%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.38",
%%%     date            = "22 January 2018",
%%%     time            = "10:11:28 MST",
%%%     filename        = "toce.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "10015 7937 42634 405102",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
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%%%                        Educational Resources in Computing (JERIC);
%%%                        ACM Transactions on Computing Education
%%%                        (TOCE)",
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%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        the journal ACM Transactions on Computing
%%%                        Education (TOCE) (CODEN unknown, ISSN
%%%                        1946-6226), for 2009--date.
%%%
%%%                        Publication began with volume 9, number 1, in
%%%                        January 2009 as a continuation of the older
%%%                        ACM Journal on Educational Resources in
%%%                        Computing (JERIC).  The journal appears
%%%                        quarterly.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has World-Wide Web sites at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193
%%%
%%%                        Qualified subscribers can retrieve the full
%%%                        text of recent articles in PDF form.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.38, the COMPLETE journal
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%%%
%%%                             2009 (  17)    2012 (  16)    2015 (  21)
%%%                             2010 (  21)    2013 (  19)    2016 (  18)
%%%                             2011 (  24)    2014 (  21)    2017 (  27)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        184
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  184
%%%
%%%                        Data for this bibliography was derived from
%%%                        data at the ACM Web site.
%%%
%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
%%%                        included in this bibliography wherever
%%%                        available.
%%%
%%%                        The bibsource keys in the bibliography
%%%                        entries below indicate the data sources.
%%%
%%%                        URL keys in the bibliography point to
%%%                        World Wide Web locations of additional
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
University of Utah,
Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
155 S 1400 E RM 233,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
\path|beebe@acm.org|,
\path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}


%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-TOCE                  = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education"}


%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:

@Article{Tenenberg:2009:IAT,
author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
title =        "Introducing the {ACM Transactions on Computing
Education}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513594",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)
represents a name change and a broadening of scope for
the ACM Journal on Educational Resources on Computing
(JERIC). The topics covered by this new journal will
range across diverse aspects of computing education:
software engineering, information technology, and
informatics; emerging aspects of computing; and
applications of computing to other disciplines, such as
computational biology. The common characteristics
shared by these articles are a scholarly approach to
teaching and learning, a broad appeal to educational
practitioners, and a clear connection to student
learning.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Computing education; practitioner research;
scholarship of teaching and learning",
}

@Article{Richards:2009:DPB,
author =       "Debbie Richards",
title =        "Designing Project-Based Courses with a Focus on
Group Formation and Assessment",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513595",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The value and the pitfalls of project and group work
are well recognized. The principles and elements which
apply to projects in general, apply to project-based
courses. Thoughtful and detailed planning,
understanding of the stakeholders and their needs, a
good design, appropriate testing, monitoring and
quality control and continual management can maximize
the benefits and minimize the negatives. In this
article we draw together the literature to consider key
design choices of project-based courses considering:
type, length, size, management, participants, and
content with a particular focus on the composition of
groups and the issues surrounding assessment.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "assessment; Group-based courses; group formation",
}

@Article{Ritzhaupt:2009:CGD,
author =       "Albert D. Ritzhaupt",
title =        "Creating a Game Development Course with Limited
Resources: An Evaluation Study",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513596",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
implementing a game development course with limited
resources in computing curricula. An approach to a
holistic game development course is outlined in terms
of its organization, software, and instructional
methods. The course had 23 students enrolled in its
first offering and was systematically evaluated in
light of the approach using multiple sources of data.
Descriptive statistics and measures of internal
consistency reliability are provided. Three important
findings resulted from this research: (1) a game
development course can be implemented with limited
institutional monetary support for a reasonable cost
per student, (2) cooperation and competition can be
effectively integrated into a game development course
as instructional strategies, and (3) integrated lecture
and computer lab sessions with cooperative learning is
an effective instructional method for a game
development course. Finally, insights and lessons
learned are provided to assist educators in creating
their own game development courses.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "computing education; educational evaluation; Game
development curriculum; game development tools",
}

@Article{Caspersen:2009:SFP,
author =       "Michael E. Caspersen and Michael Kolling",
title =        "{STREAM}: A First Programming Process",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513597",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Programming is recognized as one of seven grand
challenges in computing education. Decades of research
have shown that the major problems novices experience
are composition-based---they may know what the
individual programming language constructs are, but
they do not know how to put them together. Despite this
fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming
education research hardly address the issue of teaching
the skills needed for systematic development of
programs.\par

We provide a conceptual framework for incremental
program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which
unifies best practice in modern software development
such as test-driven development and refactoring with
the prevailing perspective of programming methodology,
stepwise refinement. The conceptual framework enables
well-defined characterizations of incremental program
development.\par

We utilize the conceptual framework to derive a
programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for
novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a
full and rich agile software engineering process
particularly suited for novices learning
object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to
achieve two things: to help novice programmers learn
faster and better while at the same time laying the
foundation for a more thorough treatment of more
advanced aspects of software engineering. In this
article, two examples demonstrate the application of
STREAM.\par

The STREAM process has been taught in the introductory
programming courses at our universities for the past
three years and the results are very encouraging. We
report on a small, preliminary study evaluating the
learning outcome of teaching STREAM. The study
indicates a positive effect on the development of
students' process competences.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "agile methods; programming education; programming
methodology; programming process; refactoring; Stepwise
improvement; stepwise refinement; test-driven
development",
}

@Article{Barker:2009:SFP,
author =       "L. Barker",
title =        "Student and Faculty Perceptions of Undergraduate
Research Experiences in Computing",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513598",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Undergraduate research experiences are promoted and
funded for their potential in increasing students'
likelihood of pursuing graduate degrees, increasing
their confidence, and expanding their awareness of
their discipline and career opportunities. These
outcomes, however, depend on the social,
organizational, and intellectual conditions under which
students conduct research. Large-scale comparative
studies suggest that computer science undergraduate
researchers participate in fewer of the activities that
lead to membership in a culture of research.'' This
interview-based study illuminates the experiences of
both undergraduates and their faculty research mentors
in computer science summer and academic year programs.
Twenty-five undergraduates and 31 faculty mentors, the
majority women, were interviewed. Their stories reveal
best and worst case research conditions for students,
the special benefits to women who have experienced
harassment in their classes, unconscious biases of
faculty, the wisdom of faculty who guide undergraduates
to successful research outcomes, and faculty's
perceptions of benefits for themselves, their
departments, and the students they mentor.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "research career; research experiences for
computing",
}

@Article{Ocker:2009:TSW,
author =       "Rosalie Ocker and Mary Beth Rosson and Dana Kracaw and
S. Roxanne Hiltz",
title =        "Training Students to Work Effectively in
Partially Distributed Teams",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "6:1--6:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513599",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Information technology teams are often partially
distributed teams (PDTs). A PDT consists of two or more
subteams that are separated geographically. This
articles describes research focused on the use of PDTs
to engage students in real world'' IT team learning
about the subject matter while also teaching them the
skills they will need to work in global software
development teams. Findings from a large-scale
international study indicate that the introduction of
training modules enhanced perceived learning of
appropriate PDT teaming behaviors; students with
training reported improved shared team identification,
trust, awareness, coordination, competence, and
conflict with respect to distant subteam members, and
higher overall team performance.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "distributed teams; partially distributed teams;
Virtual teams",
}

@Article{Myller:2009:EET,
author =       "Niko Myller and Roman Bednarik and Erkki Sutinen and
Mordechai Ben-Ari",
title =        "Extending the Engagement Taxonomy: Software
Visualization and Collaborative Learning",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "7:1--7:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513600",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "As collaborative learning in general, and pair
programming in particular, has become widely adopted in
computer science education, so has the use of
pedagogical visualization tools for facilitating
collaboration. However, there is little theory on
collaborative learning with visualization, and few
studies on their effect on each other. We build on the
concept of the {\em engagement taxonomy\/} and extend
it to classify finer variations in the engagement that
result from the use of a visualization tool. We analyze
the applicability of the taxonomy to the description of
the differences in the collaboration process when
visualization is used. Our hypothesis is that
increasing the level of engagement between learners and
the visualization tool results in a higher positive
impact of the visualization on the collaboration
investigation designed to test the hypothesis. The
results provide support for our extended engagement
taxonomy and hypothesis by showing that the
collaborative activities of the students and the
engagement levels are correlated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "collaborative learning; engagement taxonomy; Program
visualization",
}

@Article{Rossling:2009:EPA,
author =       "Guido R{\"o}ssling and J. {\'A}ngel
Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
title =        "Editorial: Program and Algorithm Visualization in
Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8:1--8:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538235",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Urquiza-Fuentes:2009:SSE,
author =       "Jaime Urquiza-Fuentes and J. {\'A}ngel
Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
title =        "A Survey of Successful Evaluations of Program
Visualization and Algorithm Animation Systems",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "9:1--9:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538236",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Karavirta:2009:SMH,
author =       "Ville Karavirta",
title =        "Seamless Merging of Hypertext and Algorithm
Animation",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "10:1--10:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538237",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rossling:2009:VBC,
author =       "Guido R{\"o}ssling and Teena Vellaramkalayil",
title =        "A Visualization-Based Computer Science Hypertextbook
Prototype",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538238",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bruce-Lockhart:2009:ATG,
author =       "Michael Bruce-Lockhart and Theodore Norvell and
Pierluigi Crescenzi",
title =        "Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "12:1--12:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538239",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cross:2009:RGD,
author =       "James H. {Cross II} and T. Dean Hendrix and David A.
Umphress and Larry A. Barowski and Jhilmil Jain and
Lacey N. Montgomery",
title =        "Robust Generation of Dynamic Data Structure
Visualizations with Multiple Interaction Approaches",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "13:1--13:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538240",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Schaeckeler:2009:COP,
author =       "Stefan Schaeckeler and Weijia Shang and Ruth Davis",
title =        "Compiler Optimization Pass Visualization: The
Procedural Abstraction Case",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "14:1--14:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538241",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Pears:2009:VOC,
author =       "Arnold Pears and Lauri Malmi",
title =        "Values and Objectives in Computing Education
Research",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "3",
pages =        "15:1--15:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1594399.1594400",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Paterson:2009:PPS,
author =       "J. H. Paterson and K. F. Cheng and J. Haddow",
title =        "{PatternCoder}: a Programming Support Tool for
Learning Binary Class Associations and Design
Patterns",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "3",
pages =        "16:1--16:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1594399.1594401",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kiesmuller:2009:DLP,
author =       "Ulrich Kiesm{\"u}ller",
title =        "Diagnosing Learners' Problem-Solving Strategies Using
Learning Environments with Algorithmic Problems in
Secondary Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "3",
pages =        "17:1--17:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1594399.1594402",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "17",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2010:WDM,
author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
title =        "Why Discipline Matters in Computing Education
Scholarship",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "18:1--18:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656256",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "18",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Brusilovsky:2010:LSP,
author =       "Peter Brusilovsky and Sergey Sosnovsky and Michael V.
and Xin Zhou",
title =        "Learning {SQL} Programming with Interactive Tools:
From Integration to Personalization",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "19:1--19:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656257",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "19",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Yuan:2010:VTT,
author =       "Xiaohong Yuan and Percy Vega and Yaseen Qadah and
Ricky Archer and Huiming Yu and Jinsheng Xu",
title =        "Visualization Tools for Teaching Computer Security",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "20:1--20:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656258",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "20",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Meerbaum--Salant:2010:ACM,
author =       "Orni Meerbaum--Salant and Orit Hazzan",
title =        "An Agile Constructionist Mentoring Methodology for
Software Projects in the High School",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "21:1--21:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656259",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "21",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Baldwin:2010:GEI,
author =       "Doug Baldwin and Alyce Brady",
title =        "{Guest Editors}' Introduction: Computer Science in the
Liberal Arts",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731042",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "For many people, computer science is not closely
associated with the liberal arts. Yet liberal arts''
can denote a philosophy of education that emphasizes
broadly preparing students for all aspects of their
future lives, and as computing becomes more central to
the ways in which we think about the world, computer
science becomes correspondingly more central in such an
education. This, in turn, makes computer science more
important in the programs of educational institutions
that follow a liberal arts philosophy. This issue of
{\em Transactions on Computing Education\/} presents
three articles that examine the intersection of
computer science and the liberal arts. Walker and
Kelemen explore in detail how a liberal arts philosophy
complements the needs of computer science education,
and how computer science as a discipline fits the goals
of a liberal arts philosophy. Bruce et al. present the
history of a consortium of computer scientists from
liberal arts colleges and the model computer science
curricula they have developed for such colleges.
Finally, Baldwin et al. describe the concrete computer
science programs at five institutions, each with a
distinct place in the liberal arts spectrum. We hope
that these articles will advance understanding of
computer science in the liberal arts, and inspire
readers to incorporate liberal arts principles into
their own computer science programs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Liberal arts",
}

@Article{Walker:2010:CSL,
author =       "Henry M. Walker and Charles Kelemen",
title =        "Computer Science and the Liberal Arts: a
Philosophical Examination",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731043",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
the discipline of computer science within the liberal
arts, based upon a discussion of the nature of computer
science and a review of the characteristics of the
liberal arts. A liberal arts environment provides
important opportunities for undergraduate programs, but
also presents important constraints. A well designed
program can flourish in this environment, and evidence
indicates that a liberal arts program in computer
science can indeed succeed well.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Liberal arts; undergraduate education",
}

@Article{Bruce:2010:HLA,
author =       "Kim B. Bruce and Robert D. Cupper and Robert L. Scot
Drysdale",
title =        "A History of the Liberal Arts Computer Science
Consortium and its Model Curricula",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731044",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "With the support of a grant from the Sloan Foundation,
nine computer scientists from liberal arts colleges
came together in October, 1984 to form the Liberal Arts
Computer Science Consortium (LACS) and to create a
model curriculum appropriate for liberal arts colleges.
Over the years the membership has grown and changed,
but the focus has remained on helping to establish and
maintain high-quality computer science programs in
liberal arts colleges. In this report we discuss
briefly the history of the group, the series of three
curricula produced by LACS, and other contributions of
the members to computer science education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Computing Curriculum Guidelines; LACS; liberal arts",
}

@Article{Baldwin:2010:CSL,
author =       "D. Baldwin and A. Brady and A. Danyluk and J. Adams
and A. Lawrence",
title =        "Case Studies of Liberal Arts Computer Science
Programs",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731045",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Many undergraduate liberal arts institutions offer
quality computer science programs can be realized in a
wide variety of liberal arts settings by describing and
contrasting the actual programs at five liberal arts
colleges: Williams College, Kalamazoo College, the
State University of New York at Geneseo, Spelman
College, and Calvin College. While the example programs
differ in size, mission, and the nature of their home
institutions, all take advantage of their liberal arts
setting to offer rich computer science educations.
Comparing these programs to each other and to the
latest ACM/IEEE Computer Society computer science
curriculum shows that the liberal arts programs are
distinguishable from the ACM/Computer Society
recommendations, but at the same time are strong
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Liberal arts",
}

@Article{Goldman:2010:SSC,
author =       "Ken Goldman and Paul Gross and Cinda Heeren and
Geoffrey L. Herman and Lisa Kaczmarczyk and Michael
C. Loui and Craig Zilles",
title =        "Setting the Scope of Concept Inventories for
Introductory Computing Subjects",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789935",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "A concept inventory is a standardized assessment tool
intended to evaluate a student's understanding of the
core concepts of a topic. In order to create a concept
inventory it is necessary to accurately identify these
core concepts. A Delphi process is a structured
multi-step process that uses a group of experts to
achieve a consensus opinion. We present the results of
three Delphi processes to identify topics that are
important and difficult in each of three introductory
computing subjects: discrete mathematics, programming
fundamentals, and logic design. The topic rankings can
not only be used to guide the coverage of concept
inventories, but can also be used by instructors to
identify what topics merit special attention.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "concept inventory; Curriculum; delphi; discrete math;
logic design; programming fundamentals",
}

@Article{dAmore:2010:SOV,
author =       "Roberto d'Amore",
title =        "A Synthesis-Oriented {VHDL} Course",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "6:1--6:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789936",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
establishes a strong correlation between the language
statements and their use in circuit synthesis. Two
course modules are described: a basic module that
contains the essential concepts of the language,
sufficient for students to describe medium complexity
circuits, followed by a second module with more complex
language concepts. The benefits of correlated
laboratory tasks which use simulation and synthesis
tools are discussed. Evaluation content, student test
scores, and student feedback are presented. Suggestions
for improving and modifying the course are given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "digital course; SystemC; System Verilog; Verilog;
VHDL",
}

@Article{Shoufan:2010:CRP,
author =       "Abdulhadi Shoufan and Sorin A. Huss",
title =        "A Course on Reconfigurable Processors",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "7:1--7:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789937",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Reconfigurable computing is an established field in
computer science. Teaching this field to computer
science students demands special attention due to
limited student experience in electronics and digital
on reconfigurable processors, which was offered at the
Technische Universit{\"a}t Darmstadt, and is intended
for instructors aiming to introduce a new course in
reconfigurable computing. Therefore, a detailed
description of the course structure and content is
provided. In contrast to courses on digital system
design, which use FPGAs as a case platform, our course
places this platform at the center of its focus and
highlights its features as a basis for reconfigurable
computing. Both declarative knowledge and functioning
knowledge are considered in defining learning outcomes
based on a novel What-Why-How Model. Lab activities
were designated to deepen the functioning knowledge.
The written exam is aligned to learning outcomes and
shows that most students acquired the intended
outcomes.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "configuration resources; configuration technologies;
Design process; VHDL",
}

@Article{Bennedsen:2010:BVD,
author =       "Jens Bennedsen and Carsten Schulte",
title =        "{BlueJ} Visual Debugger for Learning the Execution of
Object-Oriented Programs?",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8:1--8:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789938",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
order to evaluate the effect of a program visualization
tool for helping students to better understand the
dynamics of object-oriented programs. The concrete tool
used was BlueJ's debugger and object inspector. The
study was done as a control-group experiment in an
introductory programming course.\par

The results of the experiment show that the students
who used BlueJ's debugger did not perform statistically
significantly better than the students not using it;
both groups profited about the same amount from the
exercises given in the experiment.\par

We discuss possible reasons for and implications of
this result.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "BlueJ; CS1; debugger; learning program execution;
object inspector; object orientation; tools;
visualization",
}

@Article{Shaffer:2010:AVS,
author =       "Clifforda Shaffer and Matthew L. Cooper and Alexander
Joel D. Alon and Monika Akbar and Michael Stewart and
Sean Ponce and Stephen H. Edwards",
title =        "Algorithm Visualization: The State of the Field",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "9:1--9:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1821996.1821997",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "We present findings regarding the state of the field
of Algorithm Visualization (AV) based on our analysis
of a collection of over 500 AVs. We examine how AVs are
distributed among topics, who created them and when,
their overall quality, and how they are disseminated.
There does exist a cadre of good AVs and active
developers. Unfortunately, we found that many AVs are
of low quality, and coverage is skewed toward a few
easier topics. This can make it hard for instructors to
locate what they need. There are no effective
repositories of AVs currently available, which puts
many AVs at risk for being lost to the community over
time. Thus, the field appears in need of improvement in
disseminating materials, propagating known best
practices, and informing developers about topic
coverage. These concerns could be mitigated by building
community and improving communication among AV users
and developers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Algorithm animation; algorithm visualization; AlgoViz
Wiki; community; data structure visualization; free and
open source software",
}

@Article{Renumol:2010:ICP,
author =       "V. G. Renumol and Dharanipragada Janakiram and S.
Jayaprakash",
title =        "Identification of Cognitive Processes of Effective and
Ineffective Students During Computer Programming",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "10:1--10:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1821996.1821998",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Identifying the set of cognitive processes (CPs) a
student can go through during computer programming is
an interesting research problem. It can provide a
better understanding of the human aspects in computer
programming process and can also contribute to the
computer programming education in general. The study
identified the presence of a set of 42 CPs in computer
programming (C language). The study used Verbal
Protocol Analysis (VPA) in identifying these CPs. It is
a qualitative study on the Verbal Protocols (VPs) of 19
students. Some of the CPs have been inferred by
referring to the literature and some have been
CPs found are confusion, hypothesis, interrogation,
iteration, monitoring, recollection, recurrence, and
translation. It is observed that programming involves
the interplay of lower and higher CPs and needs various
cognitive skills, which increase the processing load on
the brain and make the programming process difficult
and complex to learn and practice. The same set of CPs
was found in both the effective and ineffective
subjects. The research results can provide deeper
knowledge to teachers on cognitive aspects of
programming and the cognitive behavior of students
during the programming process.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "cognitive processes; cognitive psychology; computer
programming; effective and ineffective students;
Programming education; verbal protocol analysis",
}

