rough set
                                  theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102--103
              Fred B. Schneider   Inside Risks: toward trustworthy
                                  networked information systems  . . . . . 144--144

Communications of the ACM
Volume 41, Number 12, December, 1998

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                Robert L. Glass   Practical programmer: how not to prepare
                                  for a consulting assignment, and other
                                  ugly consultancy truths  . . . . . . . . 11--13
         Robert J. Aalberts and   
        Anthony M. Townsend and   
             Michael E. Whitman   Legally speaking: the threat of long-arm
                                  jurisdiction to electronic commerce  . . 15--20
               Robert Kraut and   
               Sara Kiesler and   
        Tridas Mukhopadhyay and   
          William Scherlies and   
              Michael Patterson   On site: social impact of the Internet:
                                  what does it mean? . . . . . . . . . . . 21--22
                 Diane Crawford   Forum: Computers in Education:
                                  Observations and Redress . . . . . . . . 23--26
                 Vinton G. Cerf   Tribute: I remember IANA . . . . . . . . 27--28
              Clare-Marie Karat   Viewpoint: guaranteeing rights for the
                                  user . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29--31
                 Matthias Jarke   Requirements tracing . . . . . . . . . . 32--36
         Balasubramaniam Ramesh   Factors influencing requirements
                                  traceability practice  . . . . . . . . . 37--44
                    Thomas Rose   Visual assessment of engineering
                                  processes in virtual enterprises . . . . 45--52
           Ralf Dömges and   
                     Klaus Pohl   Adapting traceability environments to
                                  project-specific needs . . . . . . . . . 55--62
        Giorgio De Michelis and   
                Eric Dubois and   
             Matthias Jarke and   
            Florian Matthes and   
            John Mylopoulos and   
         Joachim W. Schmidt and   
                    Eric Yu and   
                     Carson Woo   A three-faceted view of informations
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64--70
                  Loe Feijs and   
                   Roel De Jong   3D visualization of software
                                  architectures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73--78
           W. B. Noffsinger and   
          Robert Niedbalski and   
             Michael Blanks and   
                   Niall Emmart   Legacy object modeling speeds software
                                  integration  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80--89
               Prabuddha De and   
              Thomas W. Ferratt   An information system involving
                                  competing organizations  . . . . . . . . 90--98
                 C. J. Date and   
                    Hugh Darwen   Technical opinion: toward a model of
                                  type inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . 99--101
                   Peter Ladkin   Inside risks: the risks of Hubris  . . . 160--160


Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 1, January, 1999

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
             Diane Crawford and   
           Timothy D. Prime and   
           Justus Pendleton and   
                Greg Kirsch and   
            Lyle P. Bickley and   
            Markku Sakkinen and   
              Jakob Engblom and   
             Howard L. Funk and   
                John Rieman and   
                  Joy Davis and   
                    David Balok   Forum: Correlating patents and living
                                  standards  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--13
         Michael W. Whitman and   
        Anthony M. Townsend and   
             Robert J. Aalberts   Legally speaking: The Communications
                                  Decency Act Is not as Dead as You Think  15--17
                    Hal Berghel   Digital village: Value-added publishing  19--23
                  Max Hailperin   Viewpoint: The COPA battle and the
                                  future of free speech  . . . . . . . . . 24--25
                 Barbara Simons   From the President: Starr wars . . . . . 26--27
             Hermann Kaindl and   
                John M. Carroll   Symbolic Modeling in Practice  . . . . . 28--30
            John Mylopoulos and   
             Lawrence Chung and   
                        Eric Yu   From Object-Oriented to Goal-Oriented
                                  Requirements Analysis  . . . . . . . . . 31--37
            Keith A. Butler and   
             Chris Esposito and   
                     Ron Hebron   Connecting the Design of Software to the
                                  Design of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38--46
                 Matthias Jarke   Scenarios for Modeling . . . . . . . . . 47--48
               Mary Beth Rosson   Integrating Development of Task and
                                  Object Models  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49--56
            Brian R. Gaines and   
             Mildred L. G. Shaw   Embedding Formal Knowledge Models in
                                  Active Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . 57--63
                  Jakob Nielsen   User interface directions for the Web    65--72
           Donald P. Ballou and   
                Giri Kumar Tayi   Enhancing data quality in data warehouse
                                  environments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73--78
              John R. Nicol and   
     Yechezkal S. Gutfreund and   
              Jim Paschetto and   
           Kimberly S. Rush and   
             Christopher Martin   How the Internet helps build
                                  collaborative multimedia applications    79--85
            Pierre N. Robillard   The role of knowledge in software
                                  development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87--92
            David E. Avison and   
                Francis Lau and   
           Michael D. Myers and   
             Peter Axel Nielsen   Action research  . . . . . . . . . . . . 94--97
            Satish Nambisan and   
                   Yu-Ming Wang   Technical opinion: Roadblocks to Web
                                  technology adoption? . . . . . . . . . . 98--101
          Fred B. Schneider and   
             Steven M. Bellovin   Inside risks: Evolving telephone
                                  networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160--160

