%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.56",
%%%     date            = "24 November 2014",
%%%     time            = "15:28:36 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "tochi.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "24610 16647 88926 882687",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography, BibTeX, ACM Transactions on
%%%                        Computer-Human Interaction",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "no",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        the journal ACM Transactions on
%%%                        Computer-Human Interaction (CODEN ATCIF4,
%%%                        ISSN 1073-0516), covering all journal issues
%%%                        from 1994--date.  Publication began with
%%%                        volume 1, number 1, in 1994. The journal
%%%                        appears quarterly, in March, June, September
%%%                        and December.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has a World-Wide Web site at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/tochi
%%%
%%%                        Tables-of-contents are available at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756
%%%
%%%                        There is currently coverage of all volumes at
%%%                        that site.
%%%
%%%                        Qualified subscribers can retrieve the full
%%%                        text of recent articles in PDF form.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.56, the COMPLETE journal
%%%                        coverage looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             1994 (  12)    2001 (  12)    2008 (  25)
%%%                             1995 (  14)    2002 (  15)    2009 (  21)
%%%                             1996 (  14)    2003 (  15)    2010 (  18)
%%%                             1997 (  14)    2004 (  17)    2011 (  23)
%%%                             1998 (  10)    2005 (  24)    2012 (  32)
%%%                             1999 (  14)    2006 (  19)    2013 (  35)
%%%                             2000 (  20)    2007 (  15)    2014 (  28)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        397
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  397
%%%
%%%                        The initial draft of this bibliography was
%%%                        extracted from the ACM Web site.  There is no
%%%                        coverage of this journal in either the OCLC
%%%                        Contents1st or Compendex databases, so it has
%%%                        not yet been possible to verify the accuracy
%%%                        of individual items against other independent
%%%                        sources of bibliographic data.  Thus, errors
%%%                        almost certainly remain.
%%%
%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
%%%                        included in this bibliography wherever
%%%                        available.  Article reviews have been
%%%                        omitted, until their copyright status has
%%%                        been clarified.
%%%
%%%                        The bibsource keys in the bibliography
%%%                        entries below indicate the data sources,
%%%                        usually the Karlsruhe computer science
%%%                        bibliography archive for the first two
%%%                        volumes, or the journal Web site or the
%%%                        Compendex database, both of which lack
%%%                        coverage of this journal before 1985.
%%%
%%%                        URL keys in the bibliography point to
%%%                        World Wide Web locations of additional
%%%                        information about the entry.
%%%
%%%                        Spelling has been verified with the UNIX
%%%                        spell and GNU ispell programs using the
%%%                        exception dictionary stored in the
%%%                        companion file with extension .sok.
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen
%%%                        as name:year:abbrev, where name is the
%%%                        family name of the first author or editor,
%%%                        year is a 4-digit number, and abbrev is a
%%%                        3-letter condensation of important title
%%%                        words. Citation tags were automatically
%%%                        generated by software developed for the
%%%                        BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are sorted in
%%%                        publication order, using ``bibsort -byvolume.''
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
%%%                        count) utility output of lines, words, and
%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-TOCHI                 = "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human
                                  Interaction"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:

@Article{Jacob:1994:ISI,
  author =       "Robert J. K. Jacob and Linda E. Sibert and Daniel C.
                 McFarlane and M. Preston and J. R. Mullen",
  title =        "Integrality and separability of input devices",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--26",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-1/p3-jacob/",
  abstract =     "Current input device taxonomies and other frameworks
                 typically emphasize the mechanical structure of input
                 devices. We suggest that selecting an appropriate input
                 device for an interactive task requires looking beyond
                 the physical structure of devices to the deeper
                 perceptual structure of the task, the device, and the
                 interrelationship between the perceptual structure of
                 the task and the control properties of the device. We
                 affirm that perception is key to understanding
                 performance of multidimensional input devices on
                 multidimensional tasks. We have therefore extended the
                 theory of processing of perceptual structure to
                 graphical interactive tasks and to the control
                 structure of input devices. This allows us to predict
                 task and device combinations that lead to better
                 performance and hypothesize that performance is
                 improved when the perceptual structure of the task
                 matches the control structure of the device. We
                 conducted an experiment in which subjects performed two
                 tasks with different perceptual structures, using two
                 input devices with correspondingly different control
                 structures, a three-dimensional tracker and a mouse. We
                 analyzed both speed and accuracy, as well as the
                 trajectories generated by subjects as they used the
                 unconstrained three-dimensional tracker to perform each
                 task. The result support our hypothesis and confirm the
                 importance of matching the perceptual structure of the
                 task and the control structure of the input device.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors; measurement;
                 theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Input
                 devices and strategies. {\bf H.1.2} Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems,
                 Human factors. {\bf I.3.6} Computing Methodologies,
                 COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Methodology and Techniques,
                 Interaction techniques. {\bf H.5.2} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Interaction styles.",
}

@Article{Sears:1994:SME,
  author =       "Andrew Sears and Ben Shneiderman",
  title =        "Split menus: effectively using selection frequency to
                 organize menus",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--51",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-1/p27-sears/",
  abstract =     "When some items in a menu are selected more frequently
                 than others, as is often the case, designers or
                 individual users may be able to speed performance and
                 improve preference ratings by placing several
                 high-frequency items at the top of the menu. Design
                 guidelines for {\em split menus\/} were developed and
                 applied. Split menus were implemented and tested in two
                 in situ usability studies and a controlled experiment.
                 In the usability studies performance times were reduced
                 by 17 to 58\% depending on the site and menus. In the
                 controlled experiment split menus were significantly
                 faster than alphabetic menus and yielded significantly
                 higher subjective preferences. A possible resolution to
                 the continuing debate among cognitive theorists about
                 predicting menu selection times is offered. We
                 conjecture and offer evidence that, at least when
                 selecting items from pull-down menus, a logarithmic
                 model applies to familiar (high-frequency) items, and a
                 linear model to unfamiliar (low-frequency) items.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces.",
}

@Article{Poltrock:1994:OOI,
  author =       "Steven E. Poltrock and Jonathan Grudin",
  title =        "Organizational obstacles to interface design and
                 development: two participant-observer studies",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52--80",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-1/p52-poltrock/",
  abstract =     "The development of human-computer interfaces was
                 studied in two large software product development
                 organizations. Researchers joined development projects
                 for approximately one month and participated in
                 interface design while concurrently interviewing other
                 project participants and employees, recording activity
                 in meetings and on electronic networks, and otherwise
                 observing the process. The two organizations differed
                 in their approaches to development, and, in each case,
                 the approach differed in practice from the model
                 supported by the organizational structure. Development
                 practices blocked the successful application of
                 accepted principles of interface design. The obstacles
                 to effective design that results from people noticing
                 and being affected by interface changes, and a lack of
                 communication among those sharing responsibility for
                 different aspects of the interface.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Theory
                 and methods. {\bf D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Design Tools and Techniques, User
                 interfaces. {\bf D.2.10} Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Design**, Methodologies**. {\bf D.2.m}
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Miscellaneous, Rapid
                 prototyping**. {\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS
                 AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human factors.
                 {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES
                 AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Training, help, and
                 documentation. {\bf H.5.3} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group and
                 Organization Interfaces.",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1994:I,
  author =       "Ralph D. Hill and Tom Brinck and Steven L. Rohall and
                 John F. Patterson and Wayne Wilner",
  title =        "The {{\em Rendezvous}} architecture and language for
                 constructing multiuser applications",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "81--125",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-2/p81-hill/",
  abstract =     "When people have meetings or discussions, frequently
                 they use {\em conversational props\/}: physical models,
                 drawings, or other concrete representations of
                 information used to enhance the exchange of
                 information. If the participants are geographically
                 separated, it is difficult to make effective use of
                 props since each physical prop can only exist in one
                 place. Computer applications that allow two or more
                 users to simultaneously view and manipulate the same
                 data can be used to augment human-to-human
                 telecommunication. We have built the {\em Rendezvous\/}
                 system is similar to many UIMSs or user interface
                 toolkits in that it is intended to simplify the
                 construction of graphical direct-manipulation
                 interfaces. It goes beyond these systems by adding
                 functionality to support the construction of multiuser
                 applications. Based on experience with several large
                 applications built with the {\em Rendezvous\/} system,
                 we believe that it is useful for building
                 conversational props and other computer-supported
                 cooperative work (CSCW) applications. We present a list
                 of required features of conversational props, some
                 example applications built with the {\em Rendezvous\/}
                 system, and a description of the {\em Rendezvous\/}
                 system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "languages",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, User
                 interface management systems (UIMS). {\bf D.3.3}
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs
                 and Features. {\bf D.4.7} Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS,
                 Organization and Design, Interactive systems. {\bf
                 H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, Group and Organization Interfaces,
                 Synchronous interaction. {\bf I.3.2} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Graphics Systems.",
}

@Article{Leung:1994:RTD,
  author =       "Y. K. Leung and M. D. Aerley",
  title =        "A review and taxonomy of distortion-oriented
                 presentation techniques",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "126--160",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-2/p126-leung/",
  abstract =     "One of the common problems associated with large
                 computer-based information systems is the relatively
                 small window through which an information space can be
                 viewed. Increasing interest in recent years has been
                 focused on the development of distortion-oriented
                 presentation techniques to address this problem.
                 However, the growing number of new terminologies and
                 techniques developed have caused considerable confusion
                 to the graphical user interface designer, consequently
                 making the comparison of these presentation techniques
                 and generalization of empirical results of experiments
                 with them very difficult, if not impossible. This
                 article provides a taxonomy of distortion-oriented
                 techniques which demonstrates clearly their underlying
                 relationships. A unified theory is presented to reveal
                 their roots and origins. Issues relating to the
                 implementation and performance of these techniques are
                 also discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Screen
                 design. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces,
                 Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.1.2} Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems,
                 Human factors.",
}

@Article{Zanden:1994:IPV,
  author =       "Brad Vander Zanden and Brad A. Myers and Dario A.
                 Giuse and Pedro Szekely",
  title =        "Integrating pointer variables into one-way constraint
                 models",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "161--213",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-2/p161-vander_zanden/",
  abstract =     "Pointer variables have long been considered useful for
                 constructing and manipulating data structures in
                 traditional programming languages. This article
                 discusses how pointer variables can be integrated into
                 one-way constraint models and indicates how these
                 constraints can be usefully employed in user
                 interfaces. Pointer variables allow constraints to
                 model a wide array of dynamic application behavior,
                 simplify the implementation of structured objects and
                 demonstrational systems, and improve the storage and
                 efficiency of constraint-based applications. This
                 article presents two incremental algorithms --- one
                 lazy and one eager --- for solving constraints with
                 pointer variables. Both algorithms are capable of
                 handling (1) arbitrary systems of one-way constraints,
                 including constraints that involve cycles, and (2)
                 editing models that allow multiple changes between
                 calls to the constraint solver. These algorithms are
                 fault tolerant in that they can handle and recover
                 gracefully from formulas that crash due to programmer
                 error. Constraints that use pointer variables have been
                 implemented in a comprehensive user interface toolkit,
                 Garnet, and our experience with applications written in
                 Garnet have proven the usefulness of pointer variable
                 constraints. Many large-scale applications have been
                 implemented using these constraints.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design
                 Tools and Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf D.2.3}
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Coding Tools and
                 Techniques, Program editors. {\bf D.2.6} Software,
                 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Programming Environments. {\bf
                 I.1.2} Computing Methodologies, SYMBOLIC AND ALGEBRAIC
                 MANIPULATION, Algorithms, Nonalgebraic algorithms. {\bf
                 I.1.3} Computing Methodologies, SYMBOLIC AND ALGEBRAIC
                 MANIPULATION, Languages and Systems.",
}

@Article{Mukherjea:1994:TVD,
  author =       "Sougata Mukherjea and John T. Stasko",
  title =        "Toward visual debugging: integrating algorithm
                 animation capabilities within a source-level debugger",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "215--244",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-3/p215-mukherjea/",
  abstract =     "Much of the recent research in software visualization
                 has been polarized toward two opposite domains. In one
                 domain that we call {\em data structure and program
                 visualization}, low-level canonical views of program
                 structures are generated automatically. These types of
                 views, which do not require programmer input or
                 intervention, can be useful for testing and debugging
                 software. Often, however, their generic, low-level
                 views are not expressive enough to convey adequately
                 how a program functions. In the second domain called
                 {\em algorithm animation}, designers handcraft
                 abstract, application-specific views that are useful
                 for program understanding and teaching. Unfortunately,
                 since algorithm animation development typically
                 requires time-consuming design with a graphics package,
                 it will not be used for debugging, where timeliness is
                 a necessity. However, we speculate that the
                 application-specific nature of algorithm animation
                 views could be a valuable debugging aid for software
                 developers as well, if only the views could be easy and
                 rapid to create. We have developed a system called {\em
                 Lens\/} that occupies a unique niche between the two
                 domains discussed above and explores the capabilities
                 that such a system may offer. Lens allows programmers
                 to build rapidly (in minutes) algorithm animation-style
                 program views without requiring any sophisticated
                 graphics knowledge and without using textual coding.
                 Lens also is integrated with a system debugger to
                 promote iterative design and exploration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "algorithms; human factors; verification",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.5} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Testing
                 and Debugging, Debugging aids. {\bf D.2.2} Software,
                 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and Techniques, User
                 interfaces. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces. {\bf I.3.8} Computing Methodologies,
                 COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Applications. {\bf I.6.8} Computing
                 Methodologies, SIMULATION AND MODELING, Types of
                 Simulation, Animation.",
}

@Article{Mandviwalla:1994:WDG,
  author =       "Munir Mandviwalla and Lorne Olfman",
  title =        "What do groups need? {A} proposed set of generic
                 groupware requirements",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "245--268",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-3/p245-mandviwalla/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group and Organization
                 Interfaces. {\bf D.2.1} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,
                 Requirements/Specifications, Methodologies (e.g.,
                 object-oriented, structured). {\bf H.1.2} Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems,
                 Human factors. {\bf H.4.1} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation,
                 Time management. {\bf H.4.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Types of Systems,
                 Decision support. {\bf H.4.3} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Communications
                 Applications, Bulletin boards. {\bf H.4.3} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS,
                 Communications Applications, Computer conferencing,
                 teleconferencing, and videoconferencing. {\bf H.4.3}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS,
                 Communications Applications, Electronic mail.",
}

@Article{Berlage:1994:SUM,
  author =       "Thomas Berlage",
  title =        "A selective undo mechanism for graphical user
                 interfaces based on command objects",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "269--294",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-3/p269-berlage/",
  abstract =     "It is important to provide a recovery operation for
                 applications with a graphical user interface. A
                 restricted linear undo mechanism can conveniently be
                 implemented using object-oriented techniques. Although
                 linear undo provides an arbitrarily long history, it is
                 not possible to undo isolated commands from the history
                 without undoing all following commands. Various undo
                 models have been proposed to overcome this limitation,
                 but they all ignore the problem that in graphical user
                 interfaces a previous user action might not have a
                 sensible interpretation in another state. {\em
                 Selective undo\/} introduced here can undo isolated
                 commands by copying them into the current state ``{\em
                 if that is meaningful.''\/} Furthermore, the semantics
                 of selective undo are argued to be more natural for the
                 user, because the mechanism only looks at the command
                 to undo and the current state and does not depend on
                 the history in between. The user interface for
                 selective undo can also be implemented generically.
                 Such a generic implementation is able to provide a
                 consistent recovery mechanism in arbitrary
                 applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design
                 Tools and Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf D.1.5}
                 Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, Object-oriented
                 Programming. {\bf D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Design Tools and Techniques, Software
                 libraries. {\bf D.2.m} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,
                 Miscellaneous, Reusable software**. {\bf H.1.2}
                 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Interaction styles. {\bf
                 H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, User interface
                 management systems (UIMS). {\bf H.5.3} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group
                 and Organization Interfaces, Synchronous interaction.",
}

@Article{Prakash:1994:FUA,
  author =       "Atul Prakash and Michael J. Knister",
  title =        "A framework for undoing actions in collaborative
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "295--330",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-4/p295-prakash/",
  abstract =     "The ability to undo operations is a standard feature
                 in most single-user interactive applications. We
                 propose a general framework for implementing undo in
                 collaborative systems. The framework allows users to
                 reverse their own changes individually, taking into
                 account the possibility of conflicts between different
                 users' operations that may prevent an undo. The
                 proposed framework has been incorporated into DistEdit,
                 a toolkit for building group text editors. Based on our
                 experience with DistEdit's undo facilities, we discuss
                 several issues that need to be taken into account in
                 using the framework, in order to ensure that a
                 reasonable undo behavior is provided to users. We show
                 that the framework is also applicable to single-user
                 systems, since the operations to undo can be selected
                 not just on the basis of who performed them, but by any
                 appropriate criterion, such as the document region in
                 which the operations occurred or the time interval in
                 which the operations were carried out.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf I.7.1} Computing Methodologies, DOCUMENT AND TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Document and Text Editing. {\bf H.1.2}
                 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf H.2.2}
                 Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Physical
                 Design, Recovery and restart. {\bf H.2.4} Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Systems, Concurrency.
                 {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES
                 AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Theory and methods.
                 {\bf H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES
                 AND PRESENTATION, Group and Organization Interfaces.",
}

@Article{Ware:1994:ROV,
  author =       "Colin Ware and Ravin Balakrishnan",
  title =        "Reaching for objects in {VR} displays: lag and frame
                 rate",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "331--356",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-4/p331-ware/",
  abstract =     "This article reports the results from three
                 experimental studies of reaching behavior in a
                 head-coupled stereo display system with a hand-tracking
                 subsystem for object selection. It is found that lag in
                 the head-tracking system is relatively unimportant in
                 predicting performance, whereas lag in the
                 hand-tracking system is critical. The effect of hand
                 lag can be modeled by means of a variation on Fitts'
                 Law with the measured system lag introduced as a
                 multiplicative variable to the Fitts' Law index of
                 difficulty. This means that relatively small lags can
                 cause considerable degradation in performance if the
                 targets are small. Another finding is that errors are
                 higher for movement in and out of the screen, as
                 compared to movements in the plane of the screen, and
                 there is a small (10\%) time penalty for movement in
                 the Z direction in all three experiments. Low frame
                 rates cause a degradation in performance; however, this
                 can be attributed to the lag which is caused by low
                 frame rates, particularly if double buffering is used
                 combined with early sampling of the hand-tracking
                 device.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; performance",
  subject =      "{\bf I.3.6} Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Methodology and Techniques, Interaction
                 techniques. {\bf I.3.7} Computing Methodologies,
                 COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Three-Dimensional Graphics and
                 Realism, Virtual reality. {\bf H.5.2} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Input devices and strategies.",
}

@Article{Sanchez:1994:HEO,
  author =       "J. Alfredo S{\'a}nchez and John J. Leggett and John L.
                 Schnase",
  title =        "{HyperActive}: extending an open hypermedia
                 architecture to support agency",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "357--382",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1994-1-4/p357-sanchez/",
  abstract =     "Agency and hypermedia have both been suggested as
                 powerful means to cope with future information
                 management and human-computer interaction requirements.
                 However, research projects have included interface
                 agents only marginally in the context of hypermedia
                 systems. This article proposes a set of criteria for
                 characterizing interface agents and offers a
                 perspective view of ongoing research in the field using
                 those criteria as a framework. The need to provide a
                 supporting infrastructure that facilitates testing and
                 experimentation of interface agents is stressed. The
                 article describes an existing open hypermedia
                 architecture and introduces an extended architecture
                 that includes provisions to support the development and
                 operation of interface agents. A prototype
                 instantiating this system architecture is presented, as
                 well as an initial assessment of the potential and
                 requirements of interface agents in a hypermedia
                 environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf I.7.2} Computing Methodologies, DOCUMENT AND TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Document Preparation, Hypertext/hypermedia.
                 {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES
                 AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Interaction
                 styles.",
}