@Article{Russell:2010:MPB,
author =       "Ingrid Russell and Zdravko Markov and Todd Neller and
Susan Coleman",
title =        "{MLeXAI}: a Project-Based Application-Oriented
Model",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1821996.1821999",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Our approach to teaching introductory artificial
intelligence (AI) unifies its diverse core topics
through a theme of machine learning, and emphasizes how
AI relates more broadly with computer science. Our
work, funded by a grant from the National Science
Foundation, involves the development, implementation,
and testing of a suite of projects that can be closely
integrated into a one-term AI course. Each project
involves the development of a machine learning system
in a specific application. These projects have been
used in six different offerings over a three-year
period at three different types of institutions. While
we have presented a sample of the projects as well as
limited preliminary experiences in other venues, this
article presents the first assessment of our work over
an extended period of three years. Results of
assessment show that the projects were well received by
the students. By using projects involving real-world
applications we provided additional motivation for
students. While illustrating core concepts, the
projects introduced students to an important area in
computer science, machine learning, thus motivating
further study.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; projects",
}

@Article{Fincher:2010:PSI,
author =       "Sally Fincher and Ian Utting",
title =        "Preface to Special Issue on Initial Learning
Environments",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "12:1--12:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868359",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Fincher:2010:MT,
author =       "Sally Fincher and Ian Utting",
title =        "Machines for Thinking",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "13:1--13:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868360",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "In this article we set a context for three Initial
Learning Environments Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. We
consider historical antecedents, technical comparators
and design approaches.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kolling:2010:GPE,
author =       "Michael K{\"o}lling",
title =        "The {Greenfoot} Programming Environment",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "14:1--14:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868361",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Greenfoot is an educational integrated development
environment aimed at learning and teaching programming.
It is aimed at a target audience of students from about
14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college-
and university-level education. Greenfoot combines
graphical, interactive output with programming in Java,
a standard, text-based object-oriented programming
then goes on to discuss design goals and motivations,
strengths and weaknesses of the system, and its
relation to two environments with similar goals,
Scratch and Alice.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cooper:2010:DA,
author =       "Stephen Cooper",
title =        "The Design of {Alice}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "15:1--15:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868362",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
(both pedagogic as well as technical) that helped to
shape Alice 2. It identifies several strengths of Alice
as well as several weaknesses. An example problem is
solved in Alice, covering many of the design
characteristics. Finally, the effects and impacts of
Alice instruction are presented, and the future
directions of Alice development are provided.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Maloney:2010:SPL,
author =       "John Maloney and Mitchel Resnick and Natalie Rusk and
Brian Silverman and Evelyn Eastmond",
title =        "The {Scratch} Programming Language and Environment",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "16:1--16:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868363",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Scratch is a visual programming environment that
allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer
programming while working on personally meaningful
projects such as animated stories and games. A key
design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed
learning through tinkering and collaboration with
programming language and environment support this
goal.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Utting:2010:AGS,
author =       "Ian Utting and Stephen Cooper and Michael K{\"o}lling
and John Maloney and Mitchel Resnick",
title =        "{Alice}, {Greenfoot}, and {Scratch} --- a
Discussion",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "17:1--17:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868364",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim
to support the acquisition and development of computing
concepts (problem solving and programming) in
pre-University and non-technical students: Alice,
Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a
special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE
Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued
during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of
the ACM Transactions on Computing Education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "17",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2011:EEP,
author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
title =        "Editorial: Entry Points for Computing Education
Research",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1921608",
abstract =     "The goal of this editorial is to provide entry points
into the literature on making and warranting claims in
the social and behavioral sciences that might be of use
to computing educators. In addition, we provide some
heuristic advice on getting started and continuing
along this direction based on our experience as
computing education researchers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Braught:2011:CPP,
author =       "Grant Braught and Tim Wahls and L. Marlin Eby",
title =        "The Case for Pair Programming in the Computer Science
Classroom",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1921609",
abstract =     "Previous studies indicate that the use of pair
programming has beneficial effects on student learning.
directly measured students' acquisition of individual
programming skills using laboratory practica (in which
students programmed individually under exam
conditions). Additionally, we analyzed other measures
of student performance, attitudes, and retention. Our
results provide direct evidence that pair programming
improves the individual programming skills of lower SAT
students, and that students who pair program are more
confident in their work and are more likely to
successfully complete the course.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Borstler:2011:QEI,
author =       "J{\"u}rgen B{\"o}rstler and Marie Nordstr{\"o}m and
James H. Paterson",
title =        "On the Quality of Examples in Introductory {Java}
Textbooks",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Example programs play an important role in the
teaching and learning of programming. Students as well
as teachers rank examples as the most important
resources for learning to program. Example programs
work as role models and must therefore always be
consistent with the principles and rules we are
teaching. However, it is difficult to find or develop
examples that are fully faithful to all principles and
guidelines of the object-oriented paradigm and also
follow general pedagogical principles and practices.
Unless students are able to engage with good examples,
they will not be able to tell desirable from
undesirable properties in their own and others'
programs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Liberman:2011:DLI,
author =       "Neomi Liberman and Catriel Beeri and Yifat Ben-David
Kolikant",
title =        "Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and
Polymorphism",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by
a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience
with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a
course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis
of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in
the course, as well as on observations made during the
course. The article suggests that the difficulties are
mostly caused by the learners' ignorance about a
programming model for inheritance and polymorphism.
Such a model is presented in the appendix.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wang:2011:EEU,
author =       "Alf Inge Wang",
title =        "Extensive Evaluation of Using a Game Project in a
Software Architecture Course",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
introducing a game project to a software architecture
course. In this project, university students have to
construct and design a type of software architecture,
evaluate the architecture, implement an application
based on the architecture, and test this
implementation. In previous years, the domain of the
software architecture project has been a robot
controller for navigating a maze. In 2008, the students
on the software architecture course chose between the
two domains: Khepera robot simulation in Java and XNA
game development in C\#. Independent of the domain
chosen, the students had to go through the same phases,
produce the same documents based on the same templates,
and follow exactly the same process.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

author =       "Richard Ladner and Tammy VanDeGrift",
title =        "Introduction to Special Issue (Part 1): Broadening
Participation in Computing Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "6:1--6:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993070",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This special issue includes the first set of articles
education. The articles span the stages of the
pipeline, from introducing middle school children to
computer science to retaining underrepresented groups
at the university level. The preface presented here
outlines the need for increasing the participation of
underrepresented minorities, women, and people with
disabilities in the development of technology. In
addition, the preface summarizes the six articles
included in this first (of two) issues on broadening
participation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Doerschuk:2011:IHS,
author =       "Peggy Doerschuk and Jiangjiang Liu and Judith Mann",
title =        "{INSPIRED} High School Computing Academies",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "7:1--7:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993071",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "If we are to attract more women and minorities to
computing we must engage students at an early age. As
part of its mission to increase participation of women
and underrepresented minorities in computing, the
Increasing Student Participation in Research
Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing
designed to increase students' knowledge of and
interest in computing and to encourage females and
minorities to participate in computing. INSPIRED
academies differ from others in several ways. They are
relatively easy to organize and require relatively few
resources; they focus on computing concepts and
object-oriented programming; they expose students to
successful female and minority computer scientists; and
they actively engage university students from
underrepresented groups to organize, coordinate, teach,
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kim:2011:EWC,
author =       "Karen A. Kim and Amy J. Fann and Kimberly O.
Misa-Escalante",
title =        "Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering:
Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8:1--8:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993072",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Building on research that identifies and addresses
issues of women's underrepresentation in computing,
undergraduate research experiences that promote women's
long-term interest in computer science and engineering.
programs include programmatic elements designed to
promote gender equity and identifies specific
mechanisms that are seen as effective in supporting
women in REU programs and in encouraging them to
persist in computer science and engineering fields.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wolz:2011:CTE,
author =       "Ursula Wolz and Meredith Stone and Kim Pearson and
Sarah Monisha Pulimood and Mary Switzer",
title =        "Computational Thinking and Expository Writing in the
Middle School",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "9:1--9:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993073",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "To broaden participation in computing we need to look
beyond traditional domains of inquiry and expertise. We
present results from a demonstration project in which
interactive journalism was used to infuse computational
thinking into the standard curriculum and regular
classroom experience at a middle school with a diverse
population. Outcomes indicate that we were able to
develop positive attitudes about computational thinking
and programming among students and teachers who did not
necessarily view themselves as math types.'' By
partnering with language arts, technology and math
teachers at Fisher Middle School, Ewing New Jersey, we
introduced the isomorphism between the journalistic
process and computational thinking to 7th and 8th
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Zimmerman:2011:WLH,
author =       "Thomas G. Zimmerman and David Johnson and Cynthia
Wambsgans and Antonio Fuentes",
title =        "Why {Latino} High School Students Select Computer
Science as a Major: Analysis of a Success Story",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "10:1--10:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993074",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
succeeding in encouraging Latino high school students
to select Computer Science (CS) as a major. The
students attend a charter high school designed to
encourage low-income Latino students to attend college
and attain proficiency in English, Spanish, and
computers. Using data from surveys and by analyzing
test scores, the authors quantify the characteristics
of students who are likely to choose CS as a major. A
survey of 139 tenth- through twelfth-grade Latino
students is used to determine factors that influence CS
major selection. The survey includes questions from a
previous study (836 high school math students from 9
public and private schools) as a control.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rheingans:2011:RMG,
author =       "Penny Rheingans and Anne Brodsky and Jill Scheibler
and Anne Spence",
title =        "The Role of Majority Groups in Diversity Programs",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993075",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The underrepresentation of women in technical fields
is a widely acknowledged national problem, limiting
both the raw size of the talent pool and the diversity
of experiences and perspectives of those who will
design solutions to key problems facing society.
Empowering women to succeed in these fields is clearly
one important component of any solution. Because the
population in those fields will likely continue to be
overwhelmingly male for some time to come, men must
also be a key component of the solution. Specifically,
since the attitudes of the majority group are a strong
determinant of climate, it is almost equally important
to foster a population of men supportive of increasing
the representation of women.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Goode:2011:ECS,
author =       "Joanna Goode and Jane Margolis",
title =        "Exploring Computer Science: a Case Study of School
Reform",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "12:1--12:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993076",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
participation in computing in urban schools through a
comprehensive reform effort of curricular development,
teacher professional development, and policy changes.
Beginning with an account of the curricular development
of Exploring Computer Science, we will describe the
inquiry-based research that underlies these learning
materials. Next, we argue that accompanying
professional development that supports the curriculum
is essential for supporting this inquiry-based approach
to computer science instruction. We then explain the
policy strategies used to designate this course as a
college-preparatory elective and place it in 17 Los
Angeles high schools. Finally, we share the initial
results of how students experience this course and
ongoing challenges encountered when working in the
public school system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

author =       "Richard Ladner and Tammy VanDeGrift",
title =        "Special Issue on Broadening Participation in Computing
Education (Part 2)",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "13:1--13:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037277",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rosson:2011:OUT,
author =       "Mary Beth Rosson and John M. Carroll and Hansa
Sinha",
title =        "Orientation of Undergraduates Toward Careers in the
Computer and Information Sciences: Gender,
Self-Efficacy and Social Support",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "14:1--14:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037278",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Crutchfield:2011:BFO,
author =       "Orpheus S. L. Crutchfield and Christopher D. Harrison
and Guy Haas and Daniel D. Garcia and Sheila
M. Humphreys and Colleen M. Lewis and Peter Khooshabeh",
title =        "{Berkeley Foundation for Opportunities in Information
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "15:1--15:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037279",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Gates:2011:CAH,
author =       "Ann Quiroz Gates and Sarah Hug and Heather Thiry and
Richard Al{\'o} and Mohsen Beheshti and John Fernandez
title =        "{The Computing Alliance of Hispanic-Serving
Institutions}: Supporting Hispanics at Critical
Transition Points",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "16:1--16:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037280",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Eglash:2011:FSA,
author =       "Ron Eglash and Mukkai Krishnamoorthy and Jason Sanchez
and Andrew Woodbridge",
Computing Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "17:1--17:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037281",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "17",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Dahlberg:2011:SAV,
author =       "Teresa Dahlberg and Tiffany Barnes and Kim Buch and
Audrey Rorrer",
title =        "The {STARS} Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening
Participation in Computing",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "18:1--18:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037282",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "18",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Burgstahler:2011:UDI,
author =       "Sheryl Burgstahler",
title =        "Universal Design: Implications for Computing
Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "19:1--19:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037283",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "19",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ludi:2011:URP,
author =       "Stephanie Ludi and Tom Reichlmayr",
title =        "The Use of Robotics to Promote Computing to
Pre-College Students with Visual Impairments",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "20:1--20:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037284",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "20",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2011:ECT,
author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
title =        "Editorial: Computational Tools for Computing
Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "21:1--21:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048932",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The goal of this editorial is to both encourage
authors to continue to submit articles describing
computational tools for computing education to TOCE,
and to make explicit our expectations as the editors of
TOCE for what makes a good tools'' article. We
elaborate three key criteria, and provide examples from
previous TOCE papers that satisfy these criteria: (1)
establish that the tool is related essentially to
computing education, (2) make explicit claims about the
impact of the tool on learning, and (3) evidence these
claims through actual use.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "21",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Miller:2011:WPD,
author =       "Craig S. Miller and Amber Settle",
title =        "When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: Effects of Task
Goals on Learning Computing Concepts",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "22:1--22:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048933",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Specifying file references for hypertext links is an
elementary competence that nevertheless draws upon core
computational thinking concepts such as tree traversal
and the distinction between relative and absolute
effects of different instructional strategies in the
context of an introductory computing course. Results
albeit supported with working examples, is not the best
preparation. Instead, unstructured study of examples
conceptual questions can also yield comparably positive
learning but only in qualified contexts. While perhaps
unintuitive, these results are consistent with a long
line of research on human cognition and learning.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "22",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Armoni:2011:LST,
author =       "Michal Armoni",
title =        "Looking at Secondary Teacher Preparation Through the
Lens of Computer Science",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "23:1--23:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048934",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Teaching computer science (CS) in high schools, rather
than just programming or even computer literacy, is
important as a means of introducing students to the
true nature of CS, and enhancing their problem-solving
skills. Since teachers are the key to the success of
any high school educational initiative, any discussion
of high school programs must consider the teachers, and
specifically the teacher preparation needed to make the
implementation of such programs possible. However,
there is scant research on CS teacher education,
probably because CS is a relatively young discipline.
Very few of the publications in the area of CS teacher
preparation are research-based.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "23",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Nikula:2011:MGH,
author =       "Uolevi Nikula and Orlena Gotel and Jussi Kasurinen",
title =        "A Motivation Guided Holistic Rehabilitation of the
First Programming Course",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "24:1--24:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048935",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "It has been estimated that more than two million
students started computing studies in 1999 and 650,000
of them either dropped or failed their first
programming course. For the individual student,
dropping such a course can distract from the completion
of later courses in a computing curriculum and may even
result in changing their course of study to a
report on how we set out to rehabilitate a troubled
first programming course, one for which the dropout
statistic and repercussion was evident. The five-year
by systematically tracking the pass rate of a first
programming course, its throughput, as proposed by the
Theory of Constraints.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "24",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:TRI,
author =       "Tanya McGill and Jocelyn Armarego and Tony Koppi",
title =        "The Teaching--Research--Industry--Learning Nexus in
Information and Communications Technology",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133798",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The teaching-research nexus concept has been
extensively examined in the higher education
literature, and the importance of industry linkages in
information and communications technology (ICT)
education has also been widely discussed. However, to
date there has been little recognition of the full
extent of relationships between aspects of teaching,
learning, research, and industry, and of the synergy
possible from exploiting these relationships. Koppi and
Naghdy [2009] introduced the concept of the
teaching-research-industry-learning (TRIL) nexus in ICT
understanding of the concept by exploring the
literature that underpins it. The article contributes
to a clearer understanding of the nature of the
relationships involved as they apply to ICT education,
and makes comprehensive recommendations to support
strengthening the TRIL nexus in ICT education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