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 2, February, 1999

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--11
                    Larry Press   Personal Computing: The next generation
                                  of business data processing  . . . . . . 13--16
                 Brock N. Meeks   Electronic Frontier: The privacy hoax    17--19
                 Diane Crawford   Forum: More ugly truths about consulting
                                  assignments  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--24
                 Ghinwa Jalloul   On site: Computing in Lebanon  . . . . . 25--26
            Lorrie Faith Cranor   Internet privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . 28--38
          Michael K. Reiter and   
                 Aviel D. Rubin   Anonymous Web transactions with crowds   32--48
           David Goldschlag and   
               Michael Reed and   
                  Paul Syverson   Onion routing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39--41
                Eran Gabber and   
         Phillip B. Gibbons and   
           David M. Kristol and   
               Yossi Matias and   
                    Alain Mayer   Consistent, yet anonymous, Web access
                                  with LPWA  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42--47
              Joseph Reagle and   
            Lorrie Faith Cranor   The platform for privacy preferences . . 48--55
                  Paola Benassi   TRUSTe: An online privacy seal program   56--59
                   Roger Clarke   Internet privacy concerns confirm the
                                  case for intervention  . . . . . . . . . 60--67
            J. Arthur Gowan and   
                Chris Jesse and   
             Richard G. Mathieu   Y2K compliance and the distributed
                                  enterprise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68--73
                Robert L. Glass   The realities of software technology
                                  payoffs  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74--79
                Rajiv Sabherwal   The role of trust in outsourced is
                                  development projects . . . . . . . . . . 80--86
            Wilhelm Hasselbring   Technical opinion: On defining computer
                                  science terminology  . . . . . . . . . . 88--91
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside risks: Robust open-source
                                  software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 3, March, 1999