@Article{Dewan:1995:CUI,
  author =       "Prasun Dewan and Rajiv Choudhary",
  title =        "Coupling the user interfaces of a multiuser program",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--39",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-1/p1-dewan/",
  abstract =     "We have developed a new model for coupling the user
                 interfaces of a multiuser program. It is based on an
                 interaction model and a user interface framework that
                 allow users and programmers, respectively, to view
                 applications as editors of data. It consists of a
                 semantics model, a specification model, and an
                 implementation model for coupling. The semantics model
                 determines (1) which properties of interaction entities
                 created for a user are shared with corresponding
                 interaction entities created for other users and (2)
                 when changes made by a user to a property of an
                 interaction entity are communicated to other users
                 sharing it. It divides the properties of an interaction
                 entity into multiple coupling sets and allows users to
                 share different coupling sets independently. It
                 supports several criteria for choosing when a change
                 made by a user to a shared property is communicated to
                 other users. These criteria include how structurally
                 complete the change is, how correct it is, and the time
                 at which it was made. The specification model
                 determines how users specify the desired semantics of
                 coupling. It associates interaction entities with
                 inheritable coupling attributes, allows multiple users
                 to specify values of these attributes, and does a
                 runtime matching of the coupling attributes specified
                 by different users to derive the coupling among their
                 user interfaces. The implementation model determines
                 how multiuser programs implement user-customizable
                 coupling. It divides the task of implementing the
                 coupling between system-provided modules and
                 application programs. The modules support automatically
                 a predefined semantics and specification model that can
                 be extended by the programs. We have implemented the
                 coupling model as part of a system called Suite. This
                 paper describes and motivates the model using the
                 concrete example of Suite, discusses how aspects of it
                 can be implemented in other systems, compares it with
                 related work, discusses its shortcomings, and suggests
                 directions for future work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.6} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,
                 Programming Environments, Interactive environments.
                 {\bf C.2.4} Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Distributed Systems,
                 Distributed applications. {\bf C.2.4} Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems, Distributed databases. {\bf D.2.2}
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and
                 Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf D.3.3} Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs and
                 Features, Input/output. {\bf H.1.2} Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems,
                 Human factors. {\bf H.4.1} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Office Automation.
                 {\bf I.7.1} Computing Methodologies, DOCUMENT AND TEXT
                 PROCESSING, Document and Text Editing. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces,
                 Evaluation/methodology.",
}

@Article{Dourish:1995:DRM,
  author =       "Paul Dourish",
  title =        "Developing a reflective model of collaborative
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "40--63",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-1/p40-dourish/",
  abstract =     "Recent years have seen a shift in perception of the
                 nature of HCI and interactive systems. As interface
                 work has increasingly become a focus of attention for
                 the social sciences, we have expanded our appreciation
                 of the importance of issues such as work practice,
                 adaptation, and evolution in interactive systems. The
                 reorientation in our view of interactive systems has
                 been accompanied by a call for a new model of design
                 centered around user needs and participation. This
                 article argues that a new process of design is not
                 enough and that the new view necessitates a similar
                 reorientation in the {\em structure\/} of the systems
                 we build. It outlines some requirements for systems
                 that support a deeper conception of interaction and
                 argues that the traditional system design techniques
                 are not suited to creating such systems. Finally, using
                 examples from ongoing work in the design of an open
                 toolkit for collaborative applications, it illustrates
                 how the principles of computational reflection and
                 metaobject protocols can lead us toward a new model
                 based on open abstraction that holds great promise in
                 addressing these issues.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.10} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design**,
                 Methodologies**. {\bf C.2.4} Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems, Distributed applications. {\bf
                 D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and
                 Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf H.1.0} Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, General.",
}

@Article{Myers:1995:UIS,
  author =       "Brad A. Myers",
  title =        "User interface software tools",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "64--103",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-1/p64-myers/",
  abstract =     "Almost as long as there have been user interfaces,
                 there have been special software systems and tools to
                 help design and implement the user interface software.
                 Many of these tools have demonstrated significant
                 productivity gains for programmers, and have become
                 important commercial products. Others have proven less
                 successful at supporting the kinds of user interfaces
                 people want to build. This article discusses the
                 different kinds of user interface software tools, and
                 investigates why some approaches have worked and others
                 have not. Many examples of commercial and research
                 systems are included. Finally, current research
                 directions and open issues in the field are
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design
                 Tools and Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf H.1.2}
                 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, User interface
                 management systems (UIMS). {\bf I.2.2} Computing
                 Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE, Automatic
                 Programming, Program synthesis.",
}

@Article{Taylor:1995:CSA,
  author =       "Richard N. Taylor and Kari A. Nies and Gregory Alan
                 Bolcer and Craig A. MacFarlane and Kenneth M. Anderson
                 and Gregory F. Johnson",
  title =        "Chiron-1: a software architecture for user interface
                 development, maintenance, and run-time support",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "105--144",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-2/p105-taylor/",
  abstract =     "The Chiron-1 user interface system demonstrates key
                 techniques that enable a strict separation of an
                 application from its user interface. These techniques
                 include separating the control-flow aspects of the
                 application and user interface: they are concurrent and
                 may contain many threads. Chiron also separates
                 windowing and look-and-feel issues from dialogue and
                 abstract presentation decisions via mechanisms
                 employing a client-server architecture. To separate
                 application code from user interface code, user
                 interface agents called {\em artists\/} are attached to
                 instances of application abstract data types (ADTs).
                 Operations on ADTs within the application implicitly
                 trigger user interface activities within the artists.
                 Multiple artists can be attached to ADTs, providing
                 multiple views and alternative forms of access and
                 manipulation by either a single user or by multiple
                 users. Each artist and the application run in separate
                 threads of control. Artists maintain the user interface
                 by making remote calls to an abstract depiction
                 hierarchy in the Chiron server, insulting the user
                 interface code from the specifics of particular
                 windowing systems and toolkits. The Chiron server and
                 clients execute in separate processes. The
                 client-server architecture also supports multilingual
                 systems: mechanisms are demonstrated that support
                 clients written in programming languages other than
                 that of the server while nevertheless supporting
                 object-oriented server concepts. The system has been
                 used in several universities and research and
                 development projects. It is available by anonymous
                 ftp.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, User
                 interface management systems (UIMS). {\bf D.2.2}
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and
                 Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf D.2.m} Software,
                 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Miscellaneous, Reusable
                 software**.",
}

@Article{Resnick:1995:RAI,
  author =       "Paul Resnick and Robert A. Virzi",
  title =        "Relief from the audio interface blues: expanding the
                 spectrum of menu, list, and form styles",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "145--176",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-2/p145-resnick/",
  abstract =     "Menus, lists, and forms are the workhorse dialogue
                 structures in telephone-based interactive voice
                 response applications. Despite diversity in
                 applications, there is a surprising homogeneity in the
                 menu, list, and form styles commonly employed. There
                 are, however, many alternatives, and no single style
                 fits every prospective application and user population.
                 A design space for each dialogue structure organizes
                 the alternatives and provides a framework for analyzing
                 their benefits and drawbacks. In addition to
                 phone-based interactions, the design spaces apply to
                 any limited-bandwidth, temporally constrained display
                 devices, including small-screen devices such as
                 personal digital assistants (PDAs) and screen phones.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces,
                 Interaction styles. {\bf H.5.1} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia
                 Information Systems, Audio input/output.",
}

@Article{Olsen:1995:ISI,
  author =       "Dan R. {Olsen, Jr.} and Germinder Singh and Steven K.
                 Feiner",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on virtual reality
                 software and technology",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "177--178",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-3/p177-olsen/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information
                 Systems, Artificial, augmented, and virtual
                 realities.",
}

@Article{Wexelblat:1995:ANG,
  author =       "Alan Wexelblat",
  title =        "An approach to natural gesture in virtual
                 environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "179--200",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-3/p179-wexelblat/",
  abstract =     "This article presents research --- an experiment and
                 the resulting prototype --- on a method for treating
                 gestural input so that it can be used for multimodal
                 applications, such as interacting with virtual
                 environments. This method involves the capture and use
                 of natural, empty-hand gestures that are made during
                 conventional descriptive utterances. Users are allowed
                 to gesture in a normal continuous manner, rather than
                 being restricted to a small set of discrete gestural
                 commands as in most other systems. The gestures are
                 captured and analyzed into a higher-level description.
                 This description can be used by an application-specific
                 interpreter to understand the gestural input in its
                 proper context. Having a gesture analyzer of this sort
                 enables natural gesture input to any appropriate
                 application.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human information
                 processing. {\bf H.5.1} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia
                 Information Systems, Artificial, augmented, and virtual
                 realities. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces,
                 Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.5.2} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Input devices and strategies. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Interaction styles.",
}

@Article{Slater:1995:TSI,
  author =       "Mel Slater and Martin Usoh and Anthony Steed",
  title =        "Taking steps: the influence of a walking technique on
                 presence in virtual reality",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "201--219",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-3/p201-slater/",
  abstract =     "This article presents an interactive technique for
                 moving through an immersive virtual environment (or
                 ``virtual reality''). The technique is suitable for
                 applications where locomotion is restricted to ground
                 level. The technique is derived from the idea that
                 presence in virtual environments may be enhanced the
                 stronger the match between proprioceptive information
                 from human body movements and sensory feedback from the
                 computer-generated displays. The technique is an
                 attempt to simulate body movements associated with
                 walking. The participant ``walks in place'' to move
                 through the virtual environment across distances
                 greater than the physical limitations imposed by the
                 electromagnetic tracking devices. A neural network is
                 used to analyze the stream of coordinates from the
                 head-mounted display, to determine whether or not the
                 participant is walking on the spot. Whenever it
                 determines the walking behavior, the participant is
                 moved through virtual space in the direction of his or
                 her gaze. We discuss two experimental studies to assess
                 the impact on presence of this method in comparison to
                 the usual hand-pointing method of navigation in virtual
                 reality. The studies suggest that subjective rating of
                 presence is enhanced by the walking method provided
                 that participants associate subjectively with the
                 virtual body provided in the environment. An
                 application of the technique to climbing steps and
                 ladders is also presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf I.3.4} Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Graphics Utilities, Virtual device
                 interfaces. {\bf H.5.1} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia
                 Information Systems, Artificial, augmented, and virtual
                 realities. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces. {\bf
                 I.3.7} Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism, Virtual
                 reality. {\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human information
                 processing.",
}

@Article{Deering:1995:HVR,
  author =       "Michael F. Deering",
  title =        "{HoloSketch}: a virtual reality sketching\slash
                 animation tool",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "220--238",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-3/p220-deering/",
  abstract =     "This article describes HoloSketch, a virtual
                 reality-based 3D geometry creation and manipulation
                 tool. HoloSketch is aimed at providing nonprogrammers
                 with an easy-to-use 3D ``What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get''
                 environment. Using head-tracked stereo shutter glasses
                 and a desktop CRT display configuration, virtual
                 objects can be created with a 3D wand manipulator
                 directly in front of the user, at very high accuracy
                 and much more rapidly than with traditional 3D drawing
                 systems. HoloSketch also supports simple animation and
                 audio control for virtual objects. This article
                 describes the functions of the HoloSketch system, as
                 well as our experience so far with more-general issues
                 of head-tracked stereo 3D user interface design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Input
                 devices and strategies. {\bf I.3.3} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Picture/Image
                 Generation, Display algorithms. {\bf I.3.7} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Three-Dimensional
                 Graphics and Realism, Virtual reality.",
}

@Article{Greenhalgh:1995:MCV,
  author =       "Chris Greenhalgh and Steven Benford",
  title =        "{MASSIVE}: a collaborative virtual environment for
                 teleconferencing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "239--261",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-3/p239-greenhalgh/",
  abstract =     "We describe a prototype virtual reality
                 teleconferencing system called MASSIVE which has been
                 developed as part of our on-going research into
                 collaborative virtual environments. This system allows
                 multiple users to communicate using arbitrary
                 combinations of audio, graphics, and text media over
                 local and wide area networks. Communication is
                 controlled by a so-called spatial model of interaction
                 so that one user's perception of another user is
                 sensitive to their relative positions and orientations.
                 The key concept in this spatial model is the
                 (quantitative) {\em awareness\/} which one object has
                 of another. This is controlled by the observing
                 object's {\em focus\/} and the observed object's {\em
                 nimbus}, which describe regions of interest and
                 projection, respectively. Each object's {\em aura\/}
                 defines the total region within which it interacts.
                 This is applied independently in each medium. The
                 system (and the spatial model which it implements) is
                 intended to provide a flexible and natural environment
                 for the spatial mediation of conversation. The model
                 also provides a basis for scaling to relatively large
                 numbers of users. Our design goals include supporting
                 heterogeneity, scalability, spatial mediation, balance
                 of power, and multiple concurrent meetings; MASSIVE
                 meets all of these goals. Our initial experiences show
                 the importance of audio in collaborative VR, and they
                 raise issues about field of view for graphical users,
                 speed of navigation, quality of embodiment, varying
                 perceptions of space, and scalability.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors; performance;
                 theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.4.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Communications Applications, Computer
                 conferencing, teleconferencing, and videoconferencing.
                 {\bf C.2.4} Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Distributed Systems.
                 {\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems. {\bf H.5.1} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia
                 Information Systems, Artificial, augmented, and virtual
                 realities. {\bf H.5.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information
                 Systems, Audio input/output. {\bf H.5.2} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Interaction styles. {\bf H.5.2} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Theory and methods. {\bf H.5.3} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group
                 and Organization Interfaces, Synchronous interaction.
                 {\bf H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES
                 AND PRESENTATION, Group and Organization Interfaces,
                 Theory and models. {\bf I.3.7} Computing Methodologies,
                 COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Three-Dimensional Graphics and
                 Realism, Virtual reality.",
}

@Article{Kessler:1995:ECW,
  author =       "G. Drew Kessler and Larry F. Hodges and Neff Walker",
  title =        "Evaluation of the {CyberGlove} as a whole-hand input
                 device",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "263--283",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-4/p263-kessler/",
  abstract =     "We present a careful evaluation of the sensory
                 characteristics of the CyberGlove model CG1801
                 whole-hand input device. In particular, we conducted an
                 experimental study that investigated the level of
                 sensitivity of the sensors, their performance in
                 recognizing angles, and factors that affected accuracy
                 of recognition of flexion measurements. Among our
                 results, we show that hand size differences among the
                 subjects of the study did not have a statistical effect
                 on the accuracy of the device. We also analyzed the
                 effect of different software calibration approaches on
                 accuracy of the sensors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Input
                 devices and strategies. {\bf B.4.2} Hardware,
                 INPUT/OUTPUT AND DATA COMMUNICATIONS, Input/Output
                 Devices. {\bf H.5.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information
                 Systems, Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities.
                 {\bf I.2.9} Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL
                 INTELLIGENCE, Robotics, Sensors.",
}

@Article{Yamada:1995:DEH,
  author =       "Shoji Yamada and Jung-Kook Hong and Shigeharu Sugita",
  title =        "Development and evaluation of hypermedia for museum
                 education: validation of metrics",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "284--307",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  note =         "See corrigendum \cite{Yamada:1996:CDE}.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-4/p284-yamada/",
  abstract =     "To define a hypermedia system's ease of use from the
                 user's point of view, we propose three evaluation
                 metrics: an interface shallowness metric, a downward
                 compactness metric, and a downward navigability metric.
                 These express both the cognitive load on users and the
                 structural complexity of the hypermedia contents. We
                 conducted a field study at the National Museum of
                 Ethnology (NME) in Osaka, Japan, to evaluate our
                 hypermedia system and to assess the suitability of our
                 hypermedia metrics from the viewpoint of visiting
                 members of the public. After developing a
                 spreadsheet-type authoring system named HyperEX, we
                 built prototype systems for use by members of the
                 public visiting a special exhibition held at the
                 museum. Questionnaires, interviews, automatic recording
                 of users' navigation operations, and statistical
                 analysis of 449 tested users yielded the following
                 results. First, the suitability of the metrics was
                 found to be satisfactory, indicating that they are
                 useful for developing hypermedia systems. Second, there
                 is a strong relationship between a system's
                 enjoyability and its usability. Transparency and the
                 friendliness of the user interface are the key issues
                 in enjoyability. Finally, the quality of the video
                 strongly affects the overall system evaluation. Video
                 quality is determined by optimum selection of scenes,
                 the length of the video, and appropriate audio-visual
                 expression of the content. This video quality may
                 become the most important issue in developing
                 hypermedia for museum education.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors; measurement",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information
                 Systems, Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.5.1}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information Systems, Hypertext
                 navigation and maps**. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Interaction styles. {\bf
                 D.2.8} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Metrics. {\bf
                 J.0} Computer Applications, GENERAL.",
}

@Article{Zanden:1995:DCT,
  author =       "Brad Vander Zanden and Brad A. Myers",
  title =        "Demonstrational and constraint-based techniques for
                 pictorially specifying application objects and
                 behaviors",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "308--356",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-4/p308-vander_zanden/",
  abstract =     "The Lapidary interface design tool is a
                 demonstrational system that allows the graphics and
                 run-time behaviors that go {\em inside\/} an
                 application window to be specified pictorially. In
                 particular, Lapidary allows the designer to draw
                 example pictures of application-specific graphical
                 objects that the end user will manipulate (such as
                 boxes, arrows, or elements of a list), the feedback
                 that shows which objects are selected (such as small
                 boxes on the sides and corners of an object), and the
                 dynamic feedback objects (such as hairline boxes to
                 show where an object is being dragged). The run-time
                 behavior of all these objects can be specified ina
                 straightforward way using constraints, demonstration,
                 and dialog boxes that allow the designer to provide
                 abstract descriptions of the interactive response to
                 the input devices. Lapidary generalizes from these
                 specific example pictures and behaviors to create
                 prototype objects and behaviors from which instances
                 can be made at run-time. A novel feature of Lapidary's
                 implementation is its use of constraints that have been
                 explicitly specified by the designer to help it
                 generalize example objects and behaviors and to guide
                 it in making inferences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf I.3.6} Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Methodology and Techniques. {\bf D.2.2}
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and
                 Techniques, User interfaces.",
}

@Article{Kim:1995:IRR,
  author =       "Jinwoo Kim and F. Javier Lerch and Herbert A. Simon",
  title =        "Internal representation and rule development in
                 object-oriented design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "357--390",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1995",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1995-2-4/p357-kim/",
  abstract =     "This article proposes a cognitive framework describing
                 the software development process in object-oriented
                 design (OOD) as building internal representations and
                 developing rules. Rule development (method
                 construction) is performed in two problem spaces: a
                 rule space and an instance space. Rules are generated,
                 refined, and evaluated in the rule space by using three
                 main cognitive operations: Infer, Derive, and Evoke.
                 Cognitive activities in the instance space are called
                 mental simulations and are used in conjunction with the
                 Infer operation in the rule space. In an empirical
                 study with college students, we induced different
                 representations to the same problem by using problem
                 isomorphs. Initially, subjects built a representation
                 based on the problem description. As rule development
                 proceeded, the initial internal representation and
                 designed objects were refined, or changed if necessary,
                 to correspond to knowledge gained during rule
                 development. Differences in rule development processes
                 among groups created final designs that are radically
                 different in terms of their level of abstraction and
                 potential reusability. The article concludes by
                 discussing the implications of these results for
                 object-oriented design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.10} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design**,
                 Representation**. {\bf D.1.5} Software, PROGRAMMING
                 TECHNIQUES, Object-oriented Programming. {\bf D.3.2}
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Object-oriented languages.",
}

@Article{Lim:1996:EII,
  author =       "Kai H. Lim and Izak Benbasat and Peter A. Todd",
  title =        "An experimental investigation of the interactive
                 effects of interface style, instructions, and task
                 familiarity on user performance",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--37",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-1/p1-lim/",
  abstract =     "Norman proposed a model describing the sequence of
                 user activities involved in human-computer interaction.
                 Through this model, Norman provides a rationale for why
                 direct-manipulation interfaces may be preferred to
                 other design alternatives. Based on {\em action
                 identification theory\/} we developed several
                 hypotheses about the operations of Norman's model and
                 tested them in a laboratory experiment. The results
                 show that users of a direct-manipulation interface and
                 a menu-based interface did not differ in the total
                 amount of time used to perform a task. However, with
                 the direct-manipulation interface, more time is devoted
                 to performing {\em motor actions}, but this is offset
                 by shorter {\em nonmotor time}. Furthermore, there are
                 significant interactions between task familiarity,
                 instructions, and the type of interface, indicating
                 that Norman's model may not hold under all
                 conditions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces. {\bf
                 D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and
                 Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf H.1.2} Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems.
                 {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES
                 AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, User interface
                 management systems (UIMS). {\bf I.3.6} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Methodology and
                 Techniques, Interaction techniques.",
}

@Article{Johnson:1996:CPS,
  author =       "Jeff A. Johnson and Bonnie A. Nardi",
  title =        "Creating presentation slides: a study of user
                 preferences for task-specific versus generic
                 application software",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "38--65",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-1/p38-johnson/",
  abstract =     "We conducted a study to investigate the use of generic
                 versus task-specific application software by people who
                 create and maintain presentation slides. Sixteen people
                 were interviewed to determine how they prepare slides,
                 what software they use to prepare and maintain slides,
                 and how well the software they use supports various
                 aspects of the task. The informants varied in how
                 central slidemaking was to their jobs. The hypotheses
                 driving the study were that: (1) some software
                 applications are task generic, intended for use in a
                 wide variety of tasks, while others are task specific,
                 intended to support very specific tasks; (2)
                 task-specific software is preferable, but is often not
                 used because of cost, learning effort, or lack of
                 availability, and (3) people who infrequently perform a
                 task tend to use generic tools, while people who often
                 perform it tend to use task-specific tools. Our
                 findings suggest that several factors influence choice
                 of slidemaking software, including desired quality,
                 production time, user skill, willingness to use
                 multiple tools, whether people work alone or in teams,
                 and company policy. Furthermore, the task
                 specificity/genericness of an application program is
                 not a simple matter of {\em degree}, because it depends
                 on several fairly independent software design issues.
                 We (1) conclude that developing application software
                 that supports all aspects of a task well is extremely
                 difficult and (2) suggest an alternative approach that
                 may be more fruitful: providing collections of
                 interoperable tools and services.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces. {\bf
                 H.4.0} Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, General. {\bf I.3.4} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Graphics Utilities,
                 Graphics editors. {\bf K.8.1} Computing Milieux,
                 PERSONAL COMPUTING, Application Packages, Graphics.
                 {\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf I.3.4}
                 Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Graphics
                 Utilities, Application packages.",
}

