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%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.43",
%%%     date            = "29 September 2020",
%%%     time            = "15:53:57 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "toce.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "65082 11630 62638 593108",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography; BibTeX; ACM Journal on
%%%                        Educational Resources in Computing (JERIC);
%%%                        ACM Transactions on Computing Education
%%%                        (TOCE)",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "no",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        the journal ACM Transactions on Computing
%%%                        Education (TOCE) (CODEN unknown, ISSN
%%%                        1946-6226), for 2009--date.
%%%
%%%                        Publication began with volume 9, number 1, in
%%%                        January 2009 as a continuation of the older
%%%                        ACM Journal on Educational Resources in
%%%                        Computing (JERIC).  The journal appears
%%%                        quarterly.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has World-Wide Web sites at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193
%%%
%%%                        Qualified subscribers can retrieve the full
%%%                        text of recent articles in PDF form.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.43, the COMPLETE journal
%%%                        coverage looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             2009 (  17)    2013 (  19)    2017 (  27)
%%%                             2010 (  21)    2014 (  21)    2018 (  17)
%%%                             2011 (  24)    2015 (  21)    2019 (  42)
%%%                             2012 (  16)    2016 (  18)    2020 (  24)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        267
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  267
%%%
%%%                        Data for this bibliography was derived from
%%%                        data at the ACM Web site.
%%%
%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
%%%                        included in this bibliography wherever
%%%                        available.
%%%
%%%                        The bibsource keys in the bibliography
%%%                        entries below indicate the data sources.
%%%
%%%                        URL keys in the bibliography point to
%%%                        World Wide Web locations of additional
%%%                        information about the entry.
%%%
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%%%                        spell and GNU ispell programs using the
%%%                        exception dictionary stored in the
%%%                        companion file with extension .sok.
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen
%%%                        as name:year:abbrev, where name is the
%%%                        family name of the first author or editor,
%%%                        year is a 4-digit number, and abbrev is a
%%%                        3-letter condensation of important title
%%%                        words. Citation tags were automatically
%%%                        generated by software developed for the
%%%                        BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted in
%%%                        publication order, using ``bibsort -byvolume.''
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:
@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:
@String{j-TOCE                  = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:
@Article{Tenenberg:2009:IAT,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Introducing the {ACM Transactions on Computing
                 Education}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513594",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)
                 represents a name change and a broadening of scope for
                 the ACM Journal on Educational Resources on Computing
                 (JERIC). The topics covered by this new journal will
                 range across diverse aspects of computing education:
                 traditional computer science, computer engineering,
                 software engineering, information technology, and
                 informatics; emerging aspects of computing; and
                 applications of computing to other disciplines, such as
                 computational biology. The common characteristics
                 shared by these articles are a scholarly approach to
                 teaching and learning, a broad appeal to educational
                 practitioners, and a clear connection to student
                 learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Computing education; practitioner research;
                 scholarship of teaching and learning",
}

@Article{Richards:2009:DPB,
  author =       "Debbie Richards",
  title =        "Designing Project-Based Courses with a Focus on
                 Group Formation and Assessment",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513595",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The value and the pitfalls of project and group work
                 are well recognized. The principles and elements which
                 apply to projects in general, apply to project-based
                 courses. Thoughtful and detailed planning,
                 understanding of the stakeholders and their needs, a
                 good design, appropriate testing, monitoring and
                 quality control and continual management can maximize
                 the benefits and minimize the negatives. In this
                 article we draw together the literature to consider key
                 design choices of project-based courses considering:
                 type, length, size, management, participants, and
                 content with a particular focus on the composition of
                 groups and the issues surrounding assessment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "assessment; Group-based courses; group formation",
}

@Article{Ritzhaupt:2009:CGD,
  author =       "Albert D. Ritzhaupt",
  title =        "Creating a Game Development Course with Limited
                 Resources: An Evaluation Study",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513596",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article provides an overview of the challenges in
                 implementing a game development course with limited
                 resources in computing curricula. An approach to a
                 holistic game development course is outlined in terms
                 of its organization, software, and instructional
                 methods. The course had 23 students enrolled in its
                 first offering and was systematically evaluated in
                 light of the approach using multiple sources of data.
                 Descriptive statistics and measures of internal
                 consistency reliability are provided. Three important
                 findings resulted from this research: (1) a game
                 development course can be implemented with limited
                 institutional monetary support for a reasonable cost
                 per student, (2) cooperation and competition can be
                 effectively integrated into a game development course
                 as instructional strategies, and (3) integrated lecture
                 and computer lab sessions with cooperative learning is
                 an effective instructional method for a game
                 development course. Finally, insights and lessons
                 learned are provided to assist educators in creating
                 their own game development courses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "computing education; educational evaluation; Game
                 development curriculum; game development tools",
}

@Article{Caspersen:2009:SFP,
  author =       "Michael E. Caspersen and Michael Kolling",
  title =        "{STREAM}: A First Programming Process",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513597",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Programming is recognized as one of seven grand
                 challenges in computing education. Decades of research
                 have shown that the major problems novices experience
                 are composition-based---they may know what the
                 individual programming language constructs are, but
                 they do not know how to put them together. Despite this
                 fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming
                 education research hardly address the issue of teaching
                 the skills needed for systematic development of
                 programs.\par

                 We provide a conceptual framework for incremental
                 program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which
                 unifies best practice in modern software development
                 such as test-driven development and refactoring with
                 the prevailing perspective of programming methodology,
                 stepwise refinement. The conceptual framework enables
                 well-defined characterizations of incremental program
                 development.\par

                 We utilize the conceptual framework to derive a
                 programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for
                 novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a
                 full and rich agile software engineering process
                 particularly suited for novices learning
                 object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to
                 achieve two things: to help novice programmers learn
                 faster and better while at the same time laying the
                 foundation for a more thorough treatment of more
                 advanced aspects of software engineering. In this
                 article, two examples demonstrate the application of
                 STREAM.\par

                 The STREAM process has been taught in the introductory
                 programming courses at our universities for the past
                 three years and the results are very encouraging. We
                 report on a small, preliminary study evaluating the
                 learning outcome of teaching STREAM. The study
                 indicates a positive effect on the development of
                 students' process competences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "agile methods; programming education; programming
                 methodology; programming process; refactoring; Stepwise
                 improvement; stepwise refinement; test-driven
                 development",
}

@Article{Barker:2009:SFP,
  author =       "L. Barker",
  title =        "Student and Faculty Perceptions of Undergraduate
                 Research Experiences in Computing",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513598",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Undergraduate research experiences are promoted and
                 funded for their potential in increasing students'
                 likelihood of pursuing graduate degrees, increasing
                 their confidence, and expanding their awareness of
                 their discipline and career opportunities. These
                 outcomes, however, depend on the social,
                 organizational, and intellectual conditions under which
                 students conduct research. Large-scale comparative
                 studies suggest that computer science undergraduate
                 researchers participate in fewer of the activities that
                 lead to membership in a ``culture of research.'' This
                 interview-based study illuminates the experiences of
                 both undergraduates and their faculty research mentors
                 in computer science summer and academic year programs.
                 Twenty-five undergraduates and 31 faculty mentors, the
                 majority women, were interviewed. Their stories reveal
                 best and worst case research conditions for students,
                 the special benefits to women who have experienced
                 harassment in their classes, unconscious biases of
                 faculty, the wisdom of faculty who guide undergraduates
                 to successful research outcomes, and faculty's
                 perceptions of benefits for themselves, their
                 departments, and the students they mentor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "research career; research experiences for
                 undergraduates; Undergraduate research; women in
                 computing",
}

@Article{Ocker:2009:TSW,
  author =       "Rosalie Ocker and Mary Beth Rosson and Dana Kracaw and
                 S. Roxanne Hiltz",
  title =        "Training Students to Work Effectively in
                 Partially Distributed Teams",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513599",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Information technology teams are often partially
                 distributed teams (PDTs). A PDT consists of two or more
                 subteams that are separated geographically. This
                 articles describes research focused on the use of PDTs
                 to engage students in ``real world'' IT team learning
                 about the subject matter while also teaching them the
                 skills they will need to work in global software
                 development teams. Findings from a large-scale
                 international study indicate that the introduction of
                 training modules enhanced perceived learning of
                 appropriate PDT teaming behaviors; students with
                 training reported improved shared team identification,
                 trust, awareness, coordination, competence, and
                 conflict with respect to distant subteam members, and
                 higher overall team performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "distributed teams; partially distributed teams;
                 Virtual teams",
}

@Article{Myller:2009:EET,
  author =       "Niko Myller and Roman Bednarik and Erkki Sutinen and
                 Mordechai Ben-Ari",
  title =        "Extending the Engagement Taxonomy: Software
                 Visualization and Collaborative Learning",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513600",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "As collaborative learning in general, and pair
                 programming in particular, has become widely adopted in
                 computer science education, so has the use of
                 pedagogical visualization tools for facilitating
                 collaboration. However, there is little theory on
                 collaborative learning with visualization, and few
                 studies on their effect on each other. We build on the
                 concept of the {\em engagement taxonomy\/} and extend
                 it to classify finer variations in the engagement that
                 result from the use of a visualization tool. We analyze
                 the applicability of the taxonomy to the description of
                 the differences in the collaboration process when
                 visualization is used. Our hypothesis is that
                 increasing the level of engagement between learners and
                 the visualization tool results in a higher positive
                 impact of the visualization on the collaboration
                 process. This article describes an empirical
                 investigation designed to test the hypothesis. The
                 results provide support for our extended engagement
                 taxonomy and hypothesis by showing that the
                 collaborative activities of the students and the
                 engagement levels are correlated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "collaborative learning; engagement taxonomy; Program
                 visualization",
}

@Article{Rossling:2009:EPA,
  author =       "Guido R{\"o}ssling and J. {\'A}ngel
                 Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
  title =        "Editorial: Program and Algorithm Visualization in
                 Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538235",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Urquiza-Fuentes:2009:SSE,
  author =       "Jaime Urquiza-Fuentes and J. {\'A}ngel
                 Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
  title =        "A Survey of Successful Evaluations of Program
                 Visualization and Algorithm Animation Systems",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538236",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Karavirta:2009:SMH,
  author =       "Ville Karavirta",
  title =        "Seamless Merging of Hypertext and Algorithm
                 Animation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538237",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rossling:2009:VBC,
  author =       "Guido R{\"o}ssling and Teena Vellaramkalayil",
  title =        "A Visualization-Based Computer Science Hypertextbook
                 Prototype",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538238",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bruce-Lockhart:2009:ATG,
  author =       "Michael Bruce-Lockhart and Theodore Norvell and
                 Pierluigi Crescenzi",
  title =        "Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538239",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cross:2009:RGD,
  author =       "James H. {Cross II} and T. Dean Hendrix and David A.
                 Umphress and Larry A. Barowski and Jhilmil Jain and
                 Lacey N. Montgomery",
  title =        "Robust Generation of Dynamic Data Structure
                 Visualizations with Multiple Interaction Approaches",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538240",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Schaeckeler:2009:COP,
  author =       "Stefan Schaeckeler and Weijia Shang and Ruth Davis",
  title =        "Compiler Optimization Pass Visualization: The
                 Procedural Abstraction Case",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538241",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Pears:2009:VOC,
  author =       "Arnold Pears and Lauri Malmi",
  title =        "Values and Objectives in Computing Education
                 Research",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1594399.1594400",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Paterson:2009:PPS,
  author =       "J. H. Paterson and K. F. Cheng and J. Haddow",
  title =        "{PatternCoder}: a Programming Support Tool for
                 Learning Binary Class Associations and Design
                 Patterns",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1594399.1594401",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kiesmuller:2009:DLP,
  author =       "Ulrich Kiesm{\"u}ller",
  title =        "Diagnosing Learners' Problem-Solving Strategies Using
                 Learning Environments with Algorithmic Problems in
                 Secondary Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1594399.1594402",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2010:WDM,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Why Discipline Matters in Computing Education
                 Scholarship",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656256",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Brusilovsky:2010:LSP,
  author =       "Peter Brusilovsky and Sergey Sosnovsky and Michael V.
                 Yudelson and Danielle H. Lee and Vladimir Zadorozhny
                 and Xin Zhou",
  title =        "Learning {SQL} Programming with Interactive Tools:
                 From Integration to Personalization",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656257",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Yuan:2010:VTT,
  author =       "Xiaohong Yuan and Percy Vega and Yaseen Qadah and
                 Ricky Archer and Huiming Yu and Jinsheng Xu",
  title =        "Visualization Tools for Teaching Computer Security",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656258",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Meerbaum--Salant:2010:ACM,
  author =       "Orni Meerbaum--Salant and Orit Hazzan",
  title =        "An Agile Constructionist Mentoring Methodology for
                 Software Projects in the High School",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656259",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Baldwin:2010:GEI,
  author =       "Doug Baldwin and Alyce Brady",
  title =        "{Guest Editors}' Introduction: Computer Science in the
                 Liberal Arts",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731042",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "For many people, computer science is not closely
                 associated with the liberal arts. Yet ``liberal arts''
                 can denote a philosophy of education that emphasizes
                 broadly preparing students for all aspects of their
                 future lives, and as computing becomes more central to
                 the ways in which we think about the world, computer
                 science becomes correspondingly more central in such an
                 education. This, in turn, makes computer science more
                 important in the programs of educational institutions
                 that follow a liberal arts philosophy. This issue of
                 {\em Transactions on Computing Education\/} presents
                 three articles that examine the intersection of
                 computer science and the liberal arts. Walker and
                 Kelemen explore in detail how a liberal arts philosophy
                 complements the needs of computer science education,
                 and how computer science as a discipline fits the goals
                 of a liberal arts philosophy. Bruce et al. present the
                 history of a consortium of computer scientists from
                 liberal arts colleges and the model computer science
                 curricula they have developed for such colleges.
                 Finally, Baldwin et al. describe the concrete computer
                 science programs at five institutions, each with a
                 distinct place in the liberal arts spectrum. We hope
                 that these articles will advance understanding of
                 computer science in the liberal arts, and inspire
                 readers to incorporate liberal arts principles into
                 their own computer science programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Liberal arts",
}

@Article{Walker:2010:CSL,
  author =       "Henry M. Walker and Charles Kelemen",
  title =        "Computer Science and the Liberal Arts: a
                 Philosophical Examination",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731043",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article explores the philosophy and position of
                 the discipline of computer science within the liberal
                 arts, based upon a discussion of the nature of computer
                 science and a review of the characteristics of the
                 liberal arts. A liberal arts environment provides
                 important opportunities for undergraduate programs, but
                 also presents important constraints. A well designed
                 program can flourish in this environment, and evidence
                 indicates that a liberal arts program in computer
                 science can indeed succeed well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Liberal arts; undergraduate education",
}

@Article{Bruce:2010:HLA,
  author =       "Kim B. Bruce and Robert D. Cupper and Robert L. Scot
                 Drysdale",
  title =        "A History of the Liberal Arts Computer Science
                 Consortium and its Model Curricula",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731044",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "With the support of a grant from the Sloan Foundation,
                 nine computer scientists from liberal arts colleges
                 came together in October, 1984 to form the Liberal Arts
                 Computer Science Consortium (LACS) and to create a
                 model curriculum appropriate for liberal arts colleges.
                 Over the years the membership has grown and changed,
                 but the focus has remained on helping to establish and
                 maintain high-quality computer science programs in
                 liberal arts colleges. In this report we discuss
                 briefly the history of the group, the series of three
                 curricula produced by LACS, and other contributions of
                 the members to computer science education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Computing Curriculum Guidelines; LACS; liberal arts",
}

@Article{Baldwin:2010:CSL,
  author =       "D. Baldwin and A. Brady and A. Danyluk and J. Adams
                 and A. Lawrence",
  title =        "Case Studies of Liberal Arts Computer Science
                 Programs",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731045",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Many undergraduate liberal arts institutions offer
                 computer science majors. This article illustrates how
                 quality computer science programs can be realized in a
                 wide variety of liberal arts settings by describing and
                 contrasting the actual programs at five liberal arts
                 colleges: Williams College, Kalamazoo College, the
                 State University of New York at Geneseo, Spelman
                 College, and Calvin College. While the example programs
                 differ in size, mission, and the nature of their home
                 institutions, all take advantage of their liberal arts
                 setting to offer rich computer science educations.
                 Comparing these programs to each other and to the
                 latest ACM/IEEE Computer Society computer science
                 curriculum shows that the liberal arts programs are
                 distinguishable from the ACM/Computer Society
                 recommendations, but at the same time are strong
                 undergraduate majors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Liberal arts",
}

@Article{Goldman:2010:SSC,
  author =       "Ken Goldman and Paul Gross and Cinda Heeren and
                 Geoffrey L. Herman and Lisa Kaczmarczyk and Michael
                 C. Loui and Craig Zilles",
  title =        "Setting the Scope of Concept Inventories for
                 Introductory Computing Subjects",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789935",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "A concept inventory is a standardized assessment tool
                 intended to evaluate a student's understanding of the
                 core concepts of a topic. In order to create a concept
                 inventory it is necessary to accurately identify these
                 core concepts. A Delphi process is a structured
                 multi-step process that uses a group of experts to
                 achieve a consensus opinion. We present the results of
                 three Delphi processes to identify topics that are
                 important and difficult in each of three introductory
                 computing subjects: discrete mathematics, programming
                 fundamentals, and logic design. The topic rankings can
                 not only be used to guide the coverage of concept
                 inventories, but can also be used by instructors to
                 identify what topics merit special attention.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "concept inventory; Curriculum; delphi; discrete math;
                 logic design; programming fundamentals",
}

@Article{dAmore:2010:SOV,
  author =       "Roberto d'Amore",
  title =        "A Synthesis-Oriented {VHDL} Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789936",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article proposes a VHDL language course that
                 establishes a strong correlation between the language
                 statements and their use in circuit synthesis. Two
                 course modules are described: a basic module that
                 contains the essential concepts of the language,
                 sufficient for students to describe medium complexity
                 circuits, followed by a second module with more complex
                 language concepts. The benefits of correlated
                 laboratory tasks which use simulation and synthesis
                 tools are discussed. Evaluation content, student test
                 scores, and student feedback are presented. Suggestions
                 for improving and modifying the course are given.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "digital course; SystemC; System Verilog; Verilog;
                 VHDL",
}

@Article{Shoufan:2010:CRP,
  author =       "Abdulhadi Shoufan and Sorin A. Huss",
  title =        "A Course on Reconfigurable Processors",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789937",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Reconfigurable computing is an established field in
                 computer science. Teaching this field to computer
                 science students demands special attention due to
                 limited student experience in electronics and digital
                 system design. This article presents a compact course
                 on reconfigurable processors, which was offered at the
                 Technische Universit{\"a}t Darmstadt, and is intended
                 for instructors aiming to introduce a new course in
                 reconfigurable computing. Therefore, a detailed
                 description of the course structure and content is
                 provided. In contrast to courses on digital system
                 design, which use FPGAs as a case platform, our course
                 places this platform at the center of its focus and
                 highlights its features as a basis for reconfigurable
                 computing. Both declarative knowledge and functioning
                 knowledge are considered in defining learning outcomes
                 based on a novel What-Why-How Model. Lab activities
                 were designated to deepen the functioning knowledge.
                 The written exam is aligned to learning outcomes and
                 shows that most students acquired the intended
                 outcomes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "configuration resources; configuration technologies;
                 Design process; VHDL",
}

@Article{Bennedsen:2010:BVD,
  author =       "Jens Bennedsen and Carsten Schulte",
  title =        "{BlueJ} Visual Debugger for Learning the Execution of
                 Object-Oriented Programs?",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789938",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports on an experiment undertaken in
                 order to evaluate the effect of a program visualization
                 tool for helping students to better understand the
                 dynamics of object-oriented programs. The concrete tool
                 used was BlueJ's debugger and object inspector. The
                 study was done as a control-group experiment in an
                 introductory programming course.\par

                 The results of the experiment show that the students
                 who used BlueJ's debugger did not perform statistically
                 significantly better than the students not using it;
                 both groups profited about the same amount from the
                 exercises given in the experiment.\par

                 We discuss possible reasons for and implications of
                 this result.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "BlueJ; CS1; debugger; learning program execution;
                 object inspector; object orientation; tools;
                 visualization",
}

@Article{Shaffer:2010:AVS,
  author =       "Clifforda Shaffer and Matthew L. Cooper and Alexander
                 Joel D. Alon and Monika Akbar and Michael Stewart and
                 Sean Ponce and Stephen H. Edwards",
  title =        "Algorithm Visualization: The State of the Field",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1821996.1821997",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present findings regarding the state of the field
                 of Algorithm Visualization (AV) based on our analysis
                 of a collection of over 500 AVs. We examine how AVs are
                 distributed among topics, who created them and when,
                 their overall quality, and how they are disseminated.
                 There does exist a cadre of good AVs and active
                 developers. Unfortunately, we found that many AVs are
                 of low quality, and coverage is skewed toward a few
                 easier topics. This can make it hard for instructors to
                 locate what they need. There are no effective
                 repositories of AVs currently available, which puts
                 many AVs at risk for being lost to the community over
                 time. Thus, the field appears in need of improvement in
                 disseminating materials, propagating known best
                 practices, and informing developers about topic
                 coverage. These concerns could be mitigated by building
                 community and improving communication among AV users
                 and developers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Algorithm animation; algorithm visualization; AlgoViz
                 Wiki; community; data structure visualization; free and
                 open source software",
}

@Article{Renumol:2010:ICP,
  author =       "V. G. Renumol and Dharanipragada Janakiram and S.
                 Jayaprakash",
  title =        "Identification of Cognitive Processes of Effective and
                 Ineffective Students During Computer Programming",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1821996.1821998",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Identifying the set of cognitive processes (CPs) a
                 student can go through during computer programming is
                 an interesting research problem. It can provide a
                 better understanding of the human aspects in computer
                 programming process and can also contribute to the
                 computer programming education in general. The study
                 identified the presence of a set of 42 CPs in computer
                 programming (C language). The study used Verbal
                 Protocol Analysis (VPA) in identifying these CPs. It is
                 a qualitative study on the Verbal Protocols (VPs) of 19
                 students. Some of the CPs have been inferred by
                 referring to the literature and some have been
                 additionally identified by this study. The additional
                 CPs found are confusion, hypothesis, interrogation,
                 iteration, monitoring, recollection, recurrence, and
                 translation. It is observed that programming involves
                 the interplay of lower and higher CPs and needs various
                 cognitive skills, which increase the processing load on
                 the brain and make the programming process difficult
                 and complex to learn and practice. The same set of CPs
                 was found in both the effective and ineffective
                 subjects. The research results can provide deeper
                 knowledge to teachers on cognitive aspects of
                 programming and the cognitive behavior of students
                 during the programming process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "cognitive processes; cognitive psychology; computer
                 programming; effective and ineffective students;
                 Programming education; verbal protocol analysis",
}

@Article{Russell:2010:MPB,
  author =       "Ingrid Russell and Zdravko Markov and Todd Neller and
                 Susan Coleman",
  title =        "{MLeXAI}: a Project-Based Application-Oriented
                 Model",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1821996.1821999",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Our approach to teaching introductory artificial
                 intelligence (AI) unifies its diverse core topics
                 through a theme of machine learning, and emphasizes how
                 AI relates more broadly with computer science. Our
                 work, funded by a grant from the National Science
                 Foundation, involves the development, implementation,
                 and testing of a suite of projects that can be closely
                 integrated into a one-term AI course. Each project
                 involves the development of a machine learning system
                 in a specific application. These projects have been
                 used in six different offerings over a three-year
                 period at three different types of institutions. While
                 we have presented a sample of the projects as well as
                 limited preliminary experiences in other venues, this
                 article presents the first assessment of our work over
                 an extended period of three years. Results of
                 assessment show that the projects were well received by
                 the students. By using projects involving real-world
                 applications we provided additional motivation for
                 students. While illustrating core concepts, the
                 projects introduced students to an important area in
                 computer science, machine learning, thus motivating
                 further study.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
  keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; projects",
}