                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--12
             Kalle Lyytinen and   
                Seymour Goodman   Finland: the unknown soldier on the IT
                                  front  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13--17
               Pamela Samuelson   Good news and bad news on the
                                  intellectual property front  . . . . . . 19--24
             Diane Crawford and   
                Clay Shirky and   
               David Webber and   
              Jakob Nielson and   
         Joseph M. Newcomer and   
          The HomeNet Group and   
             W. M. Jaworski and   
      Waldemar W. Koczkodaj and   
            Marian Orlowski and   
                Victor W. Marek   Forum: Usability vs. the Web . . . . . . 27--32
          Donald E. Rickert and   
                    Thomas Nagy   Viewpoint: focus groups, theory or the
                                  kid in the garage? . . . . . . . . . . . 34--36
               Anupam Joshi and   
              Munindar P. Singh   Multiagent systems on the net  . . . . . 38--40
                Rune Gustavsson   Agents with power  . . . . . . . . . . . 41--47
         Tzvetan Drashansky and   
           Elias N. Houstis and   
         Naren Ramakrishnan and   
                   John R. Rice   Networked agents for scientific
                                  computing  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--52, 54
                Douglas E. Dyer   Multiagent systems and DARPA . . . . . . 53--53
              Fumio Hattori and   
             Takeshi Ohguro and   
               Makoto Yokoo and   
           Shigeo Matsubara and   
                    Sen Yoshida   Socialware: multiagent systems for
                                  supporting network communities . . . . . 55--61
         Alok R. Chaturvedi and   
            Shailendra R. Mehta   Simulations in economics and management  60--61
               Anuj K. Jain and   
          Manuel Aparico IV and   
              Munindar P. Singh   Agents for process coherence in virtual
                                  enterprises  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62--69
              Richard Green and   
                    Sangam Pant   Multiagent data collection in Lycos  . . 70--70
               Aaron Sloman and   
                    Brian Logan   Building cognitively rich agents using
                                  the SIM\_Agent toolkit . . . . . . . . . 71--73, 75
              Jeremy Baxter and   
              Richard Helewhite   Agents in tank battle simulations  . . . 74--75
                       Moses Ma   Agents in E-commerce . . . . . . . . . . 78--80
                Pattie Maes and   
          Robert H. Guttman and   
           Alexandros G. Moukas   Agents that buy and sell . . . . . . . . 81--87, 90--91
                Tuomas Sandholm   Automated negotiation  . . . . . . . . . 84--85
             Danny B. Lange and   
                 Mitsuru Oshima   Seven good reasons for mobile agents . . 88--89
                 David Wong and   
             Noemi Paciorek and   
                     Dana Moore   Java-based mobile agents . . . . . . . . 92--95, 97--102
                 Reuven Koblick   Concordia  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96--97
                 Hideki Tai and   
                  Kazuya Kosaka   The Aglets project . . . . . . . . . . . 100--101
         Barbara Hayes-Roth and   
            Vaughan Johnson and   
            Robert van Gent and   
                 Keith Wescourt   Staffing the Web with interactive
                                  characters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103--105
          Robert J. Glushko and   
           Jay M. Tenenbaum and   
                   Bart Meltzer   An XML framework for agent-based
                                  E-commerce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106--109, 111--114
               Howard Smith and   
                  Kevin Poulter   Share the ontology in XML-based trading
                                  architectures  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110--111
            Albert Alderson and   
                    Hanifa Shah   Technical Opinion: Viewpoints on legacy
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115--116
               Lauren Weinstein   Inside Risks: Bit-rot roulette . . . . . 144--144
                 J. Yeandel and   
                D. Thulborn and   
                       S. Jones   The design and implementation of an
                                  on-line testable UART  . . . . . . . . . 187--198
              M. F. Abdulla and   
            C. P. Ravikumar and   
                   Anshul Kumar   Optimization of mutual and signature
                                  testing schemes for highly concurrent
                                  systems  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199--216
            Zohair Sahraoui and   
           Francky Catthoor and   
                   Paul Six and   
                    Hugo de Man   Techniques for reducing the number of
                                  decisions and backtracks in
                                  combinational test generation  . . . . . 217--238
      Lakshminarayana Pappu and   
        Michael L. Bushnell and   
        Vishwani D. Agrawal and   
         Srinivas Mandyam-Komar   Statistical delay fault coverage
                                  estimation for synchronous sequential
                                  circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239--254
              De-Qiang Wang and   
                Lian-Chang Zhao   Combinatorial analysis of check set
                                  construction for algorithm-based fault
                                  tolerance systems  . . . . . . . . . . . 255--260