@Article{Roseman:1996:BRG,
  author =       "Mark Roseman and Saul Greenberg",
  title =        "Building real-time groupware with {GroupKit}, a
                 groupware toolkit",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "66--106",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-1/p66-roseman/",
  abstract =     "This article presents an overview of GroupKit, a
                 groupware toolkit that lets developers build
                 applications for synchronous and distributed
                 computer-based conferencing. GroupKit was constructed
                 from our belief that programming groupware should be
                 only slightly harder than building functionally similar
                 single-user systems. We have been able to significantly
                 reduce the implementation complexity of groupware
                 through the key features that comprise GroupKit. A {\em
                 runtime infrastructure\/} automatically manages the
                 creation, interconnection, and communications of the
                 distributed processes that comprise conference
                 sessions. A set of {\em groupware programming
                 abstractions\/} allows developers to control the
                 behavior of distributed processes, to take action on
                 state changes, and to share relevant data. {\em
                 Groupware widgets\/} let interface features of value to
                 conference participants to be easily added to groupware
                 applications. {\em Session managers\/} --- interfaces
                 that let people create and manage their meetings ---
                 are decoupled from groupware applications and are built
                 by developers to accommodate the group's working style.
                 Example GroupKit applications in a variety of domains
                 have been implemented with only modest effort.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, User
                 interface management systems (UIMS). {\bf D.2.2}
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and
                 Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf D.3.3} Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs and
                 Features. {\bf D.4.7} Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS,
                 Organization and Design, Interactive systems. {\bf
                 H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, Group and Organization Interfaces,
                 Synchronous interaction.",
}

@Article{Healey:1996:HVE,
  author =       "Christopher G. Healey and Kellogg S. Booth and James
                 T. Enns",
  title =        "High-speed visual estimation using preattentive
                 processing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "107--135",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-2/p107-healey/",
  abstract =     "A new method is presented for performing rapid and
                 accurate numerical estimation. The method is derived
                 from an area of human cognitive psychology called
                 preattentive processing. Preattentive processing refers
                 to an initial organization of the visual field based on
                 cognitive operations believed to be rapid, automatic,
                 and spatially parallel. Examples of visual features
                 that can be detected in this way include hue,
                 intensity, orientation, size, and motion. We believe
                 that studies from preattentive vision should be used to
                 assist in the design of visualization tools, especially
                 those for which high-speed target detection, boundary
                 identification, and region detection are important. In
                 our present study, we investigated two known
                 preattentive features (hue and orientation) in the
                 context of a new task (numerical estimation) in order
                 to see whether preattentive estimation was possible.
                 Our experiments tested displays that were designed to
                 visualize data from salmon migration simulations. The
                 results showed that rapid and accurate estimation was
                 indeed possible using either hue or orientation.
                 Furthermore, random variation in one of these features
                 resulted in no interference when subjects estimated the
                 percentage of the other. To test the generality of our
                 results, we varied two important display parameters ---
                 display duration and feature difference --- and found
                 boundary conditions for each. Implications of our
                 results for application to real-world data and tasks
                 are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "experimentation; performance",
  subject =      "{\bf I.3.6} Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Methodology and Techniques, Interaction
                 techniques. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Ergonomics. {\bf H.5.2} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Screen design. {\bf I.3.6} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Methodology and
                 Techniques, Ergonomics.",
}

@Article{Hertzum:1996:BQO,
  author =       "Morten Hertzum and Erik Fr{\o}kj{\ae}r",
  title =        "Browsing and querying in online documentation: a study
                 of user interfaces and the interaction process",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "136--161",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-2/p136-hertzum/",
  abstract =     "A user interface study concerning the usage
                 effectiveness of selected retrieval modes was conducted
                 using an experimental text retrieval system, TeSS,
                 giving access to online documentation of certain
                 programming tools. Four modes of TeSS were compared:
                 (1) browsing, (2) conventional boolean retrieval, (3)
                 boolean retrieval based on Venn diagrams, and (4) these
                 three combined. Further, the modes of TeSS were
                 compared to the use of printed manuals. The subjects
                 observed were 87 computing new to them. In the
                 experiment the use of printed manuals is faster and
                 provides answers of higher quality than any of the
                 electronic modes. Therefore, claims about the
                 effectiveness of computer-based text retrieval have to
                 by vary in situations where printed manuals are
                 manageable to the user. Among the modes of TeSS,
                 browsing is the fastest and the one causing the fewest
                 operational errors. On the same two variables, time and
                 operational errors, the Venn diagram mode performs
                 better than conventional boolean retrieval. The
                 combined mode scores worst on the objective performance
                 measures; nonetheless nearly all subject prefer this
                 mode. Concerning the interaction process, the subjects
                 tend to manage the complexities of the information
                 retrieval tasks by issuing series of simple commands
                 and exploiting the interactive capabilities of TeSS. To
                 characterize the dynamics of the interaction process
                 two concepts are introduced; threads and sequences of
                 tactics. Threads in a query sequence describes the
                 continuity during retrieval. Sequences of tactics
                 concern the combined mode and describe how different
                 retrieval modes succeed each other as the retrieval
                 process evolves.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors; performance",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces,
                 Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.3.3} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Information
                 Search and Retrieval, Query formulation. {\bf H.3.3}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL,
                 Information Search and Retrieval, Retrieval models.
                 {\bf H.3.4} Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE
                 AND RETRIEVAL, Systems and Software. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Training, help, and
                 documentation.",
}

@Article{Schaffer:1996:NHC,
  author =       "Doug Schaffer and Zhengping Zuo and Saul Greenberg and
                 Lyn Bartram and John Dill and Shelli Dubs and Mark
                 Roseman",
  title =        "Navigating hierarchically clustered networks through
                 fisheye and full-zoom methods",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "162--188",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-2/p162-schaffer/",
  abstract =     "Many information structures are represented as
                 two-dimensional networks (connected graphs) of links
                 and nodes. Because these network tend to be large and
                 quite complex, people often prefer to view part or all
                 of the network at varying levels of detail. {\em
                 Hierarchical clustering\/} provides a framework for
                 viewing the network at different levels of detail by
                 superimposing a hierarchy on it. Nodes are grouped into
                 clusters, and clusters are themselves place into other
                 clusters. Users can then navigate these clusters until
                 an appropriate level of detail is reached. This article
                 describes an experiment comparing two methods for
                 viewing hierarchically clustered networks. Traditional
                 {\em full-zoom\/} techniques provide details of only
                 the current level of the hierarchy. In contrast, {\em
                 fisheye views,} generated by the ``variable-zoom''
                 algorithm described in this article, provide
                 information about higher levels as well. Subjects using
                 both viewing methods were given problem-solving tasks
                 requiring them to navigate a network, in this case, a
                 simulated telephone system, and to reroute links in it.
                 Results suggest that the greater context provided by
                 fisheye views significantly improved user performance.
                 Users were quicker to complete their task and made
                 fewer unnecessary navigational steps through the
                 hierarchy. This validation of fisheye views in
                 important for designers of interfaces to complicated
                 monitoring systems, such as control rooms for
                 supervisory control and data acquistion systems, where
                 efficient human performance is often critical. However,
                 control room operators remained concerned about the
                 size and visibility tradeoffs between the fine room
                 operators remained concerned about the size and
                 visibility tradeoffs between the fine detail provided
                 by full-zoom techniques and the global context supplied
                 by fisheye views. Specific interface features are
                 required to reconcile the differences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors; measurement",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces,
                 Interaction styles. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Theory and methods. {\bf I.3.6} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Methodology and
                 Techniques, Interaction techniques.",
}

@Article{Yamada:1996:CDE,
  author =       "Shoji Yamada and Jung-Kook Hong and Shigeharu Sugita",
  title =        "Corrigendum {[``Development and evaluation of
                 hypermedia for museum education: validation and
                 metrics'', ACM Trans. Human Interact. 2, 4(Dec. 1995)
                 284--307]}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "Page 285",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Yamada:1996:CDE}.",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-3/p285-yamada/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors; measurement",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information
                 Systems, Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.5.1}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information Systems, Hypertext
                 navigation and maps**. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Interaction styles. {\bf
                 J.0} Computer Applications, GENERAL. {\bf D.2.8}
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Metrics.",
}

@Article{Rieman:1996:FSE,
  author =       "John Rieman",
  title =        "A field study of exploratory learning strategies",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "189--218",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-3/p189-rieman/",
  abstract =     "It has suggested that interactive computer users find
                 ``exploratory learning'' to be an effective and
                 attractive strategy for learning a new system or
                 investigating unknown features of familiar software. In
                 exploratory learning, instead of working through
                 precisely sequenced training materials, the user
                 investigates a system on his or her own initiative,
                 often in pursuit of a real or artificial task. The
                 value of exploratory learning has been studied in
                 controlled settings, with special attention newly
                 acquired systems, be there has been little
                 investigation of its occurrence in natural situations
                 or in support of ongoing learning. To address this
                 question, a field study of the behavior and attitudes
                 of computer users in everyday working situations was
                 performed, using diaries and structured interviews that
                 focused on learning events. The study showed that
                 task-oriented exploration was a widely accepted method
                 for learning, but that it often required support from
                 manuals and from other users or system support
                 personnel. Exploration not related to a current or
                 pending task was infrequent, and most users believed it
                 to be inefficient. These findings have implications for
                 the design of systems, documentation, and training.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "documentation; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Training,
                 help, and documentation. {\bf D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Design Tools and Techniques, User
                 interfaces.",
}

@Article{Rosson:1996:RUS,
  author =       "Mary Beth Rosson and John M. Carroll",
  title =        "The reuse of uses in {Smalltalk} programming",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "219--253",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-3/p219-rosson/",
  abstract =     "Software reuse, a long-standing and refractory issue
                 in software technology, has been specifically
                 emphasized as an advantage of the object-oriented
                 programming paradigm. We report an empirical study of
                 expert Smalltalk programmers reusing user interface
                 classes in small graphical applications. Our primary
                 goal was to develop a qualitative characterization of
                 expert reuse strategies that could be used to identify
                 requirements for teaching and supporting reuse
                 programming. A secondary interest was to demonstrate to
                 these experts the Reuse View Matcher --- a prototype
                 reuse tool --- and to collect some initial observations
                 of this tool in use during reuse programming. We
                 observed extensive ``reuse of uses'' in the
                 programmers' work: they relied heavily on code in
                 example applications that provided an implicit
                 specification for reuse of the target class. We called
                 this implicit specification a ``usage context.'' The
                 programmers searched for relevant usage contexts early.
                 They repeatedly evaluated the contextualized
                 information to develop solution plans, and they
                 borrowed and adapted it when the sample context suited
                 their immediate reuse goals. The process of code
                 development was highly dynamic and incremental;
                 analysis and implementation were tightly interleaved,
                 frequently driven by testing and debugging. These
                 results are considered in terms of the tradeoffs that
                 inhere in the reuse of uses and the teaching and tool
                 support that might improve the efficiency and accuracy
                 of this approach to reuse.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "documentation; human factors; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf D.1.5} Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES,
                 Object-oriented Programming. {\bf D.2.6} Software,
                 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Programming Environments. {\bf
                 D.2.m} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Miscellaneous,
                 Reusable software**. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Training, help, and documentation.",
}

@Article{Zhai:1996:PEU,
  author =       "Shumin Zhai and William Buxton and Paul Milgram",
  title =        "The partial-occlusion effect: utilizing
                 semitransparency in {3D} human-computer interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "254--284",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-3/p254-zhai/",
  abstract =     "This study investigates human performance when using
                 semitransparent tools in interactive 3D computer
                 graphics environments. The article briefly reviews
                 techniques for presenting depth information and
                 examples of applying semitransparency in computer
                 interface design. We hypothesize that when the user
                 moves a semitransparent surface in a 3D environment,
                 the ``partial-occlusion'' effect introduced through
                 semitransparency acts as an effective cue in target
                 localization --- an essential component in many 3D
                 interaction tasks. This hypothesis was tested in an
                 experiment in which subjects were asked to capture
                 dynamic targets (virtual fish) with two versions of a
                 3D box cursor, one with and one without semitransparent
                 surfaces. Results showed that the partial-occlusion
                 effect through semitransparency significantly improved
                 users' performance in terms of trial completion time,
                 error rate, and error magnitude in both monoscopic and
                 stereoscopic displays. Subjective evaluations supported
                 the conclusions drawn from performance measures. The
                 experimental results and their implications are
                 discussed, with emphasis on the relative, discrete
                 nature of the partial-occlusion effect and on
                 interactions between different depth cues. The article
                 concludes with proposals of a few future research
                 issues and applications of semitransparency in
                 human-computer interaction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors; measurement",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces,
                 Interaction styles. {\bf H.1.2} Information Systems,
                 MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human
                 factors. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Input
                 devices and strategies. {\bf I.3.6} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Methodology and
                 Techniques, Interaction techniques. {\bf I.3.7}
                 Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism, Virtual
                 reality.",
}

@Article{John:1996:UGU,
  author =       "Bonnie E. John and David E. Kieras",
  title =        "Using {GOMS} for user interface design and evaluation:
                 which technique?",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "287--319",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-4/p287-john/",
  abstract =     "Since the seminal book, {\em The Psychology of
                 Human-Computer Interaction}, the GOMS model has been
                 one of the few widely known theoretical concepts in
                 human-computer interaction. This concept has spawned
                 much research to verify and extend the original work
                 and has been used in real-world design and evaluation
                 situations. This article synthesizes the previous work
                 on GOMS to provide an integrated view of GOMS models
                 and how they can be used in design. We briefly describe
                 the major variants of GOMS that have matured
                 sufficiently to be used in actual design. We then
                 provide guidance to practitioners about which GOMS
                 variant to use for different design situations.
                 Finally, we present examples of the application of GOMS
                 to practical design problems and then summarize the
                 lessons learned.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human information
                 processing.",
}

@Article{John:1996:GFU,
  author =       "Bonnie E. John and David E. Kieras",
  title =        "The {GOMS} family of user interface analysis
                 techniques: comparison and contrast",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "320--351",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-4/p320-john/",
  abstract =     "Sine the publication of {\em The Psychology of
                 Human-Computer Interaction}, the GOMS model has been
                 one of the most widely known theoretical concepts in
                 HCI. This concept has produced several GOMS analysis
                 techniques that differ in appearance and form,
                 underlying architectural assumptions, and predictive
                 power. This article compares and contrasts four popular
                 variants of the GOMS family (the Keystroke-Level Model,
                 the original GOMS formulation, NGOMSL, and CPM-GOMS) by
                 applying them to a single task example.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human information
                 processing.",
}

@Article{Recker:1996:PDA,
  author =       "Margaret M. Recker and James E. Pitkow",
  title =        "Predicting document access in large multimedia
                 repositories",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "352--375",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-4/p352-recker/",
  abstract =     "Network-accessible multimedia databases, repositories,
                 and libraries are proliferating at a rapid rate. A
                 crucial problem for these repositories remains timely
                 and appropriate document access. In this article, we
                 borrow a model from psychological research on human
                 memory, which has long studied retrieval of memory
                 items based on frequency and recency rates of past item
                 occurrences. Specifically, the model uses frequency and
                 recency rates of prior document accesses to predict
                 future document requests. The model is illustrated by
                 analyzing the log file of document accesses to the
                 Georgia Institute of Technology World Wide Web (WWW)
                 repository, a large multimedia repository exhibiting
                 high access rates. Results show that the model predicts
                 document access rates with a reliable degree of
                 accuracy. We describe extensions to the basic approach
                 that combine the recency and frequency analyses and
                 which incorporate repository structure and document
                 type. These results have implications for the
                 formulation of descriptive user models of information
                 access in large repositories. In addition, we sketch
                 applications in the areas of design of information
                 systems and interfaces and their document-caching
                 algorithms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors; measurement",
  subject =      "{\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human information
                 processing. {\bf H.5.1} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia
                 Information Systems, Evaluation/methodology.",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1996:AI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Author index",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "376--377",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1996-3-4/p376-author_index/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  subject =      "{\bf A.2} General Literature, REFERENCE.",
}

@Article{Schmandt:1997:ISI,
  author =       "Chris Schmandt and Nichole Yankelovich",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on speech as data",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--1",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-1/p1-schmandt/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "theory",
  subject =      "{\bf A.0} General Literature, GENERAL.",
}

@Article{Arons:1997:SSI,
  author =       "Barry Arons",
  title =        "{SpeechSkimmer}: a system for interactively skimming
                 recorded speech",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--38",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-1/p3-arons/",
  abstract =     "Listening to a speech recording is much more difficult
                 than visually scanning a document because of the
                 transient and temporal nature of audio. Audio
                 recordings capture the richness of speech, yet it is
                 difficult to directly browse the stored information.
                 This article describes techniques for structuring,
                 filtering, and presenting recorded speech, allowing a
                 user to navigate and interactively find information in
                 the audio domain. This article describes the
                 SpeechSkimmer system for interactively skimming speech
                 recordings. SpeechSkimmer uses speech-processing
                 techniques to allow a user to hear recorded sounds
                 quickly, and at several levels of detail. User
                 interaction, through a manual input device, provides
                 continuous real-time control of the speed and detail
                 level of the audio presentation. SpeechSkimmer reduces
                 the time needed to listen by incorporating
                 time-compressed speech, pause shortening, automatic
                 emphasis detection, and nonspeech audio feedback. This
                 article also presents a multilevel structural approach
                 to auditory skimming and user interface techniques for
                 interacting with recorded speech. An observational
                 usability test of SpeechSkimmer is discussed, as well
                 as a redesign and reimplementation of the user
                 interface based on the results of this usability
                 test.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information
                 Systems, Audio input/output. {\bf D.2.2} Software,
                 SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and Techniques, User
                 interfaces. {\bf H.3.3} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL, Information Search
                 and Retrieval. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Input devices and
                 strategies. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Interaction styles.",
}

@Article{Ackerman:1997:HLF,
  author =       "Mark S. Ackerman and Brian Starr and Debby Hindus and
                 Scott D. Mainwaring",
  title =        "Hanging on the `wire: a field study of an audio-only
                 media space",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "39--66",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-1/p39-ackerman/",
  abstract =     "The primary focus of this article is an analysis of an
                 audio-only media space from a computer-supported
                 cooperative work (CSCW) perspective. To explore whether
                 audio by itself is suitable for shared media systems,
                 we studied a workgroup using an audio-only media space.
                 This media space, called Thunderwire, combined
                 high-quality audio with open connections to create a
                 shared space for its users. The two-month field study
                 provided a richly nuanced understanding of this audio
                 spaces social use. The system afforded rich sociable
                 interactions. As well, users were able to create a
                 useful, usable social space; however, through an
                 analysis of the social norms that the participants
                 formulated, we show that they had to take into account
                 being in an audio-only environment. Within the field
                 study, then, audio by itself was sufficient for a
                 usable media space and a useful social space, but users
                 were forced to adapt to many audio-only and system
                 conditions. The article also considers audio's
                 implications for privacy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information
                 Systems, Audio input/output. {\bf H.1.2} Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems,
                 Human factors. {\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS
                 AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human information
                 processing. {\bf H.4.3} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, Communications
                 Applications. {\bf H.5.1} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia
                 Information Systems, Evaluation/methodology. {\bf
                 H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Evaluation/methodology.
                 {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES
                 AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Interaction styles.
                 {\bf H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES
                 AND PRESENTATION, Group and Organization Interfaces.
                 {\bf J.4} Computer Applications, SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL
                 SCIENCES.",
}

@Article{Huguenard:1997:WFP,
  author =       "Brian R. Huguenard and F. Javier Lerch and Brian W.
                 Junker and Richard J. Patz and Robert E. Kass",
  title =        "Working-memory failure in phone-based interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "67--102",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-2/p67-huguenard/",
  abstract =     "This article investigates working-memory (WM) failure
                 in phone-based interaction (PBI). We used a
                 computational model of phone-based interaction (PBI
                 USER) to generate predictions about the impact of three
                 factors on WM failure:PBI features (i.e. menu
                 structure), individual differences (i.e., WM capacity),
                 and task characteristics (i.e., number of tasks). Our
                 computational model stipulates that both the storage
                 {\em and\/} the processing of information contribute to
                 WM failure. In practical terms the model and the
                 empirical results indicate that, contrary to guidelines
                 for the design of phone-based interfaces, deep menu
                 hierarchies (no more than three options per menu) do
                 not reduce WM error rates in PBI. At a more theoretical
                 level, the study shows that the use of a computational
                 model in HCI research provides a systematic approach
                 for explaining complex empirical results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors; performance",
  subject =      "{\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human information
                 processing. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Theory and methods.",
}