@Article{Fincher:2010:PSI,
  author =       "Sally Fincher and Ian Utting",
  title =        "Preface to Special Issue on Initial Learning
                 Environments",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868359",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Fincher:2010:MT,
  author =       "Sally Fincher and Ian Utting",
  title =        "Machines for Thinking",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868360",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article we set a context for three Initial
                 Learning Environments Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. We
                 consider historical antecedents, technical comparators
                 and design approaches.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kolling:2010:GPE,
  author =       "Michael K{\"o}lling",
  title =        "The {Greenfoot} Programming Environment",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868361",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Greenfoot is an educational integrated development
                 environment aimed at learning and teaching programming.
                 It is aimed at a target audience of students from about
                 14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college-
                 and university-level education. Greenfoot combines
                 graphical, interactive output with programming in Java,
                 a standard, text-based object-oriented programming
                 language. This article first describes Greenfoot and
                 then goes on to discuss design goals and motivations,
                 strengths and weaknesses of the system, and its
                 relation to two environments with similar goals,
                 Scratch and Alice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cooper:2010:DA,
  author =       "Stephen Cooper",
  title =        "The Design of {Alice}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868362",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article explores the major design characteristics
                 (both pedagogic as well as technical) that helped to
                 shape Alice 2. It identifies several strengths of Alice
                 as well as several weaknesses. An example problem is
                 solved in Alice, covering many of the design
                 characteristics. Finally, the effects and impacts of
                 Alice instruction are presented, and the future
                 directions of Alice development are provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Maloney:2010:SPL,
  author =       "John Maloney and Mitchel Resnick and Natalie Rusk and
                 Brian Silverman and Evelyn Eastmond",
  title =        "The {Scratch} Programming Language and Environment",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868363",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Scratch is a visual programming environment that
                 allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer
                 programming while working on personally meaningful
                 projects such as animated stories and games. A key
                 design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed
                 learning through tinkering and collaboration with
                 peers. This article explores how the Scratch
                 programming language and environment support this
                 goal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Utting:2010:AGS,
  author =       "Ian Utting and Stephen Cooper and Michael K{\"o}lling
                 and John Maloney and Mitchel Resnick",
  title =        "{Alice}, {Greenfoot}, and {Scratch} --- a
                 Discussion",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868364",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article distills a discussion about the goals,
                 mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim
                 to support the acquisition and development of computing
                 concepts (problem solving and programming) in
                 pre-University and non-technical students: Alice,
                 Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a
                 special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE
                 Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued
                 during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of
                 the ACM Transactions on Computing Education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2011:EEP,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Editorial: Entry Points for Computing Education
                 Research",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1921608",
  abstract =     "The goal of this editorial is to provide entry points
                 into the literature on making and warranting claims in
                 the social and behavioral sciences that might be of use
                 to computing educators. In addition, we provide some
                 heuristic advice on getting started and continuing
                 along this direction based on our experience as
                 computing education researchers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Braught:2011:CPP,
  author =       "Grant Braught and Tim Wahls and L. Marlin Eby",
  title =        "The Case for Pair Programming in the Computer Science
                 Classroom",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1921609",
  abstract =     "Previous studies indicate that the use of pair
                 programming has beneficial effects on student learning.
                 In this article, we present a controlled study that
                 directly measured students' acquisition of individual
                 programming skills using laboratory practica (in which
                 students programmed individually under exam
                 conditions). Additionally, we analyzed other measures
                 of student performance, attitudes, and retention. Our
                 results provide direct evidence that pair programming
                 improves the individual programming skills of lower SAT
                 students, and that students who pair program are more
                 confident in their work and are more likely to
                 successfully complete the course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Borstler:2011:QEI,
  author =       "J{\"u}rgen B{\"o}rstler and Marie Nordstr{\"o}m and
                 James H. Paterson",
  title =        "On the Quality of Examples in Introductory {Java}
                 Textbooks",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Example programs play an important role in the
                 teaching and learning of programming. Students as well
                 as teachers rank examples as the most important
                 resources for learning to program. Example programs
                 work as role models and must therefore always be
                 consistent with the principles and rules we are
                 teaching. However, it is difficult to find or develop
                 examples that are fully faithful to all principles and
                 guidelines of the object-oriented paradigm and also
                 follow general pedagogical principles and practices.
                 Unless students are able to engage with good examples,
                 they will not be able to tell desirable from
                 undesirable properties in their own and others'
                 programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Liberman:2011:DLI,
  author =       "Neomi Liberman and Catriel Beeri and Yifat Ben-David
                 Kolikant",
  title =        "Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and
                 Polymorphism",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports on difficulties related to the
                 concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by
                 a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience
                 with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a
                 course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis
                 of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in
                 the course, as well as on observations made during the
                 course. The article suggests that the difficulties are
                 mostly caused by the learners' ignorance about a
                 programming model for inheritance and polymorphism.
                 Such a model is presented in the appendix.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wang:2011:EEU,
  author =       "Alf Inge Wang",
  title =        "Extensive Evaluation of Using a Game Project in a
                 Software Architecture Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article describes an extensive evaluation of
                 introducing a game project to a software architecture
                 course. In this project, university students have to
                 construct and design a type of software architecture,
                 evaluate the architecture, implement an application
                 based on the architecture, and test this
                 implementation. In previous years, the domain of the
                 software architecture project has been a robot
                 controller for navigating a maze. In 2008, the students
                 on the software architecture course chose between the
                 two domains: Khepera robot simulation in Java and XNA
                 game development in C\#. Independent of the domain
                 chosen, the students had to go through the same phases,
                 produce the same documents based on the same templates,
                 and follow exactly the same process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ladner:2011:ISI,
  author =       "Richard Ladner and Tammy VanDeGrift",
  title =        "Introduction to Special Issue (Part 1): Broadening
                 Participation in Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993070",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This special issue includes the first set of articles
                 addressing broadening participation in computing
                 education. The articles span the stages of the
                 pipeline, from introducing middle school children to
                 computer science to retaining underrepresented groups
                 at the university level. The preface presented here
                 outlines the need for increasing the participation of
                 underrepresented minorities, women, and people with
                 disabilities in the development of technology. In
                 addition, the preface summarizes the six articles
                 included in this first (of two) issues on broadening
                 participation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Doerschuk:2011:IHS,
  author =       "Peggy Doerschuk and Jiangjiang Liu and Judith Mann",
  title =        "{INSPIRED} High School Computing Academies",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993071",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "If we are to attract more women and minorities to
                 computing we must engage students at an early age. As
                 part of its mission to increase participation of women
                 and underrepresented minorities in computing, the
                 Increasing Student Participation in Research
                 Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing
                 academies for high school students. The academies are
                 designed to increase students' knowledge of and
                 interest in computing and to encourage females and
                 minorities to participate in computing. INSPIRED
                 academies differ from others in several ways. They are
                 relatively easy to organize and require relatively few
                 resources; they focus on computing concepts and
                 object-oriented programming; they expose students to
                 successful female and minority computer scientists; and
                 they actively engage university students from
                 underrepresented groups to organize, coordinate, teach,
                 and help assess the academies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kim:2011:EWC,
  author =       "Karen A. Kim and Amy J. Fann and Kimberly O.
                 Misa-Escalante",
  title =        "Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering:
                 Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in
                 Undergraduate Research Experiences",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993072",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Building on research that identifies and addresses
                 issues of women's underrepresentation in computing,
                 this article describes promising practices in
                 undergraduate research experiences that promote women's
                 long-term interest in computer science and engineering.
                 Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU
                 programs include programmatic elements designed to
                 promote gender equity and identifies specific
                 mechanisms that are seen as effective in supporting
                 women in REU programs and in encouraging them to
                 persist in computer science and engineering fields.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wolz:2011:CTE,
  author =       "Ursula Wolz and Meredith Stone and Kim Pearson and
                 Sarah Monisha Pulimood and Mary Switzer",
  title =        "Computational Thinking and Expository Writing in the
                 Middle School",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993073",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "To broaden participation in computing we need to look
                 beyond traditional domains of inquiry and expertise. We
                 present results from a demonstration project in which
                 interactive journalism was used to infuse computational
                 thinking into the standard curriculum and regular
                 classroom experience at a middle school with a diverse
                 population. Outcomes indicate that we were able to
                 develop positive attitudes about computational thinking
                 and programming among students and teachers who did not
                 necessarily view themselves as ``math types.'' By
                 partnering with language arts, technology and math
                 teachers at Fisher Middle School, Ewing New Jersey, we
                 introduced the isomorphism between the journalistic
                 process and computational thinking to 7th and 8th
                 graders.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Zimmerman:2011:WLH,
  author =       "Thomas G. Zimmerman and David Johnson and Cynthia
                 Wambsgans and Antonio Fuentes",
  title =        "Why {Latino} High School Students Select Computer
                 Science as a Major: Analysis of a Success Story",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993074",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports on a public school that is
                 succeeding in encouraging Latino high school students
                 to select Computer Science (CS) as a major. The
                 students attend a charter high school designed to
                 encourage low-income Latino students to attend college
                 and attain proficiency in English, Spanish, and
                 computers. Using data from surveys and by analyzing
                 test scores, the authors quantify the characteristics
                 of students who are likely to choose CS as a major. A
                 survey of 139 tenth- through twelfth-grade Latino
                 students is used to determine factors that influence CS
                 major selection. The survey includes questions from a
                 previous study (836 high school math students from 9
                 public and private schools) as a control.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rheingans:2011:RMG,
  author =       "Penny Rheingans and Anne Brodsky and Jill Scheibler
                 and Anne Spence",
  title =        "The Role of Majority Groups in Diversity Programs",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993075",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The underrepresentation of women in technical fields
                 is a widely acknowledged national problem, limiting
                 both the raw size of the talent pool and the diversity
                 of experiences and perspectives of those who will
                 design solutions to key problems facing society.
                 Empowering women to succeed in these fields is clearly
                 one important component of any solution. Because the
                 population in those fields will likely continue to be
                 overwhelmingly male for some time to come, men must
                 also be a key component of the solution. Specifically,
                 since the attitudes of the majority group are a strong
                 determinant of climate, it is almost equally important
                 to foster a population of men supportive of increasing
                 the representation of women.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Goode:2011:ECS,
  author =       "Joanna Goode and Jane Margolis",
  title =        "Exploring Computer Science: a Case Study of School
                 Reform",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993076",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article will detail efforts to broaden
                 participation in computing in urban schools through a
                 comprehensive reform effort of curricular development,
                 teacher professional development, and policy changes.
                 Beginning with an account of the curricular development
                 of Exploring Computer Science, we will describe the
                 inquiry-based research that underlies these learning
                 materials. Next, we argue that accompanying
                 professional development that supports the curriculum
                 is essential for supporting this inquiry-based approach
                 to computer science instruction. We then explain the
                 policy strategies used to designate this course as a
                 college-preparatory elective and place it in 17 Los
                 Angeles high schools. Finally, we share the initial
                 results of how students experience this course and
                 ongoing challenges encountered when working in the
                 public school system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ladner:2011:SIB,
  author =       "Richard Ladner and Tammy VanDeGrift",
  title =        "Special Issue on Broadening Participation in Computing
                 Education (Part 2)",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037277",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rosson:2011:OUT,
  author =       "Mary Beth Rosson and John M. Carroll and Hansa
                 Sinha",
  title =        "Orientation of Undergraduates Toward Careers in the
                 Computer and Information Sciences: Gender,
                 Self-Efficacy and Social Support",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037278",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Crutchfield:2011:BFO,
  author =       "Orpheus S. L. Crutchfield and Christopher D. Harrison
                 and Guy Haas and Daniel D. Garcia and Sheila
                 M. Humphreys and Colleen M. Lewis and Peter Khooshabeh",
  title =        "{Berkeley Foundation for Opportunities in Information
                 Technology}: a Decade of Broadening Participation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037279",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Gates:2011:CAH,
  author =       "Ann Quiroz Gates and Sarah Hug and Heather Thiry and
                 Richard Al{\'o} and Mohsen Beheshti and John Fernandez
                 and Nestor Rodriguez and Malek Adjouadi",
  title =        "{The Computing Alliance of Hispanic-Serving
                 Institutions}: Supporting Hispanics at Critical
                 Transition Points",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037280",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Eglash:2011:FSA,
  author =       "Ron Eglash and Mukkai Krishnamoorthy and Jason Sanchez
                 and Andrew Woodbridge",
  title =        "Fractal Simulations of {African} Design in Pre-College
                 Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037281",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Dahlberg:2011:SAV,
  author =       "Teresa Dahlberg and Tiffany Barnes and Kim Buch and
                 Audrey Rorrer",
  title =        "The {STARS} Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening
                 Participation in Computing",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037282",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Burgstahler:2011:UDI,
  author =       "Sheryl Burgstahler",
  title =        "Universal Design: Implications for Computing
                 Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037283",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ludi:2011:URP,
  author =       "Stephanie Ludi and Tom Reichlmayr",
  title =        "The Use of Robotics to Promote Computing to
                 Pre-College Students with Visual Impairments",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037284",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2011:ECT,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Editorial: Computational Tools for Computing
                 Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048932",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The goal of this editorial is to both encourage
                 authors to continue to submit articles describing
                 computational tools for computing education to TOCE,
                 and to make explicit our expectations as the editors of
                 TOCE for what makes a good ``tools'' article. We
                 elaborate three key criteria, and provide examples from
                 previous TOCE papers that satisfy these criteria: (1)
                 establish that the tool is related essentially to
                 computing education, (2) make explicit claims about the
                 impact of the tool on learning, and (3) evidence these
                 claims through actual use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Miller:2011:WPD,
  author =       "Craig S. Miller and Amber Settle",
  title =        "When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: Effects of Task
                 Goals on Learning Computing Concepts",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048933",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Specifying file references for hypertext links is an
                 elementary competence that nevertheless draws upon core
                 computational thinking concepts such as tree traversal
                 and the distinction between relative and absolute
                 references. In this article we explore the learning
                 effects of different instructional strategies in the
                 context of an introductory computing course. Results
                 suggest that asking students to do targeted tasks,
                 albeit supported with working examples, is not the best
                 preparation. Instead, unstructured study of examples
                 produces superior learning. Answering targeted
                 conceptual questions can also yield comparably positive
                 learning but only in qualified contexts. While perhaps
                 unintuitive, these results are consistent with a long
                 line of research on human cognition and learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Armoni:2011:LST,
  author =       "Michal Armoni",
  title =        "Looking at Secondary Teacher Preparation Through the
                 Lens of Computer Science",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048934",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Teaching computer science (CS) in high schools, rather
                 than just programming or even computer literacy, is
                 important as a means of introducing students to the
                 true nature of CS, and enhancing their problem-solving
                 skills. Since teachers are the key to the success of
                 any high school educational initiative, any discussion
                 of high school programs must consider the teachers, and
                 specifically the teacher preparation needed to make the
                 implementation of such programs possible. However,
                 there is scant research on CS teacher education,
                 probably because CS is a relatively young discipline.
                 Very few of the publications in the area of CS teacher
                 preparation are research-based.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Nikula:2011:MGH,
  author =       "Uolevi Nikula and Orlena Gotel and Jussi Kasurinen",
  title =        "A Motivation Guided Holistic Rehabilitation of the
                 First Programming Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048935",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "It has been estimated that more than two million
                 students started computing studies in 1999 and 650,000
                 of them either dropped or failed their first
                 programming course. For the individual student,
                 dropping such a course can distract from the completion
                 of later courses in a computing curriculum and may even
                 result in changing their course of study to a
                 curriculum without programming. In this article, we
                 report on how we set out to rehabilitate a troubled
                 first programming course, one for which the dropout
                 statistic and repercussion was evident. The five-year
                 longitudinal case study described in this article began
                 by systematically tracking the pass rate of a first
                 programming course, its throughput, as proposed by the
                 Theory of Constraints.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:TRI,
  author =       "Tanya McGill and Jocelyn Armarego and Tony Koppi",
  title =        "The Teaching--Research--Industry--Learning Nexus in
                 Information and Communications Technology",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133798",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The teaching-research nexus concept has been
                 extensively examined in the higher education
                 literature, and the importance of industry linkages in
                 information and communications technology (ICT)
                 education has also been widely discussed. However, to
                 date there has been little recognition of the full
                 extent of relationships between aspects of teaching,
                 learning, research, and industry, and of the synergy
                 possible from exploiting these relationships. Koppi and
                 Naghdy [2009] introduced the concept of the
                 teaching-research-industry-learning (TRIL) nexus in ICT
                 education and this article attempts to advance
                 understanding of the concept by exploring the
                 literature that underpins it. The article contributes
                 to a clearer understanding of the nature of the
                 relationships involved as they apply to ICT education,
                 and makes comprehensive recommendations to support
                 strengthening the TRIL nexus in ICT education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Mariani:2012:AAD,
  author =       "Leonardo Mariani and Daniela Micucci",
  title =        "{AuDeNTES}: Automatic Detection of {teNtative}
                 plagiarism according to a {rEference} Solution",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133799",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In academic courses, students frequently take
                 advantage of someone else's work to improve their own
                 evaluations or grades. This unethical behavior
                 seriously threatens the integrity of the academic
                 system, and teachers invest substantial effort in
                 preventing and recognizing plagiarism. When students
                 take examinations requiring the production of computer
                 programs, plagiarism detection can be semiautomated
                 using analysis techniques such as JPlag and Moss. These
                 techniques are useful but lose effectiveness when the
                 text of the exam suggests some of the elements that
                 should be structurally part of the solution. A loss of
                 effectiveness is caused by the many common parts that
                 are shared between programs due to the suggestions in
                 the text of the exam rather than plagiarism. In this
                 article, we present the AuDeNTES anti-plagiarism
                 technique. AuDeNTES detects plagiarism via the code
                 fragments that better represent the individual
                 students' contributions by filtering from students'
                 submissions the parts that might be common to many
                 students due to the suggestions in the text of the
                 exam. The filtered parts are identified by comparing
                 students' submissions against a reference solution,
                 which is a solution of the exam developed by the
                 teachers. Specifically, AuDeNTES first produces
                 tokenized versions of both the reference solution and
                 the programs that must be analyzed. Then, AuDeNTES
                 removes from the tokenized programs the tokens that are
                 included in the tokenized reference solution. Finally,
                 AuDeNTES computes the similarity among the filtered
                 tokenized programs and produces a ranked list of
                 program pairs suspected of plagiarism. An empirical
                 comparison against multiple state-of-the-art plagiarism
                 detection techniques using several sets of real
                 students' programs collected in early programming
                 courses demonstrated that AuDeNTES identifies more
                 plagiarism cases than the other techniques at the cost
                 of a small additional inspection effort.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Herman:2012:DWW,
  author =       "Geoffrey L. Herman and Michael C. Loui and Lisa
                 Kaczmarczyk and Craig Zilles",
  title =        "Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties
                 in {Boolean} Logic",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133800",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The ability to reason with formal logic is a
                 foundational skill for computer scientists and computer
                 engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design,
                 debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about
                 their understanding of propositional logic and their
                 ability to translate from English specifications to
                 Boolean expressions, we characterized common
                 misconceptions and novice problem-solving processes of
                 students who had recently completed a digital logic
                 design class. We present these results and discuss
                 their implications for instruction and the development
                 of pedagogical assessment tools known as concept
                 inventories.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:LPP,
  author =       "Monica M. McGill",
  title =        "Learning to Program with Personal Robots: Influences
                 on Student Motivation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133801",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "One of the goals of using robots in introductory
                 programming courses is to increase motivation among
                 learners. There have been several types of robots that
                 have been used extensively in the classroom to teach a
                 variety of computer science concepts. A more recently
                 introduced robot designed to teach programming to
                 novice students is the Institute for Personal Robots in
                 Education (IPRE) robot. The author chose to use this
                 robot and study its motivational effects on
                 non-computer science students in a CS0 course. The
                 purpose of this study was to determine whether using
                 the IPRE robots motivates students to learn programming
                 in a CS0 course. After considering various motivational
                 theories and instruments designed to measure
                 motivation, the author used Keller's Instructional
                 Materials Motivation Survey to measure four components
                 of motivation: attention, relevance, confidence, and
                 satisfaction. Additional items were added to the
                 survey, including a set of open-ended questions. The
                 results of this study indicate that the use of these
                 robots had a positive influence on participants'
                 attitudes towards learning to program in a CS0 course,
                 but little or no effect on relevance, confidence, or
                 satisfaction. Results also indicate that although
                 gender and students interests may affect individual
                 components of motivation, gender, technical
                 self-perception, and interest in software development
                 have no bearing on the overall motivational levels of
                 students.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Poor:2012:NUL,
  author =       "G. Michael Poor and Laura M. Leventhal and Julie
                 Barnes and Duke R. Hutchings and Paul Albee and Laura
                 Campbell",
  title =        "No User Left Behind: Including Accessibility in
                 Student Projects and the Impact on {CS} Students'
                 Attitudes",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160548",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Usability and accessibility have become increasingly
                 important in computing curricula. This article briefly
                 reviews how these concepts may be included in existing
                 courses. The authors conducted a survey of student
                 attitudes toward these issues at the start and end of a
                 usability engineering course that included a group
                 project with an accessibility component. Results of the
                 survey indicate that students' awareness of issues
                 related to usability and accessibility are increased
                 after taking the course and completing the project. Our
                 work and results are potentially valuable to CS
                 educators in three ways: (1) They validate the
                 usefulness of the survey instrument in assessing
                 pedagogies in usability engineering, (2) They provide
                 useful insights into the attitudes of CS majors
                 relative to the important topics of usability and
                 accessibility, and (3) They point to possible benefits
                 of including usability and accessibility topics into CS
                 curricula.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ip:2012:FNI,
  author =       "Barry Ip",
  title =        "Fitting the Needs of an Industry: An Examination of
                 Games Design, Development, and Art Courses in the
                 {UK}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160549",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "There have been growing criticisms in recent years
                 among the computer and video games community on the
                 apparent lack of graduates capable of meeting the
                 industry's employment needs. Following the sharp rise
                 in the number of computer and video games courses
                 across higher education (HE) institutions in the UK and
                 across the globe, this article examines the composition
                 of existing British games design, development, and art
                 programs in relation to prescribed study areas voiced
                 by industry bodies. From a sample of 242 courses, and a
                 further 11 industry-derived and accredited programs,
                 the results explore content currently residing within a
                 variety of games programs and qualification types and
                 evaluate the extent to which such content adheres to
                 the industry's demand for the focus on specific skills
                 and study areas. The findings point toward certain
                 shortfalls in some key areas deemed to be important by
                 industry professionals and the consideration of the
                 degree to which course providers should cater to the
                 specific demands of industry.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:CPP,
  author =       "Monica M. McGill",
  title =        "The Curriculum Planning Process for Undergraduate Game
                 Degree Programs in the {United Kingdom} and {United
                 States}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160550",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and
                 consumed by an increasing number of people and the game
                 industry is only expected to grow. In response,
                 postsecondary institutions in the UK and the U.S. have
                 started to create game degree programs. Though
                 curriculum theorists provide insight into the process
                 of creating a new program, no formal research
                 contextualizes curriculum planning for game degree
                 programs. The purpose of this research was to explore
                 these processes when planning undergraduate game degree
                 programs. The research methodology included an
                 explanatory mixed-methods approach, using a
                 quantitative survey of participants in the UK and the
                 U.S., followed by interviews with several participants
                 selected on the basis of their institution's
                 demographics. Results indicate that five external
                 factors influence the development of game programs
                 (government, industry, other universities, society, and
                 trade associations) and eight internal factors
                 influence curriculum planning (facilities, faculty,
                 institution, interdisciplinary collaboration, learners,
                 learning time and space, originating department, and
                 backgrounds of the planners). Results also indicate
                 that while some differences exist in the game degree
                 programs across countries, the vast majority of
                 curriculum planning processes and influencing factors
                 are the same. The study concludes with a set of
                 recommendations for educators, trade associations, and
                 the games industry to improve game degree programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Taub:2012:CUM,
  author =       "Rivka Taub and Michal Armoni and Mordechai Ben-Ari",
  title =        "{CS} Unplugged and Middle-School Students' Views,
                 Attitudes, and Intentions Regarding {CS}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160551",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Many students hold incorrect ideas and negative
                 attitudes about computer science (CS). In order to
                 address these difficulties, a series of learning
                 activities called Computer Science Unplugged was
                 developed by Tim Bell and his colleagues. These
                 activities expose young people to central concepts in
                 CS in an entertaining way without requiring a computer.
                 The CS Unplugged activities have become more and more
                 popular among CS educators and several activities are
                 recommended in the ACM K-12 curriculum for elementary
                 schools. CS Unplugged is used worldwide and has been
                 translated into many languages. We examined the effect
                 of the CS Unplugged activities on middle-school
                 students' ideas about CS and their desire to consider
                 and study it in high school. The results indicate that
                 following the activities the ideas of the students on
                 what CS is about were partially improved, but their
                 desire to study CS lessened. In order to provide
                 possible explanations to these results, we analyzed the
                 CS Unplugged activities to determine to what extent the
                 objectives of CS Unplugged were addressed in the
                 activities. In addition, we checked whether the
                 activities were designed according to constructivist
                 principles and whether they were explicitly linked to
                 central concepts in CS. We found that only some of the
                 objectives were addressed in the activities, that the
                 activities do not engage with the students' prior
                 knowledge and that most of the activities are not
                 explicitly linked to central concepts in CS. We offer
                 suggestions for modifying the CS Unplugged activities
                 so that they will be more likely to achieve their
                 objectives.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Talon:2012:DCI,
  author =       "B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte Talon and Mouldi Sagar and
                 Christophe Kolski",
  title =        "Developing Competence in Interactive Systems: The
                 {GRASP} Tool for the Design or Redesign of Pedagogical
                 {ICT} Devices",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275598",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Training professionals to design and produce
                 interactive systems requires the use of well
                 thought-out training scenarios. Indeed, it is essential
                 to consider pedagogical forms whose objective is
                 providing learners with field experience. It is also
                 necessary to motivate learners to learn about subjects
                 that sometimes seem distant from their immediate
                 concerns and to renew their interest in these subjects.
                 This article presents a tool, called GRASP, that helps
                 design pedagogical devices. This tool was first
                 evaluated through three educational initiatives
                 implemented in two universities in the north of France.
                 These initiatives were analyzed to enhance the tool.
                 Then, a second evaluation was conducted to validate the
                 tool more widely. The first part of this article
                 presents the scientific context. Then the design tool,
                 the evaluation protocol, and the three devices built
                 using this tool and their evaluation are introduced.
                 Some of the lessons learned during the initiatives are
                 described. Next, the second evaluation, conducted with
                 more teachers, is presented. Finally, the conclusion
                 highlights the perspectives opened by these
                 initiatives.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{OGrady:2012:PPB,
  author =       "Michael J. O'Grady",
  title =        "Practical Problem-Based Learning in Computing
                 Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275599",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer Science (CS) is a relatively new disciple and
                 how best to introduce it to new students remains an
                 open question. Likewise, the identification of
                 appropriate instructional strategies for the diverse
                 topics that constitute the average curriculum remains
                 open to debate. One approach considered by a number of
                 practitioners in CS education involves Problem-Based
                 Learning (PBL), a radical departure from the
                 conventional lecturing format. PBL has been adopted in
                 other domains with success, but whether these positive
                 experiences will be replicated in CS remains to be
                 seen. In this article, a systematic review of PBL
                 initiatives in undergraduate and postgraduate CS is
                 presented from a Computing Education Research (CER)
                 perspective. This includes analyses of a range of
                 practical didactic issues, including the degree to
                 which PBL has been systematically evaluated, practical
                 problem description in the literature, as well as a
                 survey of topics for which a PBL approach has been
                 adopted.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Apiola:2012:CSL,
  author =       "Mikko Apiola and Matti Lattu and Tomi A. Pasanen",
  title =        "Creativity-Supporting Learning Environment---{CSLE}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275600",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Despite much public discussion about the importance of
                 creativity and innovation-friendly teaching in Finnish
                 higher education, the impact of the general opinion on
                 actual teaching practices has been limited. In the
                 Finnish computer science education the teaching mostly
                 follows a pattern of lectures, fixed exercise sets, and
                 exams. With this article we want to open a discussion
                 about possibilities of enhancing the learning
                 environment by focusing on creative problem solving. We
                 will present results from two research experiments in
                 which we aimed to provide computer science students
                 with a practically oriented learning environment with
                 an explicit intention of supporting the creative work
                 of students. There exists a vast amount of scientific
                 theory about creativity, yet it is unclear on how to
                 turn that theory into practice. Thus, our main interest
                 was to find ways of applying creativity theory in
                 practice in the context of computer science education.
                 Our research experiments consist of a practically
                 oriented computer science course, where
                 LEGO\reg{}Mindstorms robots were used as the platform
                 for the student work. Methodological tools used in this
                 study included content analysis of student products,
                 observations from our learning sessions and
                 semi-structured interviews with the students. The
                 course was organised two times: the first time was in
                 spring 2009 and the second in spring 2010. The total
                 number of attending students was 72. In this article we
                 argue that our approach of providing a
                 creativity-supporting practical computer science course
                 was a success. We gained a lot of ideas on how to
                 support creativity, the students were clearly
                 motivated, and they began to learn a new kind of
                 experimental working style. The robotics kit seemed to
                 work well both as a trigger for motivation and as a
                 platform to support experimental learning, enhancing
                 students' creativity and working style. In our opinion
                 these findings are of great importance, and give
                 promising practical ideas for the support of creativity
                 in higher computer science education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Exter:2012:EEP,
  author =       "Marisa Exter and Nichole Turnage",
  title =        "Exploring Experienced Professionals' Reflections on
                 Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275601",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This exploratory qualitative study examines computing
                 professional's memories of their own formal and
                 non-formal educational experiences, their reflections
                 on how these have prepared them for their professional
                 roles, and their recommendations for an ``ideal''
                 undergraduate degree program. Data was collected
                 through semi-structured interviews of experienced
                 computing professionals. Ongoing on-the-job learning is
                 a natural part of professionals' work lives.
                 Participants indicate that important elements in an
                 undergraduate degree program include foundational
                 computing topics, development of critical thinking and
                 communications skills, and a strong emphasis on
                 experiences similar to those encountered in a
                 professional position, such as complex, realistic group
                 projects. Specific programming languages and
                 technologies should be used only as practice in solving
                 problems and learning on one's own.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Benkrid:2012:DHD,
  author =       "Khaled Benkrid and Thomas Clayton",
  title =        "Digital Hardware Design Teaching: an Alternative
                 Approach",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382565",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents the design and implementation of
                 a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware
                 design teaching in the School of Engineering at the
                 University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have
                 been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven
                 teaching, deep learning, affordability, and
                 flexibility. This has identified discrete electronics
                 as key components in the early stages of the curriculum
                 and FPGAs as an economical platform for the teaching of
                 various digital hardware design concepts and techniques
                 in later stages of the curriculum. In particular, the
                 article presents the detailed design and implementation
                 of one digital hardware design laboratory, called
                 Gateway, which introduces students to synchronous
                 digital circuit development from high level functional
                 specifications, uses Verilog for hardware description
                 and FPGAs as an implementation platform. Biggs' theory
                 of constructive alignment was applied in the design of
                 this lab's learning outcomes, lab content, teaching and
                 learning methods, and assessment methods. The lab makes
                 extensive use of multimedia in both lab content
                 delivery and demonstration applications developed by
                 students. Student feedback following the deployment of
                 this lab was overwhelmingly positive and an evaluation
                 of the lab results compared to previous lab offerings'
                 shows the merit of the approach taken.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sondag:2012:FTU,
  author =       "Tyler Sondag and Kian L. Pokorny and Hridesh Rajan",
  title =        "{Frances}: a Tool for Understanding Computer
                 Architecture and Assembly Language",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382566",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Students in all areas of computing require knowledge
                 of the computing device including software
                 implementation at the machine level. Several courses in
                 computer science curricula address these low-level
                 details such as computer architecture and assembly
                 languages. For such courses, there are advantages to
                 studying real architectures instead of simplified
                 examples. However, real architectures and instruction
                 sets introduce complexity that makes them difficult to
                 grasp in a single semester course. Visualization
                 techniques can help ease this burden, unfortunately
                 existing tools are often difficult to use and
                 consequently difficult to adopt in a course where time
                 is already limited. To solve this problem, we present
                 Frances. Frances graphically illustrates key
                 differences between familiar high-level languages and
                 unfamiliar low-level languages and also illustrates how
                 familiar high-level programs behave on real
                 architectures. Key to this tool is that we use a simple
                 Web interface that requires no setup, easing course
                 adoption hurdles. We also include several features that
                 further enhance its usefulness in a classroom setting.
                 These features include graphical relationships between
                 high-level code and machine code, clearly illustrated
                 step-by-step machine state transitions, color coding to
                 make instruction behavior clear, and illustration of
                 pointers. We have used Frances in courses and performed
                 experimental evaluation. Our experiences with Frances
                 in the classroom demonstrate its usability. Most
                 notably, in our experimental setting, students with no
                 computer architecture course experience were able to
                 complete lessons using Frances with no guidance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Benda:2012:WLL,
  author =       "Klara Benda and Amy Bruckman and Mark Guzdial",
  title =        "When Life and Learning Do Not Fit: Challenges of
                 Workload and Communication in Introductory Computer
                 Science Online",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382567",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present the results of an interview study
                 investigating student experiences in two online
                 introductory computer science courses. Our theoretical
                 approach is situated at the intersection of two
                 research traditions: distance and adult education
                 research, which tends to be sociologically oriented,
                 and computer science education research, which has
                 strong connections with pedagogy and psychology. The
                 article reviews contributions from both traditions on
                 student failure in the context of higher education,
                 distance and online education as well as introductory
                 computer science. Our research relies on a combination
                 of the two perspectives, which provides useful results
                 for the field of computer science education in general,
                 as well as its online or distance versions. The
                 interviewed students exhibited great diversity in both
                 socio-demographic and educational background. We
                 identified no profiles that predicted student success
                 or failure. At the same time, we found that
                 expectations about programming resulted in challenges
                 of time-management and communication. The time
                 requirements of programming assignments were
                 unpredictable, often disproportionate to expectations,
                 and clashed with the external commitments of adult
                 professionals. Too little communication was available
                 to access adequate instructor help. On the basis of
                 these findings, we suggest instructional design
                 solutions for adult professionals studying introductory
                 computer science education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hubwieser:2012:CSE,
  author =       "Peter Hubwieser",
  title =        "Computer Science Education in Secondary Schools ---
                 The Introduction of a New Compulsory Subject",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382568",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In 2004 the German state of Bavaria introduced a new
                 compulsory subject of computer science (CS) in its
                 grammar schools (Gymnasium). The subject is based on a
                 comprehensive teaching concept that was developed by
                 the author and his colleagues during the years
                 1995--2000. It comprises mandatory courses in grades
                 6/7 for all students of grammar schools and in grade
                 9/10 for the students of the science and technology
                 track of this school type. In grades 11 and 12 there
                 are elective courses that qualify for an optional
                 graduation exam in CS. The first students that have
                 attended the course in total graduated in 2011. This
                 article describes the whole project in the form of an
                 extensive case study that is guided by the Darmstadt
                 Model, which was developed as a category system for