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 4, April, 1999

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--12
             Diane Crawford and   
                  John Ehrt and   
                Joe Saltiel and   
               Robert Glass and   
                John Wubbel and   
              John Willmore and   
                      Tom Moran   Forum: a Righteous Balance of Internet
                                  Freedom; Don't Compare Business Majors
                                  to Hackers; ``Popular'' Press; Empirical
                                  Studies vs. Armchair Argument  . . . . . 13--16
                Robert L. Glass   Practical programmer: inspections---some
                                  surprising findings  . . . . . . . . . . 17--19
                       Roy Rada   Sharing Standards: IT skills standards   21--26
               Donald J. Bagert   Viewpoint: taking the lead in licensing
                                  software engineers . . . . . . . . . . . 27--29
                     John White   ACM Digital Library Enhancements . . . . 30--31
                   Tim O'Reilly   Lessons from open-source software
                                  development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32--37
                 Linus Torvalds   The Linux edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38--39
                     Larry Wall   The origin of the camel lot in the
                                  breakdown of the bilingual Unix  . . . . 40--41
                Roy T. Fielding   Shared leadership in the Apache project  42--43
                John Ousterhout   Free software needs profit . . . . . . . 44--45
                        Xin Yao   Following the path of evolvable hardware 46--49
               Moshe Sipper and   
               Daniel Mange and   
                Eduardo Sanchez   Quo Vadis evolvable hardware?  . . . . . 50--56
                 Pierre Marchal   Field-programmable gate arrays . . . . . 57--59
            Tetsuya Higuchi and   
                Nobuki Kajihara   Evolvable hardware chips for industrial
                                  applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60--66
            Tomofumi Hikage and   
              Hitoshi Hemmi and   
            Katsunori Shimohara   Hardware Evolution System AdAM . . . . . 64--65
                  Jason D. Lohn   Experiments on Evolving Software Models
                                  of Analog Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . 67--69
            Adrian Thompson and   
                   Paul Layzell   Analysis of unconventional evolved
                                  electronics  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71--79
           Donna L. Hoffman and   
            Thomas P. Novak and   
                 Marcos Peralta   Building consumer trust online . . . . . 80--85
          Tomasz Imielinski and   
                 Julio C. Navas   GPS-based geographic addressing,
                                  routing, and resource discovery  . . . . 86--92
                 Niv Ahituv and   
               Moshe Zviran and   
                  Chanan Glezer   Top management toolbox for managing
                                  Corporate IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93--99
           Rachid Guerraoui and   
               Mohamed E. Fayed   Thinking objectively: OO distributed
                                  programming is not distributed OO
                                  programming  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101--104
               Lauren Weinstein   Inside risks: just a matter of bandwidth 120--120

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 5, May, 1999

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                    Hal Berghel   Digital village: how Xday figures in the
                                  Y2K countdown  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--15
                 Gerald V. Post   Personal computing: how often should a
                                  firm buy new PCs?  . . . . . . . . . . . 17--21
              Leon A. Kappelman   Viewpoint: saving our sacred honor . . . 23--25
                     B. J. Fogg   Persuasive technologies  . . . . . . . . 26--29
               Phillip King and   
                   Jason Tester   The landscape of persuasive technologies 31--38
                Shawn Tseng and   
                     B. J. Fogg   Credibility and computing technology . . 39--44
           Julie Khaslavsky and   
                Nathan Shedroff   Understanding the seductive experience   45--49
        Daniel Berdichevsky and   
             Erik Neunschwander   Toward an ethics of persuasive
                                  technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51--58
             Kim Halskov Madsen   The diversity of usability practices . . 60--62
                 Jacob Buur and   
                 Kirsten Bagger   Replacing usability testing with user
                                  dialogue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63--66
               Karel Vredenburg   Increasing ease of use . . . . . . . . . 67--71
   Klaus B. Bærentsen and   
              Henning Slavensky   A contribution to the design process . . 72--77
                  Julia Gardner   Strengthening the focus on users'
                                  working practices  . . . . . . . . . . . 79--82
             pWilliam Dolan and   
                   Joseph Dumas   A flexible approach to third-party
                                  usability  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83--85
             Michael Muller and   
             Mary P. Czerwinski   Organizing usability work to fit the
                                  full product range . . . . . . . . . . . 87--90
              Thea Borgholm and   
             Kim Halskov Madsen   Cooperative usability practices  . . . . 91--97
              Jeffrey S. Poulin   Technical opinion: reuse: been there,
                                  done that  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98--100
             David Lorge Parnas   Inside risks: ten myths about Y2K
                                  inspections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 6, June, 1999