@Article{Rodham:1997:NAS,
  author =       "Kenneth J. Rodham and Dan R. {Olsen, Jr.}",
  title =        "Nanites: an approach to structure-based monitoring",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "103--136",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-2/p103-rodham/",
  abstract =     "The focal point of many interactive systems is an
                 information artifact being created and manipulated by
                 one or more users through a user interface. The
                 software components of such an interactive system
                 perform their tasks relative to the data structures
                 that represent the information artifact. System
                 components interact with each other by changing these
                 data and responding when relevant changes are made to
                 them by other components. Perhaps the most difficult
                 problem to be solved when building such data-centric
                 systems is the monitoring problem. System components
                 require the ability to watch for and respond to changes
                 made to complex data structures. Previous monitoring
                 approaches are geared toward monitoring single data
                 items rather than entire data structures. This article
                 describes a new monitoring approach called Nanites that
                 is designed to simplify the task of monitoring complex
                 data structures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; performance",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces. {\bf
                 D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and
                 Techniques.",
}

@Article{Whittaker:1997:TML,
  author =       "Steve Whittaker and Jerry Swanson and Jakov Kucan and
                 Candy Sidner",
  title =        "{TeleNotes}: managing lightweight interactions in the
                 desktop",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "137--168",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-2/p137-whittaker/",
  abstract =     "Communication theories and technology have tended to
                 focus on extended, formal meetings and have neglected a
                 prevalent and vital form of workplace communication ---
                 namely, lightweight communication. Unlike formal,
                 extended meetings, lightweight interaction is brief,
                 informal, unplanned, and intermittent. We analyze
                 naturalistic data from a study of work-place
                 communication and derive five design criteria for
                 lightweight interaction systems. These criteria require
                 that systems for lightweight interaction support {\em
                 conversational tracking, rapid connection}, the ability
                 to {\em leave a message, context management,} and {\em
                 shared real-time objects}. Using these criteria, we
                 evaluate existing interpersonal communications
                 technologies. We then describe an implementation of a
                 system (TeleNotes) that is designed to support
                 lightweight interaction by meeting these criteria. The
                 interface metaphor allows communications to be based
                 around desktop objects, resembling ``sticky notes.''
                 These objects are also organized into ``desktop piles''
                 to support conversational threads and provide
                 mechanisms for initiating real-time audio, video, and
                 application sharing. We conducted informal user testing
                 of several system prototypes. Based on our findings,
                 outstanding issues concerning theory and systems design
                 for communication systems are outlined --- in
                 particular, with regard to the issue of managing
                 conversations over time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group and Organization
                 Interfaces, Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.1.2}
                 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf H.5.3}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, Group and Organization Interfaces,
                 Asynchronous interaction. {\bf I.3.6} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Methodology and
                 Techniques, Interaction techniques. {\bf H.5.3}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, Group and Organization Interfaces,
                 Synchronous interaction. {\bf H.5.1} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION,
                 Multimedia Information Systems,
                 Evaluation/methodology.",
}

@Article{Wiedenbeck:1997:HPL,
  author =       "Susan Wiedenbeck and Patti L. Zila",
  title =        "Hands-on practice in learning to use software: a
                 comparison of exercise, exploration, and combined
                 formats",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "169--196",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-2/p169-wiedenbeck/",
  abstract =     "This research addresses two issues in the domain of
                 computer training (1) whether learners are able to use
                 exploration-based practice methods effectively to learn
                 to use software and (2) whether some minimal computing
                 background is necessary to be successful with
                 minimalist training and exploration practice. An
                 empirical study was carried out to compare exploration,
                 exercises, and a combined format consisting of an
                 exercise followed by exploration. Subjects of both high
                 and low computer experience were included in the study.
                 It was thought that the combined format might lead to
                 superior training outcomes because it would both
                 structure learning through an exercise and allow
                 learners to go beyond the simple procedures in the
                 training manual through exploration. The results showed
                 that the performance of the low-experience subjects at
                 test did not differ based on the type of practice.
                 However, high-experience subjects who were trained
                 using exercises or the combined format did
                 significantly better than those trained using
                 exploration alone. The similarity of performance of
                 subjects in the exercise and combined practice
                 conditions suggests that the exercise component of the
                 practice explains their success.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf K.3.2} Computing Milieux, COMPUTERS AND
                 EDUCATION, Computer and Information Science Education,
                 Information systems education. {\bf H.5.2} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Training, help, and documentation.",
}

@Article{Cohen:1997:DGC,
  author =       "Jonathan D. Cohen",
  title =        "Drawing graphs to convey proximity: an incremental
                 arrangement method",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "197--229",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-3/p197-cohen/",
  abstract =     "Graph drawings are increasingly finding their way into
                 user interfaces to convey a variety of relationships.
                 This article deals with rendering graphs to show
                 proximity between vertices by making their
                 configuration (screen) distances reflect their
                 distances in the graph. An arrangement method is
                 described that achieves good drawings at speeds
                 suitable for user interaction on a desktop computer.
                 The method is ``incremental'' in that it first arranges
                 a small portion of the graph, then arranges
                 successively larger fractions of the graph until a
                 suitable arrangement for the entirety is achieved. The
                 incremental approach not only offers speed
                 improvements, but avoids many of the suboptimal
                 solutions reached with other iterative approaches.
                 Algorithms are described in pseudocode, and results are
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "algorithms; human factors; performance",
  subject =      "{\bf I.3.7} Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism,
                 Color, shading, shadowing, and texture. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Screen design.",
}

@Article{Kieras:1997:PEM,
  author =       "David E. Kieras and Scott D. Wood and David E. Meyer",
  title =        "Predictive engineering models based on the {EPIC}
                 architecture for a multimodal high-performance
                 human-computer interaction task",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "230--275",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-3/p230-kieras/",
  abstract =     "Engineering models of human performance permit some
                 aspects of usability of interface designs to be
                 predicted from an analysis of the task, and thus they
                 can replace to some extent expensive user-testing data.
                 We successfully predicted human performance in
                 telephone operator tasks with engineering models
                 constructed in the EPIC ({\bf E}xecutive {\bf
                 P}rocess-{\bf I}nteractive {\bf C}ontrol) architecture
                 for human information processing, which is especially
                 suited for modeling multimodal, complex tasks, and has
                 demonstrated success in other task domains. Several
                 models were constructed on an {\em a priori\/} basis to
                 represent different hypotheses about how operators
                 coordinate their activities to produce rapid task
                 performance. The models predicted the total time with
                 useful accuracy and clarified some important properties
                 of the task. The best model was based directly on the
                 GOMS analysis of the task and made simple assumptions
                 about the operator's task strategy, suggesting that
                 EPIC models are a feasible approach to predicting
                 performance in multimodal high-performance tasks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human information
                 processing. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces.",
}

@Article{Modugno:1997:GRP,
  author =       "Francesmary Modugno and Albert T. Corbett and Brad A.
                 Myers",
  title =        "Graphical representation of programs in a
                 demonstrational visual shell --- an empirical
                 evaluation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "276--308",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-3/p276-modugno/",
  abstract =     "An open question in the area of Programming by
                 Demonstration (PBD) is how to best represent the
                 inferred program. Without a way to view, edit, and
                 share programs, PBD systems will never reach their full
                 potential. We designed and implemented two graphical
                 representation languages for a PBD desktop similar to
                 the Apple Macintosh Finder. Although a user study
                 showed that both languages enabled nonprogrammers to
                 generate and comprehend programs, the study also
                 revealed that the language that more closely reflected
                 the desktop domain doubled users' abilities to
                 accurately generate programs. Trends suggest that the
                 same language was easier for users to comprehend. These
                 findings suggest that it is possible for a PBD system
                 to enable nonprogrammers to construct programs and that
                 the form of the representation can impact the PBD
                 system's effectiveness. A paper-and-pencil evaluation
                 of the two versions of the PBD desktop prior to the
                 study supported these finding and provided interesting
                 feedback on the interaction between usability
                 evaluations and user studies. In particular, the
                 comparison of the paper-and-pencil evaluation with the
                 empirical evaluation suggested that nonempirical
                 evaluation techniques can provide guidance into how to
                 interpret empirical data and, in particular, that PBD
                 systems need to provide support for
                 programming-strategy selection in order to be
                 successful.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf D.1.7} Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, Visual
                 Programming. {\bf D.1.2} Software, PROGRAMMING
                 TECHNIQUES, Automatic Programming. {\bf D.m} Software,
                 MISCELLANEOUS, Software psychology**.",
}

@Article{Ware:1997:SUO,
  author =       "Colin Ware and Kathy Lowther",
  title =        "Selection using a one-eyed cursor in a fish tank {VR}
                 environment",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "309--322",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-4/p309-ware/",
  abstract =     "This study investigates the use of a 2D cursor
                 presented to one eye for target selection in Fish Tank
                 VR and other stereo environments. It is argued that 2D
                 selection of 3D objects should be less difficult than
                 3D selection. Vision research concerning binocular
                 rivalry and the tendency we have to project images onto
                 surfaces suggests that this mode of viewing will not
                 seem particularly unnatural. A Fitt's Law experiment
                 was done to directly compare target acquisition with a
                 one-eyed 2D cursor and target acquisition using a 3D
                 cursor. In both cases we used the same input device
                 (Polhemus Fastrak) so that the device lag and gain
                 parameters were exactly matched. The results show a
                 large improvement in target acquisition time using the
                 2D cursor. The practical implications of this is that
                 the 2D selection method using a one-eyed cursor in
                 preferable to the 3D selection method. Theoretical
                 implications relate to methods for extending Fitts' Law
                 from the one-dimensional task for which it was designed
                 to 2D and 3D tasks. We conclude that the existing
                 approaches to this problem are not adequate.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors; theory",
  subject =      "{\bf I.3.6} Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Methodology and Techniques, Interaction
                 techniques.",
}

@Article{Watson:1997:MLD,
  author =       "Benjamin Watson and Neff Walker and Larry F. Hodges
                 and Aileen Worden",
  title =        "Managing level of detail through peripheral
                 degradation: effects on search performance with a
                 head-mounted display",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "323--346",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-4/p323-watson/",
  abstract =     "Two user studies were performed to evaluate the effect
                 of level-of-detail (LOD) degradation in the periphery
                 of head-mounted displays on visual search performance.
                 In the first study, spatial detail was degraded by
                 reducing resolution. In the second study, detail was
                 degraded in the color domain by using grayscale in the
                 periphery. In each study, 10 subjects were given a
                 complex search task that required users to indicate
                 whether or not a target object was present among
                 distractors. Subjects used several different displays
                 varying in the amount of detail presented. Frame rate,
                 object location, subject input method, and order of
                 display use were all controlled. The primary dependent
                 measures were search time on correctly performed trials
                 and the percentage of all trials correctly performed.
                 Results indicated that peripheral LOD degradation can
                 be used to reduce color or spatial visual complexity by
                 almost half in some search tasks with out significantly
                 reducing performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf
                 H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Screen design. {\bf
                 H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Theory and methods. {\bf
                 I.3.7} Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism, Virtual
                 reality.",
}

@Article{Wolber:1997:PIB,
  author =       "David Wolber",
  title =        "Pavlov: an interface builder for designing animated
                 interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "347--386",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-4/p347-wolber/",
  abstract =     "Conventional interface builders provide little support
                 for interactive development of interfaces with
                 application-specific graphics. Some Programming by
                 Demonstration (PBD) systems do provide such support,
                 but none provide full support for demonstrating
                 interfaces, such as those in games, in which the
                 graphics are animated. This article proposes a number
                 of techniques for creating animated interfaces, all of
                 which have been included in an exploratory system, {\em
                 Pavlov}. Many of the techniques are based on the
                 addition of timing controls to a form of PBD called
                 {\em stimulus-response demonstration}. Others are based
                 on an adaptation of a traditional animation time-line
                 that integrates end-user interaction with animation.
                 The article also evaluates {\em Pavlov\/} with (1) a
                 comparison to other PBD systems in terms of the
                 behaviors that can be specified interactively and (2) a
                 report on an informal user study comparing development
                 in {\em Pavlov\/} to development in a conventional
                 interface builder.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.6} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING,
                 Programming Environments, Interactive environments.
                 {\bf D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design
                 Tools and Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf I.2.1}
                 Computing Methodologies, ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE,
                 Applications and Expert Systems, Games. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces.",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1997:AI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Author index",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "387--388",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1997-4-4/p387-author_index/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Burnett:1998:GDE,
  author =       "Margaret M. Burnett and Herkimer J. Gottfried",
  title =        "Graphical definitions: expanding spreadsheet languages
                 through direct manipulation and gestures",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--33",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-1/p1-burnett/",
  abstract =     "In the past, attempts to extend the spreadsheet
                 paradigm to support graphical objects, such as colored
                 circles or user-defined graphical types, have led to
                 approaches featuring {\em either\/} a direct way of
                 creating objects graphically {\em or\/} strong
                 compatibility with the spreadsheet paradigm, but not
                 both. This inability to conveniently go beyond numbers
                 and strings without straying outside the spreadsheet
                 paradigm has been a limiting factor in the
                 applicability of spreadsheet languages. In this article
                 we present graphical definitions, an approach that
                 removes this limitation, allowing both simple and
                 complex graphical objects to be programmed directly
                 using direct manipulation and gestures, in a manner
                 that fits seamlessly within the spreadsheet paradigm.
                 We also describe an empirical study, in which subjects
                 programmed such objects faster and with fewer errors
                 using this approach than when using a traditional
                 approach to formula specification. Because the approach
                 is expressive enough to be used with both built-in and
                 user-defined types, it allows the directness of
                 demonstrational and spreadsheet techniques to be used
                 in programming a wider range of applications than has
                 been possible before.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf H.4.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation, Spreadsheets. {\bf
                 D.1.1} Software, PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, Applicative
                 (Functional) Programming. {\bf D.1.7} Software,
                 PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES, Visual Programming. {\bf D.3.3}
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs
                 and Features, Abstract data types. {\bf D.3.3}
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs
                 and Features, Data types and structures.",
}

@Article{Dewan:1998:CAM,
  author =       "Prasun Dewan and Honghai Shen",
  title =        "Controlling access in multiuser interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "34--62",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-1/p34-dewan/",
  abstract =     "Traditionally, access control has been studied in the
                 areas of operating systems and database management
                 systems. With the advent of multiuser interfaces, there
                 is a need to provide access control in the user
                 interface. We have developed a general framework for
                 supporting access control in multiuser interfaces. It
                 is based on the classical notion of an access matrix, a
                 generalized editing-based model of user-application
                 interaction, and a flexible model of user-user
                 coupling. It has been designed to support flexible
                 control of all significant shared operations,
                 high-level specification of access control policies,
                 and automatic and efficient implementation of access
                 control in a multiuser interface. It supports several
                 new kinds of protected objects including sessions,
                 windows, and hierarchical active variables; a large set
                 of rights including not only the traditional semantic
                 rights but also interaction and coupling rights; a set
                 of inference rules for deriving default permissions;
                 and a programming interface for implementing access
                 control in multiuser interfaces. We have implemented
                 the framework as part of a system called Suite. This
                 article describes and motivates the framework using the
                 concrete example of Suite, identifies some of the
                 difficult issues we faced in its design, describes our
                 preliminary experience with it, and suggests directions
                 for future work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design
                 Tools and Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf C.2.4}
                 Computer Systems Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION
                 NETWORKS, Distributed Systems, Distributed
                 applications. {\bf D.2.6} Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Programming Environments, Interactive
                 environments. {\bf D.3.3} Software, PROGRAMMING
                 LANGUAGES, Language Constructs and Features,
                 Input/output. {\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS
                 AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human factors.
                 {\bf H.4.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Office Automation. {\bf C.2.4} Computer
                 Systems Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems, Distributed databases. {\bf I.7.2}
                 Computing Methodologies, DOCUMENT AND TEXT PROCESSING,
                 Document Preparation.",
}

@Article{Sun:1998:ACC,
  author =       "Chengzheng Sun and Xiaohua Jia and Yanchun Zhang and
                 Yun Yang and David Chen",
  title =        "Achieving convergence, causality preservation, and
                 intention preservation in real-time cooperative editing
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "63--108",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-1/p63-sun/",
  abstract =     "Real-time cooperative editing systems allow multiple
                 users to view and edit the same
                 text/graphic/image/multimedia document at the same time
                 for multiple sites connected by communication networks.
                 Consistency maintenance is one of the most significant
                 challenges in designing and implementing real-time
                 cooperative editing systems. In this article, a
                 consistency model, with properties of convergence,
                 causality preservation, and intention preservation, is
                 proposed as a framework for consistency maintenance in
                 real-time cooperative editing systems. Moreover, an
                 integrated set of schemes and algorithms, which support
                 the proposed consistency model, are devised and
                 discussed in detail. In particular, we have contributed
                 (1) a novel generic operation transformation control
                 algorithm for achieving intention preservation in
                 combination with schemes for achieving convergence and
                 causality preservation and (2) a pair of reversible
                 inclusion and exclusion transformation algorithms for
                 stringwise operations for text editing. An
                 Internet-based prototype system has been built to test
                 the feasibility of the proposed schemes and
                 algorithms",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "algorithms; design; human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group and Organization
                 Interfaces, Synchronous interaction. {\bf C.2.4}
                 Computer Systems Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION
                 NETWORKS, Distributed Systems, Distributed
                 applications. {\bf D.2.2} Software, SOFTWARE
                 ENGINEERING, Design Tools and Techniques, User
                 interfaces. {\bf H.5.3} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group and
                 Organization Interfaces, Theory and models. {\bf H.1.2}
                 Information Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES,
                 User/Machine Systems, Human factors.",
}

@Article{Dourish:1998:UMT,
  author =       "Paul Dourish",
  title =        "Using metalevel techniques in a flexible toolkit for
                 {CSCW} applications",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "109--155",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-2/p109-dourish/",
  abstract =     "Ideally, software toolkits for collaborative
                 applications should provide generic, reusable
                 components, applicable in a wide range of
                 circumstances, which software developers can assemble
                 to produce new applications. However, the nature of
                 CSCW applications and the mechanics of group
                 interaction present a problem. Group interactions are
                 significantly constrained by the structure of the
                 underlying infrastructure, below the level at which
                 toolkits typically offer control. This article
                 describes the design features of Prospero, a prototype
                 CSCW toolkit designed to be much more flexible than
                 traditional toolkit techniques allow. Prospero uses a
                 metalevel architecture so that application programmers
                 can have control over not only how toolkit components
                 are combined and used, but also over aspects of how
                 they are internally structured and defined. This
                 approach allows programmers to gain access to
                 ``internal'' aspects of the toolkit's operation that
                 affect how interaction and collaboration proceed. This
                 article explains the metalevel approach and its
                 application to CSCW, introduces two particular
                 metalevel techniques for distributed data management
                 and consistency control, shows how they are realized in
                 Prospero, and illustrates how Prospero can be used to
                 create a range of collaborative applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; human factors; languages",
  subject =      "{\bf C.2.4} Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Distributed Systems,
                 Distributed applications. {\bf C.2.4} Computer Systems
                 Organization, COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS,
                 Distributed Systems, Distributed databases. {\bf D.2.2}
                 Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design Tools and
                 Techniques, User interfaces. {\bf H.1.2} Information
                 Systems, MODELS AND PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems,
                 Human factors. {\bf H.5.3} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group and
                 Organization Interfaces, Theory and models.",
}

@Article{Wildemuth:1998:HVB,
  author =       "Barbara M. Wildemuth and Charles P. Friedman and
                 Stephen M. Downs",
  title =        "Hypertext versus {Boolean} access to biomedical
                 information: a comparison of effectiveness, efficiency,
                 and user preferences",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "156--183",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 19 05:49:17 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-2/p156-wildemuth/",
  abstract =     "This study compared of two modes of access to a
                 biomedical database, in terms of their effectiveness
                 and efficiency in supporting clinical problem solving
                 and in terms of user preferences. Boolean access, which
                 allowed subjects to frame their queries as combinations
                 of keywords, was compared to hypertext access, which
                 allowed subjects to navigate from one database node to
                 another. The accessible biomedical data were identical
                 across system versions. Performance data were collected
                 from two cohorts of first-year medical students, each
                 student randomly assigned to either the Boolean or the
                 hypertext system. Additional attitudinal data were
                 collected from the second cohort. At each of two
                 research sessions (one just before and one just after
                 their bacteriology course), subjects worked eight
                 clinical case problems, first using only their personal
                 knowledge and, subsequently, with aid from the
                 database. Database retrievals enabled students to
                 answer questions they could not answer based on
                 personal knowledge alone. This effect was greater when
                 personal knowledge of bacteriology was lower. There
                 were not statistically significant differences between
                 the two forms of access, in terms of problem-solving
                 effectiveness or efficiency. Students preferred Boolean
                 access over hypertext access.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors; performance",
  subject =      "{\bf H.3.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE
                 AND RETRIEVAL, Information Storage. {\bf H.3.3}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL,
                 Information Search and Retrieval. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces.",
}