                 computer science education in secondary schools by a
                 working group at ITiCSE 2011. This case study is the
                 first (nearly) all-embracing discussion of the whole
                 project that describes the long way from the original
                 concept to the first graduates as well as the internal
                 structure of the subject and the first results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ben-Ari:2013:ISI,
  author =       "Mordechai Ben-Ari and Dan Garcia and Tom Murphy",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on concurrent and
                 parallel programming",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414447",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Much of computing education research is devoted to
                 introductory computer science. The articles in this
                 special issue look at the other end of the spectrum:
                 learning advanced subjects, here, concurrent, parallel
                 and distributed computation. The articles present four
                 approaches for teaching these subjects using
                 infra-structure that is feasible for educational
                 institutions to acquire: MapReduce in a cloud, remote
                 computing on a multicore system, a network of gaming
                 consoles, and software modeling using formal
                 specification.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rabkin:2013:UCM,
  author =       "Ariel Rabkin and Charles Reiss and Randy Katz and
                 David Patterson",
  title =        "Using clouds for {MapReduce} measurement assignments",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414448",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe our experiences teaching MapReduce in a
                 large undergraduate lecture course using public cloud
                 services and the standard Hadoop API. Using the
                 standard API, students directly experienced the quality
                 of industrial big-data tools. Using the cloud, every
                 student could carry out scalability benchmarking
                 assignments on realistic hardware, which would have
                 been impossible otherwise. Over two semesters, over 500
                 students took our course. We believe this is the first
                 large-scale demonstration that it is feasible to use
                 pay-as-you-go billing in the cloud for a large
                 undergraduate course. Modest instructor effort was
                 sufficient to prevent students from
                 overspending. Average per-pupil expenses in the Cloud
                 were under \$45. Students were excited by the
                 assignment: 90\% said they thought it should be
                 retained in future course offerings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Abuzaghleh:2013:IAH,
  author =       "Omar Abuzaghleh and Kathleen Goldschmidt and Yasser
                 Elleithy and Jeongkyu Lee",
  title =        "Implementing an affordable high-performance computing
                 for teaching-oriented computer science curriculum",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414449",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "With the advances in computing power, high-performance
                 computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not
                 only scientific research in advanced organizations but
                 also computer science curriculum in the educational
                 community. For example, multicore programming and
                 parallel systems are highly desired courses in the
                 computer science major. However, the high cost of HPC
                 equipment and maintenance makes it hard to be adapted
                 into a conventional computer science curriculum.
                 Specifically, teaching-oriented institutions cannot
                 afford an HPC system due to the high cost, lack of
                 experience, and smaller research infrastructure. The
                 main objective of this article is to present an
                 affordable and easy-to-use high-performance cluster
                 system for teaching-oriented computer science
                 curriculums. In order to address this, we have designed
                 and implemented an affordable high-performance cluster
                 system based on the PlayStation 3 (PS3). For the
                 performance evaluation of the PS3 cluster, we conducted
                 a benchmarking test, that is, matrix multiplication,
                 with different numbers of synergistic processing
                 elements (SPEs) and nodes. As a result, it was
                 concluded that the PS3Cluster provides enough computing
                 power as an HPC for computer science courses, while the
                 total cost is less than 10\% of an existing cluster
                 system on the market that has similar performance. In
                 addition, the implemented PS3Cluster system has been
                 used for computer science courses, such as Parallel and
                 Distributed Databases and Parallel Programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ziwisky:2013:EEO,
  author =       "Michael Ziwisky and Kyle Persohn and Dennis Brylow",
  title =        "A down-to-earth educational operating system for
                 up-in-the-cloud many-core architectures",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414450",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present Xipx, the first port of a major educational
                 operating system to a processor in the emerging class
                 of many-core architectures. Through extensions to the
                 proven Embedded Xinu operating system, Xipx gives
                 students hands-on experience with system programming in
                 a distributed message-passing environment. We expose
                 the software primitives needed to maintain coherency
                 between many cores in a system lacking specialized
                 caching hardware. Our proposed series of laboratory
                 assignments adds parallel thread execution and
                 intercore message passing communication to a
                 well-established OS curriculum.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Carro:2013:MDA,
  author =       "Manuel Carro and {\'A}ngel Herranz and Julio
                 Mari{\~n}o",
  title =        "A model-driven approach to teaching concurrency",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414451",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present an undergraduate course on concurrent
                 programming where formal models are used in different
                 stages of the learning process. The main practical
                 difference with other approaches lies in the fact that
                 the ability to develop correct concurrent software
                 relies on a systematic transformation of formal models
                 of inter-process interaction (so called shared
                 resources), rather than on the specific constructs of
                 some programming language. Using a resource-centric
                 rather than a language-centric approach has some
                 benefits for both teachers and students. Besides the
                 obvious advantage of being independent of the
                 programming language, the models help in the early
                 validation of concurrent software design, provide
                 students and teachers with a lingua franca that greatly
                 simplifies communication at the classroom and during
                 supervision, and help in the automatic generation of
                 tests for the practical assignments. This method has
                 been in use, with slight variations, for some 15 years,
                 surviving changes in the programming language and
                 course length. In this article, we describe the
                 components and structure of the current incarnation of
                 the course --- which uses Java as target language ---
                 and some tools used to support our method. We provide a
                 detailed description of the different outcomes that the
                 model-driven approach delivers (validation of the
                 initial design, automatic generation of tests, and
                 mechanical generation of code) from a teaching
                 perspective. A critical discussion on the perceived
                 advantages and risks of our approach follows, including
                 some proposals on how these risks can be minimized. We
                 include a statistical analysis to show that our method
                 has a positive impact in the student ability to
                 understand concurrency and to generate correct code.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Isomottonen:2013:TPE,
  author =       "Ville Isom{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Ville Tirronen",
  title =        "Teaching programming by emphasizing self-direction:
                 How did students react to the active role required of
                 them?",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483711",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Lecturing is known to be a controversial form of
                 teaching. With massed classrooms, in particular, it
                 tends to constrain the active participation of
                 students. One of the remedies applied to programming
                 education is to use technology that can vitalize
                 interaction in the classroom, while another is to base
                 teaching increasingly on programming activities. In
                 this article, we present the first results of an
                 exploratory study, in which we teach programming
                 without lectures, exams, or grades, by heavily
                 emphasizing programming activity, and, in a pedagogical
                 sense, student self-direction. This article
                 investigates how students reacted to the active role
                 required of them and what issues emerged in this
                 setting where self-direction was required. The results
                 indicate three issues that should be taken into account
                 when designing a student-driven course: the challenge
                 of supporting students' theoretical synthesis of the
                 topics to be learned, the individual's opportunities
                 for self-direction in a group work setting, and
                 mismatch between individual learning processes and
                 academic course scheduling.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ngai:2013:DIM,
  author =       "Grace Ngai and Stephen C. F. Chan and Hong Va Leong
                 and Vincent T. Y. Ng",
  title =        "Designing {i*CATch}: a multipurpose,
                 education-friendly construction kit for physical and
                 wearable computing",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483712",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents the design and development of
                 i*CATch, a construction kit for physical and wearable
                 computing that was designed to be scalable,
                 plug-and-play, and to provide support for iterative and
                 exploratory learning. It consists of a standardized
                 construction interface that can be adapted for a wide
                 range of soft textiles or electronic boards, a set of
                 functional components, and an easy-to-use hybrid
                 text-graphical integrated development environment. The
                 objective was to design an easily usable,
                 manufacturable and extensible construction kit that can
                 be used in a wide range of teaching tasks for a wide
                 variety of student demographic profiles. We present
                 detailed specifications of our construction kit and
                 explain some of the major design decisions. Experiences
                 in using the kit in multiple teaching environments,
                 ranging from elementary school to postgraduate,
                 demonstrate that the design objectives have been
                 achieved.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sorva:2013:NMI,
  author =       "Juha Sorva",
  title =        "Notional machines and introductory programming
                 education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483713",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article brings together, summarizes, and comments
                 on several threads of research that have contributed to
                 our understanding of the challenges that novice
                 programmers face when learning about the runtime
                 dynamics of programs and the role of the computer in
                 program execution. More specifically, the review covers
                 the literature on programming misconceptions, the
                 cognitive theory of mental models, constructivist
                 theory of knowledge and learning, phenomenographic
                 research on experiencing programming, and the theory of
                 threshold concepts. These bodies of work are examined
                 in relation to the concept of a ``notional machine''-an
                 abstract computer for executing programs of a
                 particular kind. As a whole, the literature points to
                 notional machines as a major challenge in introductory
                 programming education. It is argued that instructors
                 should acknowledge the notional machine as an explicit
                 learning objective and address it in teaching. Teaching
                 within some programming paradigms, such as
                 object-oriented programming, may benefit from using
                 multiple notional machines at different levels of
                 abstraction. Pointers to some promising pedagogical
                 techniques are provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Grissom:2013:ISI,
  author =       "Scott Grissom",
  title =        "Introduction to special issue on alternatives to
                 lecture in the computer science classroom",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499948",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Active learning in the college classroom has long been
                 promoted as more effective than traditional lecture.
                 Increased adoption of these instructional practices is
                 recommended in several prominent national reports as
                 well as a new National Science Foundation program. The
                 goal of this special issue is to share evidence-based
                 instructional practices that have been applied to
                 computer science education. With collaborative
                 learning, students interact with each other to achieve
                 a common learning goal. Peer Instruction is an active
                 pedagogy pioneered in Physics education in which most
                 lecture time is replaced with students answering
                 carefully designed multiple-choice questions. Chemistry
                 faculty developed and refined an inquiry-based pedagogy
                 called Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning
                 (POGIL). The fields of Architecture and Fine Arts
                 promote student collaboration in studio-based
                 learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Beck:2013:CLI,
  author =       "Leland Beck and Alexander Chizhik",
  title =        "Cooperative learning instructional methods for {CS1}:
                 Design, implementation, and evaluation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2492686",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Cooperative learning is a well-known instructional
                 technique that has been applied with a wide variety of
                 subject matter and a broad spectrum of populations.
                 This article briefly reviews the principles of
                 cooperative learning, and describes how these
                 principles were incorporated into a comprehensive set
                 of cooperative learning activities for a CS1 course. In
                 each activity, specific roles are assigned to group
                 members in order to highlight important concepts and to
                 enhance the overall functioning of the group. The group
                 processing is followed by a whole-class debriefing led
                 by the instructor, which works in tandem with the group
                 activity to help students improve their understanding
                 of the material. The effectiveness of these cooperative
                 learning activities was assessed in a series of
                 educational research studies which spanned three
                 academic years and included two different instructors.
                 The results of these studies show statistically
                 significant benefits from the cooperative learning
                 approach, both overall and for a broad range of
                 subgroups of students. The article concludes with
                 suggestions for faculty members who may want to use
                 these cooperative learning activities in the classroom,
                 or to develop their own activities along similar
                 lines.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Renaud:2013:THC,
  author =       "Karen Renaud and Quintin Cutts",
  title =        "Teaching human-centered security using nontraditional
                 techniques",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2492687",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computing science students amass years of programming
                 experience and a wealth of factual knowledge in their
                 undergraduate courses. Based on our combined years of
                 experience, however, one of our students' abiding
                 shortcomings is that they think there is only one
                 correct answer to issues in most courses: an idealistic
                 stance. Human-centered security, as well as other
                 areas, requires students to understand that they have
                 to weigh up a number of different possible solutions,
                 and satisfice, rather than choose the one that is
                 undeniably the best. In other words, they need to adopt
                 a more realistic stance. Lecture-based teaching cannot
                 develop this facility, due to its inability to engage
                 students deeply with the issues and possible solutions.
                 We argue that depth (in terms of understanding the
                 complexity and issues involved) as well as breadth (in
                 terms of appreciating the different positions taken by
                 users on these issues) are essential for developing the
                 realistic stance. This article reports on an
                 instructional design that was used to help students
                 become more realistic in their decision making. The
                 design is based on seven educational strategies that,
                 in tandem, help students to see the depth and breadth
                 of topics in the course. We detail the instructional
                 design and its application to three topic areas in the
                 course, and report on the outcomes. We found evidence
                 that students did indeed develop the depth and breadth
                 we were hoping for. In concluding, we reflect on the
                 design and the positive result, and propose changes to
                 further improve the course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Lee:2013:CPI,
  author =       "Cynthia Bailey Lee and Saturnino Garcia and Leo
                 Porter",
  title =        "Can peer instruction be effective in upper-division
                 computer science courses?",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499949",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Peer Instruction (PI) is an active learning
                 pedagogical technique. PI lectures present students
                 with a series of multiple-choice questions, which they
                 respond to both individually and in groups. PI has been
                 widely successful in the physical sciences and,
                 recently, has been successfully adopted by computer
                 science instructors in lower-division, introductory
                 courses. In this work, we challenge readers to consider
                 PI for their upper-division courses as well. We present
                 a PI curriculum for two upper-division computer science
                 courses: Computer Architecture and Theory of
                 Computation. These courses exemplify several perceived
                 challenges to the adoption of PI in upper-division
                 courses, including: exploration of abstract ideas,
                 development of high-level judgment of engineering
                 design trade-offs, and exercising advanced mathematical
                 sophistication. This work includes selected course
                 materials illustrating how these challenges are
                 overcome, learning gains results comparing these
                 upper-division courses with previous lower-division
                 results in the literature, student attitudinal survey
                 results (N = 501), and pragmatic advice to prospective
                 developers and adopters. We present three main
                 findings. First, we find that these upper-division
                 courses achieved student learning gains equivalent to
                 those reported in successful lower-division computing
                 courses. Second, we find that student feedback for each
                 class was overwhelmingly positive, with 88\% of
                 students recommending PI for use in other computer
                 science classes. Third, we find that instructors
                 adopting the materials introduced here were able to
                 replicate the outcomes of the instructors who developed
                 the materials in terms of student learning gains and
                 student feedback.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hu:2013:UPH,
  author =       "Helen H. Hu and Tricia D. Shepherd",
  title =        "Using {POGIL} to help students learn to program",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499950",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "POGIL has been successfully implemented in a
                 scientific computing course to teach science students
                 how to program in Python. Following POGIL guidelines,
                 the authors have developed guided inquiry activities
                 that lead student teams to discover and understand
                 programming concepts. With each iteration of the
                 scientific computing course, the authors have refined
                 the activities and learned how to better adapt POGIL
                 for the computer science classroom. This article
                 details how POGIL activities differ from both
                 traditional computer science labs and other
                 active-learning pedagogies. Background is provided on
                 POGIL's effectiveness. The article then includes a full
                 description of how POGIL activities were used in the
                 scientific computing course, as well as an example
                 POGIL activity on recursion. Discussion is provided on
                 how to facilitate and develop POGIL activities. Quotes
                 from student evaluations and an assessment on how well
                 students learned to program are provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hundhausen:2013:TAC,
  author =       "Christopher D. Hundhausen and Anukrati Agrawal and
                 Pawan Agarwal",
  title =        "Talking about code: Integrating pedagogical code
                 reviews into early computing courses",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499951",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Given the increasing importance of soft skills in the
                 computing profession, there is good reason to provide
                 students with more opportunities to learn and practice
                 those skills in undergraduate computing courses. Toward
                 that end, we have developed an active learning approach
                 for computing education called the Pedagogical Code
                 Review (PCR). Inspired by the code inspection process
                 used in the software industry, a PCR is a collaborative
                 activity in which a small team of students, led by a
                 trained moderator: (a) walk through segments of each
                 other's programming solutions, (b) check the code
                 against a list of best coding practices, and (c)
                 discuss and log issues that arise. To evaluate the
                 viability and effectiveness of this approach, we
                 conducted a series of four mixed-method empirical
                 studies of various implementations of PCRs in CS1
                 courses at Washington State University. The first study
                 validated the viability of the PCR activity. Using a
                 quasi-experimental design, the final three studies
                 evaluated two alternative implementations of PCRs-
                 face-to-face and online. Our results provide evidence
                 that PCRs can promote positive attitudinal shifts, and
                 hone skills in critical review, teamwork, and
                 communication. Based on our findings, we present a set
                 of best practices for implementing PCRs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sorva:2013:RGP,
  author =       "Juha Sorva and Ville Karavirta and Lauri Malmi",
  title =        "A Review of Generic Program Visualization Systems for
                 Introductory Programming Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2490822",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article is a survey of program visualization
                 systems intended for teaching beginners about the
                 runtime behavior of computer programs. Our focus is on
                 generic systems that are capable of illustrating many
                 kinds of programs and behaviors. We inclusively
                 describe such systems from the last three decades and
                 review findings from their empirical evaluations. A
                 comparable review on the topic does not previously
                 exist; ours is intended to serve as a reference for the
                 creators, evaluators, and users of educational program
                 visualization systems. Moreover, we revisit the issue
                 of learner engagement which has been identified as a
                 potentially key factor in the success of educational
                 software visualization and summarize what little is
                 known about engagement in the context of the generic
                 program visualization systems for beginners that we
                 have reviewed; a proposed refinement of the frameworks
                 previously used by computing education researchers to
                 rank types of learner engagement is a side product of
                 this effort. Overall, our review illustrates that
                 program visualization systems for beginners are often
                 short-lived research prototypes that support the
                 user-controlled viewing of program animations; a recent
                 trend is to support more engaging modes of user
                 interaction. The results of evaluations largely support
                 the use of program visualization in introductory
                 programming education, but research to date is
                 insufficient for drawing more nuanced conclusions with
                 respect to learner engagement. On the basis of our
                 review, we identify interesting questions to answer for
                 future research in relation to themes such as
                 engagement, the authenticity of learning tasks,
                 cognitive load, and the integration of program
                 visualization into introductory programming pedagogy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Magana:2013:IDB,
  author =       "Alejandra J. Magana and Michael L. Falk and Michael J.
                 {Reese, Jr.}",
  title =        "Introducing Discipline-Based Computing in
                 Undergraduate Engineering Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2534971",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article investigates the effectiveness of a
                 course employing a discipline-based computing approach.
                 The research questions driving this study were: (1) Can
                 experiences with discipline-based computing promote
                 students' acquisition and application of foundational
                 computing concepts and procedures? (2) How do students
                 perceive and experience the integration of
                 discipline-based computing as relevant to their future
                 career goals? (3) How do students perceive the
                 structure of the class as useful and engaging for their
                 learning? We used qualitative and quantitative research
                 methods to approach the research questions. The
                 population studied was 20 engineering undergraduates
                 from Johns Hopkins University. Results of this study
                 suggest that students performed proficiently in
                 applying computing methods, procedures, and concepts to
                 the solution of well-structured engineering problems.
                 Results also suggest that student self-perceptions of
                 their overall computing abilities and their abilities
                 to specifically solve engineering problems shifted from
                 low to high confidence. Students consistently found the
                 course to be important and useful for their studies and
                 their future careers. They also found the course to be
                 of very high quality and identified the instructors and
                 the teaching and feedback methods employed as very
                 useful for their learning. Finally, students also
                 described the course as very challenging compared with
                 other courses in their own department and at the
                 university in general.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Shesh:2013:TSU,
  author =       "Amit Shesh",
  title =        "Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics
                 Course in Small and Medium-sized Colleges",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2522689",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article discusses the evolution of a single
                 undergraduate computer graphics course over five
                 semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could
                 offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what
                 would it include? This constraint is relevant to many
                 small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources,
                 adequate expertise, and enrollment to sustain multiple
                 courses in graphics that spread out its vast and
                 evolving content. We strive to include material that
                 would provide (1) a basic but solid theoretical
                 foundation, (2) topics, data structures, and algorithms
                 that are most practically used, (3) ample experience in
                 actual graphics programming and (4) a basic awareness
                 of advanced topics. We have a secondary objective of
                 relating and complementing computer graphics knowledge
                 and programming with topics in other computer science
                 courses to provide a more cohesive understanding to our
                 students. We achieve both objectives by using an
                 ``early-scenegraphs'' approach to progressively create
                 graphics applications that use XML-based modeling and
                 both pipeline-based and ray traced rendering. We report
                 and analyze results that show how students were able to
                 achieve more complex results within similar time
                 periods while largely retaining prior average student
                 performance in the course. Students also report higher
                 rates of satisfaction with the course when it follows
                 our proposed approach. Pedagogically our main
                 contribution is an evolving blueprint for a single
                 undergraduate CG course that offers flexibility to
                 emphasize different aspects like modeling, rendering,
                 etc. according to the instructor's and students'
                 interests, while aligning the course better within the
                 computer science curriculum especially when resources
                 are limited.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Velazquez-Iturbide:2013:EMA,
  author =       "J. {\'A}ngel Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
  title =        "An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of
                 Greedy Algorithms",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2534972",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple
                 algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are
                 not simple to achieve. We present a didactic method
                 aimed at promoting active learning of greedy
                 algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of
                 selection function, and is based on explicit learning
                 goals. It mainly consists of an experimental method and
                 the interactive system, GreedEx, that supports it. We
                 also present our experience of five years using the
                 didactic method and the evaluations we conducted to
                 refine it, which are of two kinds: usability
                 evaluations of GreedEx and analysis of students'
                 reports. Usability evaluations revealed a number of
                 opportunities of improvement for GreedEx, and the
                 analysis of students' reports showed a number of
                 misconceptions. We made use of these findings in
                 several ways, mainly: improving GreedEx, elaborating
                 lecture notes that address students' misconceptions,
                 and adapting the class and lab sessions and materials.
                 As a consequence of these actions, our didactic method
                 currently satisfies its initial goals. The article has
                 two main contributions. First, the didactic method
                 itself can be valuable for computer science educators
                 in their teaching of algorithms. Secondly, the
                 refinement process we have carried out, which was a
                 multifaceted, medium-term action research, can be of
                 interest to researchers of technology-supported
                 computing education, since it illustrates how the
                 didactic method was integrated into our educational
                 practice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Stefik:2013:EIP,
  author =       "Andreas Stefik and Susanna Siebert",
  title =        "An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language
                 Syntax",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2534973",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Recent studies in the literature have shown that
                 syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer
                 science students in the field. While this syntax
                 barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies
                 across programming languages has not been carefully
                 investigated. For this article, we conducted four
                 empirical studies on programming language syntax as
                 part of a larger analysis into the, so called,
                 programming language wars. We first present two surveys
                 conducted with students on the intuitiveness of syntax,
                 which we used to garner formative clues on what words
                 and symbols might be easy for novices to understand. We
                 followed up with two studies on the accuracy rates of
                 novices using a total of six programming languages:
                 Ruby, Java, Perl, Python, Randomo, and Quorum. Randomo
                 was designed by randomly choosing some keywords from
                 the ASCII table (a metaphorical placebo). To our
                 surprise, we found that languages using a more
                 traditional C-style syntax (both Perl and Java) did not
                 afford accuracy rates significantly higher than a
                 language with randomly generated keywords, but that
                 languages which deviate (Quorum, Python, and Ruby) did.
                 These results, including the specifics of syntax that
                 are particularly problematic for novices, may help
                 teachers of introductory programming courses in
                 choosing appropriate first languages and in helping
                 students to overcome the challenges they face with
                 syntax.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kafai:2014:COA,
  author =       "Yasmin B. Kafai and Eunkyoung Lee and Kristin Searle
                 and Deborah Fields and Eliot Kaplan and Debora Lui",
  title =        "A Crafts-Oriented Approach to Computing in High
                 School: Introducing Computational Concepts, Practices,
                 and Perspectives with Electronic Textiles",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2576874",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we examine the use of electronic
                 textiles (e-textiles) for introducing key computational
                 concepts and practices while broadening perceptions
                 about computing. The starting point of our work was the
                 design and implementation of a curriculum module using
                 the LilyPad Arduino in a pre-AP high school computer
                 science class. To understand students' learning, we
                 analyzed the structure and functionality of their
                 circuits and program code as well as their design
                 approaches to making and debugging their e-textile
                 creations and their views of computing. We also studied
                 students' changing perceptions of computing. Our
                 discussion addresses the need for and design of
                 scaffolded challenges and the potential for using
                 crafts materials and activities such as e-textiles for
                 designing introductory courses that can broaden
                 participation in computing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Lukowiak:2014:CEB,
  author =       "Marcin Lukowiak and Stanislaw Radziszowski and James
                 Vallino and Christopher Wood",
  title =        "Cybersecurity Education: Bridging the Gap Between
                 Hardware and Software Domains",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2538029",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "With the continuous growth of cyberinfrastructure
                 throughout modern society, the need for secure
                 computing and communication is more important than ever
                 before. As a result, there is also an increasing need
                 for entry-level developers who are capable of designing
                 and building practical solutions for systems with
                 stringent security requirements. This calls for careful
                 attention to algorithm choice and implementation
                 method, as well as trade-offs between hardware and
                 software implementations. This article describes
                 motivation and efforts taken by three departments at
                 Rochester Institute of Technology (Computer
                 Engineering, Computer Science, and Software
                 Engineering) that were focused on creating a
                 multidisciplinary course that integrates the
                 algorithmic, engineering, and practical aspects of
                 security as exemplified by applied cryptography. In
                 particular, the article presents the structure of this
                 new course, topics covered, lab tools and results from
                 the first two spring quarter offerings in 2011 and
                 2012.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Buchanan:2014:CSB,
  author =       "Sarah Buchanan and Joseph J. {Laviola, Jr.}",
  title =        "{CSTutor}: a Sketch-Based Tool for Visualizing Data
                 Structures",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2535909",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present CSTutor, a sketch-based interface designed
                 to help students understand data structures,
                 specifically Linked Lists, Binary Search Trees, AVL
                 Trees, and Heaps. CSTutor creates an environment that
                 seamlessly combines a user's sketched diagram and code.
                 In each of these data structure modes, the user can
                 naturally sketch a data structure on the canvas just as
                 they would on a white board. CSTutor analyzes the
                 user's diagrams in real time, and automatically
                 generates code in a separate code view to reflect any
                 changes the user has made. Additionally, the code can
                 also be edited and any new code changes will animate
                 the data structure drawn on the canvas. The connection
                 between the data structure drawn on the canvas and the
                 code implementation is intended to bridge the gap
                 between the conceptual diagram of a data structure and
                 the actual implementation. We also present the results
                 of two semester-long studies using CSTutor in a CS1
                 course. The results indicate that students preferred
                 CSTutor and were more engaged using it than a standard
                 whiteboard lecture; however, results were mixed in quiz
                 and exam performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Goldsmith:2014:FIC,
  author =       "Judy Goldsmith and Nicholas Mattei",
  title =        "Fiction as an Introduction to Computer Science
                 Research",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2576873",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The undergraduate computer science curriculum is
                 generally focused on skills and tools; most students
                 are not exposed to much research in the field, and do
                 not learn how to navigate the research literature. We
                 describe how fiction reviews (and specifically science
                 fiction) are used as a gateway to research reviews.
                 Students learn a little about current or recent
                 research on a topic that stirs their imagination, and
                 learn how to search for, read critically, and compare
                 technical papers on a topic related to their chosen
                 science fiction book, movie, or TV show.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Yadav:2014:CTE,
  author =       "Aman Yadav and Chris Mayfield and Ninger Zhou and
                 Susanne Hambrusch and John T. Korb",
  title =        "Computational Thinking in Elementary and Secondary
                 Teacher Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2576872",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computational thinking (CT) is broadly defined as the
                 mental activity for abstracting problems and
                 formulating solutions that can be automated. In an
                 increasingly information-based society, CT is becoming
                 an essential skill for everyone. To ensure that
                 students develop this ability at the K-12 level, it is
                 important to provide teachers with an adequate
                 knowledge about CT and how to incorporate it into their
                 teaching. This article describes a study on designing
                 and introducing computational thinking modules and
                 assessing their impact on preservice teachers'
                 understanding of CT concepts, as well as their attitude
                 towards computing. Results demonstrate that introducing
                 computational thinking into education courses can
                 effectively influence preservice teachers'
                 understanding of CT concepts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2014:ECE,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Editorial: Computing Education in ({K--12}) Schools
                 from a Cross-National Perspective",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602481",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This special issue on computing education in (K--12)
                 schools represents considerable effort by the editorial
                 team, authors, and reviewers. It provides a series of
                 country-specific case studies of computing education in
                 schools that highlights the way in which curricula
                 emerge from each country's specific historical and
                 cultural circumstances. As a result, not only is there
                 much to learn from each of the case studies, but there
                 are additional lessons in the commonalities and
                 generalizations obtainable only by having a rich set of
                 case studies such as these that can be viewed
                 comparatively.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hubwieser:2014:PVC,
  author =       "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail N.
                 Giannakos and Roland T. Mittermeir",
  title =        "Perspectives and Visions of Computer Science Education
                 in Primary and Secondary ({K--12}) Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602482",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In view of the recent developments in many countries,
                 for example, in the USA and in the UK, it appears that
                 computer science education (CSE) in primary or
                 secondary schools (K--12) has reached a significant
                 turning point, shifting its focus from ICT-oriented to
                 rigorous computer science concepts. The goal of this
                 special issue is to offer a publication platform for
                 soundly based in-depth experiences that have been made
                 around the world with concepts, approaches, or
                 initiatives that aim at supporting this shift. For this
                 purpose, the article format was kept as large as
                 possible, enabling the authors to explain many facets
                 of their concepts and experiences in detail. Regarding
                 the structure of the articles, we had encouraged the
                 authors to lean on the Darmstadt Model, a category
                 system that was developed to support the development,
                 improvement, and investigation of K--12 CSE across
                 regional or national boundaries. This model could serve
                 as a unifying framework that might provide a proper
                 structure for a well-founded critical discussion about
                 the future of K--12 CSE. Curriculum designers or policy
                 stakeholders, who have to decide, which approach an
                 upcoming national initiative should follow, could
                 benefit from this discussion as well as researchers who
                 are investigating K12 CSE in any regard. With this goal
                 in mind, we have selected six extensive and two short
                 case studies from the UK, New Zealand, USA/Israel,
                 France, Sweden, Georgia (USA), Russia, and Italy that
                 provide an in-depth analysis of K--12 CSE in their
                 respective country or state.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Gal-Ezer:2014:TTC,
  author =       "Judith Gal-Ezer and Chris Stephenson",
  title =        "A Tale of Two Countries: Successes and Challenges in
                 {K--12} Computer Science Education in {Israel} and the
                 {United States}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602483",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article tells a story of K--12 computer science
                 in two different countries. These two countries differ
                 profoundly in culture, language, government and state
                 structure, and in their education systems. Despite
                 these differences, however, they share the pursuit of
                 excellence and high standards in K--12 education. In
                 Israel, curriculum is determined at the national level.
                 The high-school computer science curriculum has been in
                 place for more than 20 years and is offered in all
                 schools as an elective similar to biology, chemistry,
                 and physics. The picture in the United States is more
                 complex and therefore less amenable to generalization.
                 Because educational policy is set at the state and
                 sometimes even at the school district level, access to
                 computer science courses and the content of those
                 courses can vary even for schools within the same
                 district. This article will describe the development of
                 the curricula/standards in both countries and the
                 current situation, focusing on common issues and
                 challenges in areas such as equity and teacher
                 training.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Brown:2014:RRC,
  author =       "Neil C. C. Brown and Sue Sentance and Tom Crick and
                 Simon Humphreys",
  title =        "Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in {UK}
                 Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602484",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a
                 remarkable transformation. While the changes are not
                 consistent across each of the four devolved nations of
                 the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland),
                 there are developments in each that are moving the
                 subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5
                 onwards. In this article, we detail how computer
                 science declined in the UK, and the developments that
                 led to its revitalisation: a mixture of industry and
                 interest group lobbying, with a particular focus on the
                 value of the subject to all school pupils, not just
                 those who would study it at degree level. This rapid
                 growth in the subject is not without issues, however:
                 there remain significant forthcoming challenges with
                 its delivery, especially surrounding the issue of
                 training sufficient numbers of teachers. We describe a
                 national network of teaching excellence which is being
                 set up to combat this problem, and look at the other
                 challenges that lie ahead.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bell:2014:CSI,
  author =       "Tim Bell and Peter Andreae and Anthony Robins",
  title =        "A Case Study of the Introduction of Computer Science
                 in {NZ} Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602485",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "For many years computing in New Zealand schools was
                 focused on teaching students how to use computers, and
                 there was little opportunity for students to learn
                 about programming and computer science as formal
                 subjects. In this article we review a series of
                 initiatives that occurred from 2007 to 2009 that led to
                 programming and computer science being made available
                 formally as part of the National Certificate in
                 Educational Achievement (NCEA), the main school-leaving
                 assessment, in 2011. The changes were phased in from
                 2011 to 2013, and we review this process using the
                 Darmstadt model, including describing the context of
                 the school system, the socio-cultural factors in play
                 before, during and after the changes, the nature of the
                 new standards, the reactions and roles of the various
                 stakeholders, and the teaching materials and methods
                 that developed. The changes occurred very quickly, and
                 we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having
                 such a rapid process. In all these changes, teachers
                 have emerged as having a central role, as they have
                 been key in instigating and implementing change.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Baron:2014:CSE,
  author =       "Georges-Louis Baron and Beatrice Drot-Delange and
                 Monique Grandbastien and Fran{\c{c}}oise Tort",
  title =        "Computer Science Education in {French} Secondary
                 Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602486",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer science as a school subject in France is
                 characterized by a succession of promising starts that
                 have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions.
                 The main goal of this article is to analyze this
                 complex situation from a historical perspective, and
                 describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer
                 Science course in the last year of secondary education,
                 together with other initiatives that might contribute
                 to introducing Computer Science as a school subject. We
                 also aim at discussing some perspectives for the future
                 to support a better informatics education for all
                 students. The sources we have used are mainly
                 historical and administrative, however we have also
                 drawn on empirical research and surveys conducted since
                 the seventies. This article therefore takes both
                 retrospective and perspective viewpoints.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rolandsson:2014:PSL,
  author =       "Lennart Rolandsson and Inga-Britt Skogh",
  title =        "Programming in School: Look Back to Move Forward",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602487",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, the development of the Swedish
                 informatics curriculum during the 1970s, 1980s and
                 1990s is studied and described. The study's design is
                 inspired by the curriculum theory presented by
                 Lindensj{\"o} and Lundgren [2000], who suggest using
                 the concept of arenas (the arenas of enactment,
                 transformation and realisation) when discussing
                 curriculum development. Data collection in this study
                 comprises activities and actors in the arenas of
                 enactment and transformation. Collected data include
                 contemporary articles, journals, reports, booklets,
                 government documents and archived documents. Findings
                 show that informatics education in Sweden evolved from
                 primarily focusing on programming knowledge related to
                 automatic data processing and offered exclusively in
                 vocational education (the 1960s and 1970s) to later
                 (early 1980s) being introduced in the upper secondary
                 school curriculum under the heading Datakunskap. The
                 enactment of the informatics curriculum in 1983
                 encompassed programming, system development and
                 computing in relation to applied sciences and civics.
                 Mathematics teachers did much of the experimental work.
                 It is shown that the competencies of upper secondary
                 school teachers at the time rarely corresponded to the
                 demands of the subject (content knowledge, resources
                 and pedagogical skills). Stereotypical examples were
                 therefore developed to support teachers in instructing
                 about the subject content. When implemented in the
                 theoretical natural science-programme, system
                 development/systemisation was transformed into a
                 twofold issue, comprising vocational attributes and
                 societal aspects of computer programming. The
                 implementation of today's informatics education,
                 including programming in the curriculum, should draw
                 from lessons learned from history. For a successful
                 outcome, this study emphasises the necessity to
                 understand (1) the common incentives for introducing
                 computer programming in the curriculum, (2) the
                 requirement for teachers' pedagogical content knowledge