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                Robert L. Glass   Practical programmer: is criticism of
                                  computing academe inevitably divisive?   11--13
               Richard B. Heeks   International perspectives: software
                                  strategies in developing countries . . . 15--20
             Diane Crawford and   
             Jason Steffler and   
          Jane D. Bernstein and   
                John Chapin and   
          David M. Rockwell and   
                   Kenneth Bell   Forum: Don't Forget the Intangibles in
                                  Improving Software Inspections; OO
                                  Programming; Licensing a Unique Field    21--22
                  Wei-Lung Wang   Viewpoint: Information in the
                                  Information Age  . . . . . . . . . . . . 23--24
                 Barbara Simons   From the President: Melissa's Message    25--26
                 Milton Mueller   Emerging Internet infrastructures
                                  worldwide  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28--30
             Ben Petrazzini and   
                    Mugo Kibati   The Internet in developing countries . . 31--36
                Robert B. Cohen   Moving toward a non-U.S.-centric
                                  international Internet . . . . . . . . . 37--40
                 Milton Mueller   Commentary: ICANN and Internet
                                  regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41--43
         Zixiang (Alex) Tan and   
             William Foster and   
                Seymour Goodman   China's state-coordinated Internet
                                  infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44--52
                  P. K. Agarwal   Building India's national Internet
                                  backbone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53--58
                Mugo Kibati and   
            Donyaprueth Krairit   The wireless local loop in developing
                                  regions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60--66
                    Jon A. Peha   Lessons from Haiti's Internet
                                  development  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67--72
           Samir Chatterjee and   
              Suzanne Pawlowski   All-optical networks . . . . . . . . . . 74--83
            Randall D. Beer and   
            Hillel J. Chiel and   
             Richard F. Drushel   Using Autonomous Robotics to teach
                                  science and engineering  . . . . . . . . 85--92
             Dennis Tsichritzis   Reengineering the University . . . . . . 93--100
         Michael E. Whitman and   
        Anthony M. Townsend and   
             Robert J. Aalberts   Considerations for an effective
                                  telecommunications-use policy  . . . . . 101--108
                Vicki L. Sauter   Intuitive decision-making  . . . . . . . 109--115
                  David S. Wise   Changes in ACM's revised copyright
                                  policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116--119
                A. Michael Noll   Technical opinion: does data traffic
                                  exceed voice traffic?  . . . . . . . . . 121--124
           Peter G. Neumann and   
               Declan McCullagh   Inside risks: risks of Y2K . . . . . . . 144--144

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 7, July, 1999

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
             Diane Crawford and   
                Tom DeMarco and   
                 Don Bagert and   
              Joel C. Ewing and   
                Hal Berghel and   
              Ken Kashmarek and   
                Hank Walker and   
                      Don Unger   Forum: Certification or
                                  Decertification?; Rule as Myth; Earning
                                  Trust; Misleading Numbers; Correction    11--13
                   Meg McGinity   Staying connected: Telecom Act, scene
                                  one  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--18
                     Neil Munro   From Washington: Infowar: AK-47s, lies,
                                  and videotape  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--22
                   Scott Tilley   On site: the need for speed  . . . . . . 23--26
                John Gallaugher   Viewpoint: challenging the new
                                  conventional wisdom of net commerce
                                  strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27--29
            Brajendra Panda and   
                Joseph Giordano   Defensive information warfare  . . . . . 30--32
                  Shiu-Kai Chin   High-confidence design for security:
                                  don't trust --- verify . . . . . . . . . 33--37
              Anup K. Ghosh and   
                Jeffrey M. Voas   Inoculating software for survivability   38--44
                  Terrance Goan   A cop on the beat: collecting and
                                  appraising intrusion evidence  . . . . . 46--52
               Robert Durst and   
          Terrence Champion and   
               Brian Witten and   
                Eric Miller and   
                Luigi Spagnuolo   Testing and evaluating computer
                                  intrusion detection systems  . . . . . . 53--61
         Matthew Stillerman and   
              Carla Marceau and   
               Maureen Stillman   Intrusion detection for distributed
                                  applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62--69
             Sushil Jajodia and   
      Catherine D. McCollum and   
                    Paul Ammann   Trusted recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . 71--75
                      Jim Waldo   The Jini architecture for
                                  network-centric computing  . . . . . . . 76--82
              David Plummer and   
            Larry J. Dalton and   
                    Frank Peter   The recodable locking device . . . . . . 83--87
           Janice C. Sipior and   
                  Burke T. Ward   The dark side of employee email  . . . . 88--95
                       Ned Kock   A case of academic plagiarism  . . . . . 96--104
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside risks: information is a
                                  double-edged sword . . . . . . . . . . . 120--120