@Article{Benford:1998:UCS,
  author =       "Steve Benford and Chris Greenhalgh and Gail Reynard
                 and Chris Brown and Boriana Koleva",
  title =        "Understanding and constructing shared spaces with
                 mixed-reality boundaries",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "185--223",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:04:13 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-3/p185-benford/",
  abstract =     "We propose an approach to creating shared mixed
                 realities based on the construction of transparent
                 boundaries between real and virtual spaces. First, we
                 introduce a taxonomy that classifies current approaches
                 to shared spaces according to the three dimensions of
                 transportation, artificiality, and spatiality. Second,
                 we discuss our experience of staging a poetry
                 performance simultaneously within real and virtual
                 theaters. This demonstrates the complexities involved
                 in establishing social interaction between real and
                 virtual spaces and motivates the development of a
                 systematic approach to mixing realities. Third, we
                 introduce and demonstrate the technique of
                 mixed-reality boundaries as a way of joining real and
                 virtual spaces together in order to address some of
                 these problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors; theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.4.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION SYSTEMS
                 APPLICATIONS, Communications Applications. {\bf H.5.1}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information Systems,
                 Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities. {\bf
                 H.5.3} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, Group and Organization Interfaces, Theory
                 and models.",
}

@Article{Brewster:1998:UNS,
  author =       "Stephen A. Brewster",
  title =        "Using nonspeech sounds to provide navigation cues",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "224--259",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:04:13 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-3/p224-brewster/",
  abstract =     "This article describes 3 experiments that investigate
                 the possibility of using structured nonspeech audio
                 messages called {\em earcons\/} to provide navigational
                 cues in a menu hierarchy. A hierarchy of 27 nodes and 4
                 levels was created with an earcon for each node. Rules
                 were defined for the creation of hierarchical earcons
                 at each node. Participants had to identify their
                 location in the hierarchy by listening to an earcon.
                 Results of the first experiment showed that
                 participants could identify their location with 81.5\%
                 accuracy, indicating that earcons were a powerful
                 method of communicating hierarchy information. One
                 proposed use for such navigation cues is in
                 telephone-based interfaces (TBIs) where navigation is a
                 problem. The first experiment did not address the
                 particular problems of earcons in TBIs such as ``does
                 the lower quality of sound over the telephone lower
                 recall rates,'' ``can users remember earcons over a
                 period of time.'' and ``what effect does training type
                 have on recall?'' An experiment was conducted and
                 results showed that sound quality did lower the recall
                 of earcons. However; redesign of the earcons overcame
                 this problem with 73\% recalled correctly. Participants
                 could still recall earcons at this level after a week
                 had passed. Training type also affected recall. With
                 personal training participants recalled 73\% of the
                 earcons, but with purely textual training results were
                 significantly lower. These results show that earcons
                 can provide good navigation cues for TBIs. The final
                 experiment used compound, rather than hierarchical
                 earcons to represent the hierarchy from the first
                 experiment. Results showed that with sounds constructed
                 in this way participants could recall 97\% of the
                 earcons. These experiments have developed our general
                 understanding of earcons. A hierarchy three times
                 larger than any previously created was tested, and this
                 was also the first test of the recall of earcons over
                 time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "human factors",
  subject =      "{\bf H.5.1} Information Systems, INFORMATION
                 INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia Information
                 Systems, Audio input/output. {\bf H.5.2} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Evaluation/methodology. {\bf H.5.2}
                 Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Interaction styles. {\bf
                 J.7} Computer Applications, COMPUTERS IN OTHER SYSTEMS,
                 Consumer products. {\bf H.5.4} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION,
                 Hypertext/Hypermedia.",
}

@Article{Hinckley:1998:TVM,
  author =       "Ken Hinckley and Randy Pausch and Dennis Proffitt and
                 Neal F. Kassell",
  title =        "Two-handed virtual manipulation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "260--302",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:04:13 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-3/p260-hinckley/",
  abstract =     "We discuss a two-handed user interface designed to
                 support three-dimensional neurosurgical visualization.
                 By itself, this system is a ``point design,'' an
                 example of an advanced user interface technique. In
                 this work, we argue that in order to understand why
                 interaction techniques do or do not work, and to
                 suggest possibilities for new techniques, it is
                 important to move beyond point design and to introduce
                 careful scientific measurement of human behavioral
                 principles. In particular, we argue that the
                 common-sense viewpoint that ``two hands save time by
                 working in parallel'' may not always be an effective
                 way to think about two-handed interface design because
                 the hands do not necessarily work in parallel (there is
                 a structure to two-handed manipulation) and because two
                 hands do more than just save time over one hand (two
                 hands provide the user with more information and can
                 structure how the user thinks about a task). To support
                 these claims, we present an interface design developed
                 in collaboration with neurosurgeons which has undergone
                 extensive informal usability testing, as well as a pair
                 of formal experimental studies which investigate
                 behavioral aspects of two-handed virtual object
                 manipulation. Our hope is that this discussion will
                 help others to apply the lessons in our neurosurgery
                 application to future two-handed user interface
                 designs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors; measurement",
  subject =      "{\bf I.3.6} Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER
                 GRAPHICS, Methodology and Techniques, Interaction
                 techniques. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Input devices and strategies.",
}

@Article{Grasso:1998:ISM,
  author =       "Michael A. Grasso and David S. Ebert and Timothy W.
                 Finin",
  title =        "The integrality of speech in multimodal interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "303--325",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:04:13 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-4/p303-grasso/",
  abstract =     "A framework of complementary behavior has been
                 proposed which maintains that direct-manipulation and
                 speech interfaces have reciprocal strengths and
                 weaknesses. This suggests that user interface
                 performance and acceptance may increase by adopting a
                 multimodal approach that combines speech and direct
                 manipulation. This effort examined the hypothesis that
                 the speed, accuracy, and acceptance of multimodal
                 speech and direct-manipulation interfaces will increase
                 when the modalities match the perceptual structure of
                 the input attributes. A software prototype that
                 supported a typical biomedical data collection task was
                 developed to test this hypothesis. A group of 20
                 clinical and veterinary pathologists evaluated the
                 prototype in an experimental setting using repeated
                 measures. The results of this experiment supported the
                 hypothesis that the perceptual structure of an input
                 task is an important consideration when designing a
                 multimodal computer interface. Task completion time,
                 the number of speech errors, and user acceptance
                 improved when interface best matched the perceptual
                 structure of the input attributes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; experimentation; human factors; measurement;
                 performance; theory",
  subject =      "{\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf
                 H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Evaluation/methodology.
                 {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES
                 AND PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Input devices and
                 strategies. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Interaction styles. {\bf H.5.3} Information
                 Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Group
                 and Organization Interfaces, Theory and models. {\bf
                 J.3} Computer Applications, LIFE AND MEDICAL
                 SCIENCES.",
}

@Article{Leganchuk:1998:MCB,
  author =       "Andrea Leganchuk and Shumin Zhai and William Buxton",
  title =        "Manual and cognitive benefits of two-handed input: an
                 experimental study",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "326--359",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jul 26 16:04:13 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1998-5-4/p326-leganchuk/",
  abstract =     "One of the recent trends in computer input is to
                 utilize users' natural bimanual motor skills. This
                 article further explores the potential benefits of such
                 two-handed input. We have observed that bimanual
                 manipulation may bring two types of advantages to
                 human-computer interaction: manual and cognitive.
                 Manual benefits come from increased time-motion
                 efficiency, due to the twice as many degrees of freedom
                 simultaneously available to the user. Cognitive
                 benefits arise as a result of reducing the load of
                 mentally composing and visualizing the task at an
                 unnaturally low level which is imposed by traditional
                 unimanual techniques. Area sweeping was selected as our
                 experimental task. It is representative of what one
                 encounters, for example, when sweeping out the bounding
                 box surrounding a set of objects in a graphics program.
                 Such tasks cannot be modeled by Fitts' Law alone and
                 have not been previously studied in the literature. In
                 our experiments, two bimanual techniques were compared
                 with the conventional one-handed GUI approach. Both
                 bimanual techniques employed the two-handed
                 ``stretchy'' technique first demonstrated by Krueger in
                 1983. We also incorporated the ``Toolglass'' technique
                 introduced by Bier et al. in 1993. Overall, the
                 bimanual techniques resulted in significantly faster
                 performance than the {\em status quo\/} one-handed
                 technique, and these benefits increased with the
                 difficulty of mentally visualizing the task, supporting
                 our bimanual cognitive advantage hypothesis. There was
                 no significant difference between the two bimanual
                 techniques. This study makes two types of contributions
                 to the literature. First, practically we studied yet
                 another class of transaction where significant benefits
                 can be realized by applying bimanual techniques.
                 Furthermore, we have done so using easily available
                 commercial hardware in the context to our understanding
                 of why bimanual interaction techniques have an
                 advantage over unimanual techniques. A literature
                 review on two-handed computer input and some of the
                 relevant bimanual human motor control studies is also
                 included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "experimentation; human factors; measurement",
  subject =      "{\bf H.1.2} Information Systems, MODELS AND
                 PRINCIPLES, User/Machine Systems, Human factors. {\bf
                 H.5.2} Information Systems, INFORMATION INTERFACES AND
                 PRESENTATION, User Interfaces, Input devices and
                 strategies. {\bf H.5.2} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, User
                 Interfaces, Interaction styles. {\bf I.3.6} Computing
                 Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS, Methodology and
                 Techniques, Interaction techniques.",
}

@Article{Jacob:1999:SMS,
  author =       "Robert J. K. Jacob and Leonidas Deligiannidis and
                 Stephen Morrison",
  title =        "A software model and specification language for
                 non-{WIMP} user interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--46",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-1/p1-jacob/",
  abstract =     "We present a software model and language for
                 describing and programming the fine-grained aspects of
                 interaction in a non-WIMP user interface, such as a
                 virtual environment. Our approach is based on our view
                 that the essence of a non-WIMP dialogue is a set of
                 continuous relationships--most of which are temporary.
                 The model combines a data-flow or constraint-like
                 component for the continuous relationships with an
                 event-based component for discrete interactions, which
                 can enable or disable individual continuous
                 relationships. To demonstrate our approach, we present
                 the PMIW user interface management system for non-WIMP
                 interactions, a set of examples running under it, a
                 visual editor for our user interface description
                 language, and a discussion of our implementation and
                 our restricted use of constraints for a
                 performance-driven interactive situation. Our goal is
                 to provide a model and language that captures the
                 formal structure of non-WIMP interactions in the way
                 that various previous techniques have captured
                 command-based, textual, and event-based styles and to
                 suggest that using it need and not compromise real-time
                 performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors; Languages",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "interaction techniques; non-WIMP interface; PMIW;
                 specification language; state transition diagram; user
                 interface management system; user interface management
                 system (UIMS)",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering --- Design Tools and
                 Techniques (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}; Information
                 Systems --- Models and Principles --- User/Machine
                 Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies ---
                 Computer Graphics --- Three-Dimensional Graphics and
                 Realism (I.3.7): {\bf Virtual reality}; Theory of
                 Computation --- Logics and Meanings of Programs ---
                 Specifying and Verifying and Reasoning about Programs
                 (F.3.1): {\bf Specification techniques}",
}

@Article{Tan:1999:PTT,
  author =       "Bernard C. Y. Tan and Kwok-kee Wei and Choon-Ling Sia
                 and Krishnamurthy S. Raman",
  title =        "A partial test of the task-medium fit proposition in a
                 group support system environment",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "47--66",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-1/p47-tan/",
  abstract =     "A laboratory experiment was carried out to partially
                 test the task-medium fit proposition in a GSS
                 environment. Communication medium was varied using a
                 face-to-face GSS and a dispersed GSS setting. Task type
                 was varied using an intellective and a preference task.
                 Group decision outcome variables of interest were
                 (actual and perceived) decision quality, decision time,
                 decision satisfaction, and decision process
                 satisfaction. With the intellective task, there were no
                 significant differences between face-to-face GSS and
                 dispersed GSS groups for all group decision outcome
                 variables. With the preference task, face-to-face GSS
                 groups performed significantly better than dispersed
                 GSS groups for all group decision outcome variables.
                 These findings suggest that group decision outcomes in
                 a GSS environment tend to be adversely affected when
                 the communication medium is too lean for the task but
                 not when the communication medium is too rich for the
                 task. Consequences of providing groups with too rich
                 and too lean a communication medium for their task are
                 discussed. Implications of these findings, and other
                 related results, for practice and for future revisions
                 of media richness theory are explored.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Experimentation; Human Factors; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "group support systems; media richness; task type",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Group and Organization Interfaces
                 (H.5.3): {\bf Evaluation/methodology}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf
                 Synchronous interaction}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and
                 Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Theory and
                 models}",
}

@Article{Terveen:1999:COV,
  author =       "Loren Terveen and Will Hill and Brian Amento",
  title =        "Constructing, organizing, and visualizing collections
                 of topically related {Web} resources",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--94",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-1/p67-terveen/",
  abstract =     "For many purposes, the Web page is too small a unit of
                 interaction and analysis. Web sites are structured
                 multimedia documents consisting of many pages, and
                 users often are interested in obtaining and evaluating
                 entire collections of topically related sites. Once
                 such a collection is obtained, users face the challenge
                 of exploring, comprehending and organizing the items.
                 We report four innovations that address these user
                 needs: (1) we replaced the Web page with the Web site
                 as the basic unit of interaction and analysis;(2) we
                 defined a new information structure, the clan graph,
                 that groups together sets of related sites; (3) we
                 augment the representation of a site with a site
                 profile, information about site structure and content
                 that helps inform user evaluation of a site; and (4) we
                 invented a new graph visualization, the auditorium
                 visualization, that reveals important structural and
                 content properties of sites within a clan graph.
                 Detailed analysis and user studies document the utility
                 of this approach. The clan graph construction algorithm
                 tends to filter out irrelevant sites and discover
                 additional relevant items. The auditorium
                 visualization, augmented with drill-down capabilities
                 to explore site profile data, helps users to find
                 high-quality sites as well as sites that serve a
                 particular function.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cocitation analysis; collaborative filtering; computer
                 supported cooperative work; information visualization;
                 social filtering; social network analysis",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Multimedia Information Systems
                 (H.5.1): {\bf Hypertext navigation and maps**};
                 Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3):
                 {\bf Retrieval models}",
}

@Article{Begole:1999:FCT,
  author =       "James Begole and Mary Beth Rosson and Clifford A.
                 Shaffer",
  title =        "Flexible collaboration transparency: supporting worker
                 independence in replicated application-sharing
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "95--132",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-2/p95-begole/",
  abstract =     "This article presents a critique of conventional
                 collaboration transparency systems, also called
                 ``application-sharing'' systems, which provide the
                 real-time shared use of legacy single-user
                 applications. We find that conventional collaboration
                 transparency systems are inefficient in their use of
                 network resources and lack support for key groupware
                 principles: concurrent work, relaxed WYSIWIS, and group
                 awareness. Next, we present an alternative approach to
                 implementing collaboration transparency that provides
                 many features previously seen only in
                 collaboration-aware applications. Our approach is based
                 on a replicated architecture where selected single-user
                 interface components are dynamically replaced by
                 multiuser versions. The replacement occurs at run-time
                 and is transparent to the single-user application and
                 its developers.. As an instance of this approach, we
                 describe its incorporation into a Java-based
                 collaboration transparency system for serializable,
                 Swing-based Java applications, called Flexible JAMM
                 (Java Applets Made Multiuser). To validate that the
                 flexible collaboration transparency system is truly an
                 improvement over conventional systems, we conducted an
                 empirical study of collaborators performing both
                 tightly and loosely coupled tasks using Flexible JAMM
                 versus a representative conventional collaboration
                 transparency system, Microsoft NetMeeting. Completion
                 times were significantly faster in the loosely coupled
                 task using Flexible JAMM and were not adversely
                 affected in the tightly coupled task. Accuracy was
                 equivalent for both systems. Participants greatly
                 preferred Flexible JAMM.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "application sharing; collaboration transparency;
                 computer-supported cooperative work; Flexible JAMM;
                 groupware; Java; usability",
  subject =      "Computer Systems Organization ---
                 Computer-Communication Networks --- Distributed Systems
                 (C.2.4): {\bf Distributed applications}; Software ---
                 Software Engineering --- Design Tools and Techniques
                 (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}; Information Systems ---
                 Models and Principles --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2):
                 {\bf Human factors}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and
                 Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Collaborative
                 computing}",
}

@Article{Dourish:1999:PEA,
  author =       "Paul Dourish and W. Keith Edwards and Anthony LaMarca
                 and Michael Salisbury",
  title =        "{Presto}: an experimental architecture for fluid
                 interactive document spaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "133--161",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-2/p133-dourish/",
  abstract =     "Traditional document systems use hierarchical filing
                 structures as the basis for organizing, storing and
                 retrieving documents. However, this structure is very
                 limited in comparison with the rich and varied forms of
                 document interaction and category management in
                 everyday document use. Presto is a prototype document
                 management system providing rich interaction with
                 documents through meaningful, user-level document
                 attributes, such as ``Word file,'' ``published paper,''
                 ``shared with Jim,'' ``about Presto,'' or ``currently
                 in progress'' Document attributes capture the multiple
                 different roles that a single document might play, and
                 they allow users to rapidly reorganize their document
                 space for the task at hand. They also provide a basis
                 for novel document systems design and new approaches to
                 document management and interaction. In this article,
                 we outline the motivations behind this approach,
                 describe the principal components of our
                 implementation, discuss architectural consequences, and
                 show how these support new forms of interactions with
                 large personal document spaces.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "attribute/value systems; direct manipulation; document
                 management",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering --- Design Tools and
                 Techniques (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Storage and Retrieval ---
                 Information Storage (H.3.2): {\bf File organization};
                 Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3);
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Interaction styles}",
}

@Article{Ware:1999:RVO,
  author =       "Colin Ware and Jeff Rose",
  title =        "Rotating virtual objects with real handles",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "162--180",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-2/p162-ware/",
  abstract =     "Times for virtual object rotations reported in the
                 literature are of the order of 10 seconds or more and
                 this is far longer than it takes to manually orient a
                 ``real'' object, such as a cup. This is a report of a
                 series of experiments designed to investigate the
                 reasons for this difference and to help design
                 interfaces for object manipulation. The results suggest
                 that two major factors are important. Having the hand
                 physically in the same location as the virtual object
                 being manipulated is one. The other is based on whether
                 the object is being rotated to a new, randomly
                 determined orientation, or is always rotated to the
                 same position. Making the object held in the hand have
                 the same physical shape as the object being visually
                 manipulated was not found to be a significant factor.
                 The results are discussed in the context of interactive
                 virtual environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Experimentation; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "3D object manipulation; 3D rotation; direct
                 manipulation; input devices; two-handed input; virtual
                 reality",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors};
                 Computing Methodologies --- Computer Graphics ---
                 Methodology and Techniques (I.3.6): {\bf Interaction
                 techniques}",
}

@Article{Hahn:1999:WSD,
  author =       "Jungpil Hahn and Jinwoo Kim",
  title =        "Why are some diagrams easier to work with? Effects of
                 diagrammatic representation on the cognitive
                 integration process of systems analysis and design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "181--213",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-3/p181-hahn/",
  abstract =     "Various diagrams have been used heavily in systems
                 analysis and design without proper verification of
                 their usability. However, different diagrammatic
                 representations of the same information may vary in the
                 computational efficiency of working with these
                 diagrams. The objective of this research was to explore
                 the effects of diagrammatic representations on the task
                 of integrating multiple diagrams. The domain of systems
                 analysis and design was used to generate examples and
                 test the theory. A cognitive model of diagram
                 integration was proposed, and an experimental study was
                 conducted, both to explore the effects of
                 representational features of diagrams on the cognitive
                 process of diagram integration. Results of the
                 experiment show that the representational features of
                 the diagrams acted as the criteria for selecting among
                 various methods for analyzing and designing the
                 integrated diagram. In addition, the difference in the
                 selected methods resulted in different task
                 performances in terms of analysis and design errors.
                 This article concludes with the implications of the
                 results for the development of cognitively compelling
                 diagrams.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "diagrammatic manipulation; diagrammatic
                 representation; GOMS; visual grammar",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering ---
                 Requirements/Specifications (D.2.1): {\bf Methodologies
                 (e.g., object-oriented, structured)}; Software ---
                 Software Engineering --- Requirements/Specifications
                 (D.2.1); Information Systems --- Models and Principles
                 --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human
                 information processing}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Interaction styles}",
}