                 and (3) the stakeholders' role in the curriculum
                 development process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Guzdial:2014:GCI,
  author =       "Mark Guzdial and Barbara Ericson and Tom Mcklin and
                 Shelly Engelman",
  title =        "{Georgia} Computes! {An} Intervention in a {US} State,
                 with Formal and Informal Education in a Policy
                 Context",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602488",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Georgia Computes! ( GaComputes ) was a six-year
                 (2006--2012) project to improve computing education
                 across the state of Georgia in the United States,
                 funded by the National Science Foundation. The goal of
                 GaComputes was to broaden participation in computing
                 and especially to engage more members of
                 underrepresented groups which includes women, African
                 Americans, and Hispanics. GaComputes' interventions
                 were multi-faceted and broad: summer camps and
                 after-school/weekend programs for 4th--12th grade
                 students, professional development for secondary
                 teachers, and professional development for
                 post-secondary instructors faculty. All of the efforts
                 were carefully evaluated by an external team (led by
                 the third and fourth authors), which provides us with
                 an unusually detailed view into a computing education
                 intervention across a region (about 59K square miles,
                 about 9.9 million residents). Our dataset includes
                 evaluations from over 2,000 students who attended
                 after-school or weekend workshops, over 500 secondary
                 school teachers who attended professional development,
                 120 post-secondary teachers who attended professional
                 development, and over 2,000 students who attended a
                 summer day (non-residential) camp. GaComputes
                 evaluations provide insight into details of
                 interventions and into influences on student motivation
                 and learning. In this article, we describe the results
                 of these evaluations and describe how GaComputes
                 broadened participation in computing in Georgia through
                 both direct interventions and indirect support of other
                 projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Khenner:2014:SSI,
  author =       "Evgeniy Khenner and Igor Semakin",
  title =        "School Subject Informatics (Computer Science) in
                 {Russia}: Educational Relevant Areas",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602489",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article deals with some aspects of studying
                 Informatics in Russian schools. Those aspects are part
                 of the `third dimension' of the Darmstadt model (they
                 are also projected on the other two dimensions of this
                 model) and include evolution of the subject, regulatory
                 norms conforming to the Federal Educational Standards,
                 the learning objectives, the required learning
                 outcomes, and the Unified National Examination in
                 Informatics, which is required for admission to a
                 number of university programs. It is interesting to
                 note that correspondence between requirements for the
                 outcomes of learning Informatics in Russian school and
                 the requirements of K--12 Computer Science Standards
                 (USA) is quite satisfactory. It is noteworthy that the
                 relatively high level of school education in
                 Informatics in Russia is determined by the
                 well-established methodological system with a 30-year
                 history, the subject's being on the list of core
                 disciplines at school, as well as the existence of a
                 state-sponsored system of education teachers of
                 Informatics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bellettini:2014:IEI,
  author =       "Carlo Bellettini and Violetta Lonati and Dario
                 Malchiodi and Mattia Monga and Anna Morpurgo and Mauro
                 Torelli and Luisa Zecca",
  title =        "Informatics Education in {Italian} Secondary Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602490",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article describes the state of informatics
                 education in the Italian secondary schools,
                 highlighting how the learning objectives set up by the
                 Ministry of Education are difficult to meet, due to the
                 fact that the subject is often taught by teachers not
                 holding an informatics degree, the lack of suitable
                 teaching material and the expectations of pupils and
                 families, who tend to identify informatics with the use
                 of computer applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2014:ARQ,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg",
  title =        "Asking Research Questions: Theoretical
                 Presuppositions",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2644924",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Asking significant research questions is a crucial
                 aspect of building a research foundation in computer
                 science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that
                 the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized
                 theoretical presuppositions about how the social and
                 behavioral worlds operate. And although such
                 presuppositions are essential in making the world
                 sensible, at the same time they preclude carrying out
                 many research studies that may further our collective
                 research enterprise. I build this argument by first
                 considering a few proposed research questions typical
                 of much of the existing research in CS education,
                 making visible the cognitivist assumptions that these
                 questions presuppose. I then provide a different set of
                 assumptions based on sociocultural theories of
                 cognition and enumerate some of the (different)
                 research questions to which these presuppositions give
                 rise. My point is not to debate the merits of the
                 contrasting theories but to demonstrate how theories
                 about how minds and sociality operate are imminent in
                 the very questions that researchers ask. Finally, I
                 argue that by appropriating existing theory from the
                 social, behavioral, and learning sciences, and making
                 such theories explicit in carrying out and reporting
                 their research, CS education researchers will advance
                 the field.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Mitra:2014:UUM,
  author =       "Sandeep Mitra",
  title =        "Using {UML} Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier
                 Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2635831",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents the use of a model-centric
                 approach to facilitate software development projects
                 conforming to the three-tier architecture in
                 undergraduate software engineering courses. Many
                 instructors intend that such projects create software
                 applications for use by real-world customers. While it
                 is important that the first version of these
                 applications satisfy the customer by providing the
                 functionality the customer expects and perform reliably
                 and efficiently, it is equally important to be able to
                 accommodate the customer's change requests over the
                 period of the product's lifetime. The challenges in
                 achieving these goals include the lack of real-world
                 software development experience among the student
                 developers and the fact that postdeployment change
                 requests will almost certainly have to be handled by
                 students who are not among the original developers. In
                 this article, we describe how a model-centric approach
                 using UML has been effective in enabling students to
                 develop and maintain eight software applications for
                 small businesses over a 9-year period. We discuss the
                 characteristics of our modeling technique, which
                 include the application of modeling patterns and
                 quality check rules that enable students to create a
                 model that can be clearly and consistently mapped to
                 code. We also describe the nature of these
                 mapping-to-code techniques, emphasizing how they reduce
                 coupling among the implementation's classes. We then
                 discuss our experiences in the classroom with these
                 techniques, focusing on how we have improved our
                 teaching over the years based on the analysis of
                 student performance and feedback. Finally, we compare
                 our approach to related work teaching modeling and the
                 development and maintenance of code in software
                 engineering courses with both extensive and minimal
                 modeling.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Clarke:2014:ITS,
  author =       "Peter J. Clarke and Debra Davis and Tariq M. King and
                 Jairo Pava and Edward L. Jones",
  title =        "Integrating Testing into Software Engineering Courses
                 Supported by a Collaborative Learning Environment",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2648787",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "As software becomes more ubiquitous and complex, the
                 cost of software bugs continues to grow at a staggering
                 rate. To remedy this situation, there needs to be major
                 improvement in the knowledge and application of
                 software validation techniques. Although there are
                 several software validation techniques, software
                 testing continues to be one of the most widely used in
                 industry. The high demand for software engineers in the
                 next decade has resulted in more software engineering
                 (SE) courses being offered in academic institutions.
                 However, due to the number of topics to be covered in
                 SE courses, little or no attention is given to software
                 testing, resulting in students entering industry with
                 little or no testing experience. We propose a minimally
                 disruptive approach of integrating software testing
                 into SE courses by providing students access to a
                 collaborative learning environment containing learning
                 materials on testing techniques and testing tools. In
                 this article, we describe the learning environment and
                 the studies conducted to measure the benefits accrued
                 by students using the learning environment in the SE
                 courses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Luse:2014:USE,
  author =       "Andy Luse and Julie A. Rursch and Doug Jacobson",
  title =        "Utilizing Structural Equation Modeling and Social
                 Cognitive Career Theory to Identify Factors in Choice
                 of {IT} as a Major",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2623198",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In the United States, the number of students entering
                 into and completing degrees in science, technology,
                 engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas has declined
                 significantly over the past decade. Although modest
                 increases have been shown in enrollments in
                 computer-related majors in the past 4 years, the
                 prediction is that even in 3 to 4 years when these
                 students graduate, there will be shortages of
                 computer-related professionals for industry. The
                 challenge on which this article focuses is attracting
                 students to select an information technology (IT) field
                 such as computer science, computer engineering,
                 software engineering, or information systems as a major
                 when many high schools do not offer a single computer
                 course, and high school counselors, families, and
                 friends do not provide students with accurate
                 information about the field. The social cognitive
                 career theory (SCCT) has been used extensively within
                 counseling and career psychology as a method for
                 understanding how individuals develop vocational
                 interests, make occupational choices, and achieve
                 success within their chosen field. In this article, the
                 SCCT model identifies factors that specifically
                 influence high school students to select a major in an
                 IT-related discipline. These factors can then be used
                 to develop new or enhance existing IT-related
                 activities for high school students. Our work
                 demonstrates that both interest and outcome
                 expectations have a significant positive impact on
                 choice to major. Interest also is found to mediate the
                 effects of self-efficacy and outcome expectations on
                 choice of major. Overall, the model predicts a good
                 portion of variance in the ultimate outcome of whether
                 or not an individual chooses to major in IT.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Allinjawi:2014:ADA,
  author =       "Arwa A. Allinjawi and Hana A. Al-Nuaim and Paul
                 Krause",
  title =        "An Achievement Degree Analysis Approach to Identifying
                 Learning Problems in Object-Oriented Programming",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2648794",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Students often face difficulties while learning
                 object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers
                 have presented various assessment methods for
                 diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of
                 programming in computer science (CS) higher education.
                 The research presented in this article illustrates that
                 although max-min composition is a method to analyze and
                 determine student learning problems, when performed on
                 an OOP exam, it shows some limitations. The max-min
                 composition may be suitable for multiple choice
                 questions (MCQs), but it is not adequate for questions
                 with a more complex structure, as in the OOP
                 assessment. Therefore, the purpose of this research is
                 to present the incorporation of a concept-effect
                 propagation approach and the Handy Instrument for
                 Course Level Assessment (HI-Class) approach to promote
                 a modified valid analysis approach, the Achievement
                 Degree Analysis (ADA). The ADA approach will diagnose
                 students' problem outcomes and demonstrate its
                 effectiveness within the context of an OOP course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Alexandron:2014:SBP,
  author =       "Giora Alexandron and Michal Armoni and Michal Gordon
                 and David Harel",
  title =        "Scenario-Based Programming, Usability-Oriented
                 Perception",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2648814",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we discuss the possible connection
                 between the programming language and the paradigm
                 behind it, and programmers' tendency to adopt an
                 external or internal perspective of the system they
                 develop. Based on a qualitative analysis, we found that
                 when working with the visual, interobject language of
                 live sequence charts (LSC), programmers tend to adopt
                 an external and usability-oriented view of the system,
                 whereas when working with an intraobject language, they
                 tend to adopt an internal and implementation-oriented
                 viewpoint. This is explained by first discussing the
                 possible effect of the programming paradigm on
                 programmers' perception and then offering a more
                 comprehensive explanation. The latter is based on a
                 cognitive model of programming with LSC, which is an
                 interpretation and a projection of the model suggested
                 by Adelson and Soloway [1985] onto LSC and
                 scenario-based programming, the new paradigm on which
                 LSC is based. Our model suggests that LSC fosters a
                 kind of programming that enables iterative refinement
                 of the artifact with fewer entries into the solution
                 domain. Thus, the programmer can make less context
                 switching between the solution domain and the problem
                 domain, and consequently spend more time in the latter.
                 We believe that these findings are interesting mainly
                 in two ways. First, they characterize an aspect of
                 problem-solving behavior that to the best of our
                 knowledge has not been studied before-the programmer's
                 perspective. The perspective can potentially affect the
                 outcome of the problem-solving process, such as by
                 leading the programmer to focus on different parts of
                 the problem. Second, relating the structure of the
                 language to the change in perspective sheds light on
                 one of the ways in which the programming language can
                 affect the programmer's behavior.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hassner:2015:TCV,
  author =       "Tal Hassner and Itzik Bayaz",
  title =        "Teaching Computer Vision: Bringing Research Benchmarks
                 to the Classroom",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2597627",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article concerns the design of effective computer
                 vision programming exercises and presents a novel means
                 of designing these assignments. We describe three
                 recent case studies designed to evaluate the
                 effectiveness of assigning graduate-level computer
                 vision students with publicly available research
                 benchmarks as competitive assignments. This was done
                 rather than assigning more traditional exercises that
                 require students to implement specific algorithms or
                 applications. We allowed our students the freedom of
                 designing or choosing their own methods, with the goal
                 of obtaining the best performance on the benchmark
                 chosen for each assignment. Students, therefore,
                 competed against each other, as well as published state
                 of the art. We detail the design, application, and
                 results of these benchmark exercises. We show that not
                 only are these benchmarks easily adapted for the
                 classroom, but also that in some cases, student
                 assignments matched published state-of-the-art
                 performance. This observation provides strong evidence
                 to support the effectiveness of the proposed exercise
                 design. We conclude by discussing the benefits and
                 drawbacks of these exercises compared to those
                 traditionally employed in computer vision classrooms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Reardon:2015:SSB,
  author =       "Susan Reardon and Brendan Tangney",
  title =        "{Smartphones}, Studio-Based Learning, and Scaffolding:
                 Helping Novices Learn to Program",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2677089",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article describes how smartphones, studio-based
                 learning, and extensive scaffolding were used in
                 combination in the teaching of a freshman Introduction
                 to Programming course. To reduce cognitive overload, a
                 phased approach was followed in introducing programming
                 concepts and development environments, beginning with
                 the visual programming environment Scratch and
                 culminating with Java development for Android
                 smartphones. Studio-based learning, a pedagogical
                 approach long established in the fields of architecture
                 and design education, was used as the basis for a
                 collaborative social constructivist-and
                 constructionist-approach to learning. Smartphones
                 offered students the potential to develop applications
                 for a context that is both immediate and clearly
                 relevant to the ways in which they utilize and interact
                 with technology. The research was carried out over
                 three full academic years and included 53 student
                 participants. An exploratory case study methodology was
                 used to investigate the efficacy of the approach in
                 helping to overcome the barriers faced by novice
                 programmers. The findings indicate that the approach
                 has merit. The students were motivated and engaged by
                 the learning experience and were able to develop
                 sophisticated applications that incorporated images,
                 sound, arrays, and event handling. There is evidence
                 that aspects of the studio-based learning approach,
                 such as the scope that it gave students to innovate and
                 the open feedback during student presentations,
                 provided a learning environment that was motivating.
                 Overall, the combination of smartphones, studio-based
                 learning, and appropriate scaffolding offers an
                 effective way to teach introductory programming
                 courses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Werner:2015:CPG,
  author =       "Linda Werner and Jill Denner and Shannon Campe",
  title =        "Children Programming Games: a Strategy for Measuring
                 Computational Learning",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2677091",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports the results of a study of the
                 relationship of computer game programming to
                 computational learning (CL). The results contribute to
                 the growing body of knowledge about how to define and
                 measure CL among children by proposing a new concept,
                 Game Computational Sophistication (GCS). We analyzed
                 231 games programmed by 325 11 and 12 year olds with a
                 range of prior computer experience who attended a
                 voluntary technology class during or after school.
                 Findings suggest that students' games exhibited a range
                 of GCS: programs composed of sequences of simple
                 programming constructs; programs composed of
                 programming constructs, some of which are used to
                 implement higher-order patterns; and programs composed
                 of game mechanics built from combinations of patterns
                 ``glued'' together with simple programming constructs.
                 We use case studies of students' games to illustrate
                 how variation in the use and integration of programming
                 constructs, patterns, and game mechanics can be used to
                 demonstrate evidence of CL. The study contributes to an
                 understanding of what CL looks like in middle school,
                 how to assess it, and how game-programming activities
                 might promote CL.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Armoni:2015:SRP,
  author =       "Michal Armoni and Orni Meerbaum-Salant and Mordechai
                 Ben-Ari",
  title =        "From Scratch to ``Real'' Programming",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2677087",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer science (CS) activities for young students
                 are widely used, particularly visual programming
                 environments. We investigated the use of the Scratch
                 environment for teaching CS concepts to middle school
                 students. In a previous article [Meerbaum-Salant et al.
                 2013], we reported on the extent to which the CS
                 concepts were successfully learned. In this article, we
                 look at the transition from studying CS with the visual
                 Scratch environment in middle school to studying CS
                 with a professional textual programming language (C\#
                 or Java) in secondary school. We found that the
                 programming knowledge and experience of students who
                 had learned Scratch greatly facilitated learning the
                 more advanced material in secondary school: less time
                 was needed to learn new topics, there were fewer
                 learning difficulties, and they achieved higher
                 cognitive levels of understanding of most concepts
                 (although at the end of the teaching process, there
                 were no significant differences in achievements
                 compared to students who had not studied Scratch).
                 Furthermore, there was increased enrollment in CS
                 classes, and students were observed to display higher
                 levels of motivation and self-efficacy. This research
                 justifies teaching CS in general and visual programming
                 in particular in middle schools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Koulouri:2015:TIP,
  author =       "Theodora Koulouri and Stanislao Lauria and Robert D.
                 Macredie",
  title =        "Teaching Introductory Programming: a Quantitative
                 Evaluation of Different Approaches",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2662412",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Teaching programming to beginners is a complex task.
                 In this article, the effects of three factors-choice of
                 programming language, problem-solving training, and the
                 use of formative assessment-on learning to program were
                 investigated. The study adopted an iterative
                 methodological approach carried out across 4
                 consecutive years. To evaluate the effects of each
                 factor (implemented as a single change in each
                 iteration) on students' learning performance, the study
                 used quantitative, objective metrics. The findings
                 revealed that using a syntactically simple language
                 (Python) instead of a more complex one (Java)
                 facilitated students' learning of programming concepts.
                 Moreover, teaching problem solving before programming
                 yielded significant improvements in student
                 performance. These two factors were found to have
                 variable effects on the acquisition of basic
                 programming concepts. Finally, it was observed that
                 effective formative feedback in the context of
                 introductory programming depends on multiple
                 parameters. The article discusses the implications of
                 these findings, identifies avenues for further
                 research, and argues for the importance of studies in
                 computer science education anchored on sound research
                 methodologies to produce generalizable results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Yuen:2015:QSS,
  author =       "Timothy T. Yuen and Kay A. Robbins",
  title =        "A Qualitative Study of Students' Computational
                 Thinking Skills in a Data-Driven Computing Class",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2676660",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Critical thinking, problem solving, the use of tools,
                 and the ability to consume and analyze information are
                 important skills for the 21st century workforce. This
                 article presents a qualitative case study that follows
                 five undergraduate biology majors in a computer science
                 course (CS0). This CS0 course teaches programming
                 within a data-driven context and is part of a
                 university-wide initiative to improve students'
                 quantitative scholarship. In this course, students
                 learn computing concepts and computational thinking by
                 writing programs in MATLAB that compute with data, by
                 performing meaningful analyses, and by writing about
                 the results. The goal of the study reported here is to
                 better understand the thought processes students use in
                 such a data-driven approach. Findings show that
                 students engage in an ongoing organizational process to
                 understand the structure of the data. The computational
                 and visualization tasks appear to be closely linked,
                 and the visualization component appears to provide
                 valuable feedback for students in accomplishing the
                 programming tasks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Miller:2015:ISI,
  author =       "Craig S. Miller and Randy Connolly",
  title =        "Introduction to the Special Issue on {Web}
                 Development",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2724759",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Despite its prevalence in computing, web development
                 is underrepresented in computing curricula and
                 computing education research. This special issue takes
                 a step towards improving its representation with three
                 articles on web development education. Drawing upon
                 diverse methods from a variety of contexts, the
                 articles address challenges of teaching web development
                 and common difficulties students encounter when
                 learning particular concepts. All three articles
                 identify web development as a promising avenue for
                 motivating students in their study of computing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Alston:2015:UTC,
  author =       "Peter Alston and David Walsh and Gary Westhead",
  title =        "Uncovering ``Threshold Concepts'' in {Web}
                 Development: an Instructor Perspective",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700513",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The field of Web development has evolved and
                 diversified significantly in recent years, and
                 narrowing the gap between the requirements of academia
                 and the demands of industry remains a challenge.
                 Moreover, many faculty members often struggle with
                 knowing ``how much'' of a particular subject they
                 should teach to their students and at what level. This
                 small-scale, exploratory study seeks to uncover the
                 existence of ``threshold concepts'' within Web
                 development. Threshold concepts are the fundamental
                 concepts which, once mastered, allow a learner to
                 progress to a deeper understanding of a subject. An
                 online questionnaire was sent out to 24 instructors
                 within UK higher education institutions who teach Web
                 development subjects. Nine participants responded to
                 the questionnaire and interviews were conducted with
                 five to discuss and expand on the responses provided,
                 resulting in the identification of four areas that were
                 perceived as difficult for students to grasp when
                 learning Web development. Analysis of these areas
                 suggests that threshold concepts do exist within the
                 subject and we offer up two candidates for the field of
                 Web development: basic programming principles and
                 decomposition and abstraction. Designing a curriculum
                 based on threshold concepts and less on the latest
                 methods, tools, and techniques can go a long way in
                 helping students to become experts in their chosen
                 discipline.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Zhang:2015:IEF,
  author =       "Yulei (Gavin) Zhang and Yan (Mandy) Dang",
  title =        "Investigating Essential Factors on Students' Perceived
                 Accomplishment and Enjoyment and Intention to Learn in
                 {Web} Development",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700515",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Web development is an important component in the
                 curriculum of computer science and information systems
                 areas. However, it is generally considered difficult to
                 learn among students. In this study, we examined
                 factors that could influence students' perceptions of
                 accomplishment and enjoyment and their intention to
                 learn in the web development course. Specifically, we
                 investigated both student-related and
                 instructor-related factors. A research model was
                 developed. To empirically test the model and the
                 hypotheses, the survey method was used and the
                 structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was
                 adopted for data analysis. Overall, the results
                 indicated that both student-related factors (perceived
                 web development efficacy and motivation) and
                 instructor-related factors (instructor characteristics
                 and teaching method) could significantly influence
                 students' perceptions toward accomplishment and
                 enjoyment and their intention to learn web development.
                 We also summarized comments collected from students to
                 gain a deeper understanding of their ideas toward
                 learning web development techniques. We believe the
                 research results can help provide better knowledge and
                 insights to educators on teaching web development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Park:2015:AHC,
  author =       "Thomas H. Park and Brian Dorn and Andrea Forte",
  title =        "An Analysis of {HTML} and {CSS} Syntax Errors in a
                 {Web} Development Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700514",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Many people are first exposed to code through web
                 development, yet little is known about the barriers
                 beginners face in these formative experiences. In this
                 article, we describe a study of undergraduate students
                 enrolled in an introductory web development course
                 taken by both computing majors and general education
                 students. Using data collected during the initial weeks
                 of the course, we investigate the nature of the syntax
                 errors they make when learning HTML and CSS, and how
                 they resolve them. This is accomplished through the
                 deployment of openHTML, a lightweight web-based code
                 editor that logs user activity. Our analysis reveals
                 that nearly all students made syntax errors that
                 remained unresolved in their assessments, and that
                 these errors continued weeks into the course.
                 Approximately 20\% of these errors related to the
                 relatively complex system of rules that dictates when
                 it is valid for HTML elements to be nested in one
                 another. On the other hand, 35\% of errors related to
                 the relatively simple tag syntax determining how HTML
                 elements are nested. We also find that validation
                 played a key role in resolving errors: While the
                 majority of unresolved errors were present in untested
                 code, nearly all of the errors that were detected
                 through validation were eventually corrected. We
                 conclude with a discussion of our findings and their
                 implications for computing education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hubwieser:2015:HIR,
  author =       "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail N.
                 Giannakos",
  title =        "How to Implement Rigorous Computer Science Education
                 in {K--12} Schools? {Some} Answers and Many Questions",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2729983",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Aiming to collect various concepts, approaches, and
                 strategies for improving computer science education in
                 K-12 schools, we edited this second special issue of
                 the ACM TOCE journal. Our intention was to collect a
                 set of case studies from different countries that would
                 describe all relevant aspects of specific
                 implementations of Computer Science Education in K-12
                 schools. By this, we want to deliver well-founded
                 arguments and rich material to the critical discussion
                 about the state and the goals of K-12 computer science
                 education, and also provide visions for the future of
                 this research area. In this editorial, we explain our
                 intention and report some details about the genesis of
                 these special issues. Following, we give a short
                 summary of the Darmstadt Model, which was suggested to
                 serve as a structuring principle of the case studies.
                 The next part of the editorial presents a short
                 description of the five extended case studies from
                 India, Korea, NRW/Germany, Finland, and USA that are
                 selected to be included in this second issue. In order
                 to give some perspectives for the future, we propose a
                 set of open research questions of the field, partly
                 derived from the Darmstadt Model, partly stimulated by
                 a look on large-scale investigations like PISA.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hubwieser:2015:MRM,
  author =       "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail
                 Giannakos",
  title =        "In Memoriam: {Roland Mittermeir} (1950--2014)",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2729982",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Raman:2015:CSC,
  author =       "Raghu Raman and Smrithi Venkatasubramanian and
                 Krishnashree Achuthan and Prema Nedungadi",
  title =        "Computer Science {(CS)} Education in {Indian} Schools:
                 Situation Analysis using {Darmstadt} Model",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716325",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer science (CS) and its enabling technologies
                 are at the heart of this information age, yet its
                 adoption as a core subject by senior secondary students
                 in Indian schools is low and has not reached critical
                 mass. Though there have been efforts to create core
                 curriculum standards for subjects like Physics,
                 Chemistry, Biology, and Math, CS seems to have been
                 kept outside the purview of such efforts leading to its
                 marginalization. As a first step, using the Darmstadt
                 model from the ITiCSE working group that provides a
                 systematic categorization approach to CS education in
                 schools, we coded and analyzed the CS situation for the
                 Indian schools. Next, we focused on the motivation
                 category of the Darmstadt model and investigated
                 behavioral intentions of secondary school students and
                 teachers from 332 schools in India. Considering the CS
                 subject as an educational innovation, using Rogers'
                 Theory of Diffusion of Innovations, we propose a
                 pedagogical framework for innovation attributes that
                 can significantly predict-adoption of the CS subject
                 among potential-adopter students and teachers. Data was
                 analyzed to answer research questions about student and
                 teacher intentions, influence of gender, school
                 management, and school location in adopting CS.
                 Interestingly, girls, urban students, teachers, and
                 private schools were seen favoring the adoption of CS.
                 An important issue that needed to be addressed,
                 however, was the interchangeable use of terms like CS,
                 Informatics, ICT, and digital literacy. Through our
                 article, we offer a promising picture of the
                 educational policy directives and the academic
                 environment in India that is rapidly growing and
                 embracing CS as a core subject of study in schools. We
                 also analyze the factors that influence the adoption of
                 CS by school students and teachers and conclude that
                 there is a very positive response for CS among
                 educators and students in India.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Choi:2015:CEK,
  author =       "Jeongwon Choi and Sangjin An and Youngjun Lee",
  title =        "Computing Education in {Korea} --- Current Issues and
                 Endeavors",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716311",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer education has been provided for a long period
                 of time in Korea. Starting as a vocational program, the
                 content of computer education for students evolved to
                 include content on computer literacy, Information
                 Communication Technology (ICT) literacy, and brand-new
                 computer science. While a new curriculum related to
                 computer science was established in 2007, the range of
                 computer education being provided in Korean schools has
                 been repeatedly reduced. To identify the cause of this
                 recent phenomenon, we review the computer education
                 environment using the Darmstadt model, including
                 educational systems, curricula, and teaching
                 environments. Then we examine what factors affected the
                 decline of computer education. The major causes of
                 failure are found to be the absence of policy and a
                 comprehensive evaluation method. These causes have led
                 to a reduction in the selection ratio of
                 computer-related subjects and in the number of students
                 taking computer classes. Based on this understanding,
                 we bring some fundamental message for establishing
                 robust computer science education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Knobelsdorf:2015:CSE,
  author =       "Maria Knobelsdorf and Johannes Magenheim and Torsten
                 Brinda and Dieter Engbring and Ludger Humbert and Arno
                 Pasternak and Ulrik Schroeder and Marco Thomas and Jan
                 Vahrenhold",
  title =        "Computer Science Education in {North-Rhine Westphalia,
                 Germany} --- A Case Study",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716313",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In North-Rhine Westphalia, the most populated state in
                 Germany, Computer Science (CS) has been taught in
                 secondary schools since the early 1970s. This article
                 provides an overview of the past and current situation
                 of CS education in North-Rhine Westphalia, including
                 lessons learned through efforts to introduce and to
                 maintain CS in secondary education. In particular, we
                 focus on the differential school system and the
                 educational landscape of CS education, the different
                 facets of CS teacher education, and CS education
                 research programs and directions that are directly
                 connected with these aspects. In addition, this report
                 offers a rationale for including CS education in
                 general education, which includes the educational value
                 of CS for students in today's information and knowledge
                 society. Through this article, we ultimately provide an
                 overview of the significant elements that are crucial
                 for the successful integration of CS as a compulsory
                 subject within secondary schools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kurhila:2015:PMA,
  author =       "Jaakko Kurhila and Arto Vihavainen",
  title =        "A Purposeful {MOOC} to Alleviate Insufficient {CS}
                 Education in {Finnish} Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716314",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from
                 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer
                 Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school
                 students are not able to study CS-related topics, the
                 Department of Computer Science at the University of
                 Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is
                 open to pupils and students in all schools in Finland.
                 The course is a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), as
                 the attendance scales without an upper bound. Schools
                 in Finland have offered the MOOC as an elective CS
                 course for their students and granted formal school
                 credits for completing (parts of) it. Since our MOOC is
                 exactly the same programming course as our
                 university-level CS1 course, we are able to use the
                 MOOC also as a long-lasting entrance exam to the CS BSc
                 and MSc degrees. After two spring semesters of
                 operation, we have observed that there are school
                 students dispersed around Finland who are ready and
                 willing to take on a challenging programming course
                 online, and bridging the MOOC to a full study right
                 makes a strong incentive to keep working on the
                 programming assignments, even without traditional
                 teaching.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Repenning:2015:SGD,
  author =       "Alexander Repenning and David C. Webb and Kyu Han Koh
                 and Hilarie Nickerson and Susan B. Miller and Catharine
                 Brand and Ian Her Many Horses and Ashok Basawapatna and
                 Fred Gluck and Ryan Grover and Kris Gutierrez and Nadia
                 Repenning",
  title =        "Scalable Game Design: a Strategy to Bring Systemic
                 Computer Science Education to Schools through Game
                 Design and Simulation Creation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700517",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "An educated citizenry that participates in and
                 contributes to science technology engineering and
                 mathematics innovation in the 21st century will require
                 broad literacy and skills in computer science (CS).
                 School systems will need to give increased attention to
                 opportunities for students to engage in computational
                 thinking and ways to promote a deeper understanding of
                 how technologies and software are used as design tools.
                 However, K-12 students in the United States are facing
                 a broken pipeline for CS education. In response to this
                 problem, we have developed the Scalable Game Design
                 curriculum based on a strategy to integrate CS
                 education into the regular school curriculum. This
                 strategy includes opportunities for students to design
                 and program games and science technology engineering
                 and mathematics simulations. An approach called
                 Computational Thinking Pattern Analysis has been
                 developed to measure and correlate computational
                 thinking skills relevant to game design and
                 simulations. Results from a study with more than 10,000
                 students demonstrate rapid adoption of this curriculum
                 by teachers from multiple disciplines, high student
                 motivation, high levels of participation by women, and
                 interest regardless of demographic background.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2015:LBL,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
  title =        "Looking Backward to Look Forward: {TOCE} in
                 Transition",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2817209",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This editorial marks the end of our tenure as founding
                 co-editors-in-chief of the ACM Transactions on
                 Computing Education (TOCE). We have three goals in this
                 editorial. First, we provide a retrospective on how we
                 positioned TOCE, both in terms of how it embodies our
                 conception of Computing Education Research (CER) as a
                 field, as well as the journal's role in the larger
                 computing education community and the ACM. We focus on
                 the process by which we determined what constitutes
                 publishability for a manuscript submitted to TOCE,
                 describing what is best understood as a living process
                 negotiated among the authors, reviewers, associate
                 editors, and editors-in-chief in interaction with
                 manuscripts and one another. Second, having reviewed a
                 bit of history, we look at some possible changes in
                 TOCE's future, particularly in light of conversations
                 that the ACM is engaged in at all levels regarding
                 recent open publishing initiatives as well as the
                 relationship between journal and conference
                 publications. Finally, we thank the many people who
                 have contributed to the success of TOCE for their
                 significant effort in establishing TOCE as a
                 publication venue for papers in computing education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Xinogalos:2015:OOD,
  author =       "Stelios Xinogalos",
  title =        "Object-Oriented Design and Programming: an
                 Investigation of Novices' Conceptions on Objects and
                 Classes",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700519",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) technique is
                 nowadays the most popular programming technique among
                 tertiary education institutions. However, learning OOP
                 is a cognitively demanding task for undergraduate
                 students. Several difficulties and misconceptions have
                 been recorded in the literature for both OOP concepts
                 and languages, mainly Java. This article focuses on
                 reviewing and advancing research on the most
                 fundamental OOP concepts, namely, the concepts of
                 ``object'' and ``class'' and their role during program
                 execution. The results of a long-term investigation on
                 the subject are presented, focusing on a study
                 exploring undergraduate students' conceptions on
                 ``objects'' and ``classes.'' The study advances related
                 research on categories of conceptions on ``objects''
                 and ``classes'' by providing quantitative results, in
                 addition to qualitative results, regarding the
                 frequency of the recorded conceptions. Nearly half the
                 students seem to comprehend the modeling and
                 static/dynamic aspects of the concepts ``object'' and
                 ``class.'' Implications for achieving a deep conceptual
                 understanding of text, action, and modeling aspects of
                 these fundamental concepts are also discussed.
                 Information regarding the programming environments
                 utilized in the course and key features of the applied
                 teaching approach are presented, in order to facilitate
                 both a better understanding of the context and a better
                 employment of the results of the presented study.
                 Finally, proposals for enhancing the contribution of
                 this and similar studies are made.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Zingaro:2015:EIG,
  author =       "Daniel Zingaro",
  title =        "Examining Interest and Grades in {Computer Science 1}:
                 a Study of Pedagogy and Achievement Goals",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2802752",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computer Science 1 (CS1), the first course taken by
                 college-level computer science (CS) majors, has
                 traditionally suffered from high failure rates. Efforts
                 to understand this phenomenon have considered a wide
                 range of predictors of CS success, such as prior
                 programming experience, math ability, learning style,
                 and gender, with findings that are suggestive but
                 inconclusive. The current quasiexperimental study
                 extends this research by exploring how the pedagogical
                 approach of the course (traditional lecture vs. Peer
                 Instruction (PI) and clickers) in combination with
                 student achievement goals (mastery goals vs.
                 performance goals) relates to exam grades, interest in
                 the subject matter, and course enjoyment. The research
                 revealed that students with performance goals scored
                 significantly lower on final exams in both the lecture
                 and PI conditions. However, students with performance
                 goals reported higher levels of subject matter interest
                 when taught through PI. Students with mastery goals, in
                 both conditions, scored significantly higher on the
                 final exam, had higher levels of interest, and reported
                 higher levels of course enjoyment than their
                 performance-oriented counterparts. The results suggest
                 that PI may improve the level of subject-matter
                 interest for some students, thereby indicating the
                 importance of studying pedagogical approach as we seek
                 to understand student outcomes in CS1.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Drachova:2015:TMR,
  author =       "Svetlana V. Drachova and Jason O. Hallstrom and Joseph
                 E. Hollingsworth and Joan Krone and Rich Pak and Murali
                 Sitaraman",
  title =        "Teaching Mathematical Reasoning Principles for
                 Software Correctness and Its Assessment",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2015",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716316",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Undergraduate computer science students need to learn
                 analytical reasoning skills to develop high-quality
                 software and to understand why the software they
                 develop works as specified. To accomplish this central
                 educational objective, this article describes a
                 systematic process of introducing reasoning skills into
                 the curriculum and assessing how well students have
                 learned those skills. To facilitate assessment, a
                 comprehensive inventory of principles for reasoning
                 about correctness that captures the finer details of
                 basic skills that students need to learn has been
                 defined and used. The principles can be taught at
                 various levels of depth across the curriculum in a
                 variety of courses. The use of a particular
                 instructional process is illustrated to inculcate