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 8, August, 1999

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
             Diane Crawford and   
             Leon Kappelman and   
              Ken Mandefrot and   
             Chuck Crawford and   
         Dennis E. Hamilton and   
         Orville E. Wheeler and   
            Albert L. LeDuc and   
              Max Hailperin and   
         Michael E. Whitman and   
        Anthony M. Townsend and   
         Robert J. Aalberts and   
             Charles Hixson and   
        Daniel Berdichevsky and   
         Erik Neunschwander and   
           Bength Klenbergs and   
                 Linux Torvalds   Forum: The Folly of Laws Limiting Y2K
                                  Liability; Regarding Glass; Duly Noted;
                                  Persuasive Technologies; Linux Goal  . . 11--15
                 Diane Crawford   Correction: Richard Heeks' Column  . . . 15--15
                Robert L. Glass   Practical programmer: buzzwordism and
                                  the epic \$150 million software debacle  17--19
             Elliot Soloway and   
                Wayne Grant and   
              Robert Tinger and   
           Jeremy Roschelle and   
                 Mike Mills and   
           Mitchell Resnick and   
                Robbie Berg and   
                 Mike Eisenberg   Log on education: science in the palms
                                  of their hands . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--26
              Andrew Rosenbloom   Toward an image indistinguishable from
                                  reality  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28--30
            Demetri Terzopoulos   Artificial life for computer graphics    32--42
            Donald P. Greenberg   A framework for realistic image
                                  synthesis  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44--53
      George W. Fitzmaurice and   
          Ravin Balakrisnan and   
              Gordon Kurtenbach   Sampling, synthesis, and input devices   54--63
           Norman I. Badler and   
           Martha S. Palmer and   
             Rama Bindiganavale   Animation control for real-time virtual
                                  humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64--73
      J. Kenneth Salisbury, Jr.   Making graphics physically tangible  . . 74--81
               Steve Bryson and   
            David Kenwright and   
                Michael Cox and   
            David Ellsworth and   
                  Robert Haimes   Visually exploring gigabyte data sets in
                                  real time  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82--90
          Surendra N. Singh and   
                Nikunj P. Dalal   Web home pages as advertisements . . . . 91--98
                David Ebert and   
             Edward Bedwell and   
              Stephen Maher and   
              Laura Smoliar and   
              Elizabeth Downing   Realizing $3$D visualization using
                                  grossed-beam volumetric displays . . . . 100--107
          Richard G. Vedder and   
         Michael T. Vanecek and   
          C. Stephen Guynes and   
                James J. Cappel   CEO and CIO perspectives on competitive
                                  intelligence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108--116
             Duane P. Truex and   
        Richard Baskerville and   
                    Heinz Klein   Growing systems in emergent
                                  organizations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117--123
           Rachid Guerraoui and   
               Mohamed E. Fayad   Thinking objectively: object-oriented
                                  abstractions for distributed programming 125--127
                 Bruce Schneier   Inside risks: the uses and abuses of
                                  biometrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136--136

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 9, September, 1999

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
             Diane Crawford and   
                  Bob Quinn and   
              Daniel Dulitz and   
             Andrew Odlyzko and   
              Kerry Coffman and   
               Michael Noll and   
            James E. Harvey and   
                  Misha Vaughan   Forum: Voice and Data Traffic Jam;
                                  Buying New PCs; ACM's Copyright Policy   11--15
               Robert Durst and   
          Terrence Champion and   
                Eric Miller and   
            Luigi Spagnuolo and   
                   Brian Witten   Forum: Addendum to ``Testing and
                                  evaluating computer intrusion detection
                                  systems''  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15--15
               Pamela Samuelson   Legally speaking: why the
                                  anticircumvention regulations need
                                  revision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17--21
             William K. McHenry   International perspectives: Y2K
                                  international status and opportunities   23--27
                   Vir V. Phoha   Viewpoint: Can a Course Be Taught
                                  Entirely Via Email?  . . . . . . . . . . 29--30
         Jonathan W. Palmer and   
                Lars Bo Eriksen   Digital newspapers explore marketing on
                                  the Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32--40
          Stewart Robertson and   
                  Philip Powell   Exploiting the benefits of Y2K
                                  preparation  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42--48
             Rachna Dhamija and   
            Rachelle Heller and   
               Lance J. Hoffman   Teaching e-commerce to a
                                  multidisciplinary class  . . . . . . . . 50--55
                 Alok Gupta and   
              Dale O. Stahl and   
             Andrew B. Whinston   The economics of network management  . . 57--63
                  R. Ramesh and   
                 Dee H. Andrews   Distributed mission training: teams,
                                  virtual reality, and real-time
                                  networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64--67
                Lynn A. Carroll   Multimodal integrated team training  . . 68--71
                Herbert H. Bell   The effectiveness of distributed mission
                                  training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72--78
          Judith S. Dahmann and   
            James O. Calvin and   
           Richard M. Weatherly   A reusable architecture for simulations  79--84
         Philipp W. Peppler and   
                 Steve Stephens   Image generation systems in virtual
                                  training platforms . . . . . . . . . . . 85--88
                    Peter Crane   Implementing distributed mission
                                  training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90--94
                 Eric W. Tatham   Technical opinion: getting the best of
                                  both real and virtual worlds . . . . . . 96--98
                 Bruce Schneier   Inside risks: the Trojan horse race  . . 128--128