author =       "Leonardo Mariani and Daniela Micucci",
title =        "{AuDeNTES}: Automatic Detection of {teNtative}
plagiarism according to a {rEference} Solution",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133799",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "In academic courses, students frequently take
advantage of someone else's work to improve their own
evaluations or grades. This unethical behavior
seriously threatens the integrity of the academic
system, and teachers invest substantial effort in
preventing and recognizing plagiarism. When students
take examinations requiring the production of computer
programs, plagiarism detection can be semiautomated
using analysis techniques such as JPlag and Moss. These
techniques are useful but lose effectiveness when the
text of the exam suggests some of the elements that
should be structurally part of the solution. A loss of
effectiveness is caused by the many common parts that
are shared between programs due to the suggestions in
the text of the exam rather than plagiarism. In this
article, we present the AuDeNTES anti-plagiarism
technique. AuDeNTES detects plagiarism via the code
fragments that better represent the individual
students' contributions by filtering from students'
submissions the parts that might be common to many
students due to the suggestions in the text of the
exam. The filtered parts are identified by comparing
students' submissions against a reference solution,
which is a solution of the exam developed by the
teachers. Specifically, AuDeNTES first produces
tokenized versions of both the reference solution and
the programs that must be analyzed. Then, AuDeNTES
removes from the tokenized programs the tokens that are
included in the tokenized reference solution. Finally,
AuDeNTES computes the similarity among the filtered
tokenized programs and produces a ranked list of
program pairs suspected of plagiarism. An empirical
comparison against multiple state-of-the-art plagiarism
detection techniques using several sets of real
students' programs collected in early programming
courses demonstrated that AuDeNTES identifies more
plagiarism cases than the other techniques at the cost
of a small additional inspection effort.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Herman:2012:DWW,
author =       "Geoffrey L. Herman and Michael C. Loui and Lisa
Kaczmarczyk and Craig Zilles",
title =        "Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties
in {Boolean} Logic",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133800",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The ability to reason with formal logic is a
foundational skill for computer scientists and computer
engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design,
debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about
their understanding of propositional logic and their
ability to translate from English specifications to
Boolean expressions, we characterized common
misconceptions and novice problem-solving processes of
students who had recently completed a digital logic
design class. We present these results and discuss
their implications for instruction and the development
of pedagogical assessment tools known as concept
inventories.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:LPP,
author =       "Monica M. McGill",
title =        "Learning to Program with Personal Robots: Influences
on Student Motivation",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133801",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "One of the goals of using robots in introductory
programming courses is to increase motivation among
learners. There have been several types of robots that
have been used extensively in the classroom to teach a
variety of computer science concepts. A more recently
introduced robot designed to teach programming to
novice students is the Institute for Personal Robots in
Education (IPRE) robot. The author chose to use this
robot and study its motivational effects on
non-computer science students in a CS0 course. The
purpose of this study was to determine whether using
the IPRE robots motivates students to learn programming
in a CS0 course. After considering various motivational
theories and instruments designed to measure
motivation, the author used Keller's Instructional
Materials Motivation Survey to measure four components
of motivation: attention, relevance, confidence, and
survey, including a set of open-ended questions. The
results of this study indicate that the use of these
robots had a positive influence on participants'
attitudes towards learning to program in a CS0 course,
but little or no effect on relevance, confidence, or
satisfaction. Results also indicate that although
gender and students interests may affect individual
components of motivation, gender, technical
self-perception, and interest in software development
have no bearing on the overall motivational levels of
students.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Poor:2012:NUL,
author =       "G. Michael Poor and Laura M. Leventhal and Julie
Barnes and Duke R. Hutchings and Paul Albee and Laura
Campbell",
title =        "No User Left Behind: Including Accessibility in
Student Projects and the Impact on {CS} Students'
Attitudes",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        apr,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160548",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Usability and accessibility have become increasingly
reviews how these concepts may be included in existing
courses. The authors conducted a survey of student
attitudes toward these issues at the start and end of a
usability engineering course that included a group
project with an accessibility component. Results of the
survey indicate that students' awareness of issues
related to usability and accessibility are increased
after taking the course and completing the project. Our
work and results are potentially valuable to CS
educators in three ways: (1) They validate the
usefulness of the survey instrument in assessing
pedagogies in usability engineering, (2) They provide
useful insights into the attitudes of CS majors
relative to the important topics of usability and
accessibility, and (3) They point to possible benefits
of including usability and accessibility topics into CS
curricula.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ip:2012:FNI,
author =       "Barry Ip",
title =        "Fitting the Needs of an Industry: An Examination of
Games Design, Development, and Art Courses in the
{UK}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "6:1--6:??",
month =        apr,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160549",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "There have been growing criticisms in recent years
among the computer and video games community on the
apparent lack of graduates capable of meeting the
industry's employment needs. Following the sharp rise
in the number of computer and video games courses
across higher education (HE) institutions in the UK and
of existing British games design, development, and art
programs in relation to prescribed study areas voiced
by industry bodies. From a sample of 242 courses, and a
further 11 industry-derived and accredited programs,
the results explore content currently residing within a
variety of games programs and qualification types and
evaluate the extent to which such content adheres to
the industry's demand for the focus on specific skills
and study areas. The findings point toward certain
shortfalls in some key areas deemed to be important by
industry professionals and the consideration of the
degree to which course providers should cater to the
specific demands of industry.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:CPP,
author =       "Monica M. McGill",
title =        "The Curriculum Planning Process for Undergraduate Game
Degree Programs in the {United Kingdom} and {United
States}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "7:1--7:??",
month =        apr,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160550",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and
consumed by an increasing number of people and the game
industry is only expected to grow. In response,
postsecondary institutions in the UK and the U.S. have
started to create game degree programs. Though
curriculum theorists provide insight into the process
of creating a new program, no formal research
contextualizes curriculum planning for game degree
programs. The purpose of this research was to explore
these processes when planning undergraduate game degree
programs. The research methodology included an
explanatory mixed-methods approach, using a
quantitative survey of participants in the UK and the
U.S., followed by interviews with several participants
selected on the basis of their institution's
demographics. Results indicate that five external
factors influence the development of game programs
(government, industry, other universities, society, and
trade associations) and eight internal factors
influence curriculum planning (facilities, faculty,
institution, interdisciplinary collaboration, learners,
learning time and space, originating department, and
backgrounds of the planners). Results also indicate
that while some differences exist in the game degree
programs across countries, the vast majority of
curriculum planning processes and influencing factors
are the same. The study concludes with a set of
recommendations for educators, trade associations, and
the games industry to improve game degree programs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Taub:2012:CUM,
author =       "Rivka Taub and Michal Armoni and Mordechai Ben-Ari",
title =        "{CS} Unplugged and Middle-School Students' Views,
Attitudes, and Intentions Regarding {CS}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8:1--8:??",
month =        apr,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160551",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Many students hold incorrect ideas and negative
attitudes about computer science (CS). In order to
address these difficulties, a series of learning
activities called Computer Science Unplugged was
developed by Tim Bell and his colleagues. These
activities expose young people to central concepts in
CS in an entertaining way without requiring a computer.
The CS Unplugged activities have become more and more
popular among CS educators and several activities are
recommended in the ACM K-12 curriculum for elementary
schools. CS Unplugged is used worldwide and has been
translated into many languages. We examined the effect
of the CS Unplugged activities on middle-school
students' ideas about CS and their desire to consider
and study it in high school. The results indicate that
following the activities the ideas of the students on
what CS is about were partially improved, but their
desire to study CS lessened. In order to provide
possible explanations to these results, we analyzed the
CS Unplugged activities to determine to what extent the
objectives of CS Unplugged were addressed in the
activities. In addition, we checked whether the
activities were designed according to constructivist
principles and whether they were explicitly linked to
central concepts in CS. We found that only some of the
objectives were addressed in the activities, that the
activities do not engage with the students' prior
knowledge and that most of the activities are not
explicitly linked to central concepts in CS. We offer
suggestions for modifying the CS Unplugged activities
so that they will be more likely to achieve their
objectives.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Talon:2012:DCI,
author =       "B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte Talon and Mouldi Sagar and
Christophe Kolski",
title =        "Developing Competence in Interactive Systems: The
{GRASP} Tool for the Design or Redesign of Pedagogical
{ICT} Devices",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "9:1--9:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275598",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Training professionals to design and produce
interactive systems requires the use of well
thought-out training scenarios. Indeed, it is essential
to consider pedagogical forms whose objective is
providing learners with field experience. It is also
necessary to motivate learners to learn about subjects
that sometimes seem distant from their immediate
concerns and to renew their interest in these subjects.
design pedagogical devices. This tool was first
evaluated through three educational initiatives
implemented in two universities in the north of France.
These initiatives were analyzed to enhance the tool.
Then, a second evaluation was conducted to validate the
presents the scientific context. Then the design tool,
the evaluation protocol, and the three devices built
using this tool and their evaluation are introduced.
Some of the lessons learned during the initiatives are
described. Next, the second evaluation, conducted with
more teachers, is presented. Finally, the conclusion
highlights the perspectives opened by these
initiatives.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