@Article{Hubona:1999:RCS,
  author =       "Geoffrey S. Hubona and Philip N. Wheeler and Gregory
                 W. Shirah and Matthew Brandt",
  title =        "The relative contributions of stereo, lighting, and
                 background scenes in promoting {3D} depth
                 visualization",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "214--242",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-3/p214-hubona/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Experimentation; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "3D user interfaces; cue theory; depth perception;
                 shadows; stereoscopic viewing",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Methodologies ---
                 Computer Graphics --- Three-Dimensional Graphics and
                 Realism (I.3.7)",
}

@Article{Gutwin:1999:EWA,
  author =       "Carl Gutwin and Saul Greenberg",
  title =        "The effects of workspace awareness support on the
                 usability of real-time distributed groupware",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "243--281",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-3/p243-gutwin/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Experimentation; Human Factors; Measurement",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "computer-supported cooperated work; computer-supported
                 cooperative work; real-time distributed groupware;
                 usability; workspace awareness",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering --- Design Tools and
                 Techniques (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}; Software ---
                 Software Engineering --- Metrics (D.2.8): {\bf
                 Performance measures}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Evaluation/methodology};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Group and Organization Interfaces
                 (H.5.3): {\bf Synchronous interaction}; Computing
                 Methodologies --- Computer Graphics --- Methodology and
                 Techniques (I.3.6): {\bf Interaction techniques}",
}

@Article{OBrien:1999:HTE,
  author =       "Jon O'Brien and Tom Rodden and Mark Rouncefield and
                 John Hughes",
  title =        "At home with the technology: an ethnographic study of
                 a set-top-box trial",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "282--308",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-3/p282-o_brien/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "coordination and collaboration; domestic environment;
                 ethnography; evaluation; interactive devices",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and
                 Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Synchronous
                 interaction}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and Organization
                 Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Theory and models}; Computing
                 Milieux --- Computers and Society --- General (K.4.0);
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Evaluation/methodology}",
}

@Article{Gray:1999:ISI,
  author =       "Wayne D. Gray and Philippe Palanque and Fabio
                 Patern{\'o}",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on interface issues
                 and designs for safety-critical interactive systems:
                 when there is no room for user error",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "309--310",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/1999-6-4/p309-gray/p309-gray.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-4/p309-gray/",
  abstract =     "Software is increasingly being used to control
                 safety-critical systems. Much research since Levesons
                 fundamental article Software Safety: Why, What, and How
                 (ACM Computing Surveys 18, 2 (1986), pp. 125--163) has
                 focused on ways to reduce or avoid software failures.
                 However, the reliability of even the best-engineered
                 software can be undermined by its user interface.
                 Indeed, interface design for safety-critical
                 interactive systems poses special challenges to the
                 human-computer interaction community. This special
                 issue addresses the challenge of analyzing, designing,
                 and building reliable and usable safety-critical
                 interactive systems. From a pragmatic point of view a
                 safety-critical system is a system for which the cost
                 of a failure is more important than the cost of
                 developing the system. Safety-critical interactive
                 systems add the human dimension to a software system by
                 putting control into the hands of a human operator.
                 Prominent examples of such control systems include
                 nuclear power plants, railways systems, airplane
                 cockpits, and military systems. Recent years have seen
                 much effort put into the reengineering of the control
                 system that is well represented in this special issue
                 [on] air traffic control. When compared to office
                 automation systems, human-computer interaction for
                 safety-critical interactive systems is both familiar
                 and different. For instance, the management of a
                 functionality like undo, that can be seen as a
                 usability issue in an office automation system, can
                 become a critical functionality when the user interacts
                 with a safety-critical system. The three articles in
                 this special issue provide three snapshots for how
                 human-computer interaction issues play out in the
                 broader field of safety-critical interactive systems.
                 In the first article, Is Paper Safer? The Role of
                 Flight Strips in Air Traffic Control, Wendy Mackay
                 provides a detailed ethnographic study on how air
                 traffic controllers work. \par

                 As in Mackay's article, the case study entails en-route
                 air traffic control. An important contribution of this
                 article is a method for an integrated analysis of three
                 important methods of this field: task performance,
                 analysis of user deviation and consequent hazard, and
                 cooperation among users. Each of the three articles
                 deals with the analysis and design phases of
                 safety-critical interactive systems. If changes are to
                 be made to large, complex, safety-critical control
                 systems, the changes must be made early in the
                 development lifecycle, where redesign in response to
                 identified problems is feasible.This special issue
                 arose from a CHI98 Workshop organized by Palanque and
                 Patern{\'o} (``Designing User Interfaces for
                 Safety-Critical Systems'', SIGCHI Bulletin 30, 4). The
                 three articles included in this special issue were
                 selected from more than a score of papers received. The
                 editors thank and acknowledge their debt to the many
                 qualified external reviewers from several countries who
                 have helped select and improve (through their comments)
                 the contributions in this special issue.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{MacKay:1999:PSR,
  author =       "Wendy E. MacKay",
  title =        "Is paper safer? The role of paper flight strips in air
                 traffic control",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "311--340",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-4/p311-mackay/",
  abstract =     "Air traffic control is a complex, safety-critical
                 activity, with well-established and successful work
                 practices. Yet many attempts to automate the existing
                 system have failed because controllers remain attached
                 to a key work artifact: the paper flight strip. This
                 article describes a four-month intensive study of a
                 team of Paris en-route controllers in order to
                 understand their use of paper flight strips. The
                 article also describes a comparison study of eight
                 different control rooms in France and the Netherlands.
                 Our observations have convinced us that we do not know
                 enough to simply get rid of paper strips, nor can we
                 easily replace the physical interaction between
                 controllers and paper strips.These observations
                 highlight the benefits of strips, including qualities
                 difficult to quantify and replicate in new computer
                 systems. Current thinking offers two basic
                 alternatives: maintaining the existing strips without
                 computer support and bearing the financial cost of
                 limiting the air traffic, or replacing the strips with
                 automated versions, which offer potential benefits in
                 terms of increased efficiency through automation, but
                 unknown risks through radical change of work practices.
                 We conclude with a suggestion for a third alternative:
                 to maintain the physical strips, but turn them into the
                 interface to the computer. This would allow controllers
                 to build directly upon their existing, safe work
                 practices with paper strips, while offering them a
                 gradual path for incorporating new computer-based
                 functions. Augmented paper flight strips allow us to
                 take advantage of uniquely human skills in the physical
                 world, and allows us to leave the user interface and
                 its subsequent evolution in the hands of the people
                 most responsible, the air traffic controllers
                 themselves.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Human Factors; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "activity theory; affordances; air traffic control;
                 annotation; ethnographic study; paper flight strips;
                 peripheral awareness; safety factors",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors};
                 Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human information
                 processing}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- User Interfaces
                 (H.5.2)",
}

@Article{Galliers:1999:IAM,
  author =       "Julia Galliers and Alistair Sutcliffe and Shailey
                 Minocha",
  title =        "An impact analysis method for safety-critical user
                 interface design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "341--369",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-4/p341-galliers/",
  abstract =     "We describe a method of assessing the implications for
                 human error on user interface design of safety-critical
                 systems. In previous work we have proposed a taxonomy
                 of influencing factors that contribute to error. In
                 this article, components of the taxonomy are combined
                 into a mathematical and causal model for error,
                 represented as a Bayesian Belief Net (BBN). The BBN
                 quantifies error influences arising from user
                 knowledge, ability, and the task environ-ment, combined
                 with factors describing the complexity of user action
                 and user interface quality. The BBN model predicts
                 probabilities of different types of errorslips and
                 mistakes for each component action of a task involving
                 user-system interaction. We propose an Impact Analysis
                 Method that involves running test scenarios against
                 this causal model of error in order to determine user
                 interactions that are prone to different types of
                 error. Applying the proposed method will enable the
                 designer to determine the combinations of influencing
                 factors and their interactions that are most likely to
                 influence human error. Finally we show how such
                 scenario-based causal analysis can be useful as a means
                 of focusing on relevant guidelines for safe user
                 interface design. The proposed method is demonstrated
                 through a case study of an operator performing a task
                 using the control system for a laser
                 spectrophotometer.We describe a method of assessing the
                 implications for human error on user interface design
                 of safety-critical systems. In previous work we have
                 proposed a taxonomy of influencing factors that
                 contribute to error. In this article, components of the
                 taxonomy are combined into a mathematical and causal
                 model for error, represented as a Bayesian Belief Net
                 (BBN). The BBN quantifies error influences arising from
                 user knowledge, ability, and the task environ-ment,
                 combined with factors describing the complexity of user
                 action and user interface quality. The BBN model
                 predicts probabilities of different types of errorslip
                 for each component action of a task involving
                 user-system interaction. We propose an Impact Analysis
                 Method that involves running test scenarios against
                 this causal model of error in order to determine user
                 interactions that are prone to different types of
                 error. Applying the proposed method will enable the
                 designer to determine the combinations of influencing
                 factors and their interactions that are most likely to
                 influence human error. Finally we show how such
                 scenario-based causal analysis can be useful as a means
                 of focusing on relevant guidelines for safe user
                 interface design. The proposed method is demonstrated
                 through a case study of an operator performing a task
                 using the control system for a laser
                 spectrophotometer.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Bayesian belief networks; human error;
                 safety-critical; safety-critical scenario-based causal
                 analysis; scenario-based casual analysis",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering ---
                 Requirements/Specifications (D.2.1): {\bf Methodologies
                 (e.g., object-oriented, structured)}; Software ---
                 Software Engineering --- Design Tools and Techniques
                 (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}; Mathematics of
                 Computing --- Probability and Statistics (G.3);
                 Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors}",
}

@Article{Fields:1999:CDO,
  author =       "Robert Fields and Fabio Patern{\`o} and Carmen Santoro
                 and Sophie Tahmassebi",
  title =        "Comparing design options for allocating communication
                 media in cooperative safety-critical contexts: a method
                 and a case study",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "6",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "370--398",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 26 07:12:21 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/1999-6-4/p370-fields/",
  abstract =     "In this article we present a method for evaluating and
                 comparing design options for allocating communication
                 media. The method pays particular attention to how such
                 options support cooperation in an interactive
                 safety-critical system. The comparison is performed
                 using three sets of criteria based on task performance,
                 analysis of user deviations and consequent hazards, and
                 coordination. The explicit emphasis on hazards and
                 communication issues, using actual tasks to guide the
                 evaluation, ensures that designers attention is focused
                 on the interactions where problems are likely to occur.
                 We describe an application of the method to the design
                 of access to new communication technology in an air
                 traffic control environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors; Reliability",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "air traffic control; task; usability and safety",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Evaluation/methodology}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Input devices and strategies};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Interaction styles}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- Multimedia
                 Information Systems (H.5.1): {\bf Audio input/output};
                 Software --- Software Engineering --- Design Tools and
                 Techniques (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}",
}

@Article{Myers:2000:PPF,
  author =       "Brad Myers and Scott E. Hudson and Randy Pausch",
  title =        "Past, present, and future of user interface software
                 tools",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--28",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-1/p3-myers/",
  abstract =     "A user interface software tool helps developers design
                 and implement the user interface. Research on past
                 tools has had enormous impact on today's
                 developers--virtually all applications today are built
                 using some form of user interface tool. In this
                 article, we consider cases of both success and failure
                 in past user interface tools. From these cases we
                 extract a set of themes which can serve as lessons for
                 future work. Using these themes, past tools can be
                 characterized by what aspects of the user interface
                 they addressed, their threshold and ceiling, what path
                 of least resistance they offer, how predictable they
                 are to use, and whether they addressed a target that
                 became irrelevant. We believe the lessons of these past
                 themes are particularly important now, because
                 increasingly rapid technological changes are likely to
                 significantly change user interfaces. We are at the
                 dawn of an era where user interfaces are about to break
                 out of the ``desktop'' box where they have been stuck
                 for the past 15 years. The next millenium will open
                 with an increasing diversity of user interface on an
                 increasing diversity of computerized devices. These
                 devices include hand-held personal digital assistants
                 (PDAs), cell phones, pages, computerized pens,
                 computerized notepads, and various kinds of desk and
                 wall size-computers, as well as devices in everyday
                 objects (such as mounted on refrigerators, or even
                 embedded in truck tires). The increased connectivity of
                 computers, initially evidenced by the World Wide Web,
                 but spreading also with technologies such as
                 personal-area networks, will also have a profound
                 effect on the user interface to computers. Another
                 important force will be recognition-based user
                 interfaces, especially speech, and camera-based vision
                 systems. Other changes we see are an increasing need
                 for 3D and end-user customization, programming, and
                 scripting. All of these changes will require
                 significant support from the underlying user interface
                 software tools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "event languages; interface builders; scripting
                 languages; toolkits; user interface development
                 environments; user interface software",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering --- Design Tools and
                 Techniques (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}; Information
                 Systems --- Models and Principles --- User/Machine
                 Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf User interface management
                 systems (UIMS)}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- User Interfaces
                 (H.5.2): {\bf Windowing systems}",
}

@Article{Abowd:2000:CPP,
  author =       "Gregory D. Abowd and Elizabeth D. Mynatt",
  title =        "Charting past, present, and future research in
                 ubiquitous computing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "29--58",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-1/p29-abowd/",
  abstract =     "The proliferation of computing into the physical world
                 promises more than the ubiquitous availability of
                 computing infrastructure; it suggest new paradigms of
                 interaction inspired by constant access to information
                 and computational capabilities. For the past decade,
                 application-driven research on ubiquitous computing
                 (ubicomp) has pushed three interaction themes: {\em
                 natural interfaces, context-aware applications}, and
                 {\em automated capture and access}. To chart a course
                 for future research in ubiquitous computing, we review
                 the accomplishments of these efforts and point to
                 remaining research challenges. Research in ubiquitous
                 computing implicitly requires addressing some notion of
                 scale, whether in the number and type of devices, the
                 physical space of distributed computing, or the number
                 of people using a system. We posit a new area of
                 applications research, {\em everyday computing},
                 focussed on scaling interaction with respect to time.
                 Just as pushing the availability of computing away from
                 the traditional desktop fundamentally changes the
                 relationship between humans and computers, providing
                 {\em continuous interaction\/} moves computing from a
                 localized tool to a constant companion. Designing for
                 continuous interaction requires addressing interruption
                 and resumption of interaction, representing passages of
                 time and providing associative storage models. Inherent
                 in all of these interaction themes are difficult issues
                 in the {\em social implications\/} of ubiquitous
                 computing and the challenges of {\em evaluating\/}
                 ubiquitous computing research. Although cumulative
                 experience points to lessons in privacy, security,
                 visibility, and control, there are no simple guidelines
                 for steering research efforts. Akin to any efforts
                 involving new technologies, evaluation strategies form
                 a spectrum from technology feasibility efforts to
                 long-term use studies--but a user-centric perspective
                 is always possible and necessary",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "augmented reality; capture and access; context-aware
                 applications; evaluation; everyday computing; natural
                 interfaces; social implications; ubiquitous computing;
                 user interfaces",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Evaluation/methodology}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Miscellaneous (H.5.m); Computer Applications ---
                 Miscellaneous (J.m); Computing Milieux --- Computers
                 and Society --- Social Issues (K.4.2)",
}

@Article{Erickson:2000:STA,
  author =       "Thomas Erickson and Wendy A. Kellogg",
  title =        "Social translucence: an approach to designing systems
                 that support social processes",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--83",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-1/p59-erickson/",
  abstract =     "We are interested in designing systems that support
                 communication and collaboration among large groups of
                 people over computing networks. We begin by asking what
                 properties of the physical world support graceful
                 human-human communication in face-to-face situations,
                 and argue that it is possible to design digital systems
                 that support coherent behavior by making participants
                 and their activities visible to one another. We call
                 such systems ``socially translucent systems'' and
                 suggest that they have three characteristics ---
                 visibility, awareness, and accountability --- which
                 enable people to draw upon their experience and
                 expertise to structure their interactions with one
                 another. To motivate and focus our ideas we develop a
                 vision of knowledge communities, conversationally based
                 systems that support the creation, management and reuse
                 of knowledge in a social context. We describe our
                 experience in designing and deploying one layer of
                 functionality for knowledge communities, embodied in a
                 working system called ``Barbie'' and discuss research
                 issues raised by a socially translucent approach to
                 design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "CMC; CMI; computer-mediated communication; CSCW;
                 social computing; social navigation; social
                 visualization; visualization",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors};
                 Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human information
                 processing}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- User Interfaces
                 (H.5.2): {\bf Graphical user interfaces (GUI)};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Theory
                 and methods}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and Organization
                 Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Asynchronous interaction};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Group and Organization Interfaces
                 (H.5.3): {\bf Collaborative computing}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf
                 Computer-supported cooperative work}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf
                 Organizational design}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and
                 Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Synchronous
                 interaction}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and Organization
                 Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Theory and models}; Computing
                 Milieux --- Computers and Society --- Organizational
                 Impacts (K.4.3): {\bf Computer-supported collaborative
                 work}",
}

@Article{Arias:2000:TIH,
  author =       "Ernesto Arias and Hal Eden and Gerhard Fischer and
                 Andrew Gorman and Eric Scharff",
  title =        "Transcending the individual human mind --- creating
                 shared understanding through collaborative design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "84--113",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-1/p84-arias/",
  abstract =     "Complex design problems require more knowledge than
                 any single person possesses because the knowledge
                 relevant to a problem is usually distributed among
                 stakeholders. Bringing different and often
                 controversial points of view together to create a
                 shared understanding among these stakeholders can lead
                 to new insights, new ideas, and new artifacts. New
                 media that allow owners of problems to contribute to
                 framing and resolving complex design problems can
                 extend the power of the individual human mind. Based on
                 our past work and study of other approaches, systems,
                 and collaborative and participatory processes, this
                 article identifies challenges we see as the limiting
                 factors for future collaborative human-computer
                 systems. The Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory
                 (EDC) is introduced as an integrated physical, and
                 computational environment addressing some of these
                 challenges. The vision behind the EDC shifts future
                 development away from the computer as the focal point,
                 toward an emphasis that tries to improve our
                 understanding of the human, social, and cultural system
                 that creates the context for use. This work is based on
                 new conceptual principles that include creating shared
                 understanding among various stakeholders,
                 contextualizing information to the task at hand, and
                 creating objects to think with in collaborative design
                 activities. Although the EDC framework is applicable to
                 different domains; our initial effort has focused on
                 the domain of urban planning (specifically
                 transportation planning) and community development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "collaborative design and knowledge construction;
                 design support systems; distributed cognition;
                 integration of action and reflection spaces;
                 integration of physical and computational environments;
                 open systems; symmetry of ignorance",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering --- Design Tools and
                 Techniques (D.2.2); Information Systems --- Models and
                 Principles --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2);
                 Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval (H.3); Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation (H.5); Information Systems
                 --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and
                 Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Computing
                 Methodologies --- Computer Graphics --- Methodology and
                 Techniques (I.3.6); Computer Applications --- Social
                 and Behavioral Sciences (J.4)",
}

@Article{Shneiderman:2000:CCU,
  author =       "Ben Shneiderman",
  title =        "Creating creativity: user interfaces for supporting
                 innovation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "114--138",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-1/p114-shneiderman/",
  abstract =     "A challenge for human-computer interaction researchers
                 and user interface designers is to construct
                 information technologies that support creativity. This
                 ambitious goal can be attained by building on an
                 adequate understanding of creative processes. This
                 article offers a four-phase framework for creativity
                 that might assist designers in providing effective
                 tools for users: (1) {\em Collect\/}: learn from
                 previous works stored in libraries, the Web, etc.; (2)
                 {\em Relate\/}: consult with peers and mentors at
                 early, middle, and late stages, (3) {\em Create\/}:
                 explore, compose, evaluate possible solutions; and (4)
                 {\em Donate\/}: disseminate the results and contribute
                 to the libraries. Within this integrated framework,
                 this article proposes eight activities that require
                 human-computer interaction research and advanced user
                 interface design. A scenario about an architect
                 illustrates the process of creative work within such an
                 environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "creativity support tools; direct manipulation;
                 graphical user interfaces; human-computer interaction;
                 information visualization",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3)",
}