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 10, October, 1999

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
             Diane Crawford and   
               Saul I. Gass and   
         Rommert J. Casimir and   
              Adrian Bowyer and   
                  Anonymous and   
               Glen Henshaw and   
             Scott M. Brown and   
                  William Adams   Forum: Solving the Plagiarism Problem;
                                  The Limits of LEGOs; What About
                                  Information Dominance Warfare?; The
                                  Licensing Issue  . . . . . . . . . . . . 11--14
                     Neil Munro   From Washington: the ongoing tug-of-war
                                  for e-commerce control . . . . . . . . . 17--20
                    Larry Press   Personal computing: the post-PC era  . . 21--24
                 Barbara Simons   From the President: The Heroes Among Us  25, 112
                    Grady Booch   UML in action  . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26--28
                    Cris Kobryn   UML 2001: a standardization odyssey  . . 29--37
                   Grant Larsen   Designing component-based frameworks
                                  using patterns in the UML  . . . . . . . 38--45
                     Bran Selic   Turning clockwise: using UML in the
                                  real-time domain . . . . . . . . . . . . 46--54
               Alex E. Bell and   
                Ryan W. Schmidt   UMLoquent expression of AWACS software
                                  design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55--61
                   Jim Conallen   Modeling Web application architectures
                                  with UML . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63--70
        Micheal A. Cusumano and   
                David B. Yoffie   What Netscape learned from
                                  cross-platform software development  . . 72--78
           Michael Mattsson and   
                  Jan Bosch and   
               Mohamed E. Fayad   Framework integration problems, causes,
                                  solutions  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80--87
                  Tessa Lau and   
               Oren Etzioni and   
                 Daniel S. Weld   Privacy interfaces for information
                                  management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88--94
       Håkon Wium Lie and   
                  Janne Saarela   Multipurpose Web publishing using HTML,
                                  XML, and CSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95--101
             Don Gotterbarn and   
               Keith Miller and   
                 Simon Rogerson   Software engineering code of ethics is
                                  approved . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102--107
                  Lutz Prechelt   Technical opinion: comparing Java vs.
                                  C/C++ efficiency differences to
                                  interpersonal differences  . . . . . . . 109--112
                 Bruce Schneier   Inside risks: Risks of relying on
                                  cryptography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144--144