title =        "Practical Problem-Based Learning in Computing
Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "10:1--10:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275599",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Computer Science (CS) is a relatively new disciple and
how best to introduce it to new students remains an
open question. Likewise, the identification of
appropriate instructional strategies for the diverse
topics that constitute the average curriculum remains
open to debate. One approach considered by a number of
practitioners in CS education involves Problem-Based
Learning (PBL), a radical departure from the
conventional lecturing format. PBL has been adopted in
other domains with success, but whether these positive
experiences will be replicated in CS remains to be
presented from a Computing Education Research (CER)
perspective. This includes analyses of a range of
practical didactic issues, including the degree to
which PBL has been systematically evaluated, practical
problem description in the literature, as well as a
survey of topics for which a PBL approach has been
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Apiola:2012:CSL,
author =       "Mikko Apiola and Matti Lattu and Tomi A. Pasanen",
title =        "Creativity-Supporting Learning Environment---{CSLE}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275600",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Despite much public discussion about the importance of
creativity and innovation-friendly teaching in Finnish
higher education, the impact of the general opinion on
actual teaching practices has been limited. In the
Finnish computer science education the teaching mostly
follows a pattern of lectures, fixed exercise sets, and
about possibilities of enhancing the learning
environment by focusing on creative problem solving. We
will present results from two research experiments in
which we aimed to provide computer science students
with a practically oriented learning environment with
an explicit intention of supporting the creative work
of students. There exists a vast amount of scientific
theory about creativity, yet it is unclear on how to
turn that theory into practice. Thus, our main interest
was to find ways of applying creativity theory in
practice in the context of computer science education.
Our research experiments consist of a practically
oriented computer science course, where
LEGO\reg{}Mindstorms robots were used as the platform
for the student work. Methodological tools used in this
study included content analysis of student products,
observations from our learning sessions and
semi-structured interviews with the students. The
course was organised two times: the first time was in
spring 2009 and the second in spring 2010. The total
argue that our approach of providing a
creativity-supporting practical computer science course
was a success. We gained a lot of ideas on how to
support creativity, the students were clearly
motivated, and they began to learn a new kind of
experimental working style. The robotics kit seemed to
work well both as a trigger for motivation and as a
platform to support experimental learning, enhancing
students' creativity and working style. In our opinion
these findings are of great importance, and give
promising practical ideas for the support of creativity
in higher computer science education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Exter:2012:EEP,
author =       "Marisa Exter and Nichole Turnage",
title =        "Exploring Experienced Professionals' Reflections on
Computing Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "12:1--12:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275601",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This exploratory qualitative study examines computing
professional's memories of their own formal and
non-formal educational experiences, their reflections
on how these have prepared them for their professional
roles, and their recommendations for an ideal''
undergraduate degree program. Data was collected
through semi-structured interviews of experienced
computing professionals. Ongoing on-the-job learning is
a natural part of professionals' work lives.
Participants indicate that important elements in an
computing topics, development of critical thinking and
communications skills, and a strong emphasis on
experiences similar to those encountered in a
professional position, such as complex, realistic group
projects. Specific programming languages and
technologies should be used only as practice in solving
problems and learning on one's own.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Benkrid:2012:DHD,
author =       "Khaled Benkrid and Thomas Clayton",
title =        "Digital Hardware Design Teaching: an Alternative
Approach",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "13:1--13:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382565",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware
design teaching in the School of Engineering at the
University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have
been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven
teaching, deep learning, affordability, and
flexibility. This has identified discrete electronics
as key components in the early stages of the curriculum
and FPGAs as an economical platform for the teaching of
various digital hardware design concepts and techniques
in later stages of the curriculum. In particular, the
article presents the detailed design and implementation
of one digital hardware design laboratory, called
Gateway, which introduces students to synchronous
digital circuit development from high level functional
specifications, uses Verilog for hardware description
and FPGAs as an implementation platform. Biggs' theory
of constructive alignment was applied in the design of
this lab's learning outcomes, lab content, teaching and
learning methods, and assessment methods. The lab makes
extensive use of multimedia in both lab content
delivery and demonstration applications developed by
students. Student feedback following the deployment of
this lab was overwhelmingly positive and an evaluation
of the lab results compared to previous lab offerings'
shows the merit of the approach taken.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sondag:2012:FTU,
author =       "Tyler Sondag and Kian L. Pokorny and Hridesh Rajan",
title =        "{Frances}: a Tool for Understanding Computer
Architecture and Assembly Language",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "14:1--14:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382566",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Students in all areas of computing require knowledge
of the computing device including software
implementation at the machine level. Several courses in
computer science curricula address these low-level
details such as computer architecture and assembly
languages. For such courses, there are advantages to
studying real architectures instead of simplified
examples. However, real architectures and instruction
sets introduce complexity that makes them difficult to
grasp in a single semester course. Visualization
techniques can help ease this burden, unfortunately
existing tools are often difficult to use and
consequently difficult to adopt in a course where time
is already limited. To solve this problem, we present
Frances. Frances graphically illustrates key
differences between familiar high-level languages and
unfamiliar low-level languages and also illustrates how
familiar high-level programs behave on real
architectures. Key to this tool is that we use a simple
Web interface that requires no setup, easing course
adoption hurdles. We also include several features that
further enhance its usefulness in a classroom setting.
These features include graphical relationships between
high-level code and machine code, clearly illustrated
step-by-step machine state transitions, color coding to
make instruction behavior clear, and illustration of
pointers. We have used Frances in courses and performed
experimental evaluation. Our experiences with Frances
in the classroom demonstrate its usability. Most
notably, in our experimental setting, students with no
computer architecture course experience were able to
complete lessons using Frances with no guidance.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Benda:2012:WLL,
author =       "Klara Benda and Amy Bruckman and Mark Guzdial",
title =        "When Life and Learning Do Not Fit: Challenges of
Workload and Communication in Introductory Computer
Science Online",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "15:1--15:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382567",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "We present the results of an interview study
investigating student experiences in two online
introductory computer science courses. Our theoretical
approach is situated at the intersection of two
research, which tends to be sociologically oriented,
and computer science education research, which has
strong connections with pedagogy and psychology. The
article reviews contributions from both traditions on
student failure in the context of higher education,
distance and online education as well as introductory
computer science. Our research relies on a combination
of the two perspectives, which provides useful results
for the field of computer science education in general,
as well as its online or distance versions. The
interviewed students exhibited great diversity in both
socio-demographic and educational background. We
identified no profiles that predicted student success
or failure. At the same time, we found that
expectations about programming resulted in challenges
of time-management and communication. The time
requirements of programming assignments were
unpredictable, often disproportionate to expectations,
and clashed with the external commitments of adult
professionals. Too little communication was available
to access adequate instructor help. On the basis of
these findings, we suggest instructional design
solutions for adult professionals studying introductory
computer science education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hubwieser:2012:CSE,
author =       "Peter Hubwieser",
title =        "Computer Science Education in Secondary Schools ---
The Introduction of a New Compulsory Subject",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "16:1--16:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382568",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "In 2004 the German state of Bavaria introduced a new
compulsory subject of computer science (CS) in its
grammar schools (Gymnasium). The subject is based on a
comprehensive teaching concept that was developed by
the author and his colleagues during the years
1995--2000. It comprises mandatory courses in grades
6/7 for all students of grammar schools and in grade
9/10 for the students of the science and technology
track of this school type. In grades 11 and 12 there
are elective courses that qualify for an optional
graduation exam in CS. The first students that have
attended the course in total graduated in 2011. This
article describes the whole project in the form of an
extensive case study that is guided by the Darmstadt
Model, which was developed as a category system for
computer science education in secondary schools by a
working group at ITiCSE 2011. This case study is the
first (nearly) all-embracing discussion of the whole
project that describes the long way from the original
concept to the first graduates as well as the internal
structure of the subject and the first results.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ben-Ari:2013:ISI,
author =       "Mordechai Ben-Ari and Dan Garcia and Tom Murphy",
title =        "Introduction to the special issue on concurrent and
parallel programming",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "13",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2013",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414447",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Much of computing education research is devoted to
introductory computer science. The articles in this
special issue look at the other end of the spectrum:
learning advanced subjects, here, concurrent, parallel
and distributed computation. The articles present four
approaches for teaching these subjects using
infra-structure that is feasible for educational
institutions to acquire: MapReduce in a cloud, remote
computing on a multicore system, a network of gaming
consoles, and software modeling using formal
specification.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rabkin:2013:UCM,
author =       "Ariel Rabkin and Charles Reiss and Randy Katz and
David Patterson",
title =        "Using clouds for {MapReduce} measurement assignments",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "13",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2013",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414448",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "We describe our experiences teaching MapReduce in a
large undergraduate lecture course using public cloud
services and the standard Hadoop API. Using the
standard API, students directly experienced the quality
of industrial big-data tools. Using the cloud, every
student could carry out scalability benchmarking
assignments on realistic hardware, which would have
been impossible otherwise. Over two semesters, over 500
students took our course. We believe this is the first
large-scale demonstration that it is feasible to use
pay-as-you-go billing in the cloud for a large
undergraduate course. Modest instructor effort was
sufficient to prevent students from
overspending. Average per-pupil expenses in the Cloud
were under \45. Students were excited by the assignment: 90\% said they thought it should be retained in future course offerings.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Abuzaghleh:2013:IAH, author = "Omar Abuzaghleh and Kathleen Goldschmidt and Yasser Elleithy and Jeongkyu Lee", title = "Implementing an affordable high-performance computing for teaching-oriented computer science curriculum", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = jan, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414449", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However, the high cost of HPC equipment and maintenance makes it hard to be adapted into a conventional computer science curriculum. Specifically, teaching-oriented institutions cannot afford an HPC system due to the high cost, lack of experience, and smaller research infrastructure. The main objective of this article is to present an affordable and easy-to-use high-performance cluster system for teaching-oriented computer science curriculums. In order to address this, we have designed and implemented an affordable high-performance cluster system based on the PlayStation 3 (PS3). For the performance evaluation of the PS3 cluster, we conducted a benchmarking test, that is, matrix multiplication, with different numbers of synergistic processing elements (SPEs) and nodes. As a result, it was concluded that the PS3Cluster provides enough computing power as an HPC for computer science courses, while the total cost is less than 10\% of an existing cluster system on the market that has similar performance. In addition, the implemented PS3Cluster system has been used for computer science courses, such as Parallel and Distributed Databases and Parallel Programming.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Ziwisky:2013:EEO, author = "Michael Ziwisky and Kyle Persohn and Dennis Brylow", title = "A down-to-earth educational operating system for up-in-the-cloud many-core architectures", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "1", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = jan, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414450", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We present Xipx, the first port of a major educational operating system to a processor in the emerging class of many-core architectures. Through extensions to the proven Embedded Xinu operating system, Xipx gives students hands-on experience with system programming in a distributed message-passing environment. We expose the software primitives needed to maintain coherency between many cores in a system lacking specialized caching hardware. Our proposed series of laboratory assignments adds parallel thread execution and intercore message passing communication to a well-established OS curriculum.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Carro:2013:MDA, author = "Manuel Carro and {\'A}ngel Herranz and Julio Mari{\~n}o", title = "A model-driven approach to teaching concurrency", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "1", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = jan, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414451", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We present an undergraduate course on concurrent programming where formal models are used in different stages of the learning process. The main practical difference with other approaches lies in the fact that the ability to develop correct concurrent software relies on a systematic transformation of formal models of inter-process interaction (so called shared resources), rather than on the specific constructs of some programming language. Using a resource-centric rather than a language-centric approach has some benefits for both teachers and students. Besides the obvious advantage of being independent of the programming language, the models help in the early validation of concurrent software design, provide students and teachers with a lingua franca that greatly simplifies communication at the classroom and during supervision, and help in the automatic generation of tests for the practical assignments. This method has been in use, with slight variations, for some 15 years, surviving changes in the programming language and course length. In this article, we describe the components and structure of the current incarnation of the course --- which uses Java as target language --- and some tools used to support our method. We provide a detailed description of the different outcomes that the model-driven approach delivers (validation of the initial design, automatic generation of tests, and mechanical generation of code) from a teaching perspective. A critical discussion on the perceived advantages and risks of our approach follows, including some proposals on how these risks can be minimized. We include a statistical analysis to show that our method has a positive impact in the student ability to understand concurrency and to generate correct code.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Isomottonen:2013:TPE, author = "Ville Isom{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Ville Tirronen", title = "Teaching programming by emphasizing self-direction: How did students react to the active role required of them?", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = jun, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483711", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Lecturing is known to be a controversial form of teaching. With massed classrooms, in particular, it tends to constrain the active participation of students. One of the remedies applied to programming education is to use technology that can vitalize interaction in the classroom, while another is to base teaching increasingly on programming activities. In this article, we present the first results of an exploratory study, in which we teach programming without lectures, exams, or grades, by heavily emphasizing programming activity, and, in a pedagogical sense, student self-direction. This article investigates how students reacted to the active role required of them and what issues emerged in this setting where self-direction was required. The results indicate three issues that should be taken into account when designing a student-driven course: the challenge of supporting students' theoretical synthesis of the topics to be learned, the individual's opportunities for self-direction in a group work setting, and mismatch between individual learning processes and academic course scheduling.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Ngai:2013:DIM, author = "Grace Ngai and Stephen C. F. Chan and Hong Va Leong and Vincent T. Y. Ng", title = "Designing {i*CATch}: a multipurpose, education-friendly construction kit for physical and wearable computing", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = jun, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483712", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article presents the design and development of i*CATch, a construction kit for physical and wearable computing that was designed to be scalable, plug-and-play, and to provide support for iterative and exploratory learning. It consists of a standardized construction interface that can be adapted for a wide range of soft textiles or electronic boards, a set of functional components, and an easy-to-use hybrid text-graphical integrated development environment. The objective was to design an easily usable, manufacturable and extensible construction kit that can be used in a wide range of teaching tasks for a wide variety of student demographic profiles. We present detailed specifications of our construction kit and explain some of the major design decisions. Experiences in using the kit in multiple teaching environments, ranging from elementary school to postgraduate, demonstrate that the design objectives have been achieved.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Sorva:2013:NMI, author = "Juha Sorva", title = "Notional machines and introductory programming education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "2", pages = "8:1--8:??", month = jun, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483713", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article brings together, summarizes, and comments on several threads of research that have contributed to our understanding of the challenges that novice programmers face when learning about the runtime dynamics of programs and the role of the computer in program execution. More specifically, the review covers the literature on programming misconceptions, the cognitive theory of mental models, constructivist theory of knowledge and learning, phenomenographic research on experiencing programming, and the theory of threshold concepts. These bodies of work are examined in relation to the concept of a notional machine''-an abstract computer for executing programs of a particular kind. As a whole, the literature points to notional machines as a major challenge in introductory programming education. It is argued that instructors should acknowledge the notional machine as an explicit learning objective and address it in teaching. Teaching within some programming paradigms, such as object-oriented programming, may benefit from using multiple notional machines at different levels of abstraction. Pointers to some promising pedagogical techniques are provided.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "8", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Grissom:2013:ISI, author = "Scott Grissom", title = "Introduction to special issue on alternatives to lecture in the computer science classroom", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499948", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Active learning in the college classroom has long been promoted as more effective than traditional lecture. Increased adoption of these instructional practices is recommended in several prominent national reports as well as a new National Science Foundation program. The goal of this special issue is to share evidence-based instructional practices that have been applied to computer science education. With collaborative learning, students interact with each other to achieve a common learning goal. Peer Instruction is an active pedagogy pioneered in Physics education in which most lecture time is replaced with students answering carefully designed multiple-choice questions. Chemistry faculty developed and refined an inquiry-based pedagogy called Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL). The fields of Architecture and Fine Arts promote student collaboration in studio-based learning.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Beck:2013:CLI, author = "Leland Beck and Alexander Chizhik", title = "Cooperative learning instructional methods for {CS1}: Design, implementation, and evaluation", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2492686", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Cooperative learning is a well-known instructional technique that has been applied with a wide variety of subject matter and a broad spectrum of populations. This article briefly reviews the principles of cooperative learning, and describes how these principles were incorporated into a comprehensive set of cooperative learning activities for a CS1 course. In each activity, specific roles are assigned to group members in order to highlight important concepts and to enhance the overall functioning of the group. The group processing is followed by a whole-class debriefing led by the instructor, which works in tandem with the group activity to help students improve their understanding of the material. The effectiveness of these cooperative learning activities was assessed in a series of educational research studies which spanned three academic years and included two different instructors. The results of these studies show statistically significant benefits from the cooperative learning approach, both overall and for a broad range of subgroups of students. The article concludes with suggestions for faculty members who may want to use these cooperative learning activities in the classroom, or to develop their own activities along similar lines.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Renaud:2013:THC, author = "Karen Renaud and Quintin Cutts", title = "Teaching human-centered security using nontraditional techniques", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2492687", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computing science students amass years of programming experience and a wealth of factual knowledge in their undergraduate courses. Based on our combined years of experience, however, one of our students' abiding shortcomings is that they think there is only one correct answer to issues in most courses: an idealistic stance. Human-centered security, as well as other areas, requires students to understand that they have to weigh up a number of different possible solutions, and satisfice, rather than choose the one that is undeniably the best. In other words, they need to adopt a more realistic stance. Lecture-based teaching cannot develop this facility, due to its inability to engage students deeply with the issues and possible solutions. We argue that depth (in terms of understanding the complexity and issues involved) as well as breadth (in terms of appreciating the different positions taken by users on these issues) are essential for developing the realistic stance. This article reports on an instructional design that was used to help students become more realistic in their decision making. The design is based on seven educational strategies that, in tandem, help students to see the depth and breadth of topics in the course. We detail the instructional design and its application to three topic areas in the course, and report on the outcomes. We found evidence that students did indeed develop the depth and breadth we were hoping for. In concluding, we reflect on the design and the positive result, and propose changes to further improve the course.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Lee:2013:CPI, author = "Cynthia Bailey Lee and Saturnino Garcia and Leo Porter", title = "Can peer instruction be effective in upper-division computer science courses?", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499949", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Peer Instruction (PI) is an active learning pedagogical technique. PI lectures present students with a series of multiple-choice questions, which they respond to both individually and in groups. PI has been widely successful in the physical sciences and, recently, has been successfully adopted by computer science instructors in lower-division, introductory courses. In this work, we challenge readers to consider PI for their upper-division courses as well. We present a PI curriculum for two upper-division computer science courses: Computer Architecture and Theory of Computation. These courses exemplify several perceived challenges to the adoption of PI in upper-division courses, including: exploration of abstract ideas, development of high-level judgment of engineering design trade-offs, and exercising advanced mathematical sophistication. This work includes selected course materials illustrating how these challenges are overcome, learning gains results comparing these upper-division courses with previous lower-division results in the literature, student attitudinal survey results (N = 501), and pragmatic advice to prospective developers and adopters. We present three main findings. First, we find that these upper-division courses achieved student learning gains equivalent to those reported in successful lower-division computing courses. Second, we find that student feedback for each class was overwhelmingly positive, with 88\% of students recommending PI for use in other computer science classes. Third, we find that instructors adopting the materials introduced here were able to replicate the outcomes of the instructors who developed the materials in terms of student learning gains and student feedback.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hu:2013:UPH, author = "Helen H. Hu and Tricia D. Shepherd", title = "Using {POGIL} to help students learn to program", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499950", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "POGIL has been successfully implemented in a scientific computing course to teach science students how to program in Python. Following POGIL guidelines, the authors have developed guided inquiry activities that lead student teams to discover and understand programming concepts. With each iteration of the scientific computing course, the authors have refined the activities and learned how to better adapt POGIL for the computer science classroom. This article details how POGIL activities differ from both traditional computer science labs and other active-learning pedagogies. Background is provided on POGIL's effectiveness. The article then includes a full description of how POGIL activities were used in the scientific computing course, as well as an example POGIL activity on recursion. Discussion is provided on how to facilitate and develop POGIL activities. Quotes from student evaluations and an assessment on how well students learned to program are provided.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hundhausen:2013:TAC, author = "Christopher D. Hundhausen and Anukrati Agrawal and Pawan Agarwal", title = "Talking about code: Integrating pedagogical code reviews into early computing courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499951", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Given the increasing importance of soft skills in the computing profession, there is good reason to provide students with more opportunities to learn and practice those skills in undergraduate computing courses. Toward that end, we have developed an active learning approach for computing education called the Pedagogical Code Review (PCR). Inspired by the code inspection process used in the software industry, a PCR is a collaborative activity in which a small team of students, led by a trained moderator: (a) walk through segments of each other's programming solutions, (b) check the code against a list of best coding practices, and (c) discuss and log issues that arise. To evaluate the viability and effectiveness of this approach, we conducted a series of four mixed-method empirical studies of various implementations of PCRs in CS1 courses at Washington State University. The first study validated the viability of the PCR activity. Using a quasi-experimental design, the final three studies evaluated two alternative implementations of PCRs- face-to-face and online. Our results provide evidence that PCRs can promote positive attitudinal shifts, and hone skills in critical review, teamwork, and communication. Based on our findings, we present a set of best practices for implementing PCRs.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Sorva:2013:RGP, author = "Juha Sorva and Ville Karavirta and Lauri Malmi", title = "A Review of Generic Program Visualization Systems for Introductory Programming Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2490822", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article is a survey of program visualization systems intended for teaching beginners about the runtime behavior of computer programs. Our focus is on generic systems that are capable of illustrating many kinds of programs and behaviors. We inclusively describe such systems from the last three decades and review findings from their empirical evaluations. A comparable review on the topic does not previously exist; ours is intended to serve as a reference for the creators, evaluators, and users of educational program visualization systems. Moreover, we revisit the issue of learner engagement which has been identified as a potentially key factor in the success of educational software visualization and summarize what little is known about engagement in the context of the generic program visualization systems for beginners that we have reviewed; a proposed refinement of the frameworks previously used by computing education researchers to rank types of learner engagement is a side product of this effort. Overall, our review illustrates that program visualization systems for beginners are often short-lived research prototypes that support the user-controlled viewing of program animations; a recent trend is to support more engaging modes of user interaction. The results of evaluations largely support the use of program visualization in introductory programming education, but research to date is insufficient for drawing more nuanced conclusions with respect to learner engagement. On the basis of our review, we identify interesting questions to answer for future research in relation to themes such as engagement, the authenticity of learning tasks, cognitive load, and the integration of program visualization into introductory programming pedagogy.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Magana:2013:IDB, author = "Alejandra J. Magana and Michael L. Falk and Michael J. {Reese, Jr.}", title = "Introducing Discipline-Based Computing in Undergraduate Engineering Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "16:1--16:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2534971", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article investigates the effectiveness of a course employing a discipline-based computing approach. The research questions driving this study were: (1) Can experiences with discipline-based computing promote students' acquisition and application of foundational computing concepts and procedures? (2) How do students perceive and experience the integration of discipline-based computing as relevant to their future career goals? (3) How do students perceive the structure of the class as useful and engaging for their learning? We used qualitative and quantitative research methods to approach the research questions. The population studied was 20 engineering undergraduates from Johns Hopkins University. Results of this study suggest that students performed proficiently in applying computing methods, procedures, and concepts to the solution of well-structured engineering problems. Results also suggest that student self-perceptions of their overall computing abilities and their abilities to specifically solve engineering problems shifted from low to high confidence. Students consistently found the course to be important and useful for their studies and their future careers. They also found the course to be of very high quality and identified the instructors and the teaching and feedback methods employed as very useful for their learning. Finally, students also described the course as very challenging compared with other courses in their own department and at the university in general.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "16", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Shesh:2013:TSU, author = "Amit Shesh", title = "Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-sized Colleges", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "17:1--17:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2522689", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment to sustain multiple courses in graphics that spread out its vast and evolving content. We strive to include material that would provide (1) a basic but solid theoretical foundation, (2) topics, data structures, and algorithms that are most practically used, (3) ample experience in actual graphics programming and (4) a basic awareness of advanced topics. We have a secondary objective of relating and complementing computer graphics knowledge and programming with topics in other computer science courses to provide a more cohesive understanding to our students. We achieve both objectives by using an early-scenegraphs'' approach to progressively create graphics applications that use XML-based modeling and both pipeline-based and ray traced rendering. We report and analyze results that show how students were able to achieve more complex results within similar time periods while largely retaining prior average student performance in the course. Students also report higher rates of satisfaction with the course when it follows our proposed approach. Pedagogically our main contribution is an evolving blueprint for a single undergraduate CG course that offers flexibility to emphasize different aspects like modeling, rendering, etc. according to the instructor's and students' interests, while aligning the course better within the computer science curriculum especially when resources are limited.