                 reasoning principles across several iterations of a
                 sophomore-level development foundations course and a
                 junior-level software engineering course. The article
                 summarizes how learning outcomes motivated by the
                 inventory of reasoning principles lead to questions
                 that in turn form the basis for a careful analysis of
                 student understanding and for fine-tuning teaching
                 interventions that together facilitate continuous
                 improvements to instruction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hundhausen:2016:KTP,
  author =       "Christopher D. Hundhausen",
  title =        "Keeping {TOCE} on a Positive Trajectory",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2872275",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In my inaugural editorial as the new editor-in-chief
                 of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education, I take
                 stock of the journal's progress in its first 6 years of
                 existence, and I describe my plans to help the journal
                 maintain its positive trajectory as a viable and
                 vibrant computing education research journal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1e",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ott:2016:TPE,
  author =       "Claudia Ott and Anthony Robins and Kerry Shephard",
  title =        "Translating Principles of Effective Feedback for
                 Students into the {CS1} Context",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2737596",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Learning the first programming language is challenging
                 for many students. High failure rates and bimodally
                 distributed grades lead to a pedagogical interest in
                 supporting students in first-year programming courses
                 (CS1). In higher education, the important role of
                 feedback for guiding the learning process and improving
                 the learning outcome is widely acknowledged. This
                 article introduces contemporary models of effective
                 feedback practice as found in the higher education
                 literature and offers an interpretation of those in the
                 CS1 context. One particular CS1 course and typical
                 course components are investigated to identify likely
                 loci for feedback interventions and to connect related
                 computer science education literature to these forms of
                 feedback.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McCartney:2016:WCS,
  author =       "Robert McCartney and Jonas Boustedt and Anna Eckerdal
                 and Kate Sanders and Lynda Thomas and Carol Zander",
  title =        "Why Computing Students Learn on Their Own: Motivation
                 for Self-Directed Learning of Computing",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2747008",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we address the question of why
                 computing students choose to learn computing topics on
                 their own. A better understanding of why some students
                 choose to learn on their own may help us to motivate
                 other students to develop this important skill. In
                 addition, it may help in curriculum design; if we need
                 to leave some topics out of our expanding curriculum, a
                 good choice might be those topics that students readily
                 learn on their own. Based on a thematic analysis of 17
                 semistructured interviews, we found that computing
                 students' motivations for self-directed learning fall
                 into four general themes: projects, social and peer
                 interactions, joy of learning, and fear. Under these,
                 we describe several more specific subthemes,
                 illustrated in the words of the students. The
                 project-related and social motivations are quite
                 prominent. Although these motivations appear in the
                 literature, they received greater emphasis from our
                 interviewees. Perhaps most characteristic of computing
                 is the motivation to learn to complete some project,
                 both projects done for fun and projects required for
                 school or work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kunkle:2016:IDT,
  author =       "Wanda M. Kunkle and Robert B. Allen",
  title =        "The Impact of Different Teaching Approaches and
                 Languages on Student Learning of Introductory
                 Programming Concepts",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2785807",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Learning to program, especially in the object-oriented
                 paradigm, is a difficult undertaking for many students.
                 As a result, computing educators have tried a variety
                 of instructional methods to assist beginning
                 programmers. These include developing approaches geared
                 specifically toward novices and experimenting with
                 different introductory programming languages. However,
                 determining the effectiveness of these interventions
                 poses a problem. The research presented here developed
                 an instrument to assess student learning of fundamental
                 and object-oriented programming concepts, then used
                 that instrument to investigate the impact of different
                 teaching approaches and languages on university
                 students' ability to learn those concepts. Extensive
                 data analysis showed that the instrument performed well
                 overall. Reliability of the assessment tool was
                 statistically satisfactory and content validity was
                 supported by intrinsic characteristics, question
                 response analysis, and expert review. Preliminary
                 support for construct validity was provided through
                 exploratory factor analysis. Three components that at
                 least partly represented the construct ``understanding
                 of fundamental programming concepts'' were identified:
                 methods and functions, mathematical and logical
                 expressions, and control structures. Analysis revealed
                 significant differences in student performance based on
                 instructional language and approach. The analyses
                 showed differences on the overall score and questions
                 involving assignment, mathematical and logical
                 expressions, and code completion. Instructional
                 language and approach did not appear to affect student
                 performance on questions addressing object-oriented
                 concepts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Borstler:2016:TPC,
  author =       "J{\"u}rgen B{\"o}rstler and Thomas B. Hilburn",
  title =        "Team Projects in Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2808192",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Team projects are a way to expose students to
                 conflicting project objectives, and ``[t]here should be
                 a strong real-world element \ldots{} to ensure that the
                 experience is realistic'' [ACM/IEEE-CS 2015b]. Team
                 projects provide an opportunity for students to put
                 their education into practice and prepare them for
                 their professional careers. The aim of this special
                 issue, and the previous one, is to collect and share
                 evidence about the state of practice of team projects
                 in computing education and to help educators in
                 designing and running team projects. The articles
                 presented in the present issue cover the following
                 topics: real projects for real clients, open source
                 projects, multidisciplinary team projects, student and
                 team assessment, and cognitive and psychological
                 aspects of team projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Marshall:2016:EPS,
  author =       "Linda Marshall and Vreda Pieterse and Lisa Thompson
                 and Dina M. Venter",
  title =        "Exploration of Participation in Student Software
                 Engineering Teams",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2791396",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Employers require software engineers to work in teams
                 when developing software systems. It is therefore
                 important for graduates to have experienced teamwork
                 before they enter the job market. We describe an
                 experiential learning exercise that we designed to
                 teach the software engineering process in conjunction
                 with teamwork skills. The underlying teaching strategy
                 applied in the exercise maximises risks in order to
                 provide maximal experiential learning opportunities.
                 The students are expected to work in fairly large, yet
                 short-lived, instructor-assigned teams to complete
                 software engineering tasks. After undergoing the
                 exercise our students form self-selected teams for
                 their capstone projects. In this article, we determine
                 and report on the influence the teaching exercise had
                 on the formation of teams for the capstone project. By
                 analysing data provided by the students through regular
                 peer reviews we gain insight into the team dynamics as
                 well as to what extent the members contributed to the
                 team effort. We develop and present a graphical model
                 of a capstone project team which highlights
                 participation of individuals during the teaching
                 exercise. The participatory history of the members is
                 visualised using segmented concentric rings. We
                 consider how this visualisation can aid the
                 identification of capstone project teams that are at
                 risk. In our experience the composition of the team and
                 the behaviour of other members in the team may have a
                 marked impact on the behaviour of each individual in
                 the team. We established a team classification in order
                 to model information about teams. We use a statistical
                 clustering method to classify teams. For this we use
                 team profiles that are based on the participatory
                 levels of its members. The team types that emerge from
                 the clustering are used to derive migration models.
                 When we consider migration, we build spring models to
                 visualise the teams through which individuals migrate.
                 We colour code the teams to characterise them according
                 to the team types that were identified during the
                 cluster classification of the teams. Owing to the
                 complexity of the resulting model, only migrations for
                 capstone team members who have worked together during
                 the exercise or for solitary capstone team members are
                 modelled. These models support the identification of
                 areas of interest that warrant further investigation.
                 To conclude, we present our observations from the
                 analysis of team compositions, team types, and team
                 migrations and provide directions for future work and
                 collaborations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Largent:2016:MUT,
  author =       "David L. Largent",
  title =        "Measuring and Understanding Team Development by
                 Capturing Self-assessed Enthusiasm and Skill Levels",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2791394",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "To prepare graduates for today's work environment,
                 they must be immersed in positive (and perhaps
                 negative) small group experiences in their courses,
                 which will in turn provide a basic understanding of how
                 teams form and develop over time. In the fall of 2009,
                 we started exploring how software development teams
                 form and interact in a computer science college
                 capstone course setting. Our initial findings were
                 presented at ICER 2010 in Aarhus, Denmark. The focus of
                 our research was on the experiences of computer science
                 college course teams as compared and contrasted to the
                 theory of Bruce Tuckman's stages of small group
                 development model, which he characterized as forming,
                 storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. We
                 continued data collection with the computer science
                 capstone course in the fall of 2010 and added an
                 information systems capstone course as well. At the
                 conclusion of the spring 2014 semester, we have
                 collected and analyzed data for a total of 5 academic
                 years from nine cohorts of students taught by five
                 instructors involving 215 students on 51 teams. Each
                 year, participants repeatedly self-assessed their
                 enthusiasm and skill levels over time using a
                 questionnaire by agreeing or disagreeing to statements.
                 The data shows patterns similar to that of Tuckman's
                 model. Since most people find Tuckman's model easy to
                 understand, it may provide an effective tool to teach
                 teamwork and monitor team development. In addition to
                 briefly presenting our empirical findings in this
                 article, we provide a simple conceptualization of
                 Tuckman's model that can be captured in two data
                 points: enthusiasm and skill level. By comparing
                 changes in these two dimensions over time, team
                 development can be tracked through the various Tuckman
                 stages of small group development. We also provide a
                 minicurriculum which can be used to introduce students
                 to Tuckman's model and provide them insight into what
                 leadership style works best in each of the development
                 stages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Vivian:2016:MAC,
  author =       "Rebecca Vivian and Katrina Falkner and Nickolas
                 Falkner and Hamid Tarmazdi",
  title =        "A Method to Analyze Computer Science Students'
                 Teamwork in Online Collaborative Learning
                 Environments",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2793507",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Although teamwork has been identified as",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Dolog:2016:APB,
  author =       "Peter Dolog and Lone Leth Thomsen and Bent Thomsen",
  title =        "Assessing Problem-Based Learning in a Software
                 Engineering Curriculum Using {Bloom}'s Taxonomy and the
                 {IEEE} Software Engineering Body of Knowledge",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2845091",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has often been seen as an
                 all-or-nothing approach, difficult to apply in
                 traditional curricula based on traditional lectured
                 courses with exercise and lab sessions. Aalborg
                 University has since its creation in 1974 practiced PBL
                 in all subjects, including computer science and
                 software engineering, following a model that has become
                 known as the Aalborg Model. Following a strategic
                 decision in 2009, the Aalborg Model has been
                 reshaped. We first report on the software engineering
                 program as it was in the old Aalborg Model. We analyze
                 the programme wrt competence levels according to
                 Bloom's taxonomy and compare it with the expected
                 skills and competencies for an engineer passing a
                 general software engineering 4-year program with an
                 additional 4 years of experience as defined in the IEEE
                 Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) [Abran
                 et al. 2004]. We also compare with the Graduate
                 Software Engineering 2009 Curriculum Guidelines for
                 Graduate Degree Programmes in Software Engineering
                 (GSwE2009) [Pyster 2009]. We then describe the new
                 curriculum and draw some preliminary conclusions based
                 on analyzing the curriculum according to Bloom's
                 taxonomy and the results of running the program for 2
                 years. As the new program is structured to be compliant
                 with the Bologna Process and thus presents all
                 activities in multiples of 5 European Credit Transfer
                 System points, we envision that elements of the program
                 could be used in more traditional curricula. This
                 should be especially easy for programs also complying
                 with the Bologna Process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Thota:2016:LCS,
  author =       "Neena Thota and Anders Berglund",
  title =        "Learning Computer Science: Dimensions of Variation
                 Within What {Chinese} Students Learn",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2853199",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We know from research that there is an intimate
                 relationship between student learning and the context
                 of learning. What is not known or understood well
                 enough is the relationship of the students' background
                 and previous studies to the understanding and learning
                 of the subject area-here, computer science (CS). To
                 show the contextual influences on learning CS, we
                 present empirical data from a qualitative investigation
                 of the experiences of Chinese students studying for a
                 master degree at Sweden's Uppsala University. Data were
                 collected of the students' understanding and learning
                 of CS, their experience of the teaching and their own
                 studies, and of their personal development in Sweden.
                 Using an analysis framework grounded in
                 phenomenography, we analytically separated the what and
                 how aspects of learning. In this article, we describe
                 the what, or the content of the students' learning, and
                 identify dimensions of variation in the experiences of
                 students. These dimensions relate to the foci of the CS
                 programs, the learning outcomes, and the impact of the
                 studies. The findings from the analyses indicate
                 pedagogical and pragmatic implications for teaching and
                 learning CS in higher education institutions. The study
                 extends the traditional use of phenomenography through
                 the discussion of the dimensions of variation in the
                 experiences and the values within the dimensions. It
                 opens the way for understanding the relational nature
                 of learning in computing education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wagner:2016:GPC,
  author =       "Isabel Wagner",
  title =        "Gender and Performance in Computer Science",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2920173",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The term gender gap refers to the significant
                 underrepresentation of females in many subjects. In
                 Computer Science, the gender gap exists at all career
                 levels. In this article, we study whether there is a
                 performance gap in addition to the gender gap. To
                 answer this question, we analyzed statistical data on
                 student performance in Computer Science from 129
                 universities in the United Kingdom covering the years
                 2002 to 2013. We find that male students were awarded
                 significantly more first-class degrees than female
                 students. We evaluate four other subjects-Subjects
                 Allied to Medicine, Business \& Administrative
                 Studies, Mathematical Sciences, and Engineering \&
                 Technology-and find that they do not exhibit this
                 performance gap. From this finding, we review
                 explanations for the gender and performance gaps, as
                 well as potential solutions to eliminate the gaps. Most
                 solutions do not require major institutional change and
                 could thus be implemented easily.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kolling:2016:HEN,
  author =       "Michael K{\"o}lling and Fraser McKay",
  title =        "Heuristic Evaluation for Novice Programming Systems",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2872521",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The past few years has seen a proliferation of novice
                 programming tools. The availability of a large number
                 of systems has made it difficult for many users to
                 choose among them. Even for education researchers,
                 comparing the relative quality of these tools, or
                 judging their respective suitability for a given
                 context, is hard in many instances. For designers of
                 such systems, assessing the respective quality of
                 competing design decisions can be equally difficult.
                 Heuristic evaluation provides a practical method of
                 assessing the quality of alternatives in these
                 situations and of identifying potential problems with
                 existing systems for a given target group or context.
                 Existing sets of heuristics, however, are not specific
                 to the domain of novice programming and thus do not
                 evaluate all aspects of interest to us in this
                 specialised application domain. In this article, we
                 propose a set of heuristics to be used in heuristic
                 evaluations of novice programming systems. These
                 heuristics have the potential to allow a useful
                 assessment of the quality of a given system with lower
                 cost than full formal user studies and greater
                 precision than the use of existing sets of heuristics.
                 The heuristics are described and discussed in detail.
                 We present an evaluation of the effectiveness of the
                 heuristics that suggests that the new set of heuristics
                 provides additional useful information to designers not
                 obtained with existing heuristics sets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Larraza-Mendiluze:2016:URB,
  author =       "Edurne Larraza-Mendiluze and Nestor Garay-Vitoria and
                 Iratxe Soraluze and Jos{\'e} Mart{\'\i}n and Javier
                 Muguerza and Txelo Ruiz-V{\'a}zquez",
  title =        "Using a Real Bare Machine in a Project-Based Learning
                 Environment for Teaching Computer Structure: an
                 Analysis of the Implementation Following the Action
                 Research Model",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2891415",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The computer input/output (I/O) subsystem and its
                 functioning are very abstract concepts that are
                 difficult for undergraduate freshmen to understand.
                 However, it is important that freshmen assimilate these
                 low-level concepts if they are going to be taught about
                 the operating systems (OS) working over that
                 architecture layer, or working directly with them in
                 embedded systems, real-time systems, or in the area of
                 human--computer interaction (HCI). This article
                 describes the use of a game console (Nintendo\reg DS,
                 NDS) in a project-based learning (PBL or PjBL)
                 environment in which the design of a game is the basis
                 of the project in order to encourage the students to
                 get more involved with the computer I/O subsystem
                 abstraction. A 4yr experience is reported in which the
                 action research model (planning, acting, observing, and
                 reflecting) has been followed. The general procedure
                 for the 4yr and the specific characteristics and
                 achieved results for each year are reported. The aim of
                 the study was twofold: to assess the learning
                 effectiveness of the active PjBL educational approach
                 and some related factors, and to analyze the motivation
                 toward the subject fostered by the game console. The
                 first aim is analyzed using the scores achieved by the
                 students; the second aim is analyzed via satisfaction
                 questionnaires.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Magerko:2016:ESB,
  author =       "Brian Magerko and Jason Freeman and Tom Mcklin and
                 Mike Reilly and Elise Livingston and Scott Mccoid and
                 Andrea Crews-Brown",
  title =        "{EarSketch}: a {STEAM}-Based Approach for
                 Underrepresented Populations in High School Computer
                 Science Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2886418",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents EarSketch, a learning
                 environment that combines computer programming with
                 sample-based music production to create a computational
                 remixing environment for learning introductory
                 computing concepts. EarSketch has been employed in both
                 formal and informal settings, yielding significant
                 positive results in student content knowledge and
                 attitudes toward computing as a discipline, especially
                 in ethnic and gender populations that are currently
                 underrepresented in computing fields. This article
                 describes the rationale and components of EarSketch,
                 the evaluation design, and lessons learned to apply to
                 future environment design and development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2016:USP,
  author =       "Monica M. McGill and Adrienne Decker and Amber
                 Settle",
  title =        "Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Impact of
                 Pre-College Computing Activities on Choices of Major",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2920214",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "A lack of diversity in the computing field has existed
                 for several decades, and although female participation
                 in computing remains low, outreach programs attempting
                 to address the situation are now quite numerous. To
                 begin to understand whether or not these past
                 activities have had long-term impact, we conducted a
                 systematic literature review. Upon discovering that
                 longitudinal studies were lacking, we investigated
                 whether undergraduate students believed that their
                 participation in computing activities prior to college
                 contributed to their decision to major in a computing
                 field. From the 770 participants in the study, we
                 discovered that approximately 20\% of males and 24\% of
                 females who were required to participate in computing
                 activities chose a computing or related major, but that
                 males perceived that the activity had a greater affect
                 on their decision (20\%) than females (6.9\%). Females
                 who participated in an outreach activity were more
                 likely to major in computing. Compared with females who
                 chose to major in computing, females who did not were
                 less likely to indicate that the majority of students
                 participating in activities were boys and that they
                 were a welcome part of the groups. Results also showed
                 that female participants who do not ultimately major in
                 computing have a much stronger negative perception of
                 the outreach activities than male participants who also
                 chose a non-computing major. Although many computing
                 outreach activities are designed to diversify
                 computing, it may be the case that, overall, boys
                 receive these activities more favorably than girls,
                 although requiring participation yields approximately
                 the same net positive impact.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Taylor:2016:SII,
  author =       "Blair Taylor and Siddharth Kaza",
  title =        "Security Injections@Towson: Integrating Secure Coding
                 into Introductory Computer Science Courses",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2897441",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Despite the critical societal importance of computer
                 security, security is not well integrated into the
                 undergraduate computing curriculum. Security classes
                 and tracks treat security issues as separable topics as
                 opposed to fundamental issues that pervade all aspects
                 of software development. Recently, there has been an
                 increasing focus on security as a cross-cutting concern
                 across the computer science curriculum. The Security
                 Injections@Towson project provides resources and
                 effective strategies to incorporate secure coding in
                 the early programming classes. We describe the
                 development, assessment, and dissemination of more than
                 40 lab-based security injection modules designed to be
                 injected into courses with minimal impact on the
                 curriculum. We include assessment results from 1,135
                 students across five diverse institutions demonstrating
                 that the security injections help students retain,
                 comprehend, and apply secure coding concepts in the
                 introductory programming courses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Shin:2016:EMD,
  author =       "Shin-Shing Shin",
  title =        "Evaluation of Model Driven Architecture-Based
                 Instruction for Understanding Phase Transitions in
                 Object-Oriented Analysis and Design",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2914797",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) courses
                 enable students to establish a requirements model of an
                 application, successively transform those requirements
                 into logical design models, and then transform the
                 logical models into physical design models. However,
                 students attending OOAD courses typically encounter
                 difficulties in the transition. Model-Driven
                 Architecture (MDA) provides a model transformation
                 framework for transitioning between OOAD phases.
                 Considering the advantages of MDA in phase transitions,
                 this study proposes that integrating conventional OOAD
                 instruction with the MDA framework and describing
                 transition relations in diagrammatic representations
                 might improve students' understanding of the
                 transitions. This study used an empirical design that
                 involved using two treatments (MDA-based and
                 conventional instruction) to examine the relevance of
                 MDA-based instruction in the effective understanding of
                 the transitions on the basis of cognitive load theory,
                 the split-attention principle, and theories of
                 representation format. The results indicate that,
                 compared with conventional instruction, MDA-based
                 instruction is more efficient because it improves
                 mental efficiency by reducing extraneous cognitive
                 load. This study can assist educators in understanding
                 the difficulties in learning phase transitions and
                 motivate researchers to develop more effective learning
                 instructions for transitioning between OOAD phases.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kaila:2016:ROO,
  author =       "Erkki Kaila and Einari Kurvinen and Erno Lokkila and
                 Mikko-Jussi Laakso",
  title =        "Redesigning an Object-Oriented Programming Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2016",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2906362",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Educational technology offers several potential
                 benefits for programming education. Still, to
                 facilitate the technology properly, integration into a
                 course must be carefully designed. In this article, we
                 present a redesign of an object-oriented
                 university-level programming course. In the redesign, a
                 collaborative education tool was utilized to enhance
                 active learning, facilitate communication between
                 students and teachers, and remodel the evaluation
                 procedure by utilizing automatically assessed tasks.
                 The redesign was based on the best practices found in
                 our own earlier research and that of the research
                 community, with a focus on facilitating active learning
                 methods and student collaboration. The redesign was
                 evaluated by comparing two instances of the redesigned
                 course against two instances using the old methodology.
                 The drop-out rate decreased statistically significantly
                 in the redesigned course instances. Moreover, there was
                 a trend toward higher grade averages in the redesigned
                 instances. Based on the results, we can conclude that
                 the utilization of educational technology has a highly
                 positive effect on student performance. Still, making
                 major changes to course methodology does not come
                 without certain difficulties. Hence, we also present
                 our experiences and suggestions for the course redesign
                 to help other educators and researchers perform similar
                 design changes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Isomottonen:2017:FBA,
  author =       "Ville Isom{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Ville Tirronen",
  title =        "Flipping and Blending --- an Action Research Project
                 on Improving a Functional Programming Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2934697",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports on an action research project on
                 improving a functional programming course by moving
                 toward a practical and flexible study
                 environment-flipped and blended classroom. Teaching the
                 topic of functional programming was found to be
                 troublesome using a traditional lectured course format.
                 The need to increase students' amount of practice
                 emerged while subsequent challenges relating to
                 students' independent practical coursework were
                 observed. Particular concerns relating to group work,
                 learning materials, and the attribute of flexibility
                 were investigated during the third action research
                 cycle. The research cycle was analyzed using a
                 qualitative survey on students' views, teacher
                 narrative, and students' study activity data. By this
                 third research cycle, we found that (i) the ``call for
                 explanation'' is an apt conceptualization for
                 supporting independent work, and in particular for the
                 design of learning materials; (ii) use of
                 student-selected groups that can be flexibly resized or
                 even disbanded enables spontaneous peer support and can
                 avoid frustration about group work; and (iii) students
                 greatly appreciate the high degree of flexibility in
                 the course arrangements but find that it causes them to
                 slip from their goals. The project has improved our
                 understanding of a successful implementation of the
                 target course based on group work and learning
                 materials in the context of independent study, while
                 the attribute of flexibility revealed a contradiction
                 that indicates the need for further action.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Isayama:2017:CSE,
  author =       "Daiki Isayama and Masaki Ishiyama and Raissa Relator
                 and Koichi Yamazaki",
  title =        "Computer Science Education for Primary and Lower
                 Secondary School Students: Teaching the Concept of
                 Automata",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2940331",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We explore the feasibility of early introduction to
                 automata theory through gamification. We designed a
                 puzzle game that players can answer correctly if they
                 understand the fundamental concepts of automata theory.
                 In our investigation, 90 children played the game, and
                 their actions were recorded in play logs. An analysis
                 of the play logs shows that approximately 60\% of the
                 children achieved correct-answer rates of at least
                 70\%, which suggests that primary and lower secondary
                 school students can understand the fundamental concepts
                 of automata theory. Meanwhile, our analysis shows that
                 most of them do not fully understand automata theory,
                 but some of them have a good understanding of the
                 concept.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Theodoropoulos:2017:HDD,
  author =       "Anastasios Theodoropoulos and Angeliki Antoniou and
                 George Lepouras",
  title =        "How Do Different Cognitive Styles Affect Learning
                 Programming? {Insights} from a Game-Based Approach in
                 {Greek} Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2940330",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Is there any relationship between students' cognitive
                 style and the ability to learn programming through
                 serious games? The aim of this work is to assess the
                 learning effectiveness and motivational appeal of
                 digital games for learning basic programming concepts,
                 involving secondary education students. For this
                 purpose, the Code.org$^\reg $ 's activity named K-8
                 Intro to Computer Science was used. The study
                 investigated students' attitudes from gaming activities
                 to reveal the quality of their learning experience.
                 Next, students' attitudes from games were correlated
                 with their cognitive profile to reveal potential
                 differences. Finally, students' performance from the
                 digital games was assessed to reveal game-based
                 learning (GBL) effectiveness compared to their
                 cognitive styles. In the study, 77 students of two
                 Greek high schools participated in the context of the
                 European Code Week. The results suggest that these
                 specific games, or similar educational computer games,
                 can be exploited as effective and motivational learning
                 environments within schools, as they provide a
                 high-quality learning experience. Cognitive style was
                 found to be a significant learning characteristic that
                 should be taken into consideration when using digital
                 games to learn programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Enstrom:2017:IIM,
  author =       "Emma Enstr{\"o}m and Viggo Kann",
  title =        "Iteratively Intervening with the ``Most Difficult''
                 Topics of an Algorithms and Complexity Course",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3018109",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "When compared to earlier programming and data
                 structure experiences that our students might have, the
                 perspective changes on computers and programming when
                 introducing theoretical computer science into the
                 picture. Underlying computational models need to be
                 addressed, and mathematical tools employed, to
                 understand the quality criteria of theoretical computer
                 science. Focus shifts from doing to proving. Over
                 several years, we have tried to make this perspective
                 transition smoother for the students of a third-year
                 mandatory algorithms, data structures, and
                 computational complexity course. The concepts receiving
                 extra attention in this work are NP-completeness, one
                 of the most central concepts in computer science, and
                 dynamic programming, an algorithm construction method
                 that is powerful but somewhat unintuitive for some
                 students. The major difficulties that we attribute to
                 NP-completeness are that the tasks look similar but
                 have a different purpose than in algorithm construction
                 exercises. Students do not immediately see the
                 usefulness of the concept, and hence motivation could
                 be one issue. One line of attacking NP-completeness has
                 been to emphasize its algorithmic aspects using typical
                 tools for teaching algorithms. Some potential
                 difficulties associated with dynamic programming are
                 that the method is based on a known difficult
                 concept-recursion-and that there are many ingredients
                 in a dynamic programming solution to a problem. For
                 both dynamic programming and NP-completeness, we have
                 invented several new activities and structured the
                 teaching differently, forcing students to think and
                 adopt a standpoint, and practice the concepts in
                 programming assignments. Student surveys show that
                 these activities are appreciated by the students, and
                 our evaluations indicate that they have positive
                 effects on learning. We believe that these activities
                 could be useful in any similar course. The approach to
                 improving the course is action research, and the
                 evaluation has been done using course surveys,
                 self-efficacy surveys, rubrics-like grading protocols,
                 and grades. We have also interviewed teaching
                 assistants about their experiences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hundhausen:2017:EDT,
  author =       "C. D. Hundhausen",
  title =        "From the {Editor}'s Desk: {TOCE} Continues on a
                 Positive Trajectory in 2016",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3078193",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "During my first full year as editor-in-chief of ACM
                 Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), the
                 editorial board and I took the following four steps to
                 improve the journal's ability to serve the growing
                 community of computing education researchers: (1) We
                 streamlined the peer review process, (2) we established
                 a new partnership with the ACM Special Interest Group
                 on Computer Science Education Conference, (c) we
                 transitioned to a double-blind review process, and (4)
                 we recruited guest editors for two new special issues
                 that address timely research topics. In this editorial,
                 I present key statistics on TOCE's review process and
                 submissions during the 2016 calendar year, discuss and
                 reflect on the positive steps we took to improve the
                 journal during 2016, and describe steps we will
                 consider in the coming year in order to ensure that ACM
                 TOCE continues on its positive trajectory. These
                 include forging additional partnerships with
                 professional conferences, altering the review criteria
                 to make the journal more welcoming to a broader range
                 of research, especially within the K-12 space, and
                 developing a set of evidence standards for research
                 published in the journal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Margolis:2017:SMT,
  author =       "Jane Margolis and Jean Ryoo and Joanna Goode",
  title =        "Seeing Myself through Someone Else's Eyes: The Value
                 of In-Classroom Coaching for Computer Science Teaching
                 and Learning",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2967616",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article describes the impact of in-classroom
                 coaching for computer science (CS) educators. Coaching
                 is a way to support teachers in their classroom while
                 teachers master new curricula or educational approaches
                 and is not evaluative in purpose. Using qualitative
                 methods to analyze computer science classroom
                 observations, teacher surveys, teacher interviews,
                 coaching logs, and coach interviews, this research
                 answers the following question: How does in-classroom
                 coaching support inquiry and equity-based teaching
                 practices? This study of Exploring Computer Science
                 classrooms illustrates the importance of having
                 in-classroom coaches who can collaborate and reflect
                 with teachers about current practices and who can help
                 support new inquiry and equity-based instructional
                 skills. Teachers note that in-classroom coaching helped
                 (1) positively impact changes in pedagogy, (2) enrich
                 teachers' CS content knowledge, and (3) break CS
                 teacher isolation at schools. Three case studies from
                 computer science classrooms served by different coaches
                 are shared to illustrate the ways teacher instructional
                 practice can be strengthened over time through
                 coaching.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Brown:2017:NJP,
  author =       "Neil C. C. Brown and Amjad Altadmri",
  title =        "Novice {Java} Programming Mistakes: Large-Scale Data
                 vs. Educator Beliefs",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2994154",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Teaching is the process of conveying knowledge and
                 skills to learners. It involves preventing
                 misunderstandings or correcting misconceptions that
                 learners have acquired. Thus, effective teaching relies
                 on solid knowledge of the discipline, but also a good
                 grasp of where learners are likely to trip up or
                 misunderstand. In programming, there is much
                 opportunity for misunderstanding, and the penalties are
                 harsh: failing to produce the correct syntax for a
                 program, for example, can completely prevent any
                 progress in learning how to program. Because
                 programming is inherently computer-based, we have an
                 opportunity to automatically observe programming
                 behaviour --- more closely even than an educator in the
                 room at the time. By observing students' programming
                 behaviour, and surveying educators, we can ask: do
                 educators have an accurate understanding of the
                 mistakes that students are likely to make? In this
                 study, we combined two years of the Blackbox dataset
                 (with more than 900 thousand users and almost 100
                 million compilation events) with a survey of 76
                 educators to investigate which mistakes students make
                 while learning to program Java, and whether the
                 educators could make an accurate estimate of which
                 mistakes were most common. We find that educators'
                 estimates do not agree with one another or the student
                 data, and discuss the implications of these results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cosma:2017:PCS,
  author =       "Georgina Cosma and Mike Joy and Jane Sinclair and
                 Margarita Andreou and Dongyong Zhang and Beverley Cook
                 and Russell Boyatt",
  title =        "Perceptual Comparison of Source-Code Plagiarism within
                 Students from {UK}, {China}, and {South Cyprus} Higher
                 Education Institutions",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3059871",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Perspectives of students on what constitutes
                 source-code plagiarism may differ based on their
                 educational background. Surveys have been conducted
                 with home students undertaking computing and joint
                 computing subject degrees at higher education
                 institutions throughout the UK, China, and South
                 Cyprus, and a total of 984 responses have been
                 statistically analysed to determine the common areas of
                 understanding and misunderstanding among students on
                 various topics related to source-code plagiarism. The
                 study identifies those topics which are well
                 understood, and those topics which are not properly
                 understood across the different groups of students, and
                 is the first study which specifically discusses Cypriot
                 student perceptions on source-code plagiarism. This
                 study provides useful information to educators
                 (teaching home and international students) who wish to
                 better inform their students on the issues of
                 plagiarism and source-code plagiarism. Finally, the
                 survey results revealed that although students who were
                 informed about plagiarism better understood what
                 actions constitute plagiarism, some topics were still
                 unclear among students regardless of the students'
                 educational background and whether they had been
                 previously informed about plagiarism.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Merkouris:2017:TPS,
  author =       "Alexandros Merkouris and Konstantinos Chorianopoulos
                 and Achilles Kameas",
  title =        "Teaching Programming in Secondary Education Through
                 Embodied Computing Platforms: Robotics and Wearables",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3025013",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Pedagogy has emphasized that physical representations
                 and tangible interactive objects benefit learning
                 especially for young students. There are many tangible
                 hardware platforms for introducing computer programming
                 to children, but there is limited comparative
                 evaluation of them in the context of a formal
                 classroom. In this work, we explore the benefits of
                 learning to code for tangible computers, such as robots
                 and wearable computers, in comparison to programming
                 for the desktop computer. For this purpose, 36 students
                 participated in a within-groups study that involved
                 three types of target computer platform tangibility:
                 (1) desktop, (2) wearable, and (3) robotic. We employed
                 similar blocks-based visual programming environments,
                 and we measured emotional engagement, attitudes, and
                 computer programming performance. We found that
                 students were more engaged by and had a higher
                 intention of learning programming with the robotic
                 rather than the desktop computer. Furthermore, tangible
                 computing platforms, either robot or wearable, did not
                 affect the students' performance in learning basic
                 computational concepts (e.g., sequence, repeat, and
                 decision). Our findings suggest that computer
                 programming should be introduced through multiple
                 target platforms (e.g., robots, smartphones, wearables)
                 to engage children.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Pappas:2017:ASB,
  author =       "Ilias O. Pappas and Michail N. Giannakos and Letizia
                 Jaccheri and Demetrios G. Sampson",
  title =        "Assessing Student Behavior in Computer Science
                 Education with an {fsQCA} Approach: The Role of Gains
                 and Barriers",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3036399",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This study uses complexity theory to understand the
                 causal patterns of factors that stimulate students'
                 intention to continue studies in computer science (CS).
                 To this end, it identifies gains and barriers as
                 essential factors in CS education, including motivation
                 and learning performance, and proposes a conceptual
                 model along with research propositions. To test its
                 propositions, the study employs fuzzy-set qualitative
                 comparative analysis on a data sample from 344
                 students. Findings indicate eight configurations of
                 cognitive and noncognitive gains, barriers, motivation
                 for studies, and learning performance that explain high
                 intention to continue studies in CS. This research
                 study contributes to the literature by (1) offering new
                 insights into the relationships among the predictors of
                 CS students' intention to continue their studies and
                 (2) advancing the theoretical foundation of how
                 students' gains, barriers, motivation, and learning
                 performance combine to better explain high intentions
                 to continue CS studies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Grover:2017:UPL,
  author =       "Shuchi Grover and Ari Korhonen",
  title =        "Unlocking the Potential of Learning Analytics in
                 Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3122773",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11e",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hundhausen:2017:IBL,
  author =       "C. D. Hundhausen and D. M. Olivares and A. S. Carter",
  title =        "{IDE}-Based Learning Analytics for Computing
                 Education: a Process Model, Critical Review, and
                 Research Agenda",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3105759",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In recent years, learning process data have become
                 increasingly easy to collect through computer-based
                 learning environments. This has led to increased
                 interest in the field of learning analytics, which is
                 concerned with leveraging learning process data in
                 order to better understand, and ultimately to improve,
                 teaching and learning. In computing education, the
                 logical place to collect learning process data is
                 through integrated development environments (IDEs),
                 where computing students typically spend large amounts
                 of time working on programming assignments. While the
                 primary purpose of IDEs is to support computer
                 programming, they might also be used as a mechanism for
                 delivering learning interventions designed to enhance
                 student learning. The possibility of using IDEs both to
                 collect learning process data, and to strategically
                 intervene in the learning process, suggests an exciting
                 design space for computing education research: that of