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 11, November, 1999

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News Track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
                    Hal Berghel   Digital village: the cost of having
                                  analog executives in a digital world . . 11--15
                Robert L. Glass   Evolving a new theory of project success 17--19
             Diane Crawford and   
             Dino Mandrioli and   
                Paul Zeiger and   
                Dan Chisham and   
               Mark Wallace and   
           Ralph E. Johnson and   
               Robert Glass and   
            Robert A. Ellis and   
                Myles Losch and   
                   Scott Tilley   Forum: Software Project Failure Lessons
                                  Learned; More Powerful Internet
                                  Connections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21--24
             Toshinori Munakata   Knowledge discovery  . . . . . . . . . . 26--29
                Tom M. Mitchell   Machine learning and data mining . . . . 30--36
Raúl E. Valdés-Pérez   Discovery tools for science apps . . . . 37--41
              Stephen Muggleton   Scientific knowledge discovery using
                                  inductive logic programming  . . . . . . 42--46
                       LiMin Fu   Knowledge discovery based on neural
                                  networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47--50
             Kenneth A. De Jong   Evolutionary computation for discovery   51--53
                Wojciech Ziarko   Discovery through rough set theory . . . 54--57
                   Kevin Knight   Mining online text . . . . . . . . . . . 58--61
         Steffen Schulze-Kremer   Discovery in the human genome project    62--64
                Murray Campbell   Knowledge discovery in deep blue . . . . 65--67
                   Ravi Ganesan   The messyware advantage: the precipitous
                                  rise of the middleman  . . . . . . . . . 68--73
                  Sharon Oviatt   Ten myths of multimodal interaction  . . 74--81
           George S. Nezlek and   
             Hemant K. Jain and   
              Derek L. Nazareth   An integrated approach to enterprise
                                  computing architectures  . . . . . . . . 82--90
              Dawn G. Gregg and   
                   Michael Goul   A proposal for an open DSS protocol  . . 91--96
              Pascal Felber and   
           Rachid Guerraoui and   
               Mohamed E. Fayad   Putting OO distributed programming to
                                  work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97--101
           Peter G. Neumann and   
               Lauren Weinstein   Inside risks: risks of content filtering 152--152

Communications of the ACM
Volume 42, Number 12, December, 1999

                 Diane Crawford   Editorial pointers . . . . . . . . . . . 5--5
                     Robert Fox   News track . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9--10
             Diane Crawford and   
               Peter Revesz and   
             Philip Gilbert and   
                       S. W. Ng   Forum: Reengineering the University  . . 11--13
                    Mike Godwin   From Washington: net to worry  . . . . . 15--17
                   Meg McGinity   Staying connected: flying wireless, with
                                  a net  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19--21
              Patrick Walsh and   
             Adamantios Koumpis   On site: the Esprit ATLAS project  . . . 23--26
                    Amr El-Kadi   Viewpoint: stop that divorce!  . . . . . 27--28
              Dennis J. Frailey   Licensing software engineers . . . . . . 29--30
             Steven Bellman and   
            Gerald L. Lohse and   
                Eric J. Johnson   Predictors of online buying behavior . . 32--38
                 Anne Adams and   
           Martina Angela Sasse   Users are not the enemy  . . . . . . . . 40--46
          William H. Dutton and   
              Anita Elberse and   
                   Matthew Hale   A case study of a Netizen's guide to
                                  elections  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48--54
               Kai R. T. Larsen   Voting technology implementation . . . . 55--57
          Richard T. Watson and   
           Sigmund Akselsen and   
              Benete Evjemo and   
           Nils Aarsæther   Teledemocracy in local government  . . . 58--63
                  Magid Igbaria   The driving forces in the virtual
                                  society  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64--70
          Hilda Tellio\uglu and   
                     Ina Wagner   Software cultures  . . . . . . . . . . . 71--77
             Pearl Brereton and   
               David Budgen and   
             Keith Bennnett and   
              Malcolm Munro and   
               Paul Layzell and   
             Linda MaCaulay and   
            David Griffiths and   
               Charles Stannett   The future of software . . . . . . . . . 78--84
            Fay Cobb Payton and   
       Patricia Flatley Brennan   How a community health information
                                  network is really used . . . . . . . . . 85--89
                  Frank Cuccias   Are we ready?: the FAA's Y2K
                                  preparedness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91--92
              Leon A. Kappelman   Are we ready?: risk, reality, and
                                  readiness  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93--94
               Peter G. Neumann   Inside risks: risks of insiders  . . . . 160--160


IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications
Volume 17, Number 2, March / April, 1997

                 James F. Blinn   Jim Blinn's Corner: Fugue for MMX  . . . 88--93


SIAM Journal on Computing
Volume 6, Number 2, June, 1977

            Donald E. Knuth and   
               J. H. Morris and   
                    V. R. Pratt   Fast pattern matching in strings . . . . 323--350