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "17", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Velazquez-Iturbide:2013:EMA, author = "J. {\'A}ngel Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide", title = "An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "18:1--18:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2534972", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve. We present a didactic method aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an experimental method and the interactive system, GreedEx, that supports it. We also present our experience of five years using the didactic method and the evaluations we conducted to refine it, which are of two kinds: usability evaluations of GreedEx and analysis of students' reports. Usability evaluations revealed a number of opportunities of improvement for GreedEx, and the analysis of students' reports showed a number of misconceptions. We made use of these findings in several ways, mainly: improving GreedEx, elaborating lecture notes that address students' misconceptions, and adapting the class and lab sessions and materials. As a consequence of these actions, our didactic method currently satisfies its initial goals. The article has two main contributions. First, the didactic method itself can be valuable for computer science educators in their teaching of algorithms. Secondly, the refinement process we have carried out, which was a multifaceted, medium-term action research, can be of interest to researchers of technology-supported computing education, since it illustrates how the didactic method was integrated into our educational practice.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "18", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Stefik:2013:EIP, author = "Andreas Stefik and Susanna Siebert", title = "An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "19:1--19:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2534973", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming language syntax as part of a larger analysis into the, so called, programming language wars. We first present two surveys conducted with students on the intuitiveness of syntax, which we used to garner formative clues on what words and symbols might be easy for novices to understand. We followed up with two studies on the accuracy rates of novices using a total of six programming languages: Ruby, Java, Perl, Python, Randomo, and Quorum. Randomo was designed by randomly choosing some keywords from the ASCII table (a metaphorical placebo). To our surprise, we found that languages using a more traditional C-style syntax (both Perl and Java) did not afford accuracy rates significantly higher than a language with randomly generated keywords, but that languages which deviate (Quorum, Python, and Ruby) did. These results, including the specifics of syntax that are particularly problematic for novices, may help teachers of introductory programming courses in choosing appropriate first languages and in helping students to overcome the challenges they face with syntax.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "19", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kafai:2014:COA, author = "Yasmin B. Kafai and Eunkyoung Lee and Kristin Searle and Deborah Fields and Eliot Kaplan and Debora Lui", title = "A Crafts-Oriented Approach to Computing in High School: Introducing Computational Concepts, Practices, and Perspectives with Electronic Textiles", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2576874", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In this article, we examine the use of electronic textiles (e-textiles) for introducing key computational concepts and practices while broadening perceptions about computing. The starting point of our work was the design and implementation of a curriculum module using the LilyPad Arduino in a pre-AP high school computer science class. To understand students' learning, we analyzed the structure and functionality of their circuits and program code as well as their design approaches to making and debugging their e-textile creations and their views of computing. We also studied students' changing perceptions of computing. Our discussion addresses the need for and design of scaffolded challenges and the potential for using crafts materials and activities such as e-textiles for designing introductory courses that can broaden participation in computing.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Lukowiak:2014:CEB, author = "Marcin Lukowiak and Stanislaw Radziszowski and James Vallino and Christopher Wood", title = "Cybersecurity Education: Bridging the Gap Between Hardware and Software Domains", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2538029", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "With the continuous growth of cyberinfrastructure throughout modern society, the need for secure computing and communication is more important than ever before. As a result, there is also an increasing need for entry-level developers who are capable of designing and building practical solutions for systems with stringent security requirements. This calls for careful attention to algorithm choice and implementation method, as well as trade-offs between hardware and software implementations. This article describes motivation and efforts taken by three departments at Rochester Institute of Technology (Computer Engineering, Computer Science, and Software Engineering) that were focused on creating a multidisciplinary course that integrates the algorithmic, engineering, and practical aspects of security as exemplified by applied cryptography. In particular, the article presents the structure of this new course, topics covered, lab tools and results from the first two spring quarter offerings in 2011 and 2012.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Buchanan:2014:CSB, author = "Sarah Buchanan and Joseph J. {Laviola, Jr.}", title = "{CSTutor}: a Sketch-Based Tool for Visualizing Data Structures", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2535909", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We present CSTutor, a sketch-based interface designed to help students understand data structures, specifically Linked Lists, Binary Search Trees, AVL Trees, and Heaps. CSTutor creates an environment that seamlessly combines a user's sketched diagram and code. In each of these data structure modes, the user can naturally sketch a data structure on the canvas just as they would on a white board. CSTutor analyzes the user's diagrams in real time, and automatically generates code in a separate code view to reflect any changes the user has made. Additionally, the code can also be edited and any new code changes will animate the data structure drawn on the canvas. The connection between the data structure drawn on the canvas and the code implementation is intended to bridge the gap between the conceptual diagram of a data structure and the actual implementation. We also present the results of two semester-long studies using CSTutor in a CS1 course. The results indicate that students preferred CSTutor and were more engaged using it than a standard whiteboard lecture; however, results were mixed in quiz and exam performance.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Goldsmith:2014:FIC, author = "Judy Goldsmith and Nicholas Mattei", title = "Fiction as an Introduction to Computer Science Research", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2576873", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The undergraduate computer science curriculum is generally focused on skills and tools; most students are not exposed to much research in the field, and do not learn how to navigate the research literature. We describe how fiction reviews (and specifically science fiction) are used as a gateway to research reviews. Students learn a little about current or recent research on a topic that stirs their imagination, and learn how to search for, read critically, and compare technical papers on a topic related to their chosen science fiction book, movie, or TV show.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Yadav:2014:CTE, author = "Aman Yadav and Chris Mayfield and Ninger Zhou and Susanne Hambrusch and John T. Korb", title = "Computational Thinking in Elementary and Secondary Teacher Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2576872", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computational thinking (CT) is broadly defined as the mental activity for abstracting problems and formulating solutions that can be automated. In an increasingly information-based society, CT is becoming an essential skill for everyone. To ensure that students develop this ability at the K-12 level, it is important to provide teachers with an adequate knowledge about CT and how to incorporate it into their teaching. This article describes a study on designing and introducing computational thinking modules and assessing their impact on preservice teachers' understanding of CT concepts, as well as their attitude towards computing. Results demonstrate that introducing computational thinking into education courses can effectively influence preservice teachers' understanding of CT concepts.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Tenenberg:2014:ECE, author = "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney", title = "Editorial: Computing Education in ({K--12}) Schools from a Cross-National Perspective", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602481", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This special issue on computing education in (K--12) schools represents considerable effort by the editorial team, authors, and reviewers. It provides a series of country-specific case studies of computing education in schools that highlights the way in which curricula emerge from each country's specific historical and cultural circumstances. As a result, not only is there much to learn from each of the case studies, but there are additional lessons in the commonalities and generalizations obtainable only by having a rich set of case studies such as these that can be viewed comparatively.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hubwieser:2014:PVC, author = "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail N. Giannakos and Roland T. Mittermeir", title = "Perspectives and Visions of Computer Science Education in Primary and Secondary ({K--12}) Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602482", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In view of the recent developments in many countries, for example, in the USA and in the UK, it appears that computer science education (CSE) in primary or secondary schools (K--12) has reached a significant turning point, shifting its focus from ICT-oriented to rigorous computer science concepts. The goal of this special issue is to offer a publication platform for soundly based in-depth experiences that have been made around the world with concepts, approaches, or initiatives that aim at supporting this shift. For this purpose, the article format was kept as large as possible, enabling the authors to explain many facets of their concepts and experiences in detail. Regarding the structure of the articles, we had encouraged the authors to lean on the Darmstadt Model, a category system that was developed to support the development, improvement, and investigation of K--12 CSE across regional or national boundaries. This model could serve as a unifying framework that might provide a proper structure for a well-founded critical discussion about the future of K--12 CSE. Curriculum designers or policy stakeholders, who have to decide, which approach an upcoming national initiative should follow, could benefit from this discussion as well as researchers who are investigating K12 CSE in any regard. With this goal in mind, we have selected six extensive and two short case studies from the UK, New Zealand, USA/Israel, France, Sweden, Georgia (USA), Russia, and Italy that provide an in-depth analysis of K--12 CSE in their respective country or state.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Gal-Ezer:2014:TTC, author = "Judith Gal-Ezer and Chris Stephenson", title = "A Tale of Two Countries: Successes and Challenges in {K--12} Computer Science Education in {Israel} and the {United States}", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "8:1--8:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602483", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article tells a story of K--12 computer science in two different countries. These two countries differ profoundly in culture, language, government and state structure, and in their education systems. Despite these differences, however, they share the pursuit of excellence and high standards in K--12 education. In Israel, curriculum is determined at the national level. The high-school computer science curriculum has been in place for more than 20 years and is offered in all schools as an elective similar to biology, chemistry, and physics. The picture in the United States is more complex and therefore less amenable to generalization. Because educational policy is set at the state and sometimes even at the school district level, access to computer science courses and the content of those courses can vary even for schools within the same district. This article will describe the development of the curricula/standards in both countries and the current situation, focusing on common issues and challenges in areas such as equity and teacher training.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "8", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Brown:2014:RRC, author = "Neil C. C. Brown and Sue Sentance and Tom Crick and Simon Humphreys", title = "Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in {UK} Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602484", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we detail how computer science declined in the UK, and the developments that led to its revitalisation: a mixture of industry and interest group lobbying, with a particular focus on the value of the subject to all school pupils, not just those who would study it at degree level. This rapid growth in the subject is not without issues, however: there remain significant forthcoming challenges with its delivery, especially surrounding the issue of training sufficient numbers of teachers. We describe a national network of teaching excellence which is being set up to combat this problem, and look at the other challenges that lie ahead.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Bell:2014:CSI, author = "Tim Bell and Peter Andreae and Anthony Robins", title = "A Case Study of the Introduction of Computer Science in {NZ} Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602485", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "For many years computing in New Zealand schools was focused on teaching students how to use computers, and there was little opportunity for students to learn about programming and computer science as formal subjects. In this article we review a series of initiatives that occurred from 2007 to 2009 that led to programming and computer science being made available formally as part of the National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA), the main school-leaving assessment, in 2011. The changes were phased in from 2011 to 2013, and we review this process using the Darmstadt model, including describing the context of the school system, the socio-cultural factors in play before, during and after the changes, the nature of the new standards, the reactions and roles of the various stakeholders, and the teaching materials and methods that developed. The changes occurred very quickly, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having such a rapid process. In all these changes, teachers have emerged as having a central role, as they have been key in instigating and implementing change.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Baron:2014:CSE, author = "Georges-Louis Baron and Beatrice Drot-Delange and Monique Grandbastien and Fran{\c{c}}oise Tort", title = "Computer Science Education in {French} Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602486", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year of secondary education, together with other initiatives that might contribute to introducing Computer Science as a school subject. We also aim at discussing some perspectives for the future to support a better informatics education for all students. The sources we have used are mainly historical and administrative, however we have also drawn on empirical research and surveys conducted since the seventies. This article therefore takes both retrospective and perspective viewpoints.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Rolandsson:2014:PSL, author = "Lennart Rolandsson and Inga-Britt Skogh", title = "Programming in School: Look Back to Move Forward", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602487", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In this article, the development of the Swedish informatics curriculum during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s is studied and described. The study's design is inspired by the curriculum theory presented by Lindensj{\"o} and Lundgren [2000], who suggest using the concept of arenas (the arenas of enactment, transformation and realisation) when discussing curriculum development. Data collection in this study comprises activities and actors in the arenas of enactment and transformation. Collected data include contemporary articles, journals, reports, booklets, government documents and archived documents. Findings show that informatics education in Sweden evolved from primarily focusing on programming knowledge related to automatic data processing and offered exclusively in vocational education (the 1960s and 1970s) to later (early 1980s) being introduced in the upper secondary school curriculum under the heading Datakunskap. The enactment of the informatics curriculum in 1983 encompassed programming, system development and computing in relation to applied sciences and civics. Mathematics teachers did much of the experimental work. It is shown that the competencies of upper secondary school teachers at the time rarely corresponded to the demands of the subject (content knowledge, resources and pedagogical skills). Stereotypical examples were therefore developed to support teachers in instructing about the subject content. When implemented in the theoretical natural science-programme, system development/systemisation was transformed into a twofold issue, comprising vocational attributes and societal aspects of computer programming. The implementation of today's informatics education, including programming in the curriculum, should draw from lessons learned from history. For a successful outcome, this study emphasises the necessity to understand (1) the common incentives for introducing computer programming in the curriculum, (2) the requirement for teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and (3) the stakeholders' role in the curriculum development process.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Guzdial:2014:GCI, author = "Mark Guzdial and Barbara Ericson and Tom Mcklin and Shelly Engelman", title = "{Georgia} Computes! {An} Intervention in a {US} State, with Formal and Informal Education in a Policy Context", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602488", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Georgia Computes! ( GaComputes ) was a six-year (2006--2012) project to improve computing education across the state of Georgia in the United States, funded by the National Science Foundation. The goal of GaComputes was to broaden participation in computing and especially to engage more members of underrepresented groups which includes women, African Americans, and Hispanics. GaComputes' interventions were multi-faceted and broad: summer camps and after-school/weekend programs for 4th--12th grade students, professional development for secondary teachers, and professional development for post-secondary instructors faculty. All of the efforts were carefully evaluated by an external team (led by the third and fourth authors), which provides us with an unusually detailed view into a computing education intervention across a region (about 59K square miles, about 9.9 million residents). Our dataset includes evaluations from over 2,000 students who attended after-school or weekend workshops, over 500 secondary school teachers who attended professional development, 120 post-secondary teachers who attended professional development, and over 2,000 students who attended a summer day (non-residential) camp. GaComputes evaluations provide insight into details of interventions and into influences on student motivation and learning. In this article, we describe the results of these evaluations and describe how GaComputes broadened participation in computing in Georgia through both direct interventions and indirect support of other projects.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Khenner:2014:SSI, author = "Evgeniy Khenner and Igor Semakin", title = "School Subject Informatics (Computer Science) in {Russia}: Educational Relevant Areas", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602489", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article deals with some aspects of studying Informatics in Russian schools. Those aspects are part of the third dimension' of the Darmstadt model (they are also projected on the other two dimensions of this model) and include evolution of the subject, regulatory norms conforming to the Federal Educational Standards, the learning objectives, the required learning outcomes, and the Unified National Examination in Informatics, which is required for admission to a number of university programs. It is interesting to note that correspondence between requirements for the outcomes of learning Informatics in Russian school and the requirements of K--12 Computer Science Standards (USA) is quite satisfactory. It is noteworthy that the relatively high level of school education in Informatics in Russia is determined by the well-established methodological system with a 30-year history, the subject's being on the list of core disciplines at school, as well as the existence of a state-sponsored system of education teachers of Informatics.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Bellettini:2014:IEI, author = "Carlo Bellettini and Violetta Lonati and Dario Malchiodi and Mattia Monga and Anna Morpurgo and Mauro Torelli and Luisa Zecca", title = "Informatics Education in {Italian} Secondary Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602490", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article describes the state of informatics education in the Italian secondary schools, highlighting how the learning objectives set up by the Ministry of Education are difficult to meet, due to the fact that the subject is often taught by teachers not holding an informatics degree, the lack of suitable teaching material and the expectations of pupils and families, who tend to identify informatics with the use of computer applications.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Tenenberg:2014:ARQ, author = "Josh Tenenberg", title = "Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "16:1--16:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2644924", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making the world sensible, at the same time they preclude carrying out many research studies that may further our collective research enterprise. I build this argument by first considering a few proposed research questions typical of much of the existing research in CS education, making visible the cognitivist assumptions that these questions presuppose. I then provide a different set of assumptions based on sociocultural theories of cognition and enumerate some of the (different) research questions to which these presuppositions give rise. My point is not to debate the merits of the contrasting theories but to demonstrate how theories about how minds and sociality operate are imminent in the very questions that researchers ask. Finally, I argue that by appropriating existing theory from the social, behavioral, and learning sciences, and making such theories explicit in carrying out and reporting their research, CS education researchers will advance the field.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "16", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Mitra:2014:UUM, author = "Sandeep Mitra", title = "Using {UML} Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "17:1--17:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2635831", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these applications satisfy the customer by providing the functionality the customer expects and perform reliably and efficiently, it is equally important to be able to accommodate the customer's change requests over the period of the product's lifetime. The challenges in achieving these goals include the lack of real-world software development experience among the student developers and the fact that postdeployment change requests will almost certainly have to be handled by students who are not among the original developers. In this article, we describe how a model-centric approach using UML has been effective in enabling students to develop and maintain eight software applications for small businesses over a 9-year period. We discuss the characteristics of our modeling technique, which include the application of modeling patterns and quality check rules that enable students to create a model that can be clearly and consistently mapped to code. We also describe the nature of these mapping-to-code techniques, emphasizing how they reduce coupling among the implementation's classes. We then discuss our experiences in the classroom with these techniques, focusing on how we have improved our teaching over the years based on the analysis of student performance and feedback. Finally, we compare our approach to related work teaching modeling and the development and maintenance of code in software engineering courses with both extensive and minimal modeling.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "17", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Clarke:2014:ITS, author = "Peter J. Clarke and Debra Davis and Tariq M. King and Jairo Pava and Edward L. Jones", title = "Integrating Testing into Software Engineering Courses Supported by a Collaborative Learning Environment", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "18:1--18:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2648787", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "As software becomes more ubiquitous and complex, the cost of software bugs continues to grow at a staggering rate. To remedy this situation, there needs to be major improvement in the knowledge and application of software validation techniques. Although there are several software validation techniques, software testing continues to be one of the most widely used in industry. The high demand for software engineers in the next decade has resulted in more software engineering (SE) courses being offered in academic institutions. However, due to the number of topics to be covered in SE courses, little or no attention is given to software testing, resulting in students entering industry with little or no testing experience. We propose a minimally disruptive approach of integrating software testing into SE courses by providing students access to a collaborative learning environment containing learning materials on testing techniques and testing tools. In this article, we describe the learning environment and the studies conducted to measure the benefits accrued by students using the learning environment in the SE courses.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "18", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Luse:2014:USE, author = "Andy Luse and Julie A. Rursch and Doug Jacobson", title = "Utilizing Structural Equation Modeling and Social Cognitive Career Theory to Identify Factors in Choice of {IT} as a Major", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "19:1--19:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2623198", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In the United States, the number of students entering into and completing degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas has declined significantly over the past decade. Although modest increases have been shown in enrollments in computer-related majors in the past 4 years, the prediction is that even in 3 to 4 years when these students graduate, there will be shortages of computer-related professionals for industry. The challenge on which this article focuses is attracting students to select an information technology (IT) field such as computer science, computer engineering, software engineering, or information systems as a major when many high schools do not offer a single computer course, and high school counselors, families, and friends do not provide students with accurate information about the field. The social cognitive career theory (SCCT) has been used extensively within counseling and career psychology as a method for understanding how individuals develop vocational interests, make occupational choices, and achieve success within their chosen field. In this article, the SCCT model identifies factors that specifically influence high school students to select a major in an IT-related discipline. These factors can then be used to develop new or enhance existing IT-related activities for high school students. Our work demonstrates that both interest and outcome expectations have a significant positive impact on choice to major. Interest also is found to mediate the effects of self-efficacy and outcome expectations on choice of major. Overall, the model predicts a good portion of variance in the ultimate outcome of whether or not an individual chooses to major in IT.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "19", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Allinjawi:2014:ADA, author = "Arwa A. Allinjawi and Hana A. Al-Nuaim and Paul Krause", title = "An Achievement Degree Analysis Approach to Identifying Learning Problems in Object-Oriented Programming", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "20:1--20:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2648794", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is a method to analyze and determine student learning problems, when performed on an OOP exam, it shows some limitations. The max-min composition may be suitable for multiple choice questions (MCQs), but it is not adequate for questions with a more complex structure, as in the OOP assessment. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to present the incorporation of a concept-effect propagation approach and the Handy Instrument for Course Level Assessment (HI-Class) approach to promote a modified valid analysis approach, the Achievement Degree Analysis (ADA). The ADA approach will diagnose students' problem outcomes and demonstrate its effectiveness within the context of an OOP course.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "20", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Alexandron:2014:SBP, author = "Giora Alexandron and Michal Armoni and Michal Gordon and David Harel", title = "Scenario-Based Programming, Usability-Oriented Perception", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "21:1--21:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2648814", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In this article, we discuss the possible connection between the programming language and the paradigm behind it, and programmers' tendency to adopt an external or internal perspective of the system they develop. Based on a qualitative analysis, we found that when working with the visual, interobject language of live sequence charts (LSC), programmers tend to adopt an external and usability-oriented view of the system, whereas when working with an intraobject language, they tend to adopt an internal and implementation-oriented viewpoint. This is explained by first discussing the possible effect of the programming paradigm on programmers' perception and then offering a more comprehensive explanation. The latter is based on a cognitive model of programming with LSC, which is an interpretation and a projection of the model suggested by Adelson and Soloway [1985] onto LSC and scenario-based programming, the new paradigm on which LSC is based. Our model suggests that LSC fosters a kind of programming that enables iterative refinement of the artifact with fewer entries into the solution domain. Thus, the programmer can make less context switching between the solution domain and the problem domain, and consequently spend more time in the latter. We believe that these findings are interesting mainly in two ways. First, they characterize an aspect of problem-solving behavior that to the best of our knowledge has not been studied before-the programmer's perspective. The perspective can potentially affect the outcome of the problem-solving process, such as by leading the programmer to focus on different parts of the problem. Second, relating the structure of the language to the change in perspective sheds light on one of the ways in which the programming language can affect the programmer's behavior.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "21", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hassner:2015:TCV, author = "Tal Hassner and Itzik Bayaz", title = "Teaching Computer Vision: Bringing Research Benchmarks to the Classroom", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "22:1--22:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2597627", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article concerns the design of effective computer vision programming exercises and presents a novel means of designing these assignments. We describe three recent case studies designed to evaluate the effectiveness of assigning graduate-level computer vision students with publicly available research benchmarks as competitive assignments. This was done rather than assigning more traditional exercises that require students to implement specific algorithms or applications. We allowed our students the freedom of designing or choosing their own methods, with the goal of obtaining the best performance on the benchmark chosen for each assignment. Students, therefore, competed against each other, as well as published state of the art. We detail the design, application, and results of these benchmark exercises. We show that not only are these benchmarks easily adapted for the classroom, but also that in some cases, student assignments matched published state-of-the-art performance. This observation provides strong evidence to support the effectiveness of the proposed exercise design. We conclude by discussing the benefits and drawbacks of these exercises compared to those traditionally employed in computer vision classrooms.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "22", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Reardon:2015:SSB, author = "Susan Reardon and Brendan Tangney", title = "{Smartphones}, Studio-Based Learning, and Scaffolding: Helping Novices Learn to Program", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "23:1--23:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2677089", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article describes how smartphones, studio-based learning, and extensive scaffolding were used in combination in the teaching of a freshman Introduction to Programming course. To reduce cognitive overload, a phased approach was followed in introducing programming concepts and development environments, beginning with the visual programming environment Scratch and culminating with Java development for Android smartphones. Studio-based learning, a pedagogical approach long established in the fields of architecture and design education, was used as the basis for a collaborative social constructivist-and constructionist-approach to learning. Smartphones offered students the potential to develop applications for a context that is both immediate and clearly relevant to the ways in which they utilize and interact with technology. The research was carried out over three full academic years and included 53 student participants. An exploratory case study methodology was used to investigate the efficacy of the approach in helping to overcome the barriers faced by novice programmers. The findings indicate that the approach has merit. The students were motivated and engaged by the learning experience and were able to develop sophisticated applications that incorporated images, sound, arrays, and event handling. There is evidence that aspects of the studio-based learning approach, such as the scope that it gave students to innovate and the open feedback during student presentations, provided a learning environment that was motivating. Overall, the combination of smartphones, studio-based learning, and appropriate scaffolding offers an effective way to teach introductory programming courses.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "23", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Werner:2015:CPG, author = "Linda Werner and Jill Denner and Shannon Campe", title = "Children Programming Games: a Strategy for Measuring Computational Learning", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "24:1--24:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2677091", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article reports the results of a study of the relationship of computer game programming to computational learning (CL). The results contribute to the growing body of knowledge about how to define and measure CL among children by proposing a new concept, Game Computational Sophistication (GCS). We analyzed 231 games programmed by 325 11 and 12 year olds with a range of prior computer experience who attended a voluntary technology class during or after school. Findings suggest that students' games exhibited a range of GCS: programs composed of sequences of simple programming constructs; programs composed of programming constructs, some of which are used to implement higher-order patterns; and programs composed of game mechanics built from combinations of patterns glued'' together with simple programming constructs. We use case studies of students' games to illustrate how variation in the use and integration of programming constructs, patterns, and game mechanics can be used to demonstrate evidence of CL. The study contributes to an understanding of what CL looks like in middle school, how to assess it, and how game-programming activities might promote CL.