                 IDE-based learning analytics. In order to facilitate
                 the systematic exploration of this design space, we
                 present an IDE-based data analytics process model with
                 four primary activities: (1) Collect data, (2) Analyze
                 data, (3) Design intervention, and (4) Deliver
                 intervention. For each activity, we identify key design
                 dimensions and review relevant computing education
                 literature. To provide guidance on designing effective
                 interventions, we describe four relevant learning
                 theories, and consider their implications for design.
                 Based on our review, we present a call-to-action for
                 future research into IDE-based learning analytics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Carter:2017:BMP,
  author =       "Adam S. Carter and Christopher D. Hundhausen and
                 Olusola Adesope",
  title =        "Blending Measures of Programming and Social Behavior
                 into Predictive Models of Student Achievement in Early
                 Computing Courses",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3120259",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Analyzing the process data of students as they
                 complete programming assignments has the potential to
                 provide computing educators with insights into both
                 their students and the processes by which they learn to
                 program. In prior research, we explored the
                 relationship between (a) students' programming
                 behaviors and course outcomes, and (b) students'
                 participation within an online social learning
                 environment and course outcomes. In both studies, we
                 developed statistical measures derived from our data
                 that significantly correlate with students' course
                 grades. Encouraged both by social theories of learning
                 and a desire to improve the accuracy of our statistical
                 models, we explore here the impact of incorporating our
                 predictive measure derived from social behavior into
                 three separate predictive measures derived from
                 programming behaviors. We find that, in combining the
                 measures, we are able to improve the overall predictive
                 power of each measure. This finding affirms the
                 importance of social interaction in the learning
                 process, and provides evidence that predictive models
                 derived from multiple sources of learning process data
                 can provide significantly better predictive power by
                 accounting for multiple factors responsible for student
                 success.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ahadi:2017:CTD,
  author =       "Alireza Ahadi and Arto Hellas and Raymond Lister",
  title =        "A Contingency Table Derived Method for Analyzing
                 Course Data",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123814",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe a method for analyzing student data from
                 online programming exercises. Our approach uses
                 contingency tables that combine whether or not a
                 student answered an online exercise correctly with the
                 number of attempts that the student made on that
                 exercise. We use this method to explore the
                 relationship between student performance on online
                 exercises done during semester with subsequent
                 performance on questions in a paper-based exam at the
                 end of semester. We found that it is useful to include
                 data about the number of attempts a student makes on an
                 online exercise.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Grover:2017:FUH,
  author =       "Shuchi Grover and Satabdi Basu and Marie Bienkowski
                 and Michael Eagle and Nicholas Diana and John Stamper",
  title =        "A Framework for Using Hypothesis-Driven Approaches to
                 Support Data-Driven Learning Analytics in Measuring
                 Computational Thinking in Block-Based Programming
                 Environments",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3105910",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Systematic endeavors to take computer science (CS) and
                 computational thinking (CT) to scale in middle and high
                 school classrooms are underway with curricula that
                 emphasize the enactment of authentic CT skills,
                 especially in the context of programming in block-based
                 programming environments. There is, therefore, a
                 growing need to measure students' learning of CT in the
                 context of programming and also support all learners
                 through this process of learning computational problem
                 solving. The goal of this research is to explore
                 hypothesis-driven approaches that can be combined with
                 data-driven ones to better interpret student actions
                 and processes in log data captured from block-based
                 programming environments with the goal of measuring and
                 assessing students' CT skills. Informed by past
                 literature and based on our empirical work examining a
                 dataset from the use of the Fairy Assessment in the
                 Alice programming environment in middle schools, we
                 present a framework that formalizes a process where a
                 hypothesis-driven approach informed by
                 Evidence-Centered Design effectively complements
                 data-driven learning analytics in interpreting
                 students' programming process and assessing CT in
                 block-based programming environments. We apply the
                 framework to the design of Alice tasks for high school
                 CS to be used for measuring CT during programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Fields:2017:YCP,
  author =       "Deborah A. Fields and Yasmin B. Kafai and Michael T.
                 Giang",
  title =        "Youth Computational Participation in the Wild:
                 Understanding Experience and Equity in Participating
                 and Programming in the Online Scratch Community",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123815",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Most research in primary and secondary computing
                 education has focused on understanding learners within
                 formal classroom communities, leaving aside the growing
                 number of promising informal online programming
                 communities where young users contribute, comment, and
                 collaborate on programs to facilitate learning. In this
                 article, we examined trends in computational
                 participation in Scratch, an online community with over
                 1 million registered youth designers. Drawing on a
                 random sample of 5,004 youth programmers and their
                 activities over 3 months in early 2012, we examined
                 programming concepts used in projects in relation to
                 level of participation, gender, and length of
                 membership of Scratch programmers. Latent class
                 analysis results identified the same four groups of
                 programmers in each month based on the usage of
                 different programming concepts and showed how
                 membership in these groups shifted in different ways
                 across time. Strikingly, the largest group of project
                 creators (named Loops) used the simplest and fewest
                 programming concepts. Further, this group was the most
                 stable in membership and was disproportionately female.
                 In contrast, the more complex programming groups (named
                 Variables, Low Booleans, and High Booleans) showed much
                 movement across time. Further, the Low Booleans and
                 High Booleans groups, the only groups to use ``and,''
                 ``or,'' and ``not'' statements in their programs, were
                 disproportionately male. In the discussion, we address
                 the challenges of analyzing young learners' programming
                 in informal online communities and opportunities for
                 designing more equitable computational participation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Umapathy:2017:MAP,
  author =       "Karthikeyan Umapathy and Albert D. Ritzhaupt",
  title =        "A Meta-Analysis of Pair-Programming in Computer
                 Programming Courses: Implications for Educational
                 Practice",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2996201",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Several experiments on the effects of pair programming
                 versus solo programming in the context of education
                 have been reported in the research literature. We
                 present a meta-analysis of these studies that accounted
                 for 18 manuscripts with 28 independent effect sizes in
                 the domains of programming assignments, exams, passing
                 rates, and affective measures. In total, our sample
                 accounts for N = 3,308 students either using pair
                 programming as a treatment variable or using
                 traditional solo programming in the context of a
                 computing course. Our findings suggest positive results
                 in favor of pair programming in three of four domains
                 with exception to affective measures. We provide a
                 comprehensive review of our results and discuss our
                 findings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Vieira:2017:WCC,
  author =       "Camilo Vieira and Alejandra J. Magana and Michael L.
                 Falk and R. Edwin Garcia",
  title =        "Writing In-Code Comments to Self-Explain in
                 Computational Science and Engineering Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3058751",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents two case studies aimed at
                 exploring the use of self-explanations in the context
                 of computational science and engineering (CSE)
                 education. The self-explanations were elicited as
                 students' in-code comments of a set of worked-examples,
                 and the cases involved two different approaches to CSE
                 education: glass box and black box. The glass-box
                 approach corresponds to a programming course for
                 materials science and engineering students that focuses
                 on introducing programming concepts while solving
                 disciplinary problems. The black-box approach involves
                 the introduction of Python-based computational tools
                 within a thermodynamics course to represent
                 disciplinary phenomena. Two semesters of data
                 collection for each case study allowed us to identify
                 the effect of using in-code comments as a
                 self-explanation strategy on students' engagement with
                 the worked-examples and students' perceptions of these
                 activities within each context. The results suggest
                 that the use of in-code comments as a self-explanation
                 strategy increased students' awareness of the
                 worked-examples while engaging with them. The students'
                 perceived uses of the in-code commenting activities
                 include: understanding the example, making a connection
                 between the programming code and the disciplinary
                 problem, and becoming familiar with the programming
                 language syntax, among others.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Clarke:2017:IUT,
  author =       "Peter J. Clarke and Debra L. Davis and Raymond
                 Chang-Lau and Tariq M. King",
  title =        "Impact of Using Tools in an Undergraduate Software
                 Testing Course Supported by {WReSTT}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3068324",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Software continues to affect a major part of our daily
                 lives, including the way we use our phones, home
                 appliances, medical devices, and cars. The
                 pervasiveness of software has led to a growing demand
                 for software developers over the next decade. To ensure
                 the high quality of software developed in industry,
                 students being trained in software engineering also
                 need to be trained on how to use testing techniques and
                 supporting tools effectively at all levels of
                 development. In this article, we investigate how
                 testing tools are used in the software project of an
                 undergraduate testing course. We also investigate how a
                 cyberlearning environment-the Web-Based Repository of
                 Software Testing Tutorials (WReSTT)-is used to
                 supplement the learning materials presented in class,
                 particularly the tutorials on different software
                 testing tools. The results of a study spanning three
                 semesters of the undergraduate course suggest that (1)
                 the use of code coverage tools motivates students to
                 improve their test suites; (2) the number of bugs found
                 when using coverage tools slightly increased, which is
                 similar to the results found in the research
                 literature; and (3) students find WReSTT to be a useful
                 resource for learning about software testing techniques
                 and the use of code coverage tools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Fronza:2017:TCT,
  author =       "Ilenia Fronza and Nabil {El Ioini} and Luis Corral",
  title =        "Teaching Computational Thinking Using Agile Software
                 Engineering Methods: a Framework for Middle Schools",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3055258",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computational Thinking (CT) has been recognized as one
                 of the fundamental skills that all graduates should
                 acquire. For this reason, motivational concerns need to
                 be addressed at an early age of a child, and reaching
                 students who do not consider themselves candidates for
                 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
                 disciplines is important as well if the broadest
                 audience possible is to be engaged. This article
                 describes a framework for teaching and assessing CT in
                 the context of K-12 education. The framework is based
                 on Agile software engineering methods, which rely on a
                 set of principles and practices that can be mapped to
                 the activities of CT. The article presents as well the
                 results of an experiment applying this framework in two
                 sixth-grade classes, with 42 participants in total. The
                 results show that Agile software engineering methods
                 are effective at teaching CT in middle schools, after
                 the addition of some tasks to allow students to
                 explore, project, and experience the potential product
                 before using the software tools at hand. Moreover,
                 according to the teachers' feedback, the students
                 reached all the educational objectives of the topics
                 involved in the multidisciplinary activities. This
                 result can be taken as an indicator that it is possible
                 to use computing as a medium for teaching other
                 subjects, besides computer science.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Outlay:2017:GIT,
  author =       "Christina N. Outlay and Alana J. Platt and Kacie
                 Conroy",
  title =        "Getting {IT} Together: a Longitudinal Look at Linking
                 Girls' Interest in {IT} Careers to Lessons Taught in
                 Middle School Camps",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3068838",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The dearth of women choosing information technology
                 (IT) careers has been identified as a national problem
                 in the United States. Efforts have been made to combat
                 this by educating girls at a young age about
                 technology. Recent research demonstrates that exposure
                 to technology is insufficient to change young girls'
                 attitudes towards IT careers and that interventions
                 must explicitly tie technology activities to careers.
                 Faculty and staff of a Midwestern university modified
                 an IT summer camp for middle school girls to include
                 career specific programming. The camp deployed the
                 Girls Educating Themselves about Information Technology
                 (GET IT) program to garner interest among middle school
                 girls in IT careers. This article describes the impact
                 of this summer camp and other social influence factors
                 on girls' interest in pursuing careers in IT,
                 immediately after camp completion and one year in the
                 future.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ravitz:2017:ELE,
  author =       "Jason Ravitz and Chris Stephenson and Karen Parker and
                 Juliane Blazevski",
  title =        "Early Lessons from Evaluation of Computer Science
                 Teacher Professional Development in {Google}'s {CS4HS}
                 Program",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3077617",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article compares self-reported learning gains and
                 experiences of teachers in four professional
                 development courses funded through Google's 2014
                 Computer Science for High School program. The courses
                 were designed and taught independently at four
                 universities and started late enough in the year to
                 participate in our pre-post study. Two of the courses
                 used a face-to-face approach, one was online only, and
                 one used a hybrid format. Analyses from 314 pre-surveys
                 and 129 post-surveys indicate CS teachers are far from
                 homogeneous, suggesting that some customization may
                 benefit professional development. We also saw a
                 stronger sense of community in the two face-to-face
                 courses. Among the outcomes we measured, teacher
                 concerns (Hall and Hord 1977) were more sensitive to
                 change than our measures of self-efficacy, outcome
                 expectations, readiness, or beliefs. Findings
                 illustrate the variety of CS teacher professional
                 development experiences and the need to study the best
                 ways to scale effective CS teacher education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Qian:2017:SMO,
  author =       "Yizhou Qian and James Lehman",
  title =        "Students' Misconceptions and Other Difficulties in
                 Introductory Programming: a Literature Review",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3077618",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Efforts to improve computer science education are
                 underway, and teachers of computer science are
                 challenged in introductory programming courses to help
                 learners develop their understanding of programming and
                 computer science. Identifying and addressing students'
                 misconceptions is a key part of a computer science
                 teacher's competence. However, relevant research on
                 this topic is not as fully developed in the computer
                 science education field as it is in mathematics and
                 science education. In this article, we first review
                 relevant literature on general definitions of
                 misconceptions and studies about students'
                 misconceptions and other difficulties in introductory
                 programming. Next, we investigate the factors that
                 contribute to the difficulties. Finally, strategies and
                 tools to address difficulties including misconceptions
                 are discussed. Based on the review of literature, we
                 found that students exhibit various misconceptions and
                 other difficulties in syntactic knowledge, conceptual
                 knowledge, and strategic knowledge. These difficulties
                 experienced by students are related to many factors
                 including unfamiliarity of syntax, natural language,
                 math knowledge, inaccurate mental models, lack of
                 strategies, programming environments, and teachers'
                 knowledge and instruction. However, many sources of
                 students' difficulties have connections with students'
                 prior knowledge. To better understand and address
                 students' misconceptions and other difficulties,
                 various instructional approaches and tools have been
                 developed. Nevertheless, the dissemination of these
                 approaches and tools has been limited. Thus, first, we
                 suggest enhancing the dissemination of existing tools
                 and approaches and investigating their long-term
                 effects. Second, we recommend that computing education
                 research move beyond documenting misconceptions to
                 address the development of students' (mis)conceptions
                 by integrating conceptual change theories. Third, we
                 believe that developing and enhancing instructors'
                 pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), including their
                 knowledge of students' misconceptions and ability to
                 apply effective instructional approaches and tools to
                 address students' difficulties, is vital to the success
                 of teaching introductory programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Acher:2017:TSP,
  author =       "Mathieu Acher and Roberto E. Lopez-Herrejon and Rick
                 Rabiser",
  title =        "Teaching Software Product Lines: a Snapshot of Current
                 Practices and Challenges",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3088440",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Software Product Line (SPL) engineering has emerged to
                 provide the means to efficiently model, produce, and
                 maintain multiple similar software variants, exploiting
                 their common properties, and managing their
                 variabilities (differences). With over two decades of
                 existence, the community of SPL researchers and
                 practitioners is thriving, as can be attested by the
                 extensive research output and the numerous successful
                 industrial projects. Education has a key role to
                 support the next generation of practitioners to build
                 highly complex, variability-intensive systems. Yet, it
                 is unclear how the concepts of variability and SPLs are
                 taught, what are the possible missing gaps and
                 difficulties faced, what are the benefits, and what is
                 the material available. Also, it remains unclear
                 whether scholars teach what is actually needed by
                 industry. In this article, we report on three
                 initiatives we have conducted with scholars, educators,
                 industry practitioners, and students to further
                 understand the connection between SPLs and education,
                 that is, an online survey on teaching SPLs we performed
                 with 35 scholars, another survey on learning SPLs we
                 conducted with 25 students, as well as two workshops
                 held at the International Software Product Line
                 Conference in 2014 and 2015 with both researchers and
                 industry practitioners participating. We build upon the
                 two surveys and the workshops to derive recommendations
                 for educators to continue improving the state of
                 practice of teaching SPLs, aimed at both individual
                 educators as well as the wider community.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Weintrop:2017:CBB,
  author =       "David Weintrop and Uri Wilensky",
  title =        "Comparing Block-Based and Text-Based Programming in
                 High School Computer Science Classrooms",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3089799",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The number of students taking high school computer
                 science classes is growing. Increasingly, these
                 students are learning with graphical, block-based
                 programming environments either in place of or prior to
                 traditional text-based programming languages. Despite
                 their growing use in formal settings, relatively little
                 empirical work has been done to understand the impacts
                 of using block-based programming environments in high
                 school classrooms. In this article, we present the
                 results of a 5-week, quasi-experimental study comparing
                 isomorphic block-based and text-based programming
                 environments in an introductory high school programming
                 class. The findings from this study show students in
                 both conditions improved their scores between pre- and
                 postassessments; however, students in the blocks
                 condition showed greater learning gains and a higher
                 level of interest in future computing courses. Students
                 in the text condition viewed their programming
                 experience as more similar to what professional
                 programmers do and as more effective at improving their
                 programming ability. No difference was found between
                 students in the two conditions with respect to
                 confidence or enjoyment. The implications of these
                 findings with respect to pedagogy and design are
                 discussed, along with directions for future work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Witherspoon:2017:DCT,
  author =       "Eben B. Witherspoon and Ross M. Higashi and Christian
                 D. Schunn and Emily C. Baehr and Robin Shoop",
  title =        "Developing Computational Thinking through a Virtual
                 Robotics Programming Curriculum",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3104982",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Computational thinking describes key principles from
                 computer science that are broadly generalizable.
                 Robotics programs can be engaging learning environments
                 for acquiring core computational thinking competencies.
                 However, few empirical studies evaluate the
                 effectiveness of a robotics programming curriculum for
                 developing computational thinking knowledge and skills.
                 This study measures pre/post gains with new
                 computational thinking assessments given to middle
                 school students who participated in a virtual robotics
                 programming curriculum. Overall, participation in the
                 virtual robotics curriculum was related to significant
                 gains in pre- to posttest scores, with larger gains for
                 students who made further progress through the
                 curriculum. The success of this intervention suggests
                 that participation in a scaffolded programming
                 curriculum, within the context of virtual robotics,
                 supports the development of generalizable computational
                 thinking knowledge and skills that are associated with
                 increased problem-solving performance on nonrobotics
                 computing tasks. Furthermore, the particular units that
                 students engage in may determine their level of growth
                 in these competencies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Grissom:2017:HSC,
  author =       "Scott Grissom and Ren{\'e}e Mccauley and Laurie
                 Murphy",
  title =        "How Student Centered is the Computer Science
                 Classroom? {A} Survey of College Faculty",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2017",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3143200",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Student-centered instructional practices structure a
                 class so that students interact with each other, engage
                 deeply with the content, and receive formative
                 feedback. These evidence-based practices benefit all
                 students but are particularly effective with
                 underrepresented learners, including women and members
                 of other minority groups. To what extent have computer
                 science (CS) faculty embraced these strategies? We
                 surveyed over 700 U.S. faculty to find out. Results
                 suggest that female faculty, associate professors, and
                 those teaching courses with enrollment above 80
                 students are more likely to use these student-centered
                 practices. Across all responses, 20\% of faculty use
                 student--student interaction on a regular basis during
                 class. In contrast, 38\% of faculty rely on lectures
                 for content delivery. Results were also compared with
                 published data for other academic disciplines. CS
                 faculty are less likely to use these practices compared
                 to their non-STEM colleagues but more likely to use
                 these practices compared to other STEM discipline
                 faculty. Overall, CS faculty have adopted
                 student-centered practices to some degree, but our
                 community should strive for higher adoption rates to
                 help as many students as possible learn and remain in
                 computer science.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sherriff:2018:CLP,
  author =       "Mark Sherriff and Sarah Heckman",
  title =        "Capstones and Large Projects in Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3229882",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Capstone and large projects in computing education are
                 used as a vehicle for giving students as close to a
                 ``real-world'' experience in software development as
                 possible within the constraints of a computing degree
                 program. This special issue presents four articles that
                 focus on empirical research on capstone or other
                 large-scale projects. These articles discuss areas such
                 as project selection, working with external
                 stakeholders, choosing the appropriate development
                 methodology, incorporating creative activities to
                 support student engagement, and learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Braught:2018:MIP,
  author =       "Grant Braught and John Maccormick and James Bowring
                 and Quinn Burke and Barbara Cutler and David
                 Goldschmidt and Mukkai Krishnamoorthy and Wesley Turner
                 and Steven Huss-Lederman and Bonnie Mackellar and Allen
                 Tucker",
  title =        "A Multi-Institutional Perspective on {H\slash FOSS}
                 Projects in the Computing Curriculum",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3145476",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Many computer science programs have capstone
                 experiences or project courses that allow students to
                 integrate knowledge from the full breadth of their
                 major. Such capstone projects may be student-designed,
                 instructor-designed, designed in conjunction with
                 outside companies, or integrated with ongoing free and
                 open source (FOSS) projects. The literature shows that
                 the FOSS approach has attracted a great deal of
                 interest, in particular when implemented with projects
                 that have humanitarian goals (HFOSS). In this article,
                 we describe five unique models from five distinct types
                 of institutions for incorporating sustained FOSS or
                 HFOSS (alternatively H/FOSS) project work into capstone
                 experiences or courses. The goal is to provide
                 instructors wishing to integrate open source
                 experiences into their curriculum with additional
                 perspectives and resources to help in adapting this
                 approach to the specific needs and goals of their
                 institution and students. All of the models presented
                 are based on sustained engagement with H/FOSS projects
                 that last at least one semester and often more. Each
                 model is described in terms of its characteristics and
                 how it fits the needs of the institution using the
                 model. Assessment of each model is also presented. We
                 then discuss the themes that are common across the
                 models, such as project selection, team formation,
                 mentoring, and student assessment. We examine the
                 choices made by each model, as well as the challenges
                 faced. We end with a discussion how the models have
                 leveraged institutional initiatives and collaborations
                 with outside organizations to address some of the
                 challenges associated with these projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Steghofer:2018:IES,
  author =       "Jan-Philipp Stegh{\"o}fer and H{\aa}kan Burden and
                 Regina Hebig and Gul Calikli and Robert Feldt and Imed
                 Hammouda and Jennifer Horkoff and Eric Knauss and
                 Grischa Liebel",
  title =        "Involving External Stakeholders in Project Courses",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152098",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Problem: The involvement of external stakeholders in
                 capstone projects and project courses is desirable due
                 to its potential positive effects on the students.
                 Capstone projects particularly profit from the
                 inclusion of an industrial partner to make the project
                 relevant and help students acquire professional skills.
                 In addition, an increasing push towards education that
                 is aligned with industry and incorporates industrial
                 partners can be observed. However, the involvement of
                 external stakeholders in teaching moments can create
                 friction and could, in the worst case, lead to
                 frustration of all involved parties. Contribution: We
                 developed a model that allows analysing the involvement
                 of external stakeholders in university courses both in
                 a retrospective fashion, to gain insights from past
                 course instances, and in a constructive fashion, to
                 plan the involvement of external stakeholders. Key
                 Concepts: The conceptual model and the accompanying
                 guideline guide the teachers in their analysis of
                 stakeholder involvement. The model is comprised of
                 several activities (define, execute, and evaluate the
                 collaboration). The guideline provides questions that
                 the teachers should answer for each of these
                 activities. In the constructive use, the model allows
                 teachers to define an action plan based on an analysis
                 of potential stakeholders and the pedagogical
                 objectives. In the retrospective use, the model allows
                 teachers to identify issues that appeared during the
                 project and their underlying causes. Drawing from ideas
                 of the reflective practitioner, the model contains an
                 emphasis on reflection and interpretation of the
                 observations made by the teacher and other groups
                 involved in the courses. Key Lessons: Applying the
                 model retrospectively to a total of eight courses shows
                 that it is possible to reveal hitherto implicit risks
                 and assumptions and to gain a better insight into the
                 interaction between external stakeholders and students.
                 Our empirical data reveals seven recurring risk themes
                 that categorise the different risks appearing in the
                 analysed courses. These themes can also be used to
                 categorise mitigation strategies to address these risks
                 proactively. Additionally, aspects not related to
                 external stakeholders, e.g., about the interaction of
                 the project with other courses in the study programme,
                 have been revealed. The constructive use of the model
                 for one course has proved helpful in identifying action
                 alternatives and finally deciding to not include
                 external stakeholders in the project due to the
                 perceived cost-benefit-ratio. Implications to Practice:
                 Our evaluation shows that the model is a viable and
                 useful tool that allows teachers to reason about and
                 plan the involvement of external stakeholders in a
                 variety of course settings, and in particular in
                 capstone projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Saltz:2018:SMG,
  author =       "Jeffrey S. Saltz and Robert R. Heckman",
  title =        "A Scalable Methodology to Guide Student Teams
                 Executing Computing Projects",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3145477",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports on a sequential mixed-methods
                 research study, which compared different approaches on
                 how to guide students through a semester-long data
                 science project. Four different methodologies, ranging
                 from a traditional ``just assign some intermediate
                 milestones'' to other more Agile methodologies, were
                 first compared via a controlled experiment. The results
                 of this initial experiment showed that the project
                 methodology used made a significant difference in
                 student outcomes. Surprisingly, the Agile Kanban
                 approach was found to be much more effective than the
                 Agile Scrum methodology. Based on these initial
                 results, in the second semester, we focused on use of
                 the Kanban methodology. The findings in the second,
                 more qualitative phase, confirmed the methodology's
                 usefulness and scalability. A key issue when using the
                 scrum methodology was that the students had a very
                 difficult time estimating what could be completed in
                 each of their two-week sprints. The Kanban board, which
                 visually shows and limits work-in-progress, was found
                 to be an effective way for students to communicate with
                 each other as well as with their instructor. In
                 addition, Agile Kanban also streamlined the work
                 required for instructors to efficiently provide
                 guidance to student teams and to understand each team's
                 status. In summary, a scalable Kanban methodology,
                 which can be applied to a wide variety of student
                 computing projects, was found to an effective
                 methodology to guide and manage student projects,
                 improving student outcomes and minimizing instructor
                 workload.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Krusche:2018:STT,
  author =       "Stephan Krusche and Dora Dzvonyar and Han Xu and Bernd
                 Bruegge",
  title =        "Software Theater-Teaching Demo-Oriented Prototyping",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3145454",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Modern capstone courses use agile methods to deliver
                 and demonstrate software early in the project. However,
                 a simple demonstration of functional and static aspects
                 does not provide real-world software usage context,
                 although this is integral to understand software
                 requirements. Software engineering involves
                 capabilities such as creativity, imagination, and
                 interaction, which are typically not emphasized in
                 software engineering courses. A more engaging, dynamic
                 way of presenting software prototypes is needed to
                 demonstrate the context in which the software is used.
                 We combine agile methods, scenario-based design, and
                 theatrical aspects into software theater, an approach
                 to present visionary scenarios using techniques
                 borrowed from theater and film, including props and
                 humor. We describe the software theater workflow,
                 provide examples, and explain patterns to demonstrate
                 its potential. We illustrate two large case studies in
                 which we teach students with varying levels of
                 experience to apply software theater: a capstone course
                 involving industrial customers with 100 students and an
                 interactive lecture-based course with 400 students. We
                 empirically evaluated the use of software theater in
                 both courses. Our evaluations show that students can
                 understand and apply software theater within one
                 semester and that this technique increases their
                 motivation to prepare demonstrations even early in the
                 project. Software theater is more creative, memorable,
                 dynamic, and engaging than normal demonstration
                 techniques and brings fun into education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Jones:2018:CCD,
  author =       "Keith S. Jones and Akbar Siami Namin and Miriam E.
                 Armstrong",
  title =        "The Core Cyber-Defense Knowledge, Skills, and
                 Abilities That Cybersecurity Students Should Learn in
                 School: Results from Interviews with Cybersecurity
                 Professionals",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152893",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Our cybersecurity workforce needs surpass our ability
                 to meet them. These needs could be mitigated by
                 developing relevant curricula that prioritize the
                 knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) most important
                 to cybersecurity jobs. To identify the KSAs needed for
                 performing cybersecurity jobs, we administered survey
                 interviews to 44 cyber professionals at the premier
                 hacker conferences Black Hat 2016 and DEF CON 24.
                 Questions concerned 32 KSAs related to cyber defense.
                 Participants rated how important each KSA was to their
                 job and indicated where they had learned that KSA.
                 Fifteen of these KSAs were rated as being of
                 higher-than-neutral importance. Participants also
                 answered open-ended questions meant to uncover
                 additional KSAs that are important to cyber-defense
                 work. Overall, the data suggest that KSAs related to
                 networks, vulnerabilities, programming, and
                 interpersonal communication should be prioritized in
                 cybersecurity curricula.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wainer:2018:CEP,
  author =       "Jacques Wainer and Eduardo C. Xavier",
  title =        "A Controlled Experiment on {Python} vs {C} for an
                 Introductory Programming Course: Students' Outcomes",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152894",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We performed a controlled experiment comparing a C and
                 a Python Introductory Programming course. Three faculty
                 members at University of Campinas, Brazil, taught the
                 same CS1 course for the same majors in two different
                 semesters, one version in Python and one in C, with a
                 total of 391 students involved in the experiment. We
                 measured the dropout rate, the failure rate, the grades
                 on the two exams, the proportion of completed lab
                 assignments, and the number of submissions per
                 completed assignment. There was no difference in the
                 dropout rate. The failure rate for Python was 16.9\%
                 against 23.1\% for C. The effect size (Cohen's D) on
                 the comparison of Python against C on the midterm exam
                 was 0.27, and 0.38 for the final exam. The effect size
                 for the proportion of completed assignments was 0.39
                 and the effect size for the number of submissions per
                 assignment was -0.61 (Python had less submissions per
                 completed assignments). Thus, for all measures, with
                 the exception of dropout rate, the version of the
                 course in Python yielded better student outcomes than
                 the version in C and all differences are significant
                 (with 95\% confidence) with the exception of the
                 failure rate (p-value = 0.12).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Turner:2018:PRC,
  author =       "Scott Alexander Turner and Manuel A.
                 P{\'e}rez-Qui{\~n}ones and Stephen H. Edwards",
  title =        "Peer Review in {CS2}: Conceptual Learning and
                 High-Level Thinking",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152715",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In computer science, students could benefit from
                 exposure to critical programming concepts from multiple
                 perspectives. Peer review is one method to allow
                 students to experience authentic uses of the concepts
                 in an activity that is not itself programming. In this
                 work, we examine how to implement the peer review
                 process in early, object-oriented computer science
                 courses as a way to increase the students' knowledge of
                 programming concepts, specifically Abstraction,
                 Decomposition, and Encapsulation, and to develop their
                 higher-level thinking skills. We are exploring the peer
                 review process, the effects of the type of review on
                 the reviewers, and the results this has on the
                 students' learning. To study these ideas, we used peer
                 review activities in CS2 classes at two universities
                 over the course of a semester. Using three groups (one
                 reviewing their peers, one reviewing the instructor,
                 and one completing small design or coding assignments),
                 we measured the students' conceptual understanding
                 throughout the semester with concept maps and the
                 reviews they completed. We found that reviewing helped
                 students learn Decomposition, especially those
                 reviewing the instructor's programs, but we did not
                 find that it improved the students' level of thinking.
                 Overall, reviews (peer or otherwise) are beneficial for
                 teaching Decomposition to CS2 students and can be used
                 as an alternative method for teaching other
                 object-oriented programming concepts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sentance:2018:CBR,
  author =       "Sue Sentance and Jane Sinclair and Carl Simmons and
                 Andrew Csizmadia",
  title =        "Classroom-Based Research Projects for Computing
                 Teachers: Facilitating Professional Learning",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3171129",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The introduction of Computing to the national
                 curriculum in England has led to a situation where
                 in-service teachers need to develop subject knowledge
                 and pedagogical expertise in computer science, which
                 presents a significant challenge. Professional learning
                 opportunities can support this; these may be most
                 effective when situated in the teachers' own working
                 practices. This article describes a project to support
                 Computing teachers in developing pedagogical skills by
                 carrying out classroom-based research in their schools.
                 A group of 22 primary (Grades K--5) and secondary
                 (Grades 6--10) teachers from schools across England
                 planned, designed, and implemented research projects
                 either individually or in small groups, supported by a
                 team of university colleagues. Inter and intra group
                 progress was shared online and face-to-face within a
                 distributed community of inquiry. Data collection
                 included surveys, video data, and the projects
                 completed by the teachers. The findings from the
                 project are analysed using Clarke and Hollingsworth's
                 Interconnected Model of Teacher Professional Growth
                 (IMTPG), which enables an identification and
                 exploration of teacher change. Results of the analysis
                 demonstrate that the approach can foster ``growth
                 networks''-the construct used within IMTPG to indicate
                 teacher change which is likely to be sustained and
                 fundamental to teachers' understanding. The individual
                 nature of this change indicates that the approach
                 supports personal change related to each teacher's
                 specific situation. Although there is a huge literature
                 on action research as part of teacher professional
                 learning, we believe this to be the first time this has
                 been carried out in the context of computer science
                 education. We conclude by critically reflecting on the
                 lessons that we have learned in leading this project.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Taipalus:2018:ECS,
  author =       "Toni Taipalus and Mikko Siponen and Tero Vartiainen",
  title =        "Errors and Complications in {SQL} Query Formulation",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3231712",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "SQL is taught in almost all university level database
                 courses, yet SQL has received relatively little
                 attention in educational research. In this study, we
                 present a database management system independent
                 categorization of SQL query errors that students make
                 in an introductory database course. We base the
                 categorization on previous literature, present a class
                 of logical errors that has not been studied in detail,
                 and review and complement these findings by analyzing
                 over 33,000 SQL queries submitted by students. Our
                 analysis verifies error findings presented in previous
                 literature and reveals new types of errors, namely
                 logical errors recurring in similar manners among
                 different students. We present a listing of fundamental
                 SQL query concepts we have identified and based our
                 exercises on, a categorization of different errors and
                 complications, and an operational model for designing
                 SQL exercises.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Korhonen:2018:SSI,
  author =       "Ari Korhonen and Shuchi Grover",
  title =        "Second Special Issue on Learning Analytics in
                 Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3243140",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tomkin:2018:IGP,
  author =       "Jonathan H. Tomkin and Matthew West and Geoffrey L.
                 Herman",
  title =        "An Improved Grade Point Average, With Applications to
                 {CS} Undergraduate Education Analytics",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3157086",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a methodological improvement for
                 calculating Grade Point Averages (GPAs). Heterogeneity
                 in grading between courses systematically biases
                 observed GPAs for individual students: the GPA observed
                 depends on course selection. We show how a logistic
                 model can account for course selection by simulating
                 how every student in a sample would perform if they
                 took all available courses, giving a new ``modeled
                 GPA.'' We then use 10 years of grade data from a large
                 university to demonstrate that this modeled GPA is a
                 more accurate predictor of student performance in
                 individual courses than the observed GPA. Using
                 Computer Science (CS) as an example learning analytics
                 application, it is found that required CS courses give
                 significantly lower grades than average courses. This
                 depresses the recorded GPAs of CS majors: modeled GPAs
                 are 0.25 points higher than those that are observed.
                 The modeled GPA also correlates much more closely with
                 standardized test scores than the observed GPA: the
                 correlation with Math ACT is 0.37 for the modeled GPA
                 and is 0.20 for the observed GPA. This implies that
                 standardized test scores are much better predictors of
                 student performance than might otherwise be assumed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Crues:2018:HDG,
  author =       "R. Wes Crues and Genevieve M. Henricks and Michelle
                 Perry and Suma Bhat and Carolyn J. Anderson and
                 Najmuddin Shaik and Lawrence Angrave",
  title =        "How do Gender, Learning Goals, and Forum Participation
                 Predict Persistence in a Computer Science {MOOC}?",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152892",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)-in part, because
                 of their free, flexible, and relatively anonymous
                 nature-may provide a means for helping overcome the
                 large gender gap in Computer Science (CS). This study
                 examines why women and men chose to enroll in a CS MOOC
                 and how this is related to successful behavior in the
                 course by (a) using k-means clustering to explore the
                 reasons why women and men enrolled in this MOOC and
                 then (b) analyzing if these reasons are related to
                 forum participation and, ultimately, persistence in the
                 course. Findings suggest that women and men have
                 different reasons for taking this CS MOOC, and they
                 persist at different rates, an outcome that is
                 moderated by forum participation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Lagus:2018:TLM,
  author =       "Jarkko Lagus and Krista Longi and Arto Klami and Arto
                 Hellas",
  title =        "Transfer-Learning Methods in Programming Course
                 Outcome Prediction",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152714",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "The computing education research literature contains a
                 wide variety of methods that can be used to identify
                 students who are either at risk of failing their
                 studies or who could benefit from additional
                 challenges. Many of these are based on machine-learning
                 models that learn to make predictions based on
                 previously observed data. However, in educational
                 contexts, differences between courses set huge
                 challenges for the generalizability of these methods.
                 For example, traditional machine-learning methods
                 assume identical distribution in all data-in our terms,
                 traditional machine-learning methods assume that all