@Article{Ritter:2000:SCM,
  author =       "Frank E. Ritter and Gordon D. Baxter and Gary Jones
                 and Richard M. Young",
  title =        "Supporting cognitive models as users",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "141--173",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-2/p141-ritter/p141-ritter.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-2/p141-ritter/",
  abstract =     "Cognitive models are computer programs that simulate
                 human performance of cognitive skills. They have been
                 useful to HCI by predicting task times, by assisting
                 users, and by acting as surrogate users. If cognitive
                 models could interact with the same interfaces that
                 users do, the models would be easier to develop and
                 would be easier to apply as interface testers. This
                 approach can be encapsulated as a cognitive models
                 interface management system (CMIMS), which is analogous
                 to and based on a user interface management system
                 (UIMS). We present five case studies using three
                 different UIMSes. These show how models can interact
                 with interfaces using an interaction mechanism that is
                 designed to apply to all interfaces generated within a
                 UIMS. These interaction mechanisms start to support and
                 constrain performance in the same ways that human
                 performance is supported and constrained by
                 interaction. Most existing UIMSes can and should be
                 extended to create CMIMSes, and models can and should
                 use CMIMSes to look at larger and more complex tasks.
                 CMIMSes will help to further exploit the synergy
                 between the disciplines of cognitive modeling and HCI
                 by supporting cognitive models as users.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cognitive modeling; usability engineering",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering --- Testing and
                 Debugging (D.2.5): {\bf Testing tools (e.g., data
                 generators, coverage testing)}; Information Systems ---
                 Models and Principles --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2):
                 {\bf Human information processing}; Information Systems
                 --- Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Evaluation/methodology};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf User
                 interface management systems (UIMS)}; Computing
                 Methodologies --- Artificial Intelligence --- General
                 (I.2.0): {\bf Cognitive simulation}; Computing
                 Methodologies --- Simulation and Modeling --- Model
                 Development (I.6.5); Computing Methodologies ---
                 Simulation and Modeling --- Simulation Support Systems
                 (I.6.7)",
}

@Article{Hollan:2000:DCT,
  author =       "James Hollan and Edwin Hutchins and David Kirsh",
  title =        "Distributed cognition: toward a new foundation for
                 human-computer interaction research",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "174--196",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-2/p174-hollan/",
  abstract =     "We are quickly passing through the historical moment
                 when people work in front of a single computer,
                 dominated by a small CRT and focused on tasks involving
                 only local information. Networked computers are
                 becoming ubiquitous and are playing increasingly
                 significant roles in our lives and in the basic
                 infrastructures of science, business, and social
                 interaction. for human-computer interaction to advance
                 in the new millennium we need to better understand the
                 emerging dynamic of interaction in which the focus task
                 is no longer confined to the desktop but reaches into a
                 complex networked world of information and
                 computer-mediated interactions. We think the theory of
                 distributed cognition has a special role to play in
                 understanding interactions between people and
                 technologies, for its focus has always been on whole
                 environments: what we really do in them and how we
                 coordinate our activity in them. Distributed cognition
                 provides a radical reorientation of how to think about
                 designing and supporting human-computer interaction. As
                 a theory it is specifically tailored to understanding
                 interactions among people and technologies. In this
                 article propose distributed cognition as a new
                 foundation for human-computer interaction, sketch an
                 integrated research framework, and use selections from
                 our earlier work to suggest how this framework can
                 provide new opportunities in the design of digital work
                 materials.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cognitive science; distributed cognition; ethnography;
                 human-computer interaction; research methodology",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering ---
                 Requirements/Specifications (D.2.1): {\bf Methodologies
                 (e.g., object-oriented, structured)}; Information
                 Systems --- Models and Principles --- User/Machine
                 Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- User Interfaces
                 (H.5.2): {\bf Evaluation/methodology}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Theory
                 and models}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and Organization
                 Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Evaluation/methodology}",
}

@Article{Sutcliffe:2000:EUR,
  author =       "Alistair Sutcliffe",
  title =        "On the effective use and reuse of {HCI} knowledge",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "197--221",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-2/p197-sutcliffe/",
  abstract =     "The article argues that new approaches for delivering
                 HCI knowledge from theory to designers will be
                 necessary in the new millennium. First the role of
                 theory in HCI design to date is reviewed, including the
                 progress made in cognitive theories of interaction is
                 described, but it is argued that direct application of
                 cognitive theory to design is limited by scalability
                 problems. The alternative of representing HCI knowledge
                 as claims and the role of the task-artefact approach to
                 theory-based design are introduced. Claims are proposed
                 as a possible bridging representation that may enable
                 theories to frame appropriate recommendations for
                 designers and, vice versa, enable designers to ask
                 appropriate questions for theoretical research.
                 However, claims provide design advice grounded in
                 specific scenarios and examples, which limits their
                 generality. The propects for reuse becoming an
                 important mode of development and the possible
                 directions in generalizing claims for reuse are
                 discussed, including generalizing claims beyond their
                 original context, providing a context for reuse of
                 claims by linking them to generic task and domain
                 models. It is argued that generic models provide a way
                 forward for developing reusable libraries of
                 interactive components. The approach is illustrated
                 from a case study of extracting claims from one
                 information-searching tasks, and reapplying claims in
                 the Web-based Multimedia Broker application. The
                 article concludes by proposing that HCI knowledge
                 should be theory-grounded, and development of reusable
                 ``designer-digestible'' packets will be an important
                 contribution in the future.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "claims; cognitive models; design process; HCI theory;
                 reuse; review",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors}",
}

@Article{Barnard:2000:SIM,
  author =       "Philip Barnard and Jon May and David Duke and David
                 Duce",
  title =        "Systems, interactions, and macrotheory",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "222--262",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-2/p222-barnard/",
  abstract =     "A significant proportion of early HCI research was
                 guided by one very clear vision: that the existing
                 theory base in psychology and cognitive science could
                 be developed to yield engineering tools for use in the
                 interdisciplinary context of HCI design. While
                 interface technologies and heuristic methods for
                 behavioral evaluation have rapidly advanced in both
                 capability and breadth of application, progress toward
                 deeper theory has been modest, and some now believe it
                 to be unnecessary. A case is presented for developing
                 new forms of theory, based around generic ``systems of
                 interactors.'' An overlapping, layered structure of
                 macro- and microtheories could then serve an
                 explanatory role, and could also bind together
                 contributions from different disciplines. Novel routes
                 to formalizing and applying such theories provide a
                 host of interesting and tractable problems for future
                 basic research in HCI.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cognitive models; computing system models; models of
                 interaction",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors};
                 Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 Systems and Information Theory (H.1.1): {\bf General
                 systems theory}",
}

@Article{Vicente:2000:HGK,
  author =       "Kim J. Vicente",
  title =        "{HCI} in the global knowledge-based economy: designing
                 to support worker adaptation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "263--280",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Oct 26 12:00:36 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/2000-7/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-2/p263-vicente/",
  abstract =     "Increasingly, people are being required to perform
                 open-ended intellectual tasks that require
                 discretionary decision making. These demands require a
                 relatively unique approach to the design of
                 computer-based support tools. A review of the
                 characteristics associated with the global
                 knowledge-based economy strongly suggests that there
                 will be an increasing need for workers, managers, and
                 organizations to adapt to change and novelty. This is
                 equivalent to a call for designing computer tools that
                 foster continuous learning. There are reasons to
                 believe that the need to support adaptation and
                 continuous learning will only increase. Thus, in the
                 new millenium HCi should be concerned with explicitly
                 designing for worker adaptation. The cognitive work
                 analysis framework is briefly described as a potential
                 programmatic approach to this practical design
                 challenge.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "adaption; cognitive work analysis; knowledge-based
                 economy",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf User
                 interface management systems (UIMS)}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3)",
}

@Article{Dix:2000:ESL,
  author =       "Alan Dix and Tom Rodden and Nigel Davies and Jonathan
                 Trevor and Adrian Friday and Kevin Palfreyman",
  title =        "Exploiting space and location as a design framework
                 for interactive mobile systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "285--321",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-3/p285-dix/",
  abstract =     "This article considers the importance of context in
                 mobile systems. It considers a range of context-related
                 issues and focus on location as a key issue for mobile
                 systems. A design framework is described consisting of
                 taxonomies of location, mobility, population, and
                 device awareness. The design framework inorms (??) the
                 construction of a semantic model of space for mobile
                 systems. The semantic model is reflected in a
                 computational model built on a distributed platform
                 that allows contextual information to be shared across
                 a number of mobile devices. The framework support the
                 design of interactive mobile systems while the platform
                 supports their rapid development.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors; Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "awareness; context information; design framework;
                 location-sensitive applications; mobile systems;
                 platform support; shared interaction; virtual space",
  subject =      "Computer Systems Organization ---
                 Computer-Communication Networks --- Distributed Systems
                 (C.2.4): {\bf Distributed applications}; Information
                 Systems --- Models and Principles --- User/Machine
                 Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems --- Information
                 Systems Applications --- Communications Applications
                 (H.4.3); Information Systems --- Information Interfaces
                 and Presentation --- Group and Organization Interfaces
                 (H.5.3): {\bf Synchronous interaction}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Theory
                 and models}",
}

@Article{Lamming:2000:SPA,
  author =       "Mik Lamming and Marge Eldridge and Mike Flynn and
                 Chris Jones and David Pendlebury",
  title =        "{Satchel}: providing access to any document, any time,
                 anywhere",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "322--352",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-3/p322-lamming/p322-lamming.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-3/p322-lamming/",
  abstract =     "Current solutions for providing access to electronic
                 documents while away from the office do not meet the
                 special needs of mobile document workers. We describe
                 ``Satchel,'' a system that is designed specifically to
                 support the distinctive features of mobile document
                 work. Satchel is designed to meet the following five
                 high-level design goals (1) easy access to document
                 services; (2) timely document access; (3) streamlined
                 user interface; (4) ubiquity; and (5) compliance with
                 security policies. Our current prototype uses a Nokia
                 9000 Communicator as the mobile device; it communicates
                 to the rest of the Satchel system using wireless
                 communications, both infrared and radio. A fundamental
                 Satchel concept is the use of tokens, or small secure
                 references, to represent documents on the mobile
                 device. The mobile client only transmits small tokens
                 over the wireless channels, leaving the wired network
                 to transmit the contents of documents when, and only
                 when, they are required. Another fundamental Satchel
                 concept is the highly specialized and context-sensitive
                 user interface on the mobile device. The user's
                 interactions ae streamlined because of this
                 specialization and though the use of contextual
                 information gained by using infrared communications. We
                 report the results of a trial of Satchel that was
                 carried out within our own company, and discuss how
                 well Satchel met our design goals. We call Satchel a
                 ``document appliance'' because it provides a
                 streamlined solution to the problem of remote document
                 access--it aims to support only a limited set of
                 activities, but supports them very well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "document access; document appliance; document
                 processing; information appliance; mobile computing;
                 mobile work",
  subject =      "Computer Systems Organization ---
                 Computer-Communication Networks --- Distributed Systems
                 (C.2.4): {\bf Distributed applications}; Information
                 Systems --- Models and Principles --- User/Machine
                 Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Evaluation/methodology};
                 Computing Methodologies --- Computer Graphics ---
                 Methodology and Techniques (I.3.6): {\bf Interaction
                 techniques}",
}

@Article{Sawhney:2000:NRS,
  author =       "Nitin Sawhney and Chris Schmandt",
  title =        "Nomadic radio: speech and audio interaction for
                 contextual messaging in nomadic environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "353--383",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-3/p353-sawhney/p353-sawhney.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-3/p353-sawhney/",
  abstract =     "Mobile workers need seamless access to communication
                 and information services while on the move. However,
                 current solutions overwhelm users with intrusive
                 interfaces and ambiguous notifications. This article
                 discusses the interaction techniques developed for
                 Nomadic Radio, a wearable computing platform for
                 managing voice and text-based messages in a nomadic
                 environment. Nomadic Radio employs an auditory user
                 interface, which synchronizes speech recognition,
                 speech synthesis, nonspeech audio, and spatial
                 presentation of digital audio, for navigating among
                 messages as well as asynchronous notification of newly
                 arrived messages. Emphasis is placed on an auditory
                 modality as Nomadic Radio is designed to be used while
                 performing other tasks in a user's everyday
                 environment; a range of auditory cues provides
                 peripheral awareness of incoming messages. Notification
                 is adaptive and context sensitive; messages are
                 presented as more or less obtrusive based on importance
                 inferred from content filtering, whether the user is
                 engaged in conversation and his or her own recent
                 responses to prior messages. Auditory notifications are
                 dynamically scaled from ambient sound through recorded
                 voice cues up to message summaries. Iterative design
                 and a preliminary user evaluation suggest that audio is
                 an appropriate medium for mobile messaging, but that
                 care must be taken to minimally intrude on the wearer's
                 social and physical environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "adaptive interfaces; contextual interfaces;
                 interruptions; nonspeech audio; notifications; passive
                 awareness; spatial listening; speech interaction;
                 wearable computing",
  subject =      "Hardware --- Input/Output and Data Communications ---
                 Input/Output Devices (B.4.2): {\bf Voice}; Software ---
                 Software Engineering --- Design Tools and Techniques
                 (D.2.2): {\bf Modules and interfaces}; Software ---
                 Software Engineering --- Design Tools and Techniques
                 (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}; Information Systems ---
                 Models and Principles --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2):
                 {\bf Human factors}; Information Systems --- Models and
                 Principles --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human
                 information processing}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Systems Applications --- Communications
                 Applications (H.4.3): {\bf Electronic mail};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Multimedia Information Systems
                 (H.5.1): {\bf Audio input/output}; Information Systems
                 --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): {\bf
                 Evaluation/methodology}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Evaluation/methodology};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Input
                 devices and strategies}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Interaction styles};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Theory
                 and methods}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and Organization
                 Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Asynchronous interaction}",
}

@Article{Ren:2000:ISP,
  author =       "Xiangshi Ren and Shinju Moriya",
  title =        "Improving selection performance on pen-based systems:
                 a study of pen-based interaction for selection tasks",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "384--416",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-3/p384-ren/p384-ren.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-3/p384-ren/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Experimentation; Human Factors; Measurement;
                 Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "classifications of selection strategies; mobile
                 computing; pen-based input interfaces; pen-based
                 systems; small targets; state-transition models; target
                 selection strategies",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering ---
                 Requirements/Specifications (D.2.1): {\bf Methodologies
                 (e.g., object-oriented, structured)}; Software ---
                 Software Engineering --- Design Tools and Techniques
                 (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}; Information Systems ---
                 Models and Principles --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2):
                 {\bf Human factors}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Evaluation/methodology};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Input
                 devices and strategies}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Interaction styles};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Screen
                 design}; Information Systems --- Information Interfaces
                 and Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Theory and methods}; Computing Methodologies ---
                 Computer Graphics --- Methodology and Techniques
                 (I.3.6): {\bf Interaction techniques}",
}

@Article{Pascoe:2000:UWM,
  author =       "Jason Pascoe and Nick Ryan and David Morse",
  title =        "Using while moving: {HCI} issues in fieldwork
                 environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "417--437",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-3/p417-pascoe/p417-pascoe.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-3/p417-pascoe/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Experimentation; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "archaeology; context; context awareness; ecology;
                 fieldwork; giraffe; MAUI; minimal attention user
                 interface; palmtop; PDA; small screen",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Ergonomics}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- User Interfaces
                 (H.5.2): {\bf Graphical user interfaces (GUI)};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Haptic
                 I/O}; Information Systems --- Information Interfaces
                 and Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Input devices and strategies}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Interaction styles};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Style
                 guides}; Computer Applications --- Life and Medical
                 Sciences (J.3)",
}

@Article{Benford:2000:ISI,
  author =       "Steve Benford and Paul Dourish and Tom Rodden",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on human-computer
                 interaction and collaborative virtual environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "439--441",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p439-benford/p439-benford.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p439-benford/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Basdogan:2000:ESR,
  author =       "Cagatay Basdogan and Chih-hao Ho and Mandayam A.
                 Srinivasan and Mel Slater",
  title =        "An experimental study on the role of touch in shared
                 virtual environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "443--460",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p443-basdogan/p443-basdogan.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p443-basdogan/",
  abstract =     "Investigating virtual environments has become an
                 increasingly interesting research topic for engineers,
                 computer and cognitive scientists, and psychologists.
                 Although there have been several recent studies focused
                 on the development of multimodal virtual environments
                 (VEs) to study human-machine interactions, less
                 attention has been paid to human-human and
                 human-machine interactions in shared virtual
                 environments (SVEs), and to our knowledge, no attention
                 paid at all to what extent the addition of haptic
                 communication between people would contribute to the
                 shared experience. We have developed a multimodal
                 shared virtual environment and performed a set of
                 experiments with human subjects to study the role of
                 haptic feedback in collaborative tasks and whether
                 haptic communication through force feedback can
                 facilitate a sense of being and collaborating with a
                 remote partner. The study concerns a scenario where two
                 participants at remote sites must cooperate to perform
                 a joint task in an SVE. The goals of the study are (1)
                 to assess the impact of force feedback on task
                 performance, (2) to better understand the role of
                 haptic communication in human-human interactions, (3)
                 to study the impact of touch on the subjective sense of
                 collaborating with a human as reported by the
                 participants based on what they could see and feel, and
                 (4) to investigate if gender, personality, or emotional
                 experiences of users can affect haptic communication in
                 SVEs. The outcomes of this research can have a powerful
                 impact on the development of next-generation
                 human-computer interfaces and network protocols that
                 integrate touch and force feedback technology into the
                 Internet, development of protocols and techniques for
                 collaborative teleoperation such as hazardous material
                 removal, space station.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors; Management; Performance;
                 Theory",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "copresence; force feedback devices; haptic
                 interaction; shared virtual environments",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Interaction styles}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Haptic I/O}; Computing
                 Methodologies --- Computer Graphics --- Methodology and
                 Techniques (I.3.6): {\bf Interaction techniques};
                 Computing Methodologies --- Computer Graphics ---
                 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): {\bf
                 Virtual reality}; Computing Methodologies ---
                 Artificial Intelligence --- Robotics (I.2.9): {\bf
                 Manipulators}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- User Interfaces
                 (H.5.2): {\bf Input devices and strategies}",
}

@Article{Sallnas:2000:SPC,
  author =       "Eva-Lotta Salln{\"a}s and Kirsten Rassmus-Gr{\"o}hn
                 and Calle Sj{\"o}str{\"o}m",
  title =        "Supporting presence in collaborative environments by
                 haptic force feedback",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "461--476",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p461-sallnas/p461-sallnas.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p461-sallnas/",
  abstract =     "An experimental study of interaction in a
                 collaborative desktop virtual environment is described.
                 The aim of the experiment was to investigate if added
                 haptic force feedback in such an environment affects
                 perceived virtual presence, perceived social presence,
                 perceived task performance, and task performance. A
                 between-group design was employed, where seven pairs of
                 subjects used an interface with graphic representation
                 of the environment, audio connection, and haptic force
                 feedback. Seven other pairs of subjects used an
                 interface without haptic force feedback, but with
                 identical features otherwise. The PHANToM, a one-point
                 haptic device, was used for the haptic force feedback,
                 and a program especially developed for the purpose
                 provided the virtual environment. The program enables
                 for two individuals placed in different locations to
                 simultaneously feel and manipulate dynamic objects in a
                 shared desktop virtual environment. Results show that
                 haptic force feedback significantly improves task
                 performance, perceived task performance, and perceived
                 virtual presence in the collaborative distributed
                 environment. The results suggest that haptic force
                 feedback increases perceived social presence, but the
                 difference is not significant.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Human Factors; Measurement; Performance",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "distributed collaboration; haptic force feedback;
                 presence",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Theory
                 and methods}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- User Interfaces
                 (H.5.2): {\bf Input devices and strategies};
                 Information Systems --- Information Systems
                 Applications --- Communications Applications (H.4.3):
                 {\bf Computer conferencing, teleconferencing, and
                 videoconferencing}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and Organization
                 Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Evaluation/methodology};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Group and Organization Interfaces
                 (H.5.3): {\bf Synchronous interaction}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Haptic I/O}",
}

@Article{Hindmarsh:2000:OFI,
  author =       "Jon Hindmarsh and Mike Fraser and Christian Heath and
                 Steve Benford and Chris Greenhalgh",
  title =        "Object-focused interaction in collaborative virtual
                 environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "477--509",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p477-hindmarsh/p477-hindmarsh.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p477-hindmarsh/",
  abstract =     "This paper explores and evaluates the support for
                 object-focused interaction provided by a desktop
                 Collaborative Virtual Environment. An experimental
                 ``design'' task was conducted, and video recordings of
                 the participants' activities facilitated an
                 observational analysis of interaction in, and through,
                 the virtual world. Observations include: problems due
                 to ``fragmented'' views of embodiments in relation to
                 shared objects; participants compensating with spoken
                 accounts of their actions; and difficulties in
                 understanding others' perspectives. Implications and
                 proposals for the design of CVEs drawn from these
                 observations are: the use of semidistorted views to
                 support peripheral awareness; more explicit or
                 exaggerated representations of actions than are
                 provided by pseudohumanoid avatars; and navigation
                 techniques that are sensitive to the actions of others.
                 The paper also presents some examples of the ways in
                 which these proposals might be realized.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Experimentation; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "CSCW; embodiment; objects; shared spaces; social
                 interaction; user interface design; virtual reality",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Systems
                 Applications --- Communications Applications (H.4.3):
                 {\bf Computer conferencing, teleconferencing, and
                 videoconferencing}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Multimedia Information
                 Systems (H.5.1): {\bf Artificial, augmented, and
                 virtual realities}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and Organization
                 Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Evaluation/methodology}",
}