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "24", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Armoni:2015:SRP, author = "Michal Armoni and Orni Meerbaum-Salant and Mordechai Ben-Ari", title = "From Scratch to Real'' Programming", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "25:1--25:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2677087", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer science (CS) activities for young students are widely used, particularly visual programming environments. We investigated the use of the Scratch environment for teaching CS concepts to middle school students. In a previous article [Meerbaum-Salant et al. 2013], we reported on the extent to which the CS concepts were successfully learned. In this article, we look at the transition from studying CS with the visual Scratch environment in middle school to studying CS with a professional textual programming language (C\# or Java) in secondary school. We found that the programming knowledge and experience of students who had learned Scratch greatly facilitated learning the more advanced material in secondary school: less time was needed to learn new topics, there were fewer learning difficulties, and they achieved higher cognitive levels of understanding of most concepts (although at the end of the teaching process, there were no significant differences in achievements compared to students who had not studied Scratch). Furthermore, there was increased enrollment in CS classes, and students were observed to display higher levels of motivation and self-efficacy. This research justifies teaching CS in general and visual programming in particular in middle schools.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "25", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Koulouri:2015:TIP, author = "Theodora Koulouri and Stanislao Lauria and Robert D. Macredie", title = "Teaching Introductory Programming: a Quantitative Evaluation of Different Approaches", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "26:1--26:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2662412", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Teaching programming to beginners is a complex task. In this article, the effects of three factors-choice of programming language, problem-solving training, and the use of formative assessment-on learning to program were investigated. The study adopted an iterative methodological approach carried out across 4 consecutive years. To evaluate the effects of each factor (implemented as a single change in each iteration) on students' learning performance, the study used quantitative, objective metrics. The findings revealed that using a syntactically simple language (Python) instead of a more complex one (Java) facilitated students' learning of programming concepts. Moreover, teaching problem solving before programming yielded significant improvements in student performance. These two factors were found to have variable effects on the acquisition of basic programming concepts. Finally, it was observed that effective formative feedback in the context of introductory programming depends on multiple parameters. The article discusses the implications of these findings, identifies avenues for further research, and argues for the importance of studies in computer science education anchored on sound research methodologies to produce generalizable results.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "26", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Yuen:2015:QSS, author = "Timothy T. Yuen and Kay A. Robbins", title = "A Qualitative Study of Students' Computational Thinking Skills in a Data-Driven Computing Class", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "27:1--27:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2676660", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Critical thinking, problem solving, the use of tools, and the ability to consume and analyze information are important skills for the 21st century workforce. This article presents a qualitative case study that follows five undergraduate biology majors in a computer science course (CS0). This CS0 course teaches programming within a data-driven context and is part of a university-wide initiative to improve students' quantitative scholarship. In this course, students learn computing concepts and computational thinking by writing programs in MATLAB that compute with data, by performing meaningful analyses, and by writing about the results. The goal of the study reported here is to better understand the thought processes students use in such a data-driven approach. Findings show that students engage in an ongoing organizational process to understand the structure of the data. The computational and visualization tasks appear to be closely linked, and the visualization component appears to provide valuable feedback for students in accomplishing the programming tasks.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "27", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Miller:2015:ISI, author = "Craig S. Miller and Randy Connolly", title = "Introduction to the Special Issue on {Web} Development", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = mar, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2724759", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Despite its prevalence in computing, web development is underrepresented in computing curricula and computing education research. This special issue takes a step towards improving its representation with three articles on web development education. Drawing upon diverse methods from a variety of contexts, the articles address challenges of teaching web development and common difficulties students encounter when learning particular concepts. All three articles identify web development as a promising avenue for motivating students in their study of computing.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Alston:2015:UTC, author = "Peter Alston and David Walsh and Gary Westhead", title = "Uncovering Threshold Concepts'' in {Web} Development: an Instructor Perspective", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = mar, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700513", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The field of Web development has evolved and diversified significantly in recent years, and narrowing the gap between the requirements of academia and the demands of industry remains a challenge. Moreover, many faculty members often struggle with knowing how much'' of a particular subject they should teach to their students and at what level. This small-scale, exploratory study seeks to uncover the existence of threshold concepts'' within Web development. Threshold concepts are the fundamental concepts which, once mastered, allow a learner to progress to a deeper understanding of a subject. An online questionnaire was sent out to 24 instructors within UK higher education institutions who teach Web development subjects. Nine participants responded to the questionnaire and interviews were conducted with five to discuss and expand on the responses provided, resulting in the identification of four areas that were perceived as difficult for students to grasp when learning Web development. Analysis of these areas suggests that threshold concepts do exist within the subject and we offer up two candidates for the field of Web development: basic programming principles and decomposition and abstraction. Designing a curriculum based on threshold concepts and less on the latest methods, tools, and techniques can go a long way in helping students to become experts in their chosen discipline.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Zhang:2015:IEF, author = "Yulei (Gavin) Zhang and Yan (Mandy) Dang", title = "Investigating Essential Factors on Students' Perceived Accomplishment and Enjoyment and Intention to Learn in {Web} Development", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = mar, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700515", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Web development is an important component in the curriculum of computer science and information systems areas. However, it is generally considered difficult to learn among students. In this study, we examined factors that could influence students' perceptions of accomplishment and enjoyment and their intention to learn in the web development course. Specifically, we investigated both student-related and instructor-related factors. A research model was developed. To empirically test the model and the hypotheses, the survey method was used and the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was adopted for data analysis. Overall, the results indicated that both student-related factors (perceived web development efficacy and motivation) and instructor-related factors (instructor characteristics and teaching method) could significantly influence students' perceptions toward accomplishment and enjoyment and their intention to learn web development. We also summarized comments collected from students to gain a deeper understanding of their ideas toward learning web development techniques. We believe the research results can help provide better knowledge and insights to educators on teaching web development.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Park:2015:AHC, author = "Thomas H. Park and Brian Dorn and Andrea Forte", title = "An Analysis of {HTML} and {CSS} Syntax Errors in a {Web} Development Course", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "1", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = mar, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700514", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Many people are first exposed to code through web development, yet little is known about the barriers beginners face in these formative experiences. In this article, we describe a study of undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory web development course taken by both computing majors and general education students. Using data collected during the initial weeks of the course, we investigate the nature of the syntax errors they make when learning HTML and CSS, and how they resolve them. This is accomplished through the deployment of openHTML, a lightweight web-based code editor that logs user activity. Our analysis reveals that nearly all students made syntax errors that remained unresolved in their assessments, and that these errors continued weeks into the course. Approximately 20\% of these errors related to the relatively complex system of rules that dictates when it is valid for HTML elements to be nested in one another. On the other hand, 35\% of errors related to the relatively simple tag syntax determining how HTML elements are nested. We also find that validation played a key role in resolving errors: While the majority of unresolved errors were present in untested code, nearly all of the errors that were detected through validation were eventually corrected. We conclude with a discussion of our findings and their implications for computing education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hubwieser:2015:HIR, author = "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail N. Giannakos", title = "How to Implement Rigorous Computer Science Education in {K--12} Schools? {Some} Answers and Many Questions", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2729983", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Aiming to collect various concepts, approaches, and strategies for improving computer science education in K-12 schools, we edited this second special issue of the ACM TOCE journal. Our intention was to collect a set of case studies from different countries that would describe all relevant aspects of specific implementations of Computer Science Education in K-12 schools. By this, we want to deliver well-founded arguments and rich material to the critical discussion about the state and the goals of K-12 computer science education, and also provide visions for the future of this research area. In this editorial, we explain our intention and report some details about the genesis of these special issues. Following, we give a short summary of the Darmstadt Model, which was suggested to serve as a structuring principle of the case studies. The next part of the editorial presents a short description of the five extended case studies from India, Korea, NRW/Germany, Finland, and USA that are selected to be included in this second issue. In order to give some perspectives for the future, we propose a set of open research questions of the field, partly derived from the Darmstadt Model, partly stimulated by a look on large-scale investigations like PISA.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hubwieser:2015:MRM, author = "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail Giannakos", title = "In Memoriam: {Roland Mittermeir} (1950--2014)", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2729982", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Raman:2015:CSC, author = "Raghu Raman and Smrithi Venkatasubramanian and Krishnashree Achuthan and Prema Nedungadi", title = "Computer Science {(CS)} Education in {Indian} Schools: Situation Analysis using {Darmstadt} Model", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716325", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer science (CS) and its enabling technologies are at the heart of this information age, yet its adoption as a core subject by senior secondary students in Indian schools is low and has not reached critical mass. Though there have been efforts to create core curriculum standards for subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Math, CS seems to have been kept outside the purview of such efforts leading to its marginalization. As a first step, using the Darmstadt model from the ITiCSE working group that provides a systematic categorization approach to CS education in schools, we coded and analyzed the CS situation for the Indian schools. Next, we focused on the motivation category of the Darmstadt model and investigated behavioral intentions of secondary school students and teachers from 332 schools in India. Considering the CS subject as an educational innovation, using Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations, we propose a pedagogical framework for innovation attributes that can significantly predict-adoption of the CS subject among potential-adopter students and teachers. Data was analyzed to answer research questions about student and teacher intentions, influence of gender, school management, and school location in adopting CS. Interestingly, girls, urban students, teachers, and private schools were seen favoring the adoption of CS. An important issue that needed to be addressed, however, was the interchangeable use of terms like CS, Informatics, ICT, and digital literacy. Through our article, we offer a promising picture of the educational policy directives and the academic environment in India that is rapidly growing and embracing CS as a core subject of study in schools. We also analyze the factors that influence the adoption of CS by school students and teachers and conclude that there is a very positive response for CS among educators and students in India.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Choi:2015:CEK, author = "Jeongwon Choi and Sangjin An and Youngjun Lee", title = "Computing Education in {Korea} --- Current Issues and Endeavors", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "8:1--8:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716311", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer education has been provided for a long period of time in Korea. Starting as a vocational program, the content of computer education for students evolved to include content on computer literacy, Information Communication Technology (ICT) literacy, and brand-new computer science. While a new curriculum related to computer science was established in 2007, the range of computer education being provided in Korean schools has been repeatedly reduced. To identify the cause of this recent phenomenon, we review the computer education environment using the Darmstadt model, including educational systems, curricula, and teaching environments. Then we examine what factors affected the decline of computer education. The major causes of failure are found to be the absence of policy and a comprehensive evaluation method. These causes have led to a reduction in the selection ratio of computer-related subjects and in the number of students taking computer classes. Based on this understanding, we bring some fundamental message for establishing robust computer science education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "8", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Knobelsdorf:2015:CSE, author = "Maria Knobelsdorf and Johannes Magenheim and Torsten Brinda and Dieter Engbring and Ludger Humbert and Arno Pasternak and Ulrik Schroeder and Marco Thomas and Jan Vahrenhold", title = "Computer Science Education in {North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany} --- A Case Study", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716313", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In North-Rhine Westphalia, the most populated state in Germany, Computer Science (CS) has been taught in secondary schools since the early 1970s. This article provides an overview of the past and current situation of CS education in North-Rhine Westphalia, including lessons learned through efforts to introduce and to maintain CS in secondary education. In particular, we focus on the differential school system and the educational landscape of CS education, the different facets of CS teacher education, and CS education research programs and directions that are directly connected with these aspects. In addition, this report offers a rationale for including CS education in general education, which includes the educational value of CS for students in today's information and knowledge society. Through this article, we ultimately provide an overview of the significant elements that are crucial for the successful integration of CS as a compulsory subject within secondary schools.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kurhila:2015:PMA, author = "Jaakko Kurhila and Arto Vihavainen", title = "A Purposeful {MOOC} to Alleviate Insufficient {CS} Education in {Finnish} Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716314", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in all schools in Finland. The course is a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), as the attendance scales without an upper bound. Schools in Finland have offered the MOOC as an elective CS course for their students and granted formal school credits for completing (parts of) it. Since our MOOC is exactly the same programming course as our university-level CS1 course, we are able to use the MOOC also as a long-lasting entrance exam to the CS BSc and MSc degrees. After two spring semesters of operation, we have observed that there are school students dispersed around Finland who are ready and willing to take on a challenging programming course online, and bridging the MOOC to a full study right makes a strong incentive to keep working on the programming assignments, even without traditional teaching.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Repenning:2015:SGD, author = "Alexander Repenning and David C. Webb and Kyu Han Koh and Hilarie Nickerson and Susan B. Miller and Catharine Brand and Ian Her Many Horses and Ashok Basawapatna and Fred Gluck and Ryan Grover and Kris Gutierrez and Nadia Repenning", title = "Scalable Game Design: a Strategy to Bring Systemic Computer Science Education to Schools through Game Design and Simulation Creation", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700517", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "An educated citizenry that participates in and contributes to science technology engineering and mathematics innovation in the 21st century will require broad literacy and skills in computer science (CS). School systems will need to give increased attention to opportunities for students to engage in computational thinking and ways to promote a deeper understanding of how technologies and software are used as design tools. However, K-12 students in the United States are facing a broken pipeline for CS education. In response to this problem, we have developed the Scalable Game Design curriculum based on a strategy to integrate CS education into the regular school curriculum. This strategy includes opportunities for students to design and program games and science technology engineering and mathematics simulations. An approach called Computational Thinking Pattern Analysis has been developed to measure and correlate computational thinking skills relevant to game design and simulations. Results from a study with more than 10,000 students demonstrate rapid adoption of this curriculum by teachers from multiple disciplines, high student motivation, high levels of participation by women, and interest regardless of demographic background.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Tenenberg:2015:LBL, author = "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney", title = "Looking Backward to Look Forward: {TOCE} in Transition", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "3", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = sep, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2817209", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This editorial marks the end of our tenure as founding co-editors-in-chief of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE). We have three goals in this editorial. First, we provide a retrospective on how we positioned TOCE, both in terms of how it embodies our conception of Computing Education Research (CER) as a field, as well as the journal's role in the larger computing education community and the ACM. We focus on the process by which we determined what constitutes publishability for a manuscript submitted to TOCE, describing what is best understood as a living process negotiated among the authors, reviewers, associate editors, and editors-in-chief in interaction with manuscripts and one another. Second, having reviewed a bit of history, we look at some possible changes in TOCE's future, particularly in light of conversations that the ACM is engaged in at all levels regarding recent open publishing initiatives as well as the relationship between journal and conference publications. Finally, we thank the many people who have contributed to the success of TOCE for their significant effort in establishing TOCE as a publication venue for papers in computing education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Xinogalos:2015:OOD, author = "Stelios Xinogalos", title = "Object-Oriented Design and Programming: an Investigation of Novices' Conceptions on Objects and Classes", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "3", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = sep, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700519", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) technique is nowadays the most popular programming technique among tertiary education institutions. However, learning OOP is a cognitively demanding task for undergraduate students. Several difficulties and misconceptions have been recorded in the literature for both OOP concepts and languages, mainly Java. This article focuses on reviewing and advancing research on the most fundamental OOP concepts, namely, the concepts of object'' and class'' and their role during program execution. The results of a long-term investigation on the subject are presented, focusing on a study exploring undergraduate students' conceptions on objects'' and classes.'' The study advances related research on categories of conceptions on objects'' and classes'' by providing quantitative results, in addition to qualitative results, regarding the frequency of the recorded conceptions. Nearly half the students seem to comprehend the modeling and static/dynamic aspects of the concepts object'' and class.'' Implications for achieving a deep conceptual understanding of text, action, and modeling aspects of these fundamental concepts are also discussed. Information regarding the programming environments utilized in the course and key features of the applied teaching approach are presented, in order to facilitate both a better understanding of the context and a better employment of the results of the presented study. Finally, proposals for enhancing the contribution of this and similar studies are made.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Zingaro:2015:EIG, author = "Daniel Zingaro", title = "Examining Interest and Grades in {Computer Science 1}: a Study of Pedagogy and Achievement Goals", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "3", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = sep, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2802752", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer Science 1 (CS1), the first course taken by college-level computer science (CS) majors, has traditionally suffered from high failure rates. Efforts to understand this phenomenon have considered a wide range of predictors of CS success, such as prior programming experience, math ability, learning style, and gender, with findings that are suggestive but inconclusive. The current quasiexperimental study extends this research by exploring how the pedagogical approach of the course (traditional lecture vs. Peer Instruction (PI) and clickers) in combination with student achievement goals (mastery goals vs. performance goals) relates to exam grades, interest in the subject matter, and course enjoyment. The research revealed that students with performance goals scored significantly lower on final exams in both the lecture and PI conditions. However, students with performance goals reported higher levels of subject matter interest when taught through PI. Students with mastery goals, in both conditions, scored significantly higher on the final exam, had higher levels of interest, and reported higher levels of course enjoyment than their performance-oriented counterparts. The results suggest that PI may improve the level of subject-matter interest for some students, thereby indicating the importance of studying pedagogical approach as we seek to understand student outcomes in CS1.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Drachova:2015:TMR, author = "Svetlana V. Drachova and Jason O. Hallstrom and Joseph E. Hollingsworth and Joan Krone and Rich Pak and Murali Sitaraman", title = "Teaching Mathematical Reasoning Principles for Software Correctness and Its Assessment", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "3", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = sep, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716316", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Undergraduate computer science students need to learn analytical reasoning skills to develop high-quality software and to understand why the software they develop works as specified. To accomplish this central educational objective, this article describes a systematic process of introducing reasoning skills into the curriculum and assessing how well students have learned those skills. To facilitate assessment, a comprehensive inventory of principles for reasoning about correctness that captures the finer details of basic skills that students need to learn has been defined and used. The principles can be taught at various levels of depth across the curriculum in a variety of courses. The use of a particular instructional process is illustrated to inculcate reasoning principles across several iterations of a sophomore-level development foundations course and a junior-level software engineering course. The article summarizes how learning outcomes motivated by the inventory of reasoning principles lead to questions that in turn form the basis for a careful analysis of student understanding and for fine-tuning teaching interventions that together facilitate continuous improvements to instruction.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hundhausen:2016:KTP, author = "Christopher D. Hundhausen", title = "Keeping {TOCE} on a Positive Trajectory", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = feb, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2872275", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In my inaugural editorial as the new editor-in-chief of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education, I take stock of the journal's progress in its first 6 years of existence, and I describe my plans to help the journal maintain its positive trajectory as a viable and vibrant computing education research journal.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1e", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Ott:2016:TPE, author = "Claudia Ott and Anthony Robins and Kerry Shephard", title = "Translating Principles of Effective Feedback for Students into the {CS1} Context", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = feb, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2737596", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Learning the first programming language is challenging for many students. High failure rates and bimodally distributed grades lead to a pedagogical interest in supporting students in first-year programming courses (CS1). In higher education, the important role of feedback for guiding the learning process and improving the learning outcome is widely acknowledged. This article introduces contemporary models of effective feedback practice as found in the higher education literature and offers an interpretation of those in the CS1 context. One particular CS1 course and typical course components are investigated to identify likely loci for feedback interventions and to connect related computer science education literature to these forms of feedback.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{McCartney:2016:WCS, author = "Robert McCartney and Jonas Boustedt and Anna Eckerdal and Kate Sanders and Lynda Thomas and Carol Zander", title = "Why Computing Students Learn on Their Own: Motivation for Self-Directed Learning of Computing", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = feb, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2747008", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In this article, we address the question of why computing students choose to learn computing topics on their own. A better understanding of why some students choose to learn on their own may help us to motivate other students to develop this important skill. In addition, it may help in curriculum design; if we need to leave some topics out of our expanding curriculum, a good choice might be those topics that students readily learn on their own. Based on a thematic analysis of 17 semistructured interviews, we found that computing students' motivations for self-directed learning fall into four general themes: projects, social and peer interactions, joy of learning, and fear. Under these, we describe several more specific subthemes, illustrated in the words of the students. The project-related and social motivations are quite prominent. Although these motivations appear in the literature, they received greater emphasis from our interviewees. Perhaps most characteristic of computing is the motivation to learn to complete some project, both projects done for fun and projects required for school or work.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kunkle:2016:IDT, author = "Wanda M. Kunkle and Robert B. Allen", title = "The Impact of Different Teaching Approaches and Languages on Student Learning of Introductory Programming Concepts", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = feb, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2785807", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Learning to program, especially in the object-oriented paradigm, is a difficult undertaking for many students. As a result, computing educators have tried a variety of instructional methods to assist beginning programmers. These include developing approaches geared specifically toward novices and experimenting with different introductory programming languages. However, determining the effectiveness of these interventions poses a problem. The research presented here developed an instrument to assess student learning of fundamental and object-oriented programming concepts, then used that instrument to investigate the impact of different teaching approaches and languages on university students' ability to learn those concepts. Extensive data analysis showed that the instrument performed well overall. Reliability of the assessment tool was statistically satisfactory and content validity was supported by intrinsic characteristics, question response analysis, and expert review. Preliminary support for construct validity was provided through exploratory factor analysis. Three components that at least partly represented the construct understanding of fundamental programming concepts'' were identified: methods and functions, mathematical and logical expressions, and control structures. Analysis revealed significant differences in student performance based on instructional language and approach. The analyses showed differences on the overall score and questions involving assignment, mathematical and logical expressions, and code completion. Instructional language and approach did not appear to affect student performance on questions addressing object-oriented concepts.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Borstler:2016:TPC, author = "J{\"u}rgen B{\"o}rstler and Thomas B. Hilburn", title = "Team Projects in Computing Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "2", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = mar, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2808192", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Team projects are a way to expose students to conflicting project objectives, and [t]here should be a strong real-world element ... to ensure that the experience is realistic'' [ACM/IEEE-CS 2015b]. Team projects provide an opportunity for students to put their education into practice and prepare them for their professional careers. The aim of this special issue, and the previous one, is to collect and share evidence about the state of practice of team projects in computing education and to help educators in designing and running team projects. The articles presented in the present issue cover the following topics: real projects for real clients, open source projects, multidisciplinary team projects, student and team assessment, and cognitive and psychological aspects of team projects.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Marshall:2016:EPS, author = "Linda Marshall and Vreda Pieterse and Lisa Thompson and Dina M. Venter", title = "Exploration of Participation in Student Software Engineering Teams", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "2", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = mar, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2791396", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Employers require software engineers to work in teams when developing software systems. It is therefore important for graduates to have experienced teamwork before they enter the job market. We describe an experiential learning exercise that we designed to teach the software engineering process in conjunction with teamwork skills. The underlying teaching strategy applied in the exercise maximises risks in order to provide maximal experiential learning opportunities. The students are expected to work in fairly large, yet short-lived, instructor-assigned teams to complete software engineering tasks. After undergoing the exercise our students form self-selected teams for their capstone projects. In this article, we determine and report on the influence the teaching exercise had on the formation of teams for the capstone project. By analysing data provided by the students through regular peer reviews we gain insight into the team dynamics as well as to what extent the members contributed to the team effort. We develop and present a graphical model of a capstone project team which highlights participation of individuals during the teaching exercise. The participatory history of the members is visualised using segmented concentric rings. We consider how this visualisation can aid the identification of capstone project teams that are at risk. In our experience the composition of the team and the behaviour of other members in the team may have a marked impact on the behaviour of each individual in the team. We established a team classification in order to model information about teams. We use a statistical clustering method to classify teams. For this we use team profiles that are based on the participatory levels of its members. The team types that emerge from the clustering are used to derive migration models. When we consider migration, we build spring models to visualise the teams through which individuals migrate. We colour code the teams to characterise them according to the team types that were identified during the cluster classification of the teams. Owing to the complexity of the resulting model, only migrations for capstone team members who have worked together during the exercise or for solitary capstone team members are modelled. These models support the identification of areas of interest that warrant further investigation. To conclude, we present our observations from the analysis of team compositions, team types, and team migrations and provide directions for future work and collaborations.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Largent:2016:MUT, author = "David L. Largent", title = "Measuring and Understanding Team Development by Capturing Self-assessed Enthusiasm and Skill Levels", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = mar, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2791394", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "To prepare graduates for today's work environment, they must be immersed in positive (and perhaps negative) small group experiences in their courses, which will in turn provide a basic understanding of how teams form and develop over time. In the fall of 2009, we started exploring how software development teams form and interact in a computer science college capstone course setting. Our initial findings were presented at ICER 2010 in Aarhus, Denmark. The focus of our research was on the experiences of computer science college course teams as compared and contrasted to the theory of Bruce Tuckman's stages of small group development model, which he characterized as forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. We continued data collection with the computer science capstone course in the fall of 2010 and added an information systems capstone course as well. At the conclusion of the spring 2014 semester, we have collected and analyzed data for a total of 5 academic years from nine cohorts of students taught by five instructors involving 215 students on 51 teams. Each year, participants repeatedly self-assessed their enthusiasm and skill levels over time using a questionnaire by agreeing or disagreeing to statements. The data shows patterns similar to that of Tuckman's model. Since most people find Tuckman's model easy to understand, it may provide an effective tool to teach teamwork and monitor team development. In addition to briefly presenting our empirical findings in this article, we provide a simple conceptualization of Tuckman's model that can be captured in two data points: enthusiasm and skill level. By comparing changes in these two dimensions over time, team development can be tracked through the various Tuckman stages of small group development. We also provide a minicurriculum which can be used to introduce students to Tuckman's model and provide them insight into what leadership style works best in each of the development stages.