                 teaching contexts are alike. In practice, data
                 collected from different courses can be very different
                 as a variety of factors may change, including grading,
                 materials, teaching approach, and the students.
                 Transfer-learning methodologies have been created to
                 address this challenge. They relax the strict
                 assumption of identical distribution for training and
                 test data. Some similarity between the contexts is
                 still needed for efficient learning. In this work, we
                 review the concept of transfer learning especially for
                 the purpose of predicting the outcome of an
                 introductory programming course and contrast the
                 results with those from traditional machine-learning
                 methods. The methods are evaluated using data collected
                 in situ from two separate introductory programming
                 courses. We empirically show that transfer-learning
                 methods are able to improve the predictions, especially
                 in cases with limited amount of training data, for
                 example, when making early predictions for a new
                 context. The difference in predictive power is,
                 however, rather subtle, and traditional
                 machine-learning models can be sufficiently accurate
                 assuming the contexts are closely related and the
                 features describing the student activity are carefully
                 chosen to be insensitive to the fine differences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kori:2018:ASP,
  author =       "K{\"u}lli Kori and Margus Pedaste and Olev Must",
  title =        "The Academic, Social, and Professional Integration
                 Profiles of Information Technology Students",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3183343",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "Low retention rates in higher education Information
                 Technology (IT) studies have led to an unmet demand for
                 IT specialists. Therefore, universities need to apply
                 interventions to increase retention rates and provide
                 the labor market with more IT graduates. However,
                 students with different characteristics may need
                 different types of interventions. The current study
                 applies a person-oriented approach and identifies the
                 profiles of first-year IT students in order to design
                 group-specific support. Tinto's [13, 14] integration
                 model was used as a framework to analyze questionnaire
                 data from 509 first-year IT students in Estonia. The
                 students' response profiles were distinguished through
                 latent profile analysis, and the students were divided
                 into four profiles based on their responses to
                 questions about academic integration, professional
                 integration, and graduation-related self-efficacy. The
                 difference in academic integration was smaller among
                 the profiles than the difference in professional
                 integration. Knowing these profiles helps universities
                 to design interventions for each student group and
                 apply the interventions to increase the number of IT
                 graduates.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Exter:2018:CCP,
  author =       "Marisa Exter and Secil Caskurlu and Todd Fernandez",
  title =        "Comparing Computing Professionals' Perceptions of
                 Importance of Skills and Knowledge on the Job and
                 Coverage in Undergraduate Experiences",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218430",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "This article discusses the findings of a survey of
                 nearly 300 computing professionals who are involved in
                 the design and/or development of software across a
                 variety of industries. We report on the surveyed
                 professionals' perceptions of the importance of a range
                 of topics and skills, and the degree to which 55 recent
                 graduates felt that each topic or skill was emphasized
                 in their undergraduate experience. Our findings
                 highlight the value of breadth and flexibility in
                 technical skills, and the universal importance of
                 critical thinking, problem solving, on-the-job
                 learning, and the ability to work well in
                 cross-disciplinary teams. These findings align roughly
                 with recommendations by the ACM/IEEE task force on
                 computing curricula. However, the recent graduates we
                 surveyed report inconsistent coverage of these most
                 important areas within their degree experiences. We
                 discuss implications for education and for future
                 research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Mazur:2018:FTF,
  author =       "Rebecca Mazur and Rebecca H. Woodland",
  title =        "A Fringe Topic in a Fragile Network: How Digital
                 Literacy and Computer Science Instruction Is Supported
                 (or Not) by Teacher Ties",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2018",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218361",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  abstract =     "In this NSF CSforALL funded research study, the
                 authors sought to understand the extent to which an
                 urban district's teacher instructional support network
                 enabled or constrained capacity to implement and
                 diffuse Digital Literacy and Computer Science (DLCS)
                 instructional practices throughout the K-12 curriculum.
                 Social network analysis was used to investigate
                 informal teacher advice-seeking and advice-giving
                 patterns of DLCS support. Network measures of cohesion
                 and centrality were computed. Findings revealed that
                 DLCS-focused teacher support networks tend to exhibit
                 very low density, have relatively few ties, include a
                 high number of isolates (teachers with no connections),
                 and centralize around a particular actor. In addition,
                 a low level of overlap was found between DLCS networks
                 and primary instructional networks. Overall, study
                 findings suggest that teacher networks are not
                 well-structured to support the flow of DLCS advice and
                 support. The authors conclude that examining and
                 strengthening teacher networks of instructional support
                 may be a crucial step for educational leaders concerned
                 with school improvement and the diffusion of DLCS
                 curricula in US schools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hamouda:2019:RIT,
  author =       "Sally Hamouda and Stephen H. Edwards and Hicham G.
                 Elmongui and Jeremy V. Ernst and Clifford A. Shaffer",
  title =        "{RecurTutor}: an Interactive Tutorial for Learning
                 Recursion",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218328",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218328",
  abstract =     "Recursion is one of the most important and hardest
                 topics in lower division computer science courses. As
                 it is an advanced programming skill, the best way to
                 learn it is through targeted practice exercises. But
                 the best practice problems are time consuming to
                 manually grade by an instructor. As a consequence,
                 students historically have completed only a small
                 number of recursion programming exercises as part of
                 their coursework. We present a new way for teaching
                 such programming skills. Students view examples and
                 visualizations, then practice a wide variety of
                 automatically assessed, small-scale programming
                 exercises that address the sub-skills required to learn
                 recursion. The basic recursion tutorial (RecurTutor)
                 teaches material typically encountered in CS2 courses.
                 Students who used RecurTutor had significantly better
                 grades on recursion exam questions than did students
                 who used typical instruction. Students who experienced
                 RecurTutor spent significantly more time on solving
                 recursive programming exercises than students who
                 experienced typical instruction, and came out with a
                 significantly higher confidence level.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rucker:2019:HES,
  author =       "Michael T. R{\"u}cker and Niels Pinkwart",
  title =        "{``How Else Should It Work?''} {A} Grounded Theory of
                 Pre-College Students' Understanding of Computing
                 Devices",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3226592",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3226592",
  abstract =     "In order to understand and evaluate computing
                 technology in their environment, students first need to
                 be able to identify it. This task becomes increasingly
                 difficult, however, as computing systems become more
                 and more ubiquitous and invisible. Based on the
                 analysis of semi-structured focus interviews with 28
                 German pre-college students, we present a grounded
                 theory of their conceptions and reasoning related to
                 the identification of computing within technical
                 devices. At its core is the finding that many students
                 seemed to differentiate technical artifacts with
                 respect to three conceived levels of capability. Many
                 household appliances, for instance, were very well seen
                 as electronic and programmed, but still as too limited
                 in their capability to warrant the presence of a
                 ``real'' computer or to be related to informatics.
                 Given the increasing versatility, power, and associated
                 risks of modern embedded systems as well as the advent
                 of the internet of things, this issue should clearly be
                 addressed. Based on our grounded theory, we propose
                 some first ideas for how this might be done.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Keuning:2019:SLR,
  author =       "Hieke Keuning and Johan Jeuring and Bastiaan Heeren",
  title =        "A Systematic Literature Review of Automated Feedback
                 Generation for Programming Exercises",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3231711",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3231711",
  abstract =     "Formative feedback, aimed at helping students to
                 improve their work, is an important factor in learning.
                 Many tools that offer programming exercises provide
                 automated feedback on student solutions. We have
                 performed a systematic literature review to find out
                 what kind of feedback is provided, which techniques are
                 used to generate the feedback, how adaptable the
                 feedback is, and how these tools are evaluated. We have
                 designed a labelling to classify the tools, and use
                 Narciss' feedback content categories to classify
                 feedback messages. We report on the results of coding a
                 total of 101 tools. We have found that feedback mostly
                 focuses on identifying mistakes and less on fixing
                 problems and taking a next step. Furthermore, teachers
                 cannot easily adapt tools to their own needs. However,
                 the diversity of feedback types has increased over the
                 past decades and new techniques are being applied to
                 generate feedback that is increasingly helpful for
                 students.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Marin:2019:EIB,
  author =       "B. Mar{\'\i}n and J. Frez and J. Cruz-Lemus and M.
                 Genero",
  title =        "An Empirical Investigation on the Benefits of
                 Gamification in Programming Courses",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3231709",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3231709",
  abstract =     "Context: Programming courses are compulsory for most
                 engineering degrees, but students' performance on these
                 courses is often not as good as expected. Programming
                 is difficult for students to learn, given that it
                 includes a lot of new, complex, and abstract topics.
                 All of this has led experts to the conclusion that new
                 teaching techniques are required if students are to be
                 motivated and engaged in learning on programming
                 courses. Gamification has come to be an effective
                 technique in education in general, and is especially
                 useful in programming courses. This motivated us to
                 develop an open source gamified platform, called
                 UDPiler, for use in a programming course. Objective:
                 The main goal of this article is to obtain empirical
                 evidence on the improvement of students' learning
                 performance when using UDPiler in comparison to a
                 non-gamified compiler. Method: A quasi-experiment was
                 performed with two groups of first-year engineering
                 students at Diego Portales University in Chile, using a
                 non-gamified compiler and a gamified platform,
                 respectively. Results: The results reveal that the
                 students obtained better marks when the gamified
                 platform was used to learn C programming. In addition,
                 there is statistical significance in favor of there
                 being a positive effect on the learning performance of
                 those students who used the gamified platform.
                 Conclusions: The results allow us to conclude that
                 gamification is an encouraging approach with which to
                 teach C programming, a finding that is aligned with
                 previous empirical studies concerning gamification on
                 programming courses, carried out in academic contexts.
                 Nonetheless, we are aware that further validation is
                 also required to corroborate and strengthen the
                 findings obtained and to investigate whether the kind
                 of gamified elements (mechanics, dynamics, and
                 aesthetics) used have any influence on students'
                 performance, among other issues that deserve further
                 investigation and that are explained throughout this
                 article.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Peters:2019:SEP,
  author =       "Anne-Kathrin Peters",
  title =        "Students' Experience of Participation in a Discipline
                 --- a Longitudinal Study of Computer Science and {IT}
                 Engineering Students",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3230011",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3230011",
  abstract =     "This article concludes a longitudinal study with the
                 broader aim to explore learner development as a
                 long-term, social process. One goal has been to inform
                 the endeavours of improving student engagement,
                 retention, as well as under-representation of certain
                 demographics in computing. Students of two computer
                 science--related study programmes (CS/IT) reflected on
                 their engagement in their field of study at different
                 times during the first three study years. Drawing on
                 social identity theory, the focus has been to analyse
                 and describe different ways in which the students
                 experience participation in CS/IT, i.e., doing,
                 thinking, and feeling, in relation to CS/IT, negotiated
                 among different people. Insights into participation in
                 CS/IT were used to discuss what it entails to fit in
                 and become a computing professional. Phenomenographic
                 analysis yields an outcome space that describes
                 increasingly broad ways in which first-, second-, and
                 third-year students experience participation in CS/IT.
                 Two further outcome spaces provide nuanced insights
                 into experiences that are of increasing relevance as
                 the students advance in their studies, participation as
                 problem solving, and problem solving for others.
                 Participation as problem solving appears to be central
                 in this learning environment and the students integrate
                 such experiences into their histories of engagement in
                 CS/IT. In study year 3, the students also reason about
                 participation as problem solving for others that they
                 encounter in the human computer interaction course.
                 However, at that time several students perform a
                 technical problem solver identity and reject such
                 broader ways of participating in CS/IT.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Abreu:2019:MCQ,
  author =       "Pedro Henriques Abreu and Daniel Castro Silva and
                 Anabela Gomes",
  title =        "Multiple-Choice Questions in Programming Courses: Can
                 We Use Them and Are Students Motivated by Them?",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3243137",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3243137",
  abstract =     "Low performance of nontechnical engineering students
                 in programming courses is a problem that remains
                 unsolved. Over the years, many authors have tried to
                 identify the multiple causes for that failure, but
                 there is unanimity on the fact that motivation is a key
                 factor for the acquisition of knowledge by students. To
                 better understand motivation, a new evaluation strategy
                 has been adopted in a second programming course of a
                 nontechnical degree, consisting of 91 students. The
                 goals of the study were to identify if those students
                 felt more motivated to answer multiple-choice questions
                 in comparison to development questions, and what type
                 of question better allows for testing student knowledge
                 acquisition. Possibilities around the motivational
                 qualities of multiple-choice questions in programming
                 courses will be discussed in light of the results. In
                 conclusion, it seems clear that student performance
                 varies according to the type of question. Our study
                 points out that multiple-choice questions can be seen
                 as a motivational factor for engineering students and
                 it might also be a good way to test acquired
                 programming concepts. Therefore, this type of question
                 could be further explored in the evaluation points.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Clear:2019:GSE,
  author =       "Tony Clear and Sarah Beecham",
  title =        "Global Software Engineering Education Practice
                 Continuum Special Issue of the {{\booktitle{ACM
                 Transactions on Computing Education}}}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3294011",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3294011",
  abstract =     "We are pleased to introduce this Special Issue on
                 Global Software Engineering Education published by the
                 ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE) that
                 focuses on educational practices to prepare students
                 for a global workplace. This issue comes at a time when
                 universities are recognizing the need to provide
                 courses that address the challenges of distributed
                 development and presents research that will facilitate
                 course leaders currently running, or embarking on,
                 Global Software Engineering Education (GSE-Ed).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bosnic:2019:AID,
  author =       "Ivana Bosni{\'c} and Igor Cavrak and Mario Zagar",
  title =        "Assessing the Impact of the Distributed Software
                 Development Course on the Careers of Young Software
                 Engineers",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3274529",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3274529",
  abstract =     "Various software engineering (SE) curricula in higher
                 education have started including courses on global
                 software engineering (GSE), carried out as
                 internationally distributed project-based courses.
                 These courses, known for their closeness to
                 ``real-world'' work experience, emphasize the
                 importance of involving industry partners as customers
                 and focus on soft skills essential for employment, an
                 aspect often neglected in engineering education.
                 However, not many such courses are long-lived or
                 consistent in form throughout the years, making their
                 impact and relevance hard to assess. The Distributed
                 Software Development course (DSD), currently run among
                 three universities in Croatia, Italy, and Sweden, has
                 now been carried out for 15 years consecutively,
                 providing a rich source of in-course and
                 post-graduation data. To evaluate the students'
                 experiences of the course after they graduate and start
                 working, a study has been carried out among former DSD
                 students from the University of Zagreb, Croatia. Its
                 goal is to understand how useful this course was in
                 students' early careers, both in first and current
                 employment, as well as related factors at the workplace
                 (magnitude of distributed collaboration, company size).
                 The study results show the relevance of such
                 distributed course experiences for future employment,
                 as well as the importance of building upon soft skills
                 as part of the software engineering curricula. Higher
                 education institutions are invited to consider
                 including such courses in the software engineering
                 curriculum, for the benefit of their students and,
                 indirectly, students' future employers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Frezza:2019:ASI,
  author =       "S. Frezza and M. Daniels and A. Wilkin",
  title =        "Assessing Students' {IT} Professional Values in a
                 Global Project Setting",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3231710",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3231710",
  abstract =     "This research aimed at evaluating the development and
                 use of low-cost affective domain assessment
                 instruments, culminating with personal and group
                 characterization of representative global information
                 technology (IT) professional values. Values and valuing
                 are a compelling component of Bloom's affective domain
                 of learning for engineering education. In helping
                 students develop professional engineering competencies,
                 it is essential that they develop not just cognitive
                 knowledge of something but also values related to that
                 knowledge and the ability to express these values in
                 professional action. However, even if some professional
                 values are identified, understood, and expressed,
                 assessing students' values and valuing are difficult,
                 and assessment instruments are often difficult to
                 develop, particularly for assessing student learning in
                 the context of a particular course. This exploratory
                 study aimed at examining assessment of dispositional
                 knowledge in the context of global software engineering
                 (GSE). It focused on the development and use of a set
                 of instruments for assessing affective domain student
                 learning of global IT/software engineering (SE)
                 professional values. The project included making
                 explicit the IT professional values of interest among
                 the participating faculty in the form of actionable
                 value statements. Following a process derived from
                 Thurstone scale development, the project included
                 validation of these statements with an expert panel as
                 question roots, followed by the use of these questions
                 to investigate student and alumni receiving,
                 responding, and valuing of these professional values.
                 The effort needed to generate questionnaires suitable
                 for course use was relatively low; these questionnaires
                 were deployed to students and alumni from an open-ended
                 global software engineering project course. Students
                 responding reported significant agreement when
                 receiving these global values, but sent more mixed
                 responses in responding to and valuing them. The effort
                 helped identify several actionable IT professional
                 values worth reinforcing in future course offerings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bosnic:2019:MDD,
  author =       "Ivana Bosni{\'c} and Federico Ciccozzi and Ivica
                 Crnkovi{\'c} and Igor Cavrak and Elisabetta {Di Nitto}
                 and Raffaela Mirandola and Mario Zagar",
  title =        "Managing Diversity in Distributed Software Development
                 Education --- a Longitudinal Case Study",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218310",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218310",
  abstract =     "Teaching Distributed Software Development with real
                 distributed settings is a challenging and rewarding
                 task. Distributed courses are idiosyncratically more
                 challenging than standard local courses. We have
                 experienced this during our distributed course, which
                 has been run for 14 consecutive years. In this article,
                 we present and analyze the emerging diversities
                 specific to distributed project-based courses. We base
                 our arguments on our experience, and we exploit a
                 three-layered distributed course model, which we use to
                 analyze several course elements throughout the 14-years
                 lifetime of our distributed project-based course. In
                 particular, we focus on the changes that the course
                 underwent throughout the years, combining findings
                 obtained from the analyzed data with our own teaching
                 perceptions. Additionally, we propose insights on how
                 to manage the various diversity aspects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Isomottonen:2019:SGE,
  author =       "Ville Isom{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Mats Daniels and {\AA}sa
                 Cajander and Arnold Pears and Roger Mcdermott",
  title =        "Searching for Global Employability: Can Students
                 Capitalize on Enabling Learning Environments?",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3277568",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3277568",
  abstract =     "Literature on global employability signifies
                 ``enabling'' learning environments where students
                 encounter ill-formed and open-ended problems and are
                 required to adapt and be creative. Varying forms of
                 ``projects,'' co-located and distributed, have
                 populated computing curricula for decades and are
                 generally deemed an answer to this call. We performed a
                 qualitative study to describe how project course
                 students are able to capitalize on the promise of
                 enabling learning environments. This critical
                 perspective was motivated by the circumstance of the
                 present-day education systems being heavily regulated
                 for the precipitated production of human capital. The
                 students involved in our study described education
                 system-imposed and group-imposed narratives of narrowed
                 opportunities, as well as many self-related challenges.
                 However, students welcomed autonomy as an enjoyable
                 condition and linked it with motivation. Whole-group
                 commitment and self-related attributes such as taking
                 care of one's own learning appeared as important
                 conditions. The results highlight targets for
                 interventions that can counteract constraining study
                 conditions and continue the march of projects as a
                 means to foster complex learning for the benefit of
                 students and professionalism in global software
                 engineering.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hjelsvold:2019:EEG,
  author =       "Rune Hjelsvold and Deepti Mishra",
  title =        "Exploring and Expanding {GSE} Education with Open
                 Source Software Development",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3230012",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3230012",
  abstract =     "Global software engineering (GSE) courses
                 traditionally require cooperation between at least two
                 universities so as to provide a distributed development
                 environment to the students. In this study, we explore
                 an alternative way to organize a global software
                 engineering course where students work on open source
                 software development (OSSD) projects rather than in a
                 multi-university collaboration setting. The results
                 show that the new setup may provide core GSE challenges
                 as well as challenges associated with software
                 development outsourcing and challenges related to
                 working on large open source software. The present
                 article compares the experiences gained from running a
                 combined GSE and OSSD course against the experiences
                 gained from running a traditional GSE course. The two
                 alternatives are compared in terms of students'
                 learning outcomes and course organization. The authors
                 found that a combined GSE and OSSD course provides
                 learning opportunities that are partly overlapping
                 with, and partly complementary to, a traditional GSE
                 course. The authors also found that the combined OSSD
                 and GSE course was somewhat easier to organize because
                 most of the activities took place in a single
                 university setting. The authors used the extended GSE
                 taxonomy for the comparison and found it to be a useful
                 tool for this, although it had some limitations in
                 expressive power. Therefore, two additional
                 relationship dimensions are proposed that will further
                 enrich the extended taxonomy in classifying GSE (and
                 OSSD) projects.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Billingsley:2019:TSC,
  author =       "William Billingsley and Rosemary Torbay and Peter R.
                 Fletcher and Richard N. Thomas and Jim R. H. Steel and
                 J{\"o}rn Guy S{\"u}{\ss}",
  title =        "Taking a Studio Course in Distributed Software
                 Engineering from a Large Local Cohort to a Small Global
                 Cohort",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218284",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218284",
  abstract =     "One of the challenges of global software engineering
                 courses is to bring the practices and experience of
                 large geographically distributed teams into the local
                 and time-limited environment of a classroom. Over the
                 last 6 years, an on-campus studio course for software
                 engineering has been developed at the University of
                 Queensland (UQ) that places small teams of students on
                 different features of a common product. This creates
                 two layers of collaboration, as students work within
                 their teams on individual features, and the teams must
                 interoperate with many other teams on the common
                 product. The class uses continuous integration
                 practices and predominantly asynchronous communication
                 channels (Slack and GitHub) to facilitate this
                 collaboration. The original goal of this design was to
                 ensure that students would authentically experience
                 issues associated with realistically sized software
                 projects, and learn to apply appropriate software
                 engineering and collaboration practices to overcome
                 them, in a course without significant extra staffing.
                 Data from the development logs showed that most commits
                 take place outside synchronous class hours, and the
                 project operates as a temporally distributed team even
                 though the students are geographically co-located.
                 Since 2015, a course adapted from this format has also
                 been taught at the University of New England (UNE), an
                 Australian regional university that is also a
                 longstanding provider of distance education. In this
                 course, most students study online, and the class has
                 to be able to work globally, because as well as
                 students taking part from around Australia, there are
                 also typically a small number of students taking part
                 from overseas. Transferring the course to a smaller but
                 predominantly online institution has allowed us to
                 evaluate the distributed nature of the course, by
                 considering what aspects of the course needed to change
                 to support students who are geographically distributed,
                 and comparing how the two cohorts behave. This has
                 produced an overall course design, to teach
                 professional distributed software engineering
                 practices, that is adaptable from large classes to
                 small, and from local to global.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Vizcaino:2019:EGA,
  author =       "Aurora Vizca{\'\i}no and F{\'e}lix Garc{\'\i}a and
                 Ignacio Garc{\'\i}a {Rodriguez De Guzm{\'a}n} and M.
                 {\'A}ngeles Moraga",
  title =        "Evaluating {GSD-Aware}: a Serious Game for Discovering
                 Global Software Development Challenges",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218279",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218279",
  abstract =     "Global Software Development (GSD) is currently a
                 strong industry trend. This means that if computer
                 science engineers are to be trained to deal with this
                 model, it is very important to include the topic in
                 software engineering courses, attempting to ensure that
                 students learn about GSD and become familiar with its
                 advantages and challenges. However, software
                 engineering courses do not always consider including it
                 in their curricula. It must also be recognized that it
                 is difficult to find a suitable method to teach/develop
                 the different skills needed for GSD. There is often a
                 lot of content and not a great deal of time available
                 to teach it. In this article, we propose the use of a
                 serious game called GSD-Aware, with which students can
                 ``suffer'' some of the typical challenges of GSD by
                 interacting with avatars and by using several means of
                 communication to solve a number of problems posed. The
                 article focuses on the description of the game and on
                 the empirical study conducted to analyze whether
                 GSD-Aware helps students to be conscious of GSD
                 challenges. It was discovered that after 50 minutes
                 playing the game, the students were aware of the
                 greater influence that the following factors can have:
                 lack of coordination, lack of trust, cultural
                 differences, lack of face-to-face and informal
                 communication, time difference, and lack of team
                 spirit. In their final analysis, students agreed that
                 the serious game scenarios helped them to understand
                 what GSD is and to grasp the importance of some GSD
                 challenges.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sablis:2019:BLT,
  author =       "Aivars Sablis and Javier Gonzalez-Huerta and Ehsan
                 Zabardast and Darja Smite",
  title =        "Building {LEGO} Towers: an Exercise for Teaching the
                 Challenges of Global Work",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218249",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218249",
  abstract =     "Global software engineering has changed the way
                 software is developed today. To address the new
                 challenges, many universities have launched specially
                 tailored courses to train young professionals to work
                 in globally distributed projects. However, a mere
                 acknowledgment of the geographic, temporal, and
                 cultural differences does not necessarily lead to a
                 deep understanding of the underlying practical
                 implications. Therefore, many universities developed
                 alternative teaching and learning activities, such as
                 multi-university collaborative projects and small-scale
                 simulations or games. In this article, we present a
                 small-scale exercise that uses LEGO bricks to teach
                 skills necessary for global work. We describe the many
                 different interventions that could be implemented in
                 the execution of the exercise. We had seven runs of the
                 exercises and report our findings from executing seven
                 runs of the exercise with the total of 104 students
                 from five different courses in two different
                 universities. Our results suggest that the exercise can
                 be a valuable tool to help students dealing with
                 troublesome knowledge associated with global software
                 engineering and a useful complement to the courses
                 dedicated to this subject.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Dominguez:2019:EAN,
  author =       "C{\'e}sar Dom{\'\i}nguez and Arturo Jaime and
                 J{\'o}nathan Heras and Francisco J.
                 Garc{\'\i}a-Izquierdo",
  title =        "The Effects of Adding Non-Compulsory Exercises to an
                 Online Learning Tool on Student Performance and Code
                 Copying",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3264507",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3264507",
  abstract =     "This study analyzes the impact of adding a review
                 exercises module to an online tool used in a software
                 engineering degree program. The objective of the module
                 is to promote students' self-learning effort to improve
                 their performance. We also intend to determine if this
                 new feature has any effect on the amount of code copies
                 detected in lab sessions when using the same online
                 tool. Two groups of students were compared
                 quantitatively: the first group used the tool
                 exclusively during lab sessions, whereas the second
                 group had the option of employing the tool's new module
                 to enhance their study. The tool allows us to collect
                 interesting data related to the focus of this research:
                 supplementary work completed voluntarily by students
                 and the percentage of students copying others' code
                 during compulsory lab sessions. The results show that
                 the students in the second group achieved better
                 academic results and copied less in lab sessions. In
                 the second group, the students who invested more effort
                 in doing revision exercises and copied less in lab
                 sessions obtained better results; and, interestingly,
                 the effort invested in completing review exercises did
                 not seem to compensate for the learning effort avoided
                 by copying others' exercises during lab sessions. The
                 results show the advantages of a tool used with a dual
                 orientation: compulsory and voluntary. Mandatory usage
                 in lab sessions establishes some milestones that,
                 eventually, act as an incentive fostering learning,
                 while voluntary use reinforces students' perception of
                 the tool's usefulness in terms of learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Richard:2019:DPF,
  author =       "Gabriela T. Richard and Sagun Giri",
  title =        "Digital and Physical Fabrication as Multimodal
                 Learning: Understanding Youth Computational Thinking
                 When Making Integrated Systems Through Bidirectionally
                 Responsive Design",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3243138",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3243138",
  abstract =     "This article proposes and explores the kinds of
                 computational thinking, creative practices, design
                 activities, and inclusive learning opportunities
                 provided to diverse high school youth when designing
                 integrated systems through simultaneously physically
                 and digitally responsive wearable games and systems.
                 Previous work in this area, conducted by Richard,
                 coined the term ``bidirectionally responsive design''
                 (BRD) to describe the design of dual-feedback systems
                 using multiple digital and physical interfaces. BRD
                 also emphasizes using simplified fabrication tools,
                 media and coding platforms, and microcontrollers common
                 in youth content creation communities and makerspaces.
                 This study provides a framework to analyze
                 computational concepts, practices, and perspectives
                 that leverage an integrated systems and multimodal
                 learning approach, such as BRD, adding to, building on,
                 and integrating previous analytic approaches to looking
                 at Scratch coding, media design, physical computing and
                 e-textiles. Using a detailed case study of one team
                 during one of the early workshop iterations, we conduct
                 a multimodal analysis of bidirectionally responsive
                 making activities and discuss the ways that they
                 present novel understanding of integrating diverse
                 interests and encouraging collaborative and distributed
                 computational thinking. We further examine how BRD
                 operationalizes and extends multimodal learning theory
                 by adding tangible and integrative dimensions as
                 additional modalities learners can leverage to
                 facilitate meaning making, metacognition, and agency.
                 We also discuss how designing integrated systems, as
                 facilitated through BRD, provides an opportunity to
                 engage in authentic practices around the design of
                 complex systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Liao:2019:RML,
  author =       "Soohyun Nam Liao and Daniel Zingaro and Kevin Thai and
                 Christine Alvarado and William G. Griswold and Leo
                 Porter",
  title =        "A Robust Machine Learning Technique to Predict
                 Low-performing Students",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3277569",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3277569",
  abstract =     "As enrollments and class sizes in postsecondary
                 institutions have increased, instructors have sought
                 automated and lightweight means to identify students
                 who are at risk of performing poorly in a course. This
                 identification must be performed early enough in the
                 term to allow instructors to assist those students
                 before they fall irreparably behind. This study
                 describes a modeling methodology that predicts student
                 final exam scores in the third week of the term by
                 using the clicker data that is automatically collected
                 for instructors when they employ the Peer Instruction
                 pedagogy. The modeling technique uses a support vector
                 machine binary classifier, trained on one term of a
                 course, to predict outcomes in the subsequent term. We
                 applied this modeling technique to five different
                 courses across the computer science curriculum, taught
                 by three different instructors at two different
                 institutions. Our modeling approach includes a set of
                 strengths not seen wholesale in prior work, while
                 maintaining competitive levels of accuracy with that
                 work. These strengths include using a lightweight
                 source of student data, affording early detection of
                 struggling students, and predicting outcomes across
                 terms in a natural setting (different final exams,
                 minor changes to course content), across multiple
                 courses in a curriculum, and across multiple
                 institutions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Denner:2019:DCG,
  author =       "Jill Denner and Shannon Campe and Linda Werner",
  title =        "Does Computer Game Design and Programming Benefit
                 Children? {A} Meta-Synthesis of Research",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3277565",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3277565",
  abstract =     "It is widely believed that there are educational
                 benefits to making computer games, but there is no
                 systematic review of research on this topic. This
                 article describes a meta-synthesis of research on
                 children designing and programming computer games that
                 investigates the extent to which there is evidence of
                 benefits for computer science learning and motivation.
                 Over 400 articles were identified, and 68 articles met
                 the inclusion criteria. A systematic analysis and
                 synthesis across studies showed some evidence that
                 computer game design and programming can lead to
                 changes in programming knowledge, problem solving, and
                 computer science attitudes and confidence. However,
                 most of the evidence described engagement in
                 computing-related practices and did not measure
                 learning. The findings were mostly positive, although
                 several studies noted more negative attitudes toward
                 programming after making games. The results were
                 similar across different pedagogical approaches,
                 although social interaction may provide unique
                 opportunities for computer science learning. The
                 synthesis resulted in a list of design elements for
                 studying computer game design and programming
                 activities; these can be used to increase the
                 availability of evidence about learning. The article
                 concludes with the identification of gaps in the
                 research and suggestions for additional research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Lakanen:2019:IPC,
  author =       "Antti-Jussi Lakanen and Tommi K{\"a}rkk{\"a}inen",
  title =        "Identifying Pathways to Computer Science: The
                 Long-Term Impact of Short-Term Game Programming
                 Outreach Interventions",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3283070",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3283070",
  abstract =     "Short-term outreach interventions are conducted to
                 raise young students' awareness of the computer science
                 (CS) field. Typically, these interventions are targeted
                 at K-12 students, attempting to encourage them to study
                 CS in higher education. This study is based on a series
                 of extra-curricular outreach events that introduced
                 students to the discipline of computing, nurturing
                 creative computational thinking through problem solving
                 and game programming. To assess the long-term impact of
                 this campaign, the participants were contacted and
                 interviewed two to five years after they had attended
                 an outreach event. We studied how participating in the
                 outreach program affected the students' perceptions of
                 CS as a field and, more importantly, how it affected
                 their educational choices. We found that the outreach
                 program generally had a positive effect on the
                 students' educational choices. The most prominent
                 finding was that students who already possessed a
                 ``maintained situational interest'' in CS found that
                 the event strengthened their confidence in studying CS.
                 However, many students were not affected by attending
                 the program, but their perceptions of CS did change.
                 Our results emphasize the need to provide continuing
                 possibilities for interested students to experiment
                 with computing-related activities and hence maintain
                 their emerging individual interests.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Luburic:2019:FTS,
  author =       "Nikola Luburi{\'c} and Goran Sladi{\'c} and Jelena
                 Slivka and Branko Milosavljevi{\'c}",
  title =        "A Framework for Teaching Security Design Analysis
                 Using Case Studies and the Hybrid Flipped Classroom",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3289238",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3289238",
  abstract =     "With ever-greater reliance of the developed world on
                 information and communication technologies,
                 constructing secure software has become a top priority.
                 To produce secure software, security activities need to
                 be integrated throughout the software development
                 lifecycle. One such activity is security design
                 analysis (SDA), which identifies security requirements
                 as early as the software design phase. While considered
                 an important step in software development, the general
                 opinion of information security subject matter experts
                 and researchers is that SDA is challenging to learn and
                 teach. Experimental evidence provided in literature
                 confirms this claim. To help solve this, we have
                 developed a framework for teaching SDA by utilizing
                 case study analysis and the hybrid flipped classroom
                 approach. We evaluate our framework by performing a
                 comparative analysis between a group of students who
                 attended labs generated using our framework and a group
                 that participated in traditional labs. Our results show
                 that labs created using our framework achieve better
                 learning outcomes for SDA, as opposed to the
                 traditional labs. Secondary contributions of our
                 article include teaching materials, such as lab
                 descriptions and a case study of a hospital information
                 system to be used for SDA. We outline instructions for
                 using our framework in different contexts, including
                 university courses and corporate training programs. By
                 using our proposed teaching framework, with our or any
                 other case study, we believe that both students and
                 employees can learn the craft of SDA more
                 effectively.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hosseini:2019:LCP,
  author =       "Hadi Hosseini and Maxwell Hartt and Mehrnaz
                 Mostafapour",
  title =        "Learning {IS} Child's Play: Game-Based Learning in
                 Computer Science Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3282844",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3282844",
  abstract =     "Game-based learning has received significant attention
                 in educational pedagogy as an effective way of
                 increasing student motivation and engagement. The
                 majority of the work in this area has been focused on
                 digital games or games involving technology. We focus
                 on the use of traditional game design in improving
                 student engagement and perception of learning in
                 teaching computer science concepts in higher education.
                 In addition, as part of an interdisciplinary effort, we
                 discuss the interplay between game-based learning in
                 higher education and disciplinary cultures, addressing
                 the lack of empirical evidence on the impact of game
                 design on learning outcomes, engagement, and students'
                 perception of learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Yeomans:2019:TTS,
  author =       "Lucy Yeomans and Steffen Zschaler and Kelly Coate",
  title =        "Transformative and Troublesome? {Students}' and
                 Professional Programmers' Perspectives on Difficult
                 Concepts in Programming",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3283071",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3283071",
  abstract =     "Programming skills are an increasingly desirable asset
                 across disciplines; however, learning to program
                 continues to be difficult for many students. To improve
                 pedagogy, we need to better understand the concepts
                 that students find difficult and which have the biggest
                 impact on their learning. Threshold-concept theory
                 provides a potential lens on student learning, focusing
                 on concepts that are troublesome and transformative.
                 However, there is still a lack of consensus as to what
                 the most relevant threshold concepts in programming
                 are. The challenges involved are related to concept
                 granularity and to evidencing some of the properties
                 expected of threshold concepts. In this article, we
                 report on a qualitative study aiming to address some of
                 these concerns. The study involved focus groups with
                 undergraduate students of different-year groups as well
                 as professional software developers so as to gain
                 insights into how perspectives on concepts change over
                 time. Four concepts emerged from the data, where the
                 majority of participants agreed on their troublesome
                 nature-including abstract classes and data structures.
                 Some of these concepts are considered transformative,
                 too, but the evidence base is weaker. However, even
                 though these concepts may not be considered
                 transformative in the ``big'' sense of threshold
                 concept theory, we argue the ``soft'' transformative
                 effect of such concepts means they can provide
                 important guidance for pedagogy and the design of
                 programming courses. Further analysis of the data
                 identified additional concepts that may hinder rather