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Vivian:2016:MAC, author = "Rebecca Vivian and Katrina Falkner and Nickolas Falkner and Hamid Tarmazdi", title = "A Method to Analyze Computer Science Students' Teamwork in Online Collaborative Learning Environments", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = mar, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2793507", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Although teamwork has been identified as", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Dolog:2016:APB, author = "Peter Dolog and Lone Leth Thomsen and Bent Thomsen", title = "Assessing Problem-Based Learning in a Software Engineering Curriculum Using {Bloom}'s Taxonomy and the {IEEE} Software Engineering Body of Knowledge", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2845091", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has often been seen as an all-or-nothing approach, difficult to apply in traditional curricula based on traditional lectured courses with exercise and lab sessions. Aalborg University has since its creation in 1974 practiced PBL in all subjects, including computer science and software engineering, following a model that has become known as the Aalborg Model. Following a strategic decision in 2009, the Aalborg Model has been reshaped. We first report on the software engineering program as it was in the old Aalborg Model. We analyze the programme wrt competence levels according to Bloom's taxonomy and compare it with the expected skills and competencies for an engineer passing a general software engineering 4-year program with an additional 4 years of experience as defined in the IEEE Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) [Abran et al. 2004]. We also compare with the Graduate Software Engineering 2009 Curriculum Guidelines for Graduate Degree Programmes in Software Engineering (GSwE2009) [Pyster 2009]. We then describe the new curriculum and draw some preliminary conclusions based on analyzing the curriculum according to Bloom's taxonomy and the results of running the program for 2 years. As the new program is structured to be compliant with the Bologna Process and thus presents all activities in multiples of 5 European Credit Transfer System points, we envision that elements of the program could be used in more traditional curricula. This should be especially easy for programs also complying with the Bologna Process.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Thota:2016:LCS, author = "Neena Thota and Anders Berglund", title = "Learning Computer Science: Dimensions of Variation Within What {Chinese} Students Learn", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2853199", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We know from research that there is an intimate relationship between student learning and the context of learning. What is not known or understood well enough is the relationship of the students' background and previous studies to the understanding and learning of the subject area-here, computer science (CS). To show the contextual influences on learning CS, we present empirical data from a qualitative investigation of the experiences of Chinese students studying for a master degree at Sweden's Uppsala University. Data were collected of the students' understanding and learning of CS, their experience of the teaching and their own studies, and of their personal development in Sweden. Using an analysis framework grounded in phenomenography, we analytically separated the what and how aspects of learning. In this article, we describe the what, or the content of the students' learning, and identify dimensions of variation in the experiences of students. These dimensions relate to the foci of the CS programs, the learning outcomes, and the impact of the studies. The findings from the analyses indicate pedagogical and pragmatic implications for teaching and learning CS in higher education institutions. The study extends the traditional use of phenomenography through the discussion of the dimensions of variation in the experiences and the values within the dimensions. It opens the way for understanding the relational nature of learning in computing education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Wagner:2016:GPC, author = "Isabel Wagner", title = "Gender and Performance in Computer Science", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2920173", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The term gender gap refers to the significant underrepresentation of females in many subjects. In Computer Science, the gender gap exists at all career levels. In this article, we study whether there is a performance gap in addition to the gender gap. To answer this question, we analyzed statistical data on student performance in Computer Science from 129 universities in the United Kingdom covering the years 2002 to 2013. We find that male students were awarded significantly more first-class degrees than female students. We evaluate four other subjects-Subjects Allied to Medicine, Business {\&} Administrative Studies, Mathematical Sciences, and Engineering {\&} Technology-and find that they do not exhibit this performance gap. From this finding, we review explanations for the gender and performance gaps, as well as potential solutions to eliminate the gaps. Most solutions do not require major institutional change and could thus be implemented easily.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kolling:2016:HEN, author = "Michael K{\"o}lling and Fraser McKay", title = "Heuristic Evaluation for Novice Programming Systems", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2872521", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The past few years has seen a proliferation of novice programming tools. The availability of a large number of systems has made it difficult for many users to choose among them. Even for education researchers, comparing the relative quality of these tools, or judging their respective suitability for a given context, is hard in many instances. For designers of such systems, assessing the respective quality of competing design decisions can be equally difficult. Heuristic evaluation provides a practical method of assessing the quality of alternatives in these situations and of identifying potential problems with existing systems for a given target group or context. Existing sets of heuristics, however, are not specific to the domain of novice programming and thus do not evaluate all aspects of interest to us in this specialised application domain. In this article, we propose a set of heuristics to be used in heuristic evaluations of novice programming systems. These heuristics have the potential to allow a useful assessment of the quality of a given system with lower cost than full formal user studies and greater precision than the use of existing sets of heuristics. The heuristics are described and discussed in detail. We present an evaluation of the effectiveness of the heuristics that suggests that the new set of heuristics provides additional useful information to designers not obtained with existing heuristics sets.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Larraza-Mendiluze:2016:URB, author = "Edurne Larraza-Mendiluze and Nestor Garay-Vitoria and Iratxe Soraluze and Jos{\'e} Mart{\'\i}n and Javier Muguerza and Txelo Ruiz-V{\'a}zquez", title = "Using a Real Bare Machine in a Project-Based Learning Environment for Teaching Computer Structure: an Analysis of the Implementation Following the Action Research Model", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2891415", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The computer input/output (I/O) subsystem and its functioning are very abstract concepts that are difficult for undergraduate freshmen to understand. However, it is important that freshmen assimilate these low-level concepts if they are going to be taught about the operating systems (OS) working over that architecture layer, or working directly with them in embedded systems, real-time systems, or in the area of human--computer interaction (HCI). This article describes the use of a game console (Nintendo\reg DS, NDS) in a project-based learning (PBL or PjBL) environment in which the design of a game is the basis of the project in order to encourage the students to get more involved with the computer I/O subsystem abstraction. A 4yr experience is reported in which the action research model (planning, acting, observing, and reflecting) has been followed. The general procedure for the 4yr and the specific characteristics and achieved results for each year are reported. The aim of the study was twofold: to assess the learning effectiveness of the active PjBL educational approach and some related factors, and to analyze the motivation toward the subject fostered by the game console. The first aim is analyzed using the scores achieved by the students; the second aim is analyzed via satisfaction questionnaires.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Magerko:2016:ESB, author = "Brian Magerko and Jason Freeman and Tom Mcklin and Mike Reilly and Elise Livingston and Scott Mccoid and Andrea Crews-Brown", title = "{EarSketch}: a {STEAM}-Based Approach for Underrepresented Populations in High School Computer Science Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2886418", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article presents EarSketch, a learning environment that combines computer programming with sample-based music production to create a computational remixing environment for learning introductory computing concepts. EarSketch has been employed in both formal and informal settings, yielding significant positive results in student content knowledge and attitudes toward computing as a discipline, especially in ethnic and gender populations that are currently underrepresented in computing fields. This article describes the rationale and components of EarSketch, the evaluation design, and lessons learned to apply to future environment design and development.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{McGill:2016:USP, author = "Monica M. McGill and Adrienne Decker and Amber Settle", title = "Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Impact of Pre-College Computing Activities on Choices of Major", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2920214", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "A lack of diversity in the computing field has existed for several decades, and although female participation in computing remains low, outreach programs attempting to address the situation are now quite numerous. To begin to understand whether or not these past activities have had long-term impact, we conducted a systematic literature review. Upon discovering that longitudinal studies were lacking, we investigated whether undergraduate students believed that their participation in computing activities prior to college contributed to their decision to major in a computing field. From the 770 participants in the study, we discovered that approximately 20\% of males and 24\% of females who were required to participate in computing activities chose a computing or related major, but that males perceived that the activity had a greater affect on their decision (20\%) than females (6.9\%). Females who participated in an outreach activity were more likely to major in computing. Compared with females who chose to major in computing, females who did not were less likely to indicate that the majority of students participating in activities were boys and that they were a welcome part of the groups. Results also showed that female participants who do not ultimately major in computing have a much stronger negative perception of the outreach activities than male participants who also chose a non-computing major. Although many computing outreach activities are designed to diversify computing, it may be the case that, overall, boys receive these activities more favorably than girls, although requiring participation yields approximately the same net positive impact.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Taylor:2016:SII, author = "Blair Taylor and Siddharth Kaza", title = "Security Injections@Towson: Integrating Secure Coding into Introductory Computer Science Courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "16:1--16:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2897441", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Despite the critical societal importance of computer security, security is not well integrated into the undergraduate computing curriculum. Security classes and tracks treat security issues as separable topics as opposed to fundamental issues that pervade all aspects of software development. Recently, there has been an increasing focus on security as a cross-cutting concern across the computer science curriculum. The Security Injections@Towson project provides resources and effective strategies to incorporate secure coding in the early programming classes. We describe the development, assessment, and dissemination of more than 40 lab-based security injection modules designed to be injected into courses with minimal impact on the curriculum. We include assessment results from 1,135 students across five diverse institutions demonstrating that the security injections help students retain, comprehend, and apply secure coding concepts in the introductory programming courses.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "16", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Shin:2016:EMD, author = "Shin-Shing Shin", title = "Evaluation of Model Driven Architecture-Based Instruction for Understanding Phase Transitions in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "17:1--17:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2914797", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) courses enable students to establish a requirements model of an application, successively transform those requirements into logical design models, and then transform the logical models into physical design models. However, students attending OOAD courses typically encounter difficulties in the transition. Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) provides a model transformation framework for transitioning between OOAD phases. Considering the advantages of MDA in phase transitions, this study proposes that integrating conventional OOAD instruction with the MDA framework and describing transition relations in diagrammatic representations might improve students' understanding of the transitions. This study used an empirical design that involved using two treatments (MDA-based and conventional instruction) to examine the relevance of MDA-based instruction in the effective understanding of the transitions on the basis of cognitive load theory, the split-attention principle, and theories of representation format. The results indicate that, compared with conventional instruction, MDA-based instruction is more efficient because it improves mental efficiency by reducing extraneous cognitive load. This study can assist educators in understanding the difficulties in learning phase transitions and motivate researchers to develop more effective learning instructions for transitioning between OOAD phases.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "17", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kaila:2016:ROO, author = "Erkki Kaila and Einari Kurvinen and Erno Lokkila and Mikko-Jussi Laakso", title = "Redesigning an Object-Oriented Programming Course", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "18:1--18:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2906362", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Educational technology offers several potential benefits for programming education. Still, to facilitate the technology properly, integration into a course must be carefully designed. In this article, we present a redesign of an object-oriented university-level programming course. In the redesign, a collaborative education tool was utilized to enhance active learning, facilitate communication between students and teachers, and remodel the evaluation procedure by utilizing automatically assessed tasks. The redesign was based on the best practices found in our own earlier research and that of the research community, with a focus on facilitating active learning methods and student collaboration. The redesign was evaluated by comparing two instances of the redesigned course against two instances using the old methodology. The drop-out rate decreased statistically significantly in the redesigned course instances. Moreover, there was a trend toward higher grade averages in the redesigned instances. Based on the results, we can conclude that the utilization of educational technology has a highly positive effect on student performance. Still, making major changes to course methodology does not come without certain difficulties. Hence, we also present our experiences and suggestions for the course redesign to help other educators and researchers perform similar design changes.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "18", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Isomottonen:2017:FBA, author = "Ville Isom{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Ville Tirronen", title = "Flipping and Blending --- an Action Research Project on Improving a Functional Programming Course", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = jan, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2934697", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article reports on an action research project on improving a functional programming course by moving toward a practical and flexible study environment-flipped and blended classroom. Teaching the topic of functional programming was found to be troublesome using a traditional lectured course format. The need to increase students' amount of practice emerged while subsequent challenges relating to students' independent practical coursework were observed. Particular concerns relating to group work, learning materials, and the attribute of flexibility were investigated during the third action research cycle. The research cycle was analyzed using a qualitative survey on students' views, teacher narrative, and students' study activity data. By this third research cycle, we found that (i) the call for explanation'' is an apt conceptualization for supporting independent work, and in particular for the design of learning materials; (ii) use of student-selected groups that can be flexibly resized or even disbanded enables spontaneous peer support and can avoid frustration about group work; and (iii) students greatly appreciate the high degree of flexibility in the course arrangements but find that it causes them to slip from their goals. The project has improved our understanding of a successful implementation of the target course based on group work and learning materials in the context of independent study, while the attribute of flexibility revealed a contradiction that indicates the need for further action.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Isayama:2017:CSE, author = "Daiki Isayama and Masaki Ishiyama and Raissa Relator and Koichi Yamazaki", title = "Computer Science Education for Primary and Lower Secondary School Students: Teaching the Concept of Automata", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = jan, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2940331", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We explore the feasibility of early introduction to automata theory through gamification. We designed a puzzle game that players can answer correctly if they understand the fundamental concepts of automata theory. In our investigation, 90 children played the game, and their actions were recorded in play logs. An analysis of the play logs shows that approximately 60\% of the children achieved correct-answer rates of at least 70\%, which suggests that primary and lower secondary school students can understand the fundamental concepts of automata theory. Meanwhile, our analysis shows that most of them do not fully understand automata theory, but some of them have a good understanding of the concept.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Theodoropoulos:2017:HDD, author = "Anastasios Theodoropoulos and Angeliki Antoniou and George Lepouras", title = "How Do Different Cognitive Styles Affect Learning Programming? {Insights} from a Game-Based Approach in {Greek} Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = jan, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2940330", ISSN = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Is there any relationship between students' cognitive style and the ability to learn programming through serious games? The aim of this work is to assess the learning effectiveness and motivational appeal of digital games for learning basic programming concepts, involving secondary education students. For this purpose, the Code.org^\reg \$ 's activity named K-8
Intro to Computer Science was used. The study
investigated students' attitudes from gaming activities
to reveal the quality of their learning experience.
Next, students' attitudes from games were correlated
with their cognitive profile to reveal potential
differences. Finally, students' performance from the
digital games was assessed to reveal game-based
learning (GBL) effectiveness compared to their
cognitive styles. In the study, 77 students of two
Greek high schools participated in the context of the
European Code Week. The results suggest that these
specific games, or similar educational computer games,
can be exploited as effective and motivational learning
environments within schools, as they provide a
high-quality learning experience. Cognitive style was
found to be a significant learning characteristic that
should be taken into consideration when using digital
games to learn programming.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Enstrom:2017:IIM,
author =       "Emma Enstr{\"o}m and Viggo Kann",
title =        "Iteratively Intervening with the Most Difficult''
Topics of an Algorithms and Complexity Course",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3018109",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "When compared to earlier programming and data
structure experiences that our students might have, the
perspective changes on computers and programming when
introducing theoretical computer science into the
picture. Underlying computational models need to be
addressed, and mathematical tools employed, to
understand the quality criteria of theoretical computer
science. Focus shifts from doing to proving. Over
several years, we have tried to make this perspective
transition smoother for the students of a third-year
mandatory algorithms, data structures, and
computational complexity course. The concepts receiving
extra attention in this work are NP-completeness, one
of the most central concepts in computer science, and
dynamic programming, an algorithm construction method
that is powerful but somewhat unintuitive for some
students. The major difficulties that we attribute to
NP-completeness are that the tasks look similar but
have a different purpose than in algorithm construction
exercises. Students do not immediately see the
usefulness of the concept, and hence motivation could
be one issue. One line of attacking NP-completeness has
been to emphasize its algorithmic aspects using typical
tools for teaching algorithms. Some potential
difficulties associated with dynamic programming are
that the method is based on a known difficult
concept-recursion-and that there are many ingredients
in a dynamic programming solution to a problem. For
both dynamic programming and NP-completeness, we have
invented several new activities and structured the
teaching differently, forcing students to think and
adopt a standpoint, and practice the concepts in
programming assignments. Student surveys show that
these activities are appreciated by the students, and
our evaluations indicate that they have positive
effects on learning. We believe that these activities
could be useful in any similar course. The approach to
improving the course is action research, and the
evaluation has been done using course surveys,
and grades. We have also interviewed teaching
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hundhausen:2017:EDT,
author =       "C. D. Hundhausen",
title =        "From the {Editor}'s Desk: {TOCE} Continues on a
Positive Trajectory in 2016",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "2",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3078193",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "During my first full year as editor-in-chief of ACM
Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), the
editorial board and I took the following four steps to
improve the journal's ability to serve the growing
community of computing education researchers: (1) We
streamlined the peer review process, (2) we established
a new partnership with the ACM Special Interest Group
on Computer Science Education Conference, (c) we
transitioned to a double-blind review process, and (4)
we recruited guest editors for two new special issues
that address timely research topics. In this editorial,
I present key statistics on TOCE's review process and
submissions during the 2016 calendar year, discuss and
reflect on the positive steps we took to improve the
journal during 2016, and describe steps we will
consider in the coming year in order to ensure that ACM
TOCE continues on its positive trajectory. These
professional conferences, altering the review criteria
to make the journal more welcoming to a broader range
of research, especially within the K-12 space, and
developing a set of evidence standards for research
published in the journal.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Margolis:2017:SMT,
author =       "Jane Margolis and Jean Ryoo and Joanna Goode",
title =        "Seeing Myself through Someone Else's Eyes: The Value
of In-Classroom Coaching for Computer Science Teaching
and Learning",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "2",
pages =        "6:1--6:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2967616",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
coaching for computer science (CS) educators. Coaching
is a way to support teachers in their classroom while
teachers master new curricula or educational approaches
and is not evaluative in purpose. Using qualitative
methods to analyze computer science classroom
observations, teacher surveys, teacher interviews,
coaching logs, and coach interviews, this research
answers the following question: How does in-classroom
coaching support inquiry and equity-based teaching
practices? This study of Exploring Computer Science
classrooms illustrates the importance of having
in-classroom coaches who can collaborate and reflect
with teachers about current practices and who can help
support new inquiry and equity-based instructional
skills. Teachers note that in-classroom coaching helped
(1) positively impact changes in pedagogy, (2) enrich
teachers' CS content knowledge, and (3) break CS
teacher isolation at schools. Three case studies from
computer science classrooms served by different coaches
are shared to illustrate the ways teacher instructional
practice can be strengthened over time through
coaching.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Brown:2017:NJP,
title =        "Novice {Java} Programming Mistakes: Large-Scale Data
vs. Educator Beliefs",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "2",
pages =        "7:1--7:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2994154",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Teaching is the process of conveying knowledge and
skills to learners. It involves preventing
misunderstandings or correcting misconceptions that
learners have acquired. Thus, effective teaching relies
on solid knowledge of the discipline, but also a good
grasp of where learners are likely to trip up or
misunderstand. In programming, there is much
opportunity for misunderstanding, and the penalties are
harsh: failing to produce the correct syntax for a
program, for example, can completely prevent any
progress in learning how to program. Because
programming is inherently computer-based, we have an
opportunity to automatically observe programming
behaviour --- more closely even than an educator in the
room at the time. By observing students' programming
behaviour, and surveying educators, we can ask: do
educators have an accurate understanding of the
mistakes that students are likely to make? In this
study, we combined two years of the Blackbox dataset
(with more than 900 thousand users and almost 100
million compilation events) with a survey of 76
educators to investigate which mistakes students make
while learning to program Java, and whether the
educators could make an accurate estimate of which
mistakes were most common. We find that educators'
estimates do not agree with one another or the student
data, and discuss the implications of these results.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cosma:2017:PCS,
author =       "Georgina Cosma and Mike Joy and Jane Sinclair and
Margarita Andreou and Dongyong Zhang and Beverley Cook
and Russell Boyatt",
title =        "Perceptual Comparison of Source-Code Plagiarism within
Students from {UK}, {China}, and {South Cyprus} Higher
Education Institutions",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8:1--8:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3059871",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Perspectives of students on what constitutes
source-code plagiarism may differ based on their
educational background. Surveys have been conducted
with home students undertaking computing and joint
computing subject degrees at higher education
institutions throughout the UK, China, and South
Cyprus, and a total of 984 responses have been
statistically analysed to determine the common areas of
understanding and misunderstanding among students on
various topics related to source-code plagiarism. The
study identifies those topics which are well
understood, and those topics which are not properly
understood across the different groups of students, and
is the first study which specifically discusses Cypriot
student perceptions on source-code plagiarism. This
study provides useful information to educators
(teaching home and international students) who wish to
better inform their students on the issues of
plagiarism and source-code plagiarism. Finally, the
survey results revealed that although students who were
informed about plagiarism better understood what
actions constitute plagiarism, some topics were still
unclear among students regardless of the students'
educational background and whether they had been
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Merkouris:2017:TPS,
author =       "Alexandros Merkouris and Konstantinos Chorianopoulos
and Achilles Kameas",
title =        "Teaching Programming in Secondary Education Through
Embodied Computing Platforms: Robotics and Wearables",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "2",
pages =        "9:1--9:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3025013",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Pedagogy has emphasized that physical representations
and tangible interactive objects benefit learning
especially for young students. There are many tangible
hardware platforms for introducing computer programming
to children, but there is limited comparative
evaluation of them in the context of a formal
classroom. In this work, we explore the benefits of
learning to code for tangible computers, such as robots
and wearable computers, in comparison to programming
for the desktop computer. For this purpose, 36 students
participated in a within-groups study that involved
three types of target computer platform tangibility:
(1) desktop, (2) wearable, and (3) robotic. We employed
similar blocks-based visual programming environments,
and we measured emotional engagement, attitudes, and
computer programming performance. We found that
students were more engaged by and had a higher
intention of learning programming with the robotic
rather than the desktop computer. Furthermore, tangible
computing platforms, either robot or wearable, did not
affect the students' performance in learning basic
computational concepts (e.g., sequence, repeat, and
decision). Our findings suggest that computer
programming should be introduced through multiple
target platforms (e.g., robots, smartphones, wearables)
to engage children.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Pappas:2017:ASB,
author =       "Ilias O. Pappas and Michail N. Giannakos and Letizia
Jaccheri and Demetrios G. Sampson",
title =        "Assessing Student Behavior in Computer Science
Education with an {fsQCA} Approach: The Role of Gains
and Barriers",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "2",
pages =        "10:1--10:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3036399",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This study uses complexity theory to understand the
causal patterns of factors that stimulate students'
intention to continue studies in computer science (CS).
To this end, it identifies gains and barriers as
essential factors in CS education, including motivation
and learning performance, and proposes a conceptual
model along with research propositions. To test its
propositions, the study employs fuzzy-set qualitative
comparative analysis on a data sample from 344
students. Findings indicate eight configurations of
cognitive and noncognitive gains, barriers, motivation
for studies, and learning performance that explain high
intention to continue studies in CS. This research
study contributes to the literature by (1) offering new
insights into the relationships among the predictors of
CS students' intention to continue their studies and
(2) advancing the theoretical foundation of how
students' gains, barriers, motivation, and learning
performance combine to better explain high intentions
to continue CS studies.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Grover:2017:UPL,
author =       "Shuchi Grover and Ari Korhonen",
title =        "Unlocking the Potential of Learning Analytics in
Computing Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "3",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3122773",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11e",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hundhausen:2017:IBL,
author =       "C. D. Hundhausen and D. M. Olivares and A. S. Carter",
title =        "{IDE}-Based Learning Analytics for Computing
Education: a Process Model, Critical Review, and
Research Agenda",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "3",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3105759",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "In recent years, learning process data have become
increasingly easy to collect through computer-based
learning environments. This has led to increased
interest in the field of learning analytics, which is
concerned with leveraging learning process data in
order to better understand, and ultimately to improve,
teaching and learning. In computing education, the
logical place to collect learning process data is
through integrated development environments (IDEs),
where computing students typically spend large amounts
of time working on programming assignments. While the
primary purpose of IDEs is to support computer
programming, they might also be used as a mechanism for
delivering learning interventions designed to enhance
student learning. The possibility of using IDEs both to
collect learning process data, and to strategically
intervene in the learning process, suggests an exciting
design space for computing education research: that of
IDE-based learning analytics. In order to facilitate
the systematic exploration of this design space, we
present an IDE-based data analytics process model with
four primary activities: (1) Collect data, (2) Analyze
intervention. For each activity, we identify key design
dimensions and review relevant computing education
literature. To provide guidance on designing effective
interventions, we describe four relevant learning
theories, and consider their implications for design.
Based on our review, we present a call-to-action for
future research into IDE-based learning analytics.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Carter:2017:BMP,
author =       "Adam S. Carter and Christopher D. Hundhausen and
title =        "Blending Measures of Programming and Social Behavior
into Predictive Models of Student Achievement in Early
Computing Courses",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "3",
pages =        "12:1--12:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3120259",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Analyzing the process data of students as they
complete programming assignments has the potential to
provide computing educators with insights into both
their students and the processes by which they learn to
program. In prior research, we explored the
relationship between (a) students' programming
behaviors and course outcomes, and (b) students'
participation within an online social learning
environment and course outcomes. In both studies, we
developed statistical measures derived from our data
that significantly correlate with students' course
grades. Encouraged both by social theories of learning
and a desire to improve the accuracy of our statistical
models, we explore here the impact of incorporating our
predictive measure derived from social behavior into
three separate predictive measures derived from
programming behaviors. We find that, in combining the
measures, we are able to improve the overall predictive
power of each measure. This finding affirms the
importance of social interaction in the learning
process, and provides evidence that predictive models
derived from multiple sources of learning process data
can provide significantly better predictive power by
accounting for multiple factors responsible for student
success.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

author =       "Alireza Ahadi and Arto Hellas and Raymond Lister",
title =        "A Contingency Table Derived Method for Analyzing
Course Data",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "3",
pages =        "13:1--13:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123814",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "We describe a method for analyzing student data from
online programming exercises. Our approach uses
contingency tables that combine whether or not a
student answered an online exercise correctly with the
number of attempts that the student made on that
exercise. We use this method to explore the
relationship between student performance on online
exercises done during semester with subsequent
performance on questions in a paper-based exam at the
end of semester. We found that it is useful to include
data about the number of attempts a student makes on an
online exercise.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Grover:2017:FUH,
author =       "Shuchi Grover and Satabdi Basu and Marie Bienkowski
and Michael Eagle and Nicholas Diana and John Stamper",
title =        "A Framework for Using Hypothesis-Driven Approaches to
Support Data-Driven Learning Analytics in Measuring
Computational Thinking in Block-Based Programming
Environments",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "3",
pages =        "14:1--14:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3105910",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Systematic endeavors to take computer science (CS) and
computational thinking (CT) to scale in middle and high
school classrooms are underway with curricula that
emphasize the enactment of authentic CT skills,
especially in the context of programming in block-based
programming environments. There is, therefore, a
growing need to measure students' learning of CT in the
context of programming and also support all learners
through this process of learning computational problem
solving. The goal of this research is to explore
hypothesis-driven approaches that can be combined with
data-driven ones to better interpret student actions
and processes in log data captured from block-based
programming environments with the goal of measuring and
assessing students' CT skills. Informed by past
literature and based on our empirical work examining a
dataset from the use of the Fairy Assessment in the
Alice programming environment in middle schools, we
present a framework that formalizes a process where a
hypothesis-driven approach informed by
Evidence-Centered Design effectively complements
data-driven learning analytics in interpreting
students' programming process and assessing CT in
block-based programming environments. We apply the
framework to the design of Alice tasks for high school
CS to be used for measuring CT during programming.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Fields:2017:YCP,
author =       "Deborah A. Fields and Yasmin B. Kafai and Michael T.
Giang",
title =        "Youth Computational Participation in the Wild:
Understanding Experience and Equity in Participating
and Programming in the Online Scratch Community",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "3",
pages =        "15:1--15:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123815",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Most research in primary and secondary computing
education has focused on understanding learners within
formal classroom communities, leaving aside the growing
number of promising informal online programming
communities where young users contribute, comment, and
collaborate on programs to facilitate learning. In this
article, we examined trends in computational
participation in Scratch, an online community with over
1 million registered youth designers. Drawing on a
random sample of 5,004 youth programmers and their
activities over 3 months in early 2012, we examined
programming concepts used in projects in relation to
level of participation, gender, and length of
membership of Scratch programmers. Latent class
analysis results identified the same four groups of
programmers in each month based on the usage of
different programming concepts and showed how
membership in these groups shifted in different ways
across time. Strikingly, the largest group of project
creators (named Loops) used the simplest and fewest
programming concepts. Further, this group was the most
stable in membership and was disproportionately female.
In contrast, the more complex programming groups (named
Variables, Low Booleans, and High Booleans) showed much
movement across time. Further, the Low Booleans and
High Booleans groups, the only groups to use and,''
or,'' and not'' statements in their programs, were
disproportionately male. In the discussion, we address
the challenges of analyzing young learners' programming
in informal online communities and opportunities for
designing more equitable computational participation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Umapathy:2017:MAP,
author =       "Karthikeyan Umapathy and Albert D. Ritzhaupt",
title =        "A Meta-Analysis of Pair-Programming in Computer
Programming Courses: Implications for Educational
Practice",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "4",
pages =        "16:1--16:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2996201",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Several experiments on the effects of pair programming
versus solo programming in the context of education
have been reported in the research literature. We
present a meta-analysis of these studies that accounted
for 18 manuscripts with 28 independent effect sizes in
the domains of programming assignments, exams, passing
rates, and affective measures. In total, our sample
accounts for N = 3,308 students either using pair
programming as a treatment variable or using
traditional solo programming in the context of a
computing course. Our findings suggest positive results
in favor of pair programming in three of four domains
with exception to affective measures. We provide a
comprehensive review of our results and discuss our
findings.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Vieira:2017:WCC,
author =       "Camilo Vieira and Alejandra J. Magana and Michael L.
Falk and R. Edwin Garcia",
title =        "Writing In-Code Comments to Self-Explain in
Computational Science and Engineering Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "4",
pages =        "17:1--17:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3058751",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
exploring the use of self-explanations in the context
of computational science and engineering (CSE)
education. The self-explanations were elicited as
students' in-code comments of a set of worked-examples,
and the cases involved two different approaches to CSE
education: glass box and black box. The glass-box
approach corresponds to a programming course for
materials science and engineering students that focuses
on introducing programming concepts while solving
disciplinary problems. The black-box approach involves
the introduction of Python-based computational tools
within a thermodynamics course to represent
disciplinary phenomena. Two semesters of data
collection for each case study allowed us to identify
the effect of using in-code comments as a
self-explanation strategy on students' engagement with
the worked-examples and students' perceptions of these
activities within each context. The results suggest
that the use of in-code comments as a self-explanation
strategy increased students' awareness of the
worked-examples while engaging with them. The students'
perceived uses of the in-code commenting activities
include: understanding the example, making a connection
between the programming code and the disciplinary
problem, and becoming familiar with the programming
language syntax, among others.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "17",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Clarke:2017:IUT,
author =       "Peter J. Clarke and Debra L. Davis and Raymond
Chang-Lau and Tariq M. King",
title =        "Impact of Using Tools in an Undergraduate Software
Testing Course Supported by {WReSTT}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "4",
pages =        "18:1--18:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3068324",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Software continues to affect a major part of our daily
lives, including the way we use our phones, home
appliances, medical devices, and cars. The
pervasiveness of software has led to a growing demand
for software developers over the next decade. To ensure
the high quality of software developed in industry,
students being trained in software engineering also
need to be trained on how to use testing techniques and
supporting tools effectively at all levels of
testing tools are used in the software project of an
undergraduate testing course. We also investigate how a
cyberlearning environment-the Web-Based Repository of
Software Testing Tutorials (WReSTT)-is used to
supplement the learning materials presented in class,
particularly the tutorials on different software
testing tools. The results of a study spanning three
semesters of the undergraduate course suggest that (1)
the use of code coverage tools motivates students to
improve their test suites; (2) the number of bugs found
when using coverage tools slightly increased, which is
similar to the results found in the research
literature; and (3) students find WReSTT to be a useful
resource for learning about software testing techniques
and the use of code coverage tools.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "18",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Fronza:2017:TCT,
author =       "Ilenia Fronza and Nabil {El Ioini} and Luis Corral",
title =        "Teaching Computational Thinking Using Agile Software
Engineering Methods: a Framework for Middle Schools",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "4",
pages =        "19:1--19:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3055258",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Computational Thinking (CT) has been recognized as one
of the fundamental skills that all graduates should
acquire. For this reason, motivational concerns need to
be addressed at an early age of a child, and reaching
students who do not consider themselves candidates for
science, technology, engineering, and mathematics
disciplines is important as well if the broadest
describes a framework for teaching and assessing CT in
the context of K-12 education. The framework is based
on Agile software engineering methods, which rely on a
set of principles and practices that can be mapped to
the activities of CT. The article presents as well the
results of an experiment applying this framework in two
sixth-grade classes, with 42 participants in total. The
results show that Agile software engineering methods
are effective at teaching CT in middle schools, after
explore, project, and experience the potential product
before using the software tools at hand. Moreover,
according to the teachers' feedback, the students
reached all the educational objectives of the topics
involved in the multidisciplinary activities. This
result can be taken as an indicator that it is possible
to use computing as a medium for teaching other
subjects, besides computer science.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "19",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Outlay:2017:GIT,
author =       "Christina N. Outlay and Alana J. Platt and Kacie
Conroy",
title =        "Getting {IT} Together: a Longitudinal Look at Linking
Girls' Interest in {IT} Careers to Lessons Taught in
Middle School Camps",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "4",
pages =        "20:1--20:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3068838",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The dearth of women choosing information technology
(IT) careers has been identified as a national problem
in the United States. Efforts have been made to combat
this by educating girls at a young age about
technology. Recent research demonstrates that exposure
to technology is insufficient to change young girls'
attitudes towards IT careers and that interventions
must explicitly tie technology activities to careers.
Faculty and staff of a Midwestern university modified
an IT summer camp for middle school girls to include
career specific programming. The camp deployed the
Girls Educating Themselves about Information Technology
(GET IT) program to garner interest among middle school
of this summer camp and other social influence factors
on girls' interest in pursuing careers in IT,
immediately after camp completion and one year in the
future.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "20",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ravitz:2017:ELE,
author =       "Jason Ravitz and Chris Stephenson and Karen Parker and
Juliane Blazevski",
title =        "Early Lessons from Evaluation of Computer Science
Teacher Professional Development in {Google}'s {CS4HS}
Program",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "17",
number =       "4",
pages =        "21:1--21:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3077617",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
experiences of teachers in four professional
development courses funded through Google's 2014
Computer Science for High School program. The courses
were designed and taught independently at four
universities and started late enough in the year to
participate in our pre-post study. Two of the courses
used a face-to-face approach, one was online only, and
one used a hybrid format. Analyses from 314 pre-surveys
and 129 post-surveys indicate CS teachers are far from
homogeneous, suggesting that some customization may
benefit professional development. We also saw a
stronger sense of community in the two face-to-face
courses. Among the outcomes we measured, teacher
concerns (Hall and Hord 1977) were more sensitive to
change than our measures of self-efficacy, outcome
illustrate the variety of CS teacher professional
development experiences and the need to study the best
ways to scale effective CS teacher education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "21",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Qian:2017:SMO,
author =       "Yizhou Qian and James Lehman",
title =        "Students' Misconceptions and Other Difficulties in
Introductory Programming: a Literature Review",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "18",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        dec,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3077618",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Efforts to improve computer science education are
underway, and teachers of computer science are
challenged in introductory programming courses to help
learners develop their understanding of programming and
computer science. Identifying and addressing students'
misconceptions is a key part of a computer science
teacher's competence. However, relevant research on
this topic is not as fully developed in the computer
science education field as it is in mathematics and
relevant literature on general definitions of
misconceptions and other difficulties in introductory
programming. Next, we investigate the factors that
contribute to the difficulties. Finally, strategies and
tools to address difficulties including misconceptions
are discussed. Based on the review of literature, we
found that students exhibit various misconceptions and
other difficulties in syntactic knowledge, conceptual
knowledge, and strategic knowledge. These difficulties
experienced by students are related to many factors
including unfamiliarity of syntax, natural language,
math knowledge, inaccurate mental models, lack of
strategies, programming environments, and teachers'
knowledge and instruction. However, many sources of
students' difficulties have connections with students'
prior knowledge. To better understand and address
students' misconceptions and other difficulties,
various instructional approaches and tools have been
developed. Nevertheless, the dissemination of these
approaches and tools has been limited. Thus, first, we
suggest enhancing the dissemination of existing tools
and approaches and investigating their long-term
effects. Second, we recommend that computing education
research move beyond documenting misconceptions to
address the development of students' (mis)conceptions
by integrating conceptual change theories. Third, we
believe that developing and enhancing instructors'
pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), including their
knowledge of students' misconceptions and ability to
apply effective instructional approaches and tools to
address students' difficulties, is vital to the success
of teaching introductory programming.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Acher:2017:TSP,
author =       "Mathieu Acher and Roberto E. Lopez-Herrejon and Rick
Rabiser",
title =        "Teaching Software Product Lines: a Snapshot of Current
Practices and Challenges",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "18",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        dec,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3088440",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Software Product Line (SPL) engineering has emerged to
provide the means to efficiently model, produce, and
maintain multiple similar software variants, exploiting
their common properties, and managing their
variabilities (differences). With over two decades of
existence, the community of SPL researchers and
practitioners is thriving, as can be attested by the
extensive research output and the numerous successful
industrial projects. Education has a key role to
support the next generation of practitioners to build
highly complex, variability-intensive systems. Yet, it
is unclear how the concepts of variability and SPLs are
taught, what are the possible missing gaps and
difficulties faced, what are the benefits, and what is
the material available. Also, it remains unclear
whether scholars teach what is actually needed by
initiatives we have conducted with scholars, educators,
industry practitioners, and students to further
understand the connection between SPLs and education,
that is, an online survey on teaching SPLs we performed
with 35 scholars, another survey on learning SPLs we
conducted with 25 students, as well as two workshops
held at the International Software Product Line
Conference in 2014 and 2015 with both researchers and
industry practitioners participating. We build upon the
two surveys and the workshops to derive recommendations
for educators to continue improving the state of
practice of teaching SPLs, aimed at both individual
educators as well as the wider community.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Weintrop:2017:CBB,
author =       "David Weintrop and Uri Wilensky",
title =        "Comparing Block-Based and Text-Based Programming in
High School Computer Science Classrooms",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "18",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:??",
month =        dec,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3089799",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The number of students taking high school computer
science classes is growing. Increasingly, these
students are learning with graphical, block-based
programming environments either in place of or prior to
their growing use in formal settings, relatively little
empirical work has been done to understand the impacts
of using block-based programming environments in high
results of a 5-week, quasi-experimental study comparing
isomorphic block-based and text-based programming
environments in an introductory high school programming
class. The findings from this study show students in
both conditions improved their scores between pre- and
postassessments; however, students in the blocks
condition showed greater learning gains and a higher
level of interest in future computing courses. Students
in the text condition viewed their programming
experience as more similar to what professional
programmers do and as more effective at improving their
programming ability. No difference was found between
students in the two conditions with respect to
confidence or enjoyment. The implications of these
findings with respect to pedagogy and design are
discussed, along with directions for future work.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Witherspoon:2017:DCT,
author =       "Eben B. Witherspoon and Ross M. Higashi and Christian
D. Schunn and Emily C. Baehr and Robin Shoop",
title =        "Developing Computational Thinking through a Virtual
Robotics Programming Curriculum",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "18",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        dec,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3104982",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Computational thinking describes key principles from
computer science that are broadly generalizable.
Robotics programs can be engaging learning environments
for acquiring core computational thinking competencies.
However, few empirical studies evaluate the
effectiveness of a robotics programming curriculum for
developing computational thinking knowledge and skills.
This study measures pre/post gains with new
computational thinking assessments given to middle
school students who participated in a virtual robotics
programming curriculum. Overall, participation in the
virtual robotics curriculum was related to significant
gains in pre- to posttest scores, with larger gains for
students who made further progress through the
curriculum. The success of this intervention suggests
that participation in a scaffolded programming
curriculum, within the context of virtual robotics,
supports the development of generalizable computational
thinking knowledge and skills that are associated with
increased problem-solving performance on nonrobotics
computing tasks. Furthermore, the particular units that
students engage in may determine their level of growth
in these competencies.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Grissom:2017:HSC,
author =       "Scott Grissom and Ren{\'e}e Mccauley and Laurie
Murphy",
title =        "How Student Centered is the Computer Science
Classroom? {A} Survey of College Faculty",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "18",
number =       "1",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        dec,
year =         "2017",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3143200",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Student-centered instructional practices structure a
class so that students interact with each other, engage
deeply with the content, and receive formative
feedback. These evidence-based practices benefit all
students but are particularly effective with
underrepresented learners, including women and members
of other minority groups. To what extent have computer
science (CS) faculty embraced these strategies? We
surveyed over 700 U.S. faculty to find out. Results
suggest that female faculty, associate professors, and
those teaching courses with enrollment above 80
students are more likely to use these student-centered
practices. Across all responses, 20\% of faculty use
student--student interaction on a regular basis during
class. In contrast, 38\% of faculty rely on lectures
for content delivery. Results were also compared with
published data for other academic disciplines. CS
faculty are less likely to use these practices compared
to their non-STEM colleagues but more likely to use
these practices compared to other STEM discipline
faculty. Overall, CS faculty have adopted
student-centered practices to some degree, but our
community should strive for higher adoption rates to
help as many students as possible learn and remain in
computer science.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}
`