                 than help the learning of these threshold concepts,
                 which we have called ``accidental complexities.'' We
                 conclude the article with a critique of the use of
                 threshold concepts as a lens for studying students'
                 learning of programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Gretter:2019:ELE,
  author =       "Sarah Gretter and Aman Yadav and Phil Sands and
                 Susanne Hambrusch",
  title =        "Equitable Learning Environments in {K-12} Computing:
                 Teachers' Views on Barriers to Diversity",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3282939",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3282939",
  abstract =     "The current efforts to expand computer science (CS)
                 education in K-12 schools, such as the ``CS for All''
                 initiative, highlight the need for all students to get
                 an opportunity to study computing. However, as recent
                 research has shown, diversity in computing at the K-12
                 level remains problematic, and additional research is
                 needed to look at how computer science learning
                 environments can impact minority student interest and
                 retention in CS. In this article, we report results
                 from an in-depth qualitative study of high school
                 computer science teachers' perspective on barriers to
                 increasing diversity in their classes. Based on
                 teachers' experiences, we provide practical
                 recommendations on how to encourage equitable learning
                 environments in K-12 computer science courses.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Lyon:2019:CLI,
  author =       "Louise Ann Lyon and Jill Denner",
  title =        "Chutes and Ladders: Institutional Setbacks on the
                 Computer Science Community College Transfer Pathway",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3294009",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3294009",
  abstract =     "Community colleges play a large role in educating
                 students who are historically underrepresented in
                 computer science (CS), including women, Latino men, and
                 Black men, as well as post-traditional (older or
                 working) students. In spite of this, there is a dearth
                 of research on the institutional factors that influence
                 whether or not community college students who are
                 enrolled in CS classes and who express an interest in
                 transferring and completing a bachelor's degree in the
                 field persist. The overused ``pipeline'' metaphor,
                 which indicates a supply-side lack, has been replaced
                 by many with that of a ``pathway.'' However, the
                 ``pathway'' image suggests a general forward-moving
                 trend that can be misleading. In this work, we draw
                 from qualitative interviews with 14 CS students from
                 groups traditionally underrepresented in the field who
                 have studied introductory computer programming at a
                 community college to investigate the following
                 question: ``What are the institutional barriers along a
                 CS bachelor's degree track that includes community
                 college?'' Our findings indicate that there are three
                 categories of institutional barriers along the transfer
                 pathway: setbacks that hinder student progression
                 forward, discontinuities in which students leave and
                 re-enter the pathway, and departures in which students
                 leave computer science and/or leave college altogether.
                 We describe specific examples of each and introduce the
                 idea of student movement as a game of ``chutes and
                 ladders,'' a convoluted trail where students can slide
                 backwards or off the path (chutes), necessitating the
                 implementation of targeted institutional supports that
                 can boost student progress forward (ladders). We
                 suggest institutional interventions that can help
                 students facing each type of barrier to continue on
                 course through community college and transfer to a
                 four-year university.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sanchez:2019:ICP,
  author =       "Ana S{\'a}nchez and C{\'e}sar Dom{\'\i}nguez and Jose
                 Miguel Blanco and Arturo Jaime",
  title =        "Incorporating Computing Professionals' Know-how:
                 Differences between Assessment by Students, Academics,
                 and Professional Experts",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3309157",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3309157",
  abstract =     "It is important for both computer science academics
                 and students to clearly comprehend the differences
                 between academic and professional perspectives in terms
                 of assessing a deliverable. It is especially
                 interesting to determine whether the aspects deemed
                 important to evaluate by a computer science expert are
                 the same as those established by academics and
                 students. Such potential discrepancies are indicative
                 of the unexpected challenges students may encounter
                 once they graduate and begin working. In this article,
                 we propose a learning activity in which computer
                 science students made a video about their future
                 profession after hearing an expert in the field who
                 discussed about the characteristics and difficulties of
                 his or her work. Academics, professional experts, and
                 students assessed the videos by means of a
                 questionnaire. This article reports a quantitative
                 study of the results of this experience, which was
                 conducted for three academic years. The study involved
                 63 students, 6 academics, and 4 computing professionals
                 with extensive experience, and 14 videos were
                 evaluated. Professional experts proved to be the most
                 demanding in the assessment, followed by academics. The
                 least demanding group was the students. These
                 differences are more salient if more substantial issues
                 are examined. The experts focused more on aspects of
                 content, whereas the student preferred to concentrate
                 on format. The academics' focus falls between these two
                 extremes. Understanding how experts value knowledge can
                 guide educators in their search for effective learning
                 environments in computing education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Novak:2019:SCS,
  author =       "Matija Novak and Mike Joy and Dragutin Kermek",
  title =        "Source-code Similarity Detection and Detection Tools
                 Used in Academia: a Systematic Review",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3313290",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3313290",
  abstract =     "Teachers deal with plagiarism on a regular basis, so
                 they try to prevent and detect plagiarism, a task that
                 is complicated by the large size of some classes.
                 Students who cheat often try to hide their plagiarism
                 (obfuscate), and many different similarity detection
                 engines (often called plagiarism detection tools) have
                 been built to help teachers. This article focuses only
                 on plagiarism detection and presents a detailed
                 systematic review of the field of source-code
                 plagiarism detection in academia. This review gives an
                 overview of definitions of plagiarism, plagiarism
                 detection tools, comparison metrics, obfuscation
                 methods, datasets used for comparison, and algorithm
                 types. Perspectives on the meaning of source-code
                 plagiarism detection in academia are presented,
                 together with categorisations of the available
                 detection tools and analyses of their effectiveness.
                 While writing the review, some interesting insights
                 have been found about metrics and datasets for
                 quantitative tool comparison and categorisation of
                 detection algorithms. Also, existing obfuscation
                 methods classifications have been expanded together
                 with a new definition of ``source-code plagiarism
                 detection in academia.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Miller:2019:LGL,
  author =       "Craig S. Miller and Amber Settle",
  title =        "Learning to Get Literal: Investigating Reference-Point
                 Difficulties in Novice Programming",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3313291",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3313291",
  abstract =     "We investigate conditions in which novices make some
                 reference errors when programming. We asked students
                 from introductory programming courses to perform a
                 simple code-writing task that required constructing
                 references to objects and their attributes. By
                 experimentally manipulating the nature of the
                 attributes in the tasks, from identifying attributes
                 (e.g., title or label ) to descriptive attributes
                 (e.g., calories or texture ), the study revealed the
                 relative frequencies with which students mistakenly
                 omit the name of an identifying attribute while
                 attempting to reference its value. We explain how these
                 reference-point shifts are consistent with the use of
                 metonymy, a form of figurative expression in human
                 communication. Our analysis also reveals how the
                 presentation of examples can affect the construction of
                 the reference in the student's solution. We discuss
                 plausible accounts of the reference-point errors and
                 how they may inform a model of reference construction.
                 We suggest that reference-point errors may be the
                 result of well-practiced habits of communication rather
                 than misconceptions of the task or what the computer
                 can do.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Yadav:2019:CSP,
  author =       "Aman Yadav and Marc Berges",
  title =        "Computer Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge:
                 Characterizing Teacher Performance",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3303770",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3303770",
  abstract =     "Computer science education efforts are expanding
                 across the globe to equip students with the necessary
                 computing skills for today's digital world. However,
                 preparing students to become literate in computing
                 activities requires the training of tens of thousands
                 of teachers in computer science. The discrepancy
                 between student needs and teacher preparation in
                 computer science has raised questions of quality
                 teachers, particularly for teachers who do not possess
                 adequate content or pedagogical knowledge to teach
                 computer science efficiently. To address this issue, we
                 designed an instrument to measure knowledge needed to
                 teach computer science (i.e., computer science
                 pedagogical content knowledge). Results exhibited that
                 our instrument measured aspects of teachers' computer
                 science pedagogical content knowledge; however,
                 teachers' prior background in teaching did not
                 influence their performance. We discuss implications
                 for future research and practice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Shapiro:2019:ISS,
  author =       "R. Benjamin Shapiro and Rebecca Fiebrink",
  title =        "Introduction to the Special Section: Launching an
                 Agenda for Research on Learning Machine Learning",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3354136",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3354136",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Fiebrink:2019:MLE,
  author =       "Rebecca Fiebrink",
  title =        "Machine Learning Education for Artists, Musicians, and
                 Other Creative Practitioners",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3294008",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3294008",
  abstract =     "This article aims to lay a foundation for the research
                 and practice of machine learning education for creative
                 practitioners. It begins by arguing that it is
                 important to teach machine learning to creative
                 practitioners and to conduct research about this
                 teaching, drawing on related work in creative machine
                 learning, creative computing education, and machine
                 learning education. It then draws on research about
                 design processes in engineering and creative practice
                 to motivate a set of learning objectives for students
                 who wish to design new creative artifacts with machine
                 learning. The article then draws on education research
                 and knowledge of creative computing practices to
                 propose a set of teaching strategies that can be used
                 to support creative computing students in achieving
                 these objectives. Explanations of these strategies are
                 accompanied by concrete descriptions of how they have
                 been employed to develop new lectures and activities,
                 and to design new experiential learning and scaffolding
                 technologies, for teaching some of the first courses in
                 the world focused on teaching machine learning to
                 creative practitioners. The article subsequently draws
                 on data collected from these courses-an online course
                 as well as undergraduate and masters-level courses
                 taught at a university-to begin to understand how this
                 curriculum supported student learning, to understand
                 learners' challenges and mistakes, and to inform future
                 teaching and research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Saltz:2019:IEW,
  author =       "Jeffrey Saltz and Michael Skirpan and Casey Fiesler
                 and Micha Gorelick and Tom Yeh and Robert Heckman and
                 Neil Dewar and Nathan Beard",
  title =        "Integrating Ethics within Machine Learning Courses",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3341164",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3341164",
  abstract =     "This article establishes and addresses opportunities
                 for ethics integration into Machine-learning (ML)
                 courses. Following a survey of the history of computing
                 ethics and the current need for ethical consideration
                 within ML, we consider the current state of ML ethics
                 education via an exploratory analysis of course syllabi
                 in computing programs. The results reveal that though
                 ethics is part of the overall educational landscape in
                 these programs, it is not frequently a part of core
                 technical ML courses. To help address this gap, we
                 offer a preliminary framework, developed via a
                 systematic literature review, of relevant ethics
                 questions that should be addressed within an ML
                 project. A pilot study with 85 students confirms that
                 this framework helped them identify and articulate key
                 ethical considerations within their ML projects.
                 Building from this work, we also provide three example
                 ML course modules that bring ethical thinking directly
                 into learning core ML content. Collectively, this
                 research demonstrates: (1) the need for ethics to be
                 taught as integrated within ML coursework, (2) a
                 structured set of questions useful for identifying and
                 addressing potential issues within an ML project, and
                 (3) novel course models that provide examples for how
                 to practically teach ML ethics without sacrificing core
                 course content. An additional by-product of this
                 research is the collection and integration of recent
                 publications in the emerging field of ML ethics
                 education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sulmont:2019:WHA,
  author =       "Elisabeth Sulmont and Elizabeth Patitsas and Jeremy R.
                 Cooperstock",
  title =        "What Is Hard about Teaching Machine Learning to
                 Non-Majors? {Insights} from Classifying Instructors'
                 Learning Goals",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "33:1--33:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3336124",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3336124",
  abstract =     "Given its societal impacts and applications to
                 numerous fields, machine learning (ML) is an important
                 topic to understand for many students outside of
                 computer science and statistics. However,
                 machine-learning education research is nascent, and
                 research on this subject for non-majors thus far has
                 only focused on curricula and courseware. We
                 interviewed 10 instructors of ML courses for
                 non-majors, inquiring as to what their students find
                 both easy and difficult about machine learning. While
                 ML has a reputation for having algorithms that are
                 difficult to understand, in practice our participating
                 instructors reported that it was not the algorithms
                 that were difficult to teach, but the higher-level
                 design decisions. We found that the learning goals that
                 participants described as hard to teach were consistent
                 with higher levels of the Structure of Observed
                 Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy, such as making
                 design decisions and comparing/contrasting models. We
                 also found that the learning goals that were described
                 as easy to teach, such as following the steps of
                 particular algorithms, were consistent with the lower
                 levels of the SOLO taxonomy. Realizing that higher-SOLO
                 learning goals are more difficult to teach is useful
                 for informing course design, public outreach, and the
                 design of educational tools for teaching ML.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "33",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2019:SGC,
  author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Donald Chinn",
  title =        "Social Genesis in Computing Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "34:1--34:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3322211",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3322211",
  abstract =     "It is common to think of learning as the acquisition
                 of knowledge by an individual learner. Starting a
                 century ago, Lev Vygotsky developed a different
                 perspective on learning, initiating a tradition of
                 educational research whose momentum and influence
                 continue to grow. One of Vygotsky's key principles is
                 the general genetic law of cultural development that
                 states that whatever skilled cognition that individuals
                 carry out within their own minds is preceded by
                 homologous activity carried out by a social group of
                 which this individual was a part. In linking the
                 individual and society through this law, learning is
                 not simply a matter of the acquisition of domain
                 knowledge. Rather, it is a cyclic process by which a
                 social group, in its functioning through joint
                 activity, leads to individuals taking into themselves
                 (i.e., internalizing ) the social forms of activity. In
                 this article, our goal is to explicate Vygotsky's
                 genetic law and demonstrate its utility for yielding
                 novel insight into computing education. We provide an
                 extended illustration of the use of Vygotsky's law in
                 examining a teacher and students in a university
                 setting write code together during a class session.
                 What our analysis reveals is that the teacher and
                 students together enact a sequential, rule-based, and
                 dialogical process of problem decomposition and code
                 writing far different from the plan and schema-based
                 models for programming that have emerged from prior
                 research focused on the individual student and their
                 cognitive strategies and structures. We provide
                 commentary on implications of the genetic law for both
                 research and practice in computing education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "34",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Garvin:2019:SCS,
  author =       "Megean Garvin and Michael Neary and Marie Desjardins",
  title =        "State Case Study of Computing Education Governance",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "35:1--35:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3320491",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3320491",
  abstract =     "High school computing education reform efforts have
                 been ongoing across the United States, particularly in
                 the past decade. Although national Computer Science
                 (CS) for All initiatives are promising, states retain
                 control over education policies. Recent computing
                 education reform efforts in the state of Maryland
                 (U.S.A.) focused on providing every public high school
                 student with access to high-quality high school
                 computing courses. Such access provides exposure to
                 computing careers and better prepares a diverse pool of
                 students for computing majors in college and the
                 workforce. This comprehensive embedded multi-level case
                 study examines the state's computing education reform
                 efforts from 2010 through 2016. The expansion of
                 computing education indicates that while there was
                 positive growth, the growth was not the same for all
                 categories of public high school students. Top-down
                 policies assist in providing leverage to elevate the
                 need for CS; however, bottom-up efforts to support
                 students and to enable teachers to retain autonomy and
                 professionalism is also needed for CS expansion.
                 Despite successes, barriers at the state, Local
                 Education Agencies (LEA), school, and classroom levels
                 persist and are discussed. The findings in this study
                 can be applied to other states with similar governance
                 structures and policies, and we provide specific
                 recommendations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "35",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ryoo:2019:PSC,
  author =       "Jean J. Ryoo",
  title =        "Pedagogy that Supports Computer Science for All",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "36:1--36:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3322210",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3322210",
  abstract =     "The Computer Science (CS) for All movement has taken
                 hold of the United States and CS education is rapidly
                 expanding across nations throughout the world. Yet, as
                 curricula and professional development opportunities
                 are developed, key questions remain about what
                 ``works'' for engaging youth in CS education,
                 especially those who are historically underrepresented
                 in the field (including young women, students of color,
                 low-income students). In response, this study answers
                 the questions: What teaching practices do students-who
                 are historically underrepresented in CS-believe are
                 most effective for engaging their interest in CS
                 learning? What pedagogical actions do CS teachers
                 identify as most effective for engaging students? And
                 what do these engaging teaching practices look like in
                 the classroom? Through a qualitative study following
                 three different urban high school Exploring Computer
                 Science classrooms over an entire school year (n = 70
                 students, 3 teachers; $ > 105 $ h of observation data;
                 $ > 50 $ interviews with students and teachers), key
                 pedagogical practices that had greatest impact on
                 youth's interest and engagement with CS included: (1)
                 demystifying CS by showing its connections to everyday
                 life; (2) addressing social issues impacting both CS
                 and students' communities; and (3) valuing students'
                 voices and perspectives. This article shares
                 testimonies from students and teachers, as well as
                 examples of these teaching practices in the
                 classroom.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "36",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Clarke-Midura:2019:UID,
  author =       "Jody Clarke-Midura and Chongning Sun and Katarina
                 Pantic and Frederick Poole and Vicki Allan",
  title =        "Using Informed Design in Informal Computer Science
                 Programs to Increase Youths' Interest, Self-efficacy,
                 and Perceptions of Parental Support",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "37:1--37:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3319445",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3319445",
  abstract =     "Our work is situated in research on Computer Science
                 (CS) learning in informal learning environments and
                 literature on the factors that influence girls to enter
                 CS. In this article, we outline design choices around
                 the creation of a summer programming camp for middle
                 school youth. In addition, we describe a near-peer
                 mentoring model we used that was influenced by
                 Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The purpose of this
                 article, apart from promoting transparency of program
                 design, was to evaluate the effectiveness of our camp
                 design in terms of increasing youths' interest,
                 self-efficacy beliefs, and perceptions of parental
                 support. We found significant gains for all three of
                 these concepts. Additionally, we make connections
                 between our design choices (e.g., videos, peer support,
                 mentor support) and the affective gains by thematically
                 analyzing interview data concerning the outcomes found
                 in our camps.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "37",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McCall:2019:NLN,
  author =       "Davin McCall and Michael K{\"o}lling",
  title =        "A New Look at Novice Programmer Errors",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "38:1--38:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3335814",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3335814",
  abstract =     "The types of programming errors that novice
                 programmers make and struggle to resolve have long been
                 of interest to researchers. Various past studies have
                 analyzed the frequency of compiler diagnostic messages.
                 This information, however, does not have a direct
                 correlation to the types of errors students make, due
                 to the inaccuracy and imprecision of diagnostic
                 messages. Furthermore, few attempts have been made to
                 determine the severity of different kinds of errors in
                 terms other than frequency of occurrence. Previously,
                 we developed a method for meaningful categorization of
                 errors, and produced a frequency distribution of these
                 error categories; in this article, we extend the
                 previous method to also make a determination of error
                 difficulty, in order to give a better measurement of
                 the overall severity of different kinds of errors. An
                 error category hierarchy was developed and validated,
                 and errors in snapshots of students source code were
                 categorized accordingly. The result is a frequency
                 table of logical error categories rather than
                 diagnostic messages. Resolution time for each of the
                 analyzed errors was calculated, and the average
                 resolution time for each category of error was
                 determined; this defines an error difficulty score. The
                 combination of frequency and difficulty allow us to
                 identify the types of error that are most problematic
                 for novice programmers. The results show that ranking
                 errors by severity-a product of frequency and
                 difficulty-yields a significantly different ordering
                 than ranking them by frequency alone, indicating that
                 error frequency by itself may not be a suitable
                 indicator for which errors are actually the most
                 problematic for students.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "38",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Crawford:2019:BBI,
  author =       "Chris S. Crawford and Juan E. Gilbert",
  title =        "Brains and Blocks: Introducing Novice Programmers to
                 Brain-Computer Interface Application Development",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "39:1--39:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3335815",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3335815",
  abstract =     "Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) hardware is becoming
                 more affordable and accessible. However, there is
                 limited work investigating ways to design software that
                 broadens participation with BCI technology. In this
                 article, we present a block-based programming
                 environment designed to assist novice programmers with
                 creating BCI applications. We also discuss learning
                 barriers encountered by novice programmers developing
                 neurofeedback applications. Our findings suggest that
                 visual programming assists novice programmers with
                 building basic BCI applications; however, students may
                 experience understanding and learning barriers
                 initially.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "39",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Merkouris:2019:PEI,
  author =       "Alexandros Merkouris and Konstantinos Chorianopoulos",
  title =        "Programming Embodied Interactions with a Remotely
                 Controlled Educational Robot",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "40:1--40:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3336126",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3336126",
  abstract =     "Contemporary research has explored educational
                 robotics, but it has not examined the development of
                 computational thinking in the context of programming
                 embodied interactions. Apart from the goal of the robot
                 and how the robot will interact with its environment,
                 another important aspect that should be taken into
                 consideration is whether and how the user will
                 physically interact with the robot. We recruited 36
                 middle school students to participate in a six-session
                 robotics curriculum in an attempt to expand their
                 learning in computational thinking. Participants were
                 asked to develop interfaces for the remote control of a
                 robot using diverse interaction styles from low-level
                 to high-level embodiment, such as touch, speech, and
                 hand and full-body gestures. We measured students'
                 perception of computing, examined their computational
                 practices, and assessed the development of their
                 computational thinking skills by analyzing the
                 sophistication of the projects they created during a
                 problem-solving task. We found that students who
                 programmed combinations of low embodiment interfaces or
                 interfaces with no embodiment produced more
                 sophisticated projects and adopted more sophisticated
                 computational practices compared to those who
                 programmed full-body interfaces. These findings suggest
                 that there might be a tradeoff between the appeal and
                 the cognitive benefit of rich embodied interaction with
                 a remotely controlled robot. In further work,
                 educational robotics research and competitions might be
                 complemented with a hybrid approach that blends the
                 traditional autonomous robot movement with student
                 enactment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "40",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Johnson:2019:DEA,
  author =       "Philip Johnson",
  title =        "Design and Evaluation of an ``Athletic'' Approach to
                 Software Engineering Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "41:1--41:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3344273",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3344273",
  abstract =     "Modern web application development provides an
                 attractive application area for introductory software
                 engineering education, as students have direct
                 experience with the domain and it provides them with
                 the potential to gain practical, real-world skills.
                 Achieving this potential requires the development of
                 competency with a multiple component tech stack for web
                 application development, which is challenging to
                 acquire within a single semester. In this research, we
                 designed, implemented, and evaluated a new pedagogy
                 called ``athletic software engineering'' which is
                 intended to help students efficiently and effectively
                 acquire competency with a multiple component tech stack
                 as a precursor to a web application development
                 project. We evaluated the pedagogy over 4 years and six
                 semesters with 286 students and found strong evidence
                 for its effectiveness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "41",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hao:2019:SIR,
  author =       "Qiang Hao and David H. {Smith IV} and Naitra Iriumi
                 and Michail Tsikerdekis and Andrew J. Ko",
  title =        "A Systematic Investigation of Replications in
                 Computing Education Research",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "42:1--42:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2019",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3345328",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3345328",
  abstract =     "As the societal demands for application and knowledge
                 in computer science (CS) increase, CS student
                 enrollment keeps growing rapidly around the world. By
                 continuously improving the efficacy of computing
                 education and providing guidelines for learning and
                 teaching practice, computing education research plays a
                 vital role in addressing both educational and societal
                 challenges that emerge from the growth of CS students.
                 Given the significant role of computing education
                 research, it is important to ensure the reliability of
                 studies in this field. The extent to which studies can
                 be replicated in a field is one of the most important
                 standards for reliability. Different fields have paid
                 increasing attention to the replication rates of their
                 studies, but the replication rate of computing
                 education was never systematically studied. To fill
                 this gap, this study investigated the replication rate
                 of computing education between 2009 and 2018. We
                 examined 2,269 published studies from three major
                 conferences and two major journals in computing
                 education, and found that the overall replication rate
                 of computing education was 2.38\%. This study
                 demonstrated the need for more replication studies in
                 computing education and discussed how to encourage
                 replication studies through research initiatives and
                 policy making.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "42",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Weston:2020:PWP,
  author =       "Timothy J. Weston and Wendy M. Dubow and Alexis
                 Kaminsky",
  title =        "Predicting Women's Persistence in Computer Science-
                 and Technology-Related Majors from High School to
                 College",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:16",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3343195",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3343195",
  abstract =     "While demand for computer science and information
                 technology skills grows, the proportion of women
                 entering computer science (CS) fields has declined. One
                 critical juncture is the transition from high school to
                 college. In our study, we examined factors \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Ardimento:2020:RBS,
  author =       "Pasquale Ardimento and Mario Luca Bernardi and Marta
                 Cimitile and Giuseppe {De Ruvo}",
  title =        "Reusing Bugged Source Code to Support Novice
                 Programmers in Debugging Tasks",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:24",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3355616",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3355616",
  abstract =     "Novice programmers often encounter difficulties
                 performing debugging tasks effectively. Even if modern
                 development environments (IDEs) provide high-level
                 support for navigating through code elements and for
                 identifying the right conditions leading to \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Garousi:2020:UKG,
  author =       "Vahid Garousi and Gorkem Giray and Eray Tuzun",
  title =        "Understanding the Knowledge Gaps of Software
                 Engineers: an Empirical Analysis Based on {SWEBOK}",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:33",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3360497",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3360497",
  abstract =     "Context: Knowledge level and productivity of the
                 software engineering (SE) workforce are the subject of
                 regular discussions among practitioners, educators, and
                 researchers. There have been many efforts to measure
                 and improve the knowledge gap between SE \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Kemp:2020:FPP,
  author =       "Peter E. J. Kemp and Billy Wong and Miles G. Berry",
  title =        "Female Performance and Participation in Computer
                 Science: a National Picture",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:28",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3366016",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3366016",
  abstract =     "The change in the English computing curriculum and the
                 shift towards computer science (CS) has been closely
                 observed by other countries. Female participation
                 remains a concern in most jurisdictions, but female
                 attainment in CS is relatively unstudied. \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Weintrop:2020:TAE,
  author =       "David Weintrop and Merijke Coenraad and Jen Palmer and
                 Diana Franklin",
  title =        "The Teacher Accessibility, Equity, and Content {(TEC)}
                 Rubric for Evaluating Computing Curricula",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:30",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3371155",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3371155",
  abstract =     "In response to the growing call to bring the powerful
                 ideas of computer science to all learners, education
                 decision makers, including teachers and administrators,
                 are tasked with making consequential decisions on what
                 curricula to use. Often, these \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Albluwi:2020:PPA,
  author =       "Ibrahim Albluwi",
  title =        "Plagiarism in Programming Assessments: a Systematic
                 Review",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:28",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3371156",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3371156",
  abstract =     "This article is a systematic review of work in the
                 computing education literature on plagiarism. The goal
                 of the review is to summarize the main results found in
                 the literature and highlight areas that need further
                 work. Despite the the large body of \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Mahadeo:2020:DCI,
  author =       "Jonathan Mahadeo and Zahra Hazari and Geoff Potvin",
  title =        "Developing a Computing Identity Framework:
                 Understanding Computer Science and Information
                 Technology Career Choice",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:14",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3365571",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3365571",
  abstract =     "This paper expands on knowledge of computing identity
                 by building on what is known about prior identity
                 models in science and mathematics education. The model
                 theorizes three primary sub-constructs that contribute
                 to the development of a computing \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Statter:2020:TAC,
  author =       "David Statter and Michal Armoni",
  title =        "Teaching Abstraction in Computer Science to 7th Grade
                 Students",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8:1--8:37",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3372143",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3372143",
  abstract =     "Abstraction is one of the most fundamental ideas in
                 computer science (CS), and as such, according to Bruner
                 [23], it should be taught spirally, starting as early
                 as possible and revisited at every level of education.
                 However, teaching CS abstraction to \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Ross:2020:IBB,
  author =       "Monique Ross and Zahra Hazari and Gerhard Sonnert and
                 Philip Sadler",
  title =        "The Intersection of Being Black and Being a Woman:
                 Examining the Effect of Social Computing Relationships
                 on Computer Science Career Choice",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:15",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3377426",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3377426",
  abstract =     "Computer science (CS) has been identified as one of
                 the fastest-growing professions, with demand for CS
                 professionals far outpacing the supply of CS graduates.
                 The necessity for a trained CS workforce has compelled
                 industry and academia to evaluate \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Rangel:2020:IMI,
  author =       "Jakeline G. Celis Rangel and Melissa King and Kasia
                 Muldner",
  title =        "An Incremental Mindset Intervention Increases Effort
                 During Programming Activities but Not Performance",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:18",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3377427",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3377427",
  abstract =     "Learning to program requires perseverance, practice,
                 and the mindset that programming skills are improved
                 through these activities (i.e., that everyone has the
                 potential to become good at programming). In contrast
                 to an entity mindset, individuals with \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Rucker:2020:SPL,
  author =       "Michael T. R{\"u}cker and Wouter R. van Joolingen and
                 Niels Pinkwart",
  title =        "Small but Powerful: a Learning Study to Address
                 Secondary Students' Conceptions of Everyday Computing
                 Technology",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:27",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3377880",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3377880",
  abstract =     "Enabling students to recognize and evaluate the
                 ubiquitous impact of computing technology on society is
                 an internationally proclaimed goal of a K-12 computing
                 education. To that end, students need to actually
                 engage with their computing knowledge in \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Werner:2020:CSG,
  author =       "Linda Werner and Jill Denner and Shannon Campe and
                 David M. Torres",
  title =        "Computational Sophistication of Games Programmed by
                 Children: a Model for Its Measurement",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:23",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3379351",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3379351",
  abstract =     "This article builds on prior work that aims to measure
                 computational learning (CL) during middle school. Since
                 game computational sophistication (GCS) has been used
                 as a proxy for a student's engagement in CL we build on
                 their model to more completely \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Burgiel:2020:AHS,
  author =       "Heidi Burgiel and Philip M. Sadler and Gerhard
                 Sonnert",
  title =        "The Association of High School Computer Science
                 Content and Pedagogy with Students' Success in College
                 Computer Science",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:21",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3381995",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3381995",
  abstract =     "The number of computer science (CS) courses has been
                 dramatically expanding in U.S. high schools (HS). In
                 comparison with well-established courses in mathematics
                 and science, little is known about how the decisions
                 made by HS CS teachers regarding how \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Dominguez:2020:FCA,
  author =       "C{\'e}sar Dom{\'\i}nguez and Arturo Jaime and
                 Francisco J. Garc{\'\i}a-Izquierdo and Juan J. Olarte",
  title =        "Factors Considered in the Assessment of Computer
                 Science Engineering Capstone Projects and Their
                 Influence on Discrepancies Between Assessors",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:23",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3381836",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3381836",
  abstract =     "A capstone project is an extensive learning experience
                 traditionally developed during a student's final
                 academic year. Assessing such a complex assignment
                 involves several challenges and is usually based upon
                 the evaluations of at least two different \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Conn:2020:UMF,
  author =       "Paula Conn and Taylor Gotfrid and Qiwen Zhao and
                 Rachel Celestine and Vaishnavi Mande and Kristen
                 Shinohara and Stephanie Ludi and Matt Huenerfauth",
  title =        "Understanding the Motivations of Final-year Computing
                 Undergraduates for Considering Accessibility",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:22",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3381911",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3381911",
  abstract =     "We investigate the degree to which undergraduate
                 computing students in a United States university
                 consider accessibility several years after instruction.
                 Prior work has found that cultural and ethical norms
                 become ingrained early in STEM professionals'
                 \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Ahmad:2020:IGL,
  author =       "Adnan Ahmad and Furkh Zeshan and Muhammad Salman Khan
                 and Rutab Marriam and Amjad Ali and Alia Samreen",
  title =        "The Impact of Gamification on Learning Outcomes of
                 Computer Science Majors",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16:1--16:25",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3383456",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3383456",
  abstract =     "Gamification is the use of game elements in domains
                 other than games. Gamification use is often suggested
                 for difficult activities because it enhances users'
                 engagement and motivation level. Due to such benefits,
                 the use of gamification is also proposed \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Vandenberg:2020:ESU,
  author =       "Jessica Vandenberg and Jennifer Tsan and Danielle
                 Boulden and Zarifa Zakaria and Collin Lynch and Kristy
                 Elizabeth Boyer and Eric Wiebe",
  title =        "Elementary Students' Understanding of {CS} Terms",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:19",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3386364",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3386364",
  abstract =     "The language and concepts used by curriculum designers
                 are not always interpreted by children as designers
                 intended. This can be problematic when researchers use
                 self-reported survey instruments in concert with
                 curricula, which often rely on the \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Dou:2020:ECS,
  author =       "Remy Dou and Karina Bhutta and Monique Ross and Laird
                 Kramer and Vishodana Thamotharan",
  title =        "The Effects of Computer Science Stereotypes and
                 Interest on Middle School Boys' Career Intentions",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:15",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3394964",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3394964",
  abstract =     "Like other STEM fields, computer science (CS) lacks
                 representation of minorities, such as Black and
                 Hispanic individuals, both in the number of bachelor's
                 degrees obtained and the number of individuals in the
                 CS workforce. Out-of-school CS programs are \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Prvan:2020:MTC,
  author =       "Marina Prvan and Julije Ozegovi{\'c}",
  title =        "Methods in Teaching Computer Networks: a Literature
                 Review",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19:1--19:35",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3394963",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3394963",
  abstract =     "This article provides a survey of methods and
                 paradigms for teaching Computer Networks (CN). Since
                 the theoretical concepts are rather abstract in this
                 subject, and students often find them too technical and
                 difficult to understand, many authors attempt
                 \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Taipalus:2020:SES,
  author =       "Toni Taipalus and Ville Sepp{\"a}nen",
  title =        "{SQL} Education: a Systematic Mapping Study and Future
                 Research Agenda",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:33",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3398377",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3398377",
  abstract =     "Structured Query Language (SQL) skills are crucial in
                 software engineering and computer science. However,
                 teaching SQL effectively requires both pedagogical
                 skill and considerable knowledge of the language.
                 Educators and scholars have proposed numerous
                 \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Daleiden:2020:ARC,
  author =       "Patrick Daleiden and Andreas Stefik and P. Merlin
                 Uesbeck and Jan Pedersen",
  title =        "Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Student
                 Performance in Parallel Programming using a New
                 Measurement Technique",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21:1--21:28",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3401892",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3401892",
  abstract =     "There are many paradigms available to address the
                 unique and complex problems introduced with parallel
                 programming. These complexities have implications for
                 computer science education as ubiquitous multi-core
                 computers drive the need for programmers to \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Indriasari:2020:RPC,
  author =       "Theresia Devi Indriasari and Andrew Luxton-Reilly and
                 Paul Denny",
  title =        "A Review of Peer Code Review in Higher Education",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "22:1--22:25",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3403935",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3403935",
  abstract =     "Peer review is the standard process within academia
                 for maintaining publication quality, but it is also
                 widely employed in other settings, such as education
                 and industry, for improving work quality and for
                 generating actionable feedback to content \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Zhou:2020:HST,
  author =       "Ninger Zhou and Ha Nguyen and Christian Fischer and
                 Debra Richardson and Mark Warschauer",
  title =        "High School Teachers' Self-efficacy in Teaching
                 Computer Science",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "23:1--23:18",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3410631",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3410631",
  abstract =     "Self-efficacy is an important construct for CS
                 teachers' professional development, because it can
                 predict both teaching behaviors as well as student
                 outcomes. Research has shown that teachers'
                 self-efficacy can be as influential as their actual
                 level of \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Zhou:2020:TPE,
  author =       "Ninger Zhou and Yucheng Cao and Sharin Jacob and Debra
                 Richardson",
  title =        "Teacher Perceptions of Equity in High School Computer
                 Science Classrooms",
  journal =      j-TOCE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "24:1--24:27",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2020",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3410633",
  ISSN =         "1946-6226",
  ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
  URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3410633",
  abstract =     "Effective and equitable CS teaching is contingent on
                 teachers' robust understanding of equity issues in CS
                 classrooms. To this end, this study examined high
                 school teachers' perceptions of equity during their
                 participation in a CS teacher certificate \ldots{}",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
  journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}