@Article{Benford:2000:ITB,
  author =       "Steve Benford and Chris Greenhalgh and Mike Craven and
                 Graham Walker and Tim Regan and Jason Morphett and John
                 Wyver",
  title =        "Inhabited television: broadcasting interaction from
                 within collaborative virtual environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "510--547",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p510-benford/p510-benford.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2000-7-4/p510-benford/",
  abstract =     "Inhabited television combines collaborative virtual
                 environments (CVEs) with broadcast television so that
                 on-line audiences can participate in television shows
                 within shared virtual worlds. We describe a series of
                 experiments with inhabited television, beginning with
                 the NOWninety6 poetry performance, The Mirror, and
                 Heaven {\&} Hell--Live. These early experiments raised
                 fundamental questions for inhabited television
                 concerning the extent to which it is possible to
                 establish fast-paced social interaction within a CVE,
                 and to which it is possible to produce a coherent and
                 engaging broadcast of this action. We then present a
                 fourth more recent experiment, Out of This World, that
                 directly addressed these questions. We describe how the
                 formulation of inhabited television design principles,
                 combined with the use of dedicated production software
                 for scripting and directing a show and for controlling
                 virtual cameras, enabled us to create a fast-moving and
                 more coherent experience.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "computer-supported cooperative work; entertainment;
                 media spaces; social interaction",
  subject =      "Computer Systems Organization ---
                 Computer-Communication Networks --- Distributed Systems
                 (C.2.4): {\bf Distributed applications}; Information
                 Systems --- Models and Principles --- User/Machine
                 Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): {\bf
                 Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Group and Organization Interfaces
                 (H.5.3): {\bf Theory and models}; Computing
                 Methodologies --- Computer Graphics ---
                 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): {\bf
                 Virtual reality}; Computer Applications --- Arts and
                 Humanities (J.5): {\bf Arts, fine and performing**}",
}

@Article{Inkpen:2001:DDV,
  author =       "Kori M. Inkpen",
  title =        "Drag-and-drop versus point-and-click mouse interaction
                 styles for children",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--33",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2001-8-1/p1-inkpen/",
  abstract =     "This research investigates children's use of two
                 common mouse interaction styles, drag-and-drop and
                 point-and-click, to determine whether the choice of
                 interaction style impacts children's performance in
                 interactive learning environments. The interaction
                 styles were experimentally compared to determine if
                 either method was superior to the other in terms of
                 speed, error rate, or user preference, for children.
                 The two interaction styles were also compared based on
                 children's achievement and motivation, within a
                 commercial software environment. Experiment I used an
                 interactive learning environment as children played two
                 versions of an educational puzzle-solving game, each
                 version utilizing a different mouse interaction style;
                 experiment II used a mouse-controlled software
                 environment modeled after the educational game. The
                 results were similar to previous results reported for
                 adults: the point-and-click interaction style was
                 faster; fewer errors were committed using it; and it
                 was preferred over the drag-and-drop interaction style.
                 Within the context of the puzzle-solving game, the
                 children solved significantly fewer puzzles, and they
                 were less motivated using the version that utilized a
                 drag-and-drop interaction style as compared to the
                 version that utilized a point-and-click interaction
                 style. These results were also explored through the use
                 of state-transition diagrams and GOMS models, both of
                 which supported the experimental data gathered.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Experimentation; Human Factors; Measurement;
                 Performance",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "children; computers in education; drag-and-drop;
                 electronic games; gender; input techniques; interaction
                 styles; interface design; mouse interaction;
                 point-and-click",
  subject =      "Software --- Software Engineering --- Design Tools and
                 Techniques (D.2.2): {\bf User interfaces}; Information
                 Systems --- Models and Principles --- User/Machine
                 Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors}; Information
                 Systems --- Information Interfaces and Presentation ---
                 User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Input devices and
                 strategies}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- User Interfaces
                 (H.5.2): {\bf Interaction styles}; Information Systems
                 --- Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Evaluation/methodology};
                 Computing Methodologies --- Computer Graphics ---
                 Methodology and Techniques (I.3.6): {\bf Interaction
                 techniques}; Computing Milieux --- Computers and
                 Education --- Computer Uses in Education (K.3.1)",
}

@Article{Sedig:2001:RIM,
  author =       "Kamran Sedig and Maria Klawe and Marvin Westrom",
  title =        "Role of interface manipulation style and scaffolding
                 on cognition and concept learning in learnware",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "34--59",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2001-8-1/p34-sedig/p34-sedig.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2001-8-1/p34-sedig/",
  abstract =     "This research investigates the role of interface
                 manipulation style on reflective cognition and concept
                 learning through a comparison of the effectiveness of
                 three versions of a software application for learning
                 two-dimensional transformation geometry. The three
                 versions respectively utilize a Direct Object
                 Manipulation (DOM) interface in which the user
                 manipulates the visual representation of objects being
                 transformed; a Direct Concept Manipulation (DCM)
                 interface in which the user manipulates the visual
                 representation of the transformation being applied to
                 the object; and a Reflective Direct Concept
                 Manipulation (RDCM) interface in which the DCM approach
                 is extended with scaffolding. Empirical results of a
                 study showed that grade-6 students using the RDCM
                 version learned significantly more than those using the
                 DCM version, who is turn learned significantly more
                 than those using the DOM version. Students using the
                 RDCM version had to process information consciously and
                 think harder than those using the DCM and DOM versions.
                 Despite the relative difficulty when using the RDCM
                 interface style, all three groups expressed a similar
                 (positive) level of liking for the software. This
                 research suggests that some of the educational
                 deficiencies of Direct Manipulation (DM) interfaces are
                 not necessarily caused by their ``directness,'' but by
                 what they are directed at--in this case directness
                 toward objects rather than embedded educational
                 concepts being learned. This paper furthers our
                 understanding of how the DM metaphor can be used in
                 learning- and knowledge-centered software (i.e.,
                 learnware) by proposing a new DM metaphor (i.e., DCM),
                 and the incorporation of scaffolding to enhance the DCM
                 approach to promote reflective cognition and deep
                 learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Experimentation; Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cognition; direct manipulation; education;
                 human-computer interaction; learning; learnware;
                 problem solving; reflection; transformation geometry",
  subject =      "Mathematics of Computing --- Mathematical Software
                 (G.4): {\bf User interfaces}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf User-centered design};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Interaction styles}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Theory and methods}; Computing
                 Milieux --- Computers and Education (K.3)",
}

@Article{Suhm:2001:MEC,
  author =       "Bernhard Suhm and Brad Myers and Alex Waibel",
  title =        "Multimodal error correction for speech user
                 interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "60--98",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2001-8-1/p60-suhm/p60-suhm.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2001-8-1/p60-suhm/",
  abstract =     "Although commercial dictation systems and
                 speech-enabled telephone voice user interfaces have
                 become readily available, speech recognition errors
                 remain a serious problem in the design and
                 implementation of speech user interfaces. Previous work
                 hypothesized that switching modality could speed up
                 interactive correction of recognition errors. This
                 article presents multimodal error correction methods
                 that allow the user to correct recognition errors
                 efficiently without keyboard input. Correction accuracy
                 is maximized by novel recognition algorithms that use
                 context information for recognizing correction input.
                 Multimodal error correction is evaluated in the context
                 of a prototype multimodal dictation system. The study
                 shows that unimodal repair is less accurate than
                 multimodal error correction. On a dictation task,
                 multimodal correction is faster than unimodal
                 correction by respeaking. The study also provides
                 empirical evidence that system-initiated error
                 correction (based on confidence measures) may not
                 expedite error correction. Furthermore, the study
                 suggests that recognition accuracy determines user
                 choice between modalities: while users initially prefer
                 speech, they learn to avoid ineffective correction
                 modalities with experience. To extrapolate results from
                 this user study, the article introduces a performance
                 model of (recognition-based) multimodal interaction
                 that predicts input speed including time needed for
                 error correction. Applied to interactive error
                 correction, the model predicts the impact of
                 improvements in recognition technology on correction
                 speeds, and the influence of recognition accuracy and
                 correction method on the productivity of dictation
                 systems. This model is a first step toward formalizing
                 multimodal interaction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Experimentation; Human Factors; Measurement",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "dictation systems; interactive error correction;
                 multimodal interfaces; pen input; performance model;
                 speech input; speech user interfaces",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Evaluation/methodology}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Input devices and strategies};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Interaction styles}; Information Systems --- Models and
                 Principles --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human
                 factors}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Group and Organization
                 Interfaces (H.5.3): {\bf Theory and models};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Group and Organization Interfaces
                 (H.5.3): {\bf Evaluation/methodology}; Computer
                 Applications --- Administrative Data Processing (J.1);
                 Computer Applications --- Life and Medical Sciences
                 (J.3)",
}

@Article{Thimbleby:2001:UAM,
  author =       "Harold Thimbleby and Paul Cairns and Matt Jones",
  title =        "Usability analysis with {Markov} models",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--132",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2001-8-2/p99-thimbleby/",
  abstract =     "How hard to users to find interactive devices to use
                 to achieve their goals, and how can we get this
                 information early enough to influence design? We show
                 that Markov modeling can obtain suitable measures, and
                 we provide formulas that can be used for a large class
                 of systems. We analyze and consider alternative designs
                 for various real examples. We introduce a
                 ``knowledge\slash usability graph,'' which shows the
                 impact of even a smaller amount of knowledge for the
                 user, and the extent to which designers' knowledge may
                 bias their views of usability. Markov models can be
                 built into design tools, and can therefore be made very
                 convenient for designers to utilize. One would hope
                 that in the future, design tools would include such
                 mathematical analysis, and no new design skills would
                 be required to evaluate devices. A particular concern
                 of this paper is to make the approach accessible.
                 Complete program code and all the underlying
                 mathematics are provided in appendices to enable others
                 to replicate and test all results shown.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Design; Human Factors; Performance",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Markov models; usability analysis",
  subject =      "Hardware --- Performance and Reliability ---
                 Performance Analysis and Design Aids (B.8.2); Data ---
                 Coding and Information Theory (E.4): {\bf Error control
                 codes}; Information Systems --- Models and Principles
                 --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human
                 information processing}; Software --- Software
                 Engineering --- Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2):
                 {\bf Decision tables}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Storage and Retrieval --- Information
                 Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Selection process};
                 Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems ---
                 Information Interfaces and Presentation --- User
                 Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf Theory and methods};
                 Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Online Information Services (H.3.5);
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4): {\bf
                 User issues}; Computing Methodologies --- Artificial
                 Intelligence --- Miscellaneous (I.2.m); Computing
                 Methodologies --- Pattern Recognition --- Applications
                 (I.5.4): {\bf Signal processing}; Computing Milieux ---
                 Computers and Society --- Miscellaneous (K.4.m)",
}

@Article{Prechelt:2001:IMI,
  author =       "Lutz Prechelt and Rainer Typke",
  title =        "An interface for melody input",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "133--149",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2001-8-2/p133-prechelt/p133-prechelt.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2001-8-2/p133-prechelt/",
  abstract =     "We present a software system, called Tuneserver, which
                 recognizes a musical tune whistled by the user, finds
                 it in a database, and returns its name, composer, and
                 other information. Such a service is useful for track
                 retrieval at radio stations, music stores, etc., and is
                 also a step toward the long-term goal of communicating
                 with a computer much like one would with a human being.
                 Tuneserver is implemented as a public Java-based WWW
                 service with a database of approximately 10,000 motifs.
                 Tune recognition is based on a highly error-resistant
                 encoding, proposed by Parsons, that uses only the
                 direction of the melody, ignoring the size of intervals
                 as well as rhythm. We present the design and
                 implementation of the tune recognition core, outline
                 the design of the Web service, and describe the results
                 obtained in an empirical evaluation of the new
                 interface, including the derivation of suitable system
                 parameters, resulting performance figures, and an error
                 analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Human Factors; Performance",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "input mode; melody; motif; recognition; theme; tune",
  subject =      "Data --- Coding and Information Theory (E.4): {\bf
                 Error control codes}; Information Systems --- Models
                 and Principles --- User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf
                 Human information processing}; Information Systems ---
                 Information Storage and Retrieval --- Information
                 Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): {\bf Selection process};
                 Information Systems --- Information Storage and
                 Retrieval --- Online Information Services (H.3.5);
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4);
                 Computing Methodologies --- Artificial Intelligence ---
                 Miscellaneous (I.2.m); Computing Methodologies ---
                 Pattern Recognition --- Applications (I.5.4): {\bf
                 Signal processing}; Information Systems --- Information
                 Interfaces and Presentation --- Hypertext/Hypermedia
                 (H.5.4): {\bf User issues}; Computing Milieux ---
                 Computers and Society --- Miscellaneous (K.4.m);
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- Sound and Music Computing (H.5.5)",
}

@Article{Whittaker:2001:CVM,
  author =       "Steve Whittaker and Julia Hirschberg",
  title =        "The character, value, and management of personal paper
                 archives",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "150--170",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 14 12:07:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tochi/2001-8-2/p150-whittaker/p150-whittaker.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tochi/2001-8-2/p150-whittaker/",
  abstract =     "We explored general issues concerning personal
                 information management by investigating the
                 characteristics of office workers' paper-based
                 information, in an industrial research environment. we
                 examined the reasons people collect paper, types of
                 data they collect, problems encountered in handling
                 paper, and strategies used for processing it. We tested
                 three specific hypotheses in the course of an office
                 move. The greater availability of public digital data
                 along with changes in people's jobs or interests should
                 lead to wholescale discarding of paper data, while
                 preparing for the move. Instead we found workers kept
                 large, highly valued paper archives. We also expected
                 that the major part of people's personal archives would
                 be unique documents. However, only 49\% of people's
                 archives were unique documents, the remainder being
                 copies of publicly available data and unread
                 information, and we explore reasons for this. We
                 examined the effects of paper-processing strategies on
                 archive structure. We discovered different
                 paper-processing strategies ({\em filing\/} and {\em
                 piling\/}) that were relatively independent of job
                 type. We predicated that filers' attempted to evaluate
                 and categorize incoming documents would produce smaller
                 archives that were accessed frequently. Contrary to our
                 predictions, filers amassed more information, and
                 accessed it less frequently than pilers. We argue that
                 filers may engage in {\em premature filing\/}: to clear
                 their workspace, they archives information that later
                 turns out to be of low value. Given the effort involved
                 in organizing data, they are also loath to discard
                 filed information, even when its value is uncertain. We
                 discuss the implications of this research for digital
                 personal information management.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  generalterms = "Human Factors",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "archiving; document management; filing; information
                 retrieval; paper; personal information management",
  subject =      "Information Systems --- Models and Principles ---
                 User/Machine Systems (H.1.2): {\bf Human factors};
                 Information Systems --- Information Interfaces and
                 Presentation --- User Interfaces (H.5.2): {\bf
                 Evaluation/methodology}",
}

@Article{Hornof:2001:VSM,
  author =       "Anthony J. Hornof",
  title =        "Visual search and mouse-pointing in labeled versus
                 unlabeled two-dimensional visual hierarchies",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "171--197",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 15:03:28 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Thomas:2001:ACA,
  author =       "Bruce H. Thomas and Paul Calder",
  title =        "Applying cartoon animation techniques to graphical
                 user interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "198--222",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 15:03:28 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{VanderZanden:2001:UMD,
  author =       "Bradley T. {Vander Zanden} and Richard Halterman",
  title =        "Using model dataflow graphs to reduce the storage
                 requirements of constraints",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "223--265",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 19 15:03:28 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Badros:2001:CLA,
  author =       "Greg J. Badros and Alan Borning and Peter J. Stuckey",
  title =        "The {Cassowary} linear arithmetic constraint solving
                 algorithm",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "267--306",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/texbook3.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Badros:2001:IPD,
  author =       "Greg J. Badros and Alan Borning and Peter J. Stuckey",
  title =        "Integrating paper and digital information on
                 {EnhancedDesk}: a method for realtime finger tracking
                 on an augmented desk system",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "307--322",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Perry:2001:DMU,
  author =       "Mark Perry and Kenton O'hara and Abigail Sellen and
                 Barry Brown and Richard Harper",
  title =        "Dealing with mobility: understanding access anytime,
                 anywhere",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "323--347",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:13 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Sun:2002:CMR,
  author =       "Chengzheng Sun and David Chen",
  title =        "Consistency maintenance in real-time collaborative
                 graphics editing systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--41",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:14 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ebling:2002:ITM,
  author =       "Maria R. Ebling and Bonnie E. John and M.
                 Satyanarayanan",
  title =        "The importance of translucence in mobile computing
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "42--67",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:14 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Thomas:2002:INU,
  author =       "Peter Thomas and Robert D. Macredie",
  title =        "Introduction to the new usability",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "69--73",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:14 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Petersen:2002:UET,
  author =       "Marianne Graves Petersen and Kim Halskov Madsen and
                 Arne Kj{\ae}r",
  title =        "The usability of everyday technology: emerging and
                 fading opportunities",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "74--105",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:14 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hallnas:2002:UPE,
  author =       "Lars Halln{\"a}s and Johan Redstr{\"o}m",
  title =        "From use to presence: on the expressions and
                 aesthetics of everyday computational things",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "106--124",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:14 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Palen:2002:BHD,
  author =       "Leysia Palen and Marilyn Salzman",
  title =        "Beyond the handset: designing for wireless
                 communications usability",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "125--151",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:14 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Bodker:2002:DCP,
  author =       "Susanne B{\o}dker and Jacob Buur",
  title =        "The design collaboratorium: a place for usability
                 design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "152--169",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:14 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Quek:2002:MHD,
  author =       "Francis Quek and David McNeill and Robert Bryll and
                 Susan Duncan and Xin-Feng Ma and Cemil Kirbas and Karl
                 E. McCullough and Rashid Ansari",
  title =        "Multimodal human discourse: gesture and speech",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "171--193",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:15 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Bellini:2002:CVM,
  author =       "P. Bellini and P. Nesi and M. B. Spinu",
  title =        "Cooperative visual manipulation of music notation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "194--237",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:15 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Koike:2002:RIH,
  author =       "Hideki Koike and Yoichi Sato and Yoshinori Kobayashi",
  title =        "Rivalry and interference with a head-mounted display",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "238--251",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:15 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Burnett:2002:ADS,
  author =       "Margaret Burnett and Sherry Yang and Jay Summet",
  title =        "Appendices {A--D}: a scalable method for deductive
                 generalization in the spreadsheet paradigm",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "1--5",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:15 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Burnett:2002:SMD,
  author =       "Margaret Burnett and Sherry Yang and Jay Summet",
  title =        "A scalable method for deductive generalization in the
                 spreadsheet paradigm",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "253--284",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:15 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ruddle:2002:SAA,
  author =       "Roy A. Ruddle and Justin C. D. Savage and Dylan M.
                 Jones",
  title =        "Symmetric and asymmetric action integration during
                 cooperative object manipulation in virtual
                 environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "285--308",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:15 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Sun:2002:UCI,
  author =       "Chengzheng Sun",
  title =        "Undo as concurrent inverse in group editors",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "309--361",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:15 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hornbaek:2002:NPU,
  author =       "Kasper Hornb{\ae}k and Benjamin B. Bederson and
                 Catherine Plaisant",
  title =        "Navigation patterns and usability of zoomable user
                 interfaces with and without an overview",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "362--389",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:15 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Irani:2003:DIS,
  author =       "Pourang Irani and Colin Ware",
  title =        "Diagramming information structures using {$3$D}
                 perceptual primitives",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--19",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:16 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Pirolli:2003:EIS,
  author =       "Peter Pirolli and Stuart K. Card and Mija M. {Van Der
                 Wege}",
  title =        "The effects of information scent on visual search in
                 the hyperbolic tree browser",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "20--53",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:16 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Amento:2003:ESD,
  author =       "Brian Amento and Loren Terveen and Will Hill and
                 Deborah Hix and Robert Schulman",
  title =        "Experiments in social data mining: {The TopicShop}
                 system",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "54--85",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:16 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Staff:2003:R,
  author =       "{ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction
                 staff}",
  title =        "2002 {Reviewers}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "86--86",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:16 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Steriadis:2003:DHC,
  author =       "Constantine E. Steriadis and Philip Constantinou",
  title =        "Designing human-computer interfaces for quadriplegic
                 people",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "87--118",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:16 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hornbaek:2003:RPU,
  author =       "Kasper Hornb{\ae}k and Erik Fr{\o}kj{\ae}r",
  title =        "Reading patterns and usability in visualizations of
                 electronic documents",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "119--149",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:16 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Sonnenwald:2003:ESC,
  author =       "Diane H. Sonnenwald and Mary C. Whitton and Kelly L.
                 Maglaughlin",
  title =        "Evaluating a scientific collaboratory: {Results} of a
                 controlled experiment",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "150--176",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 7 09:48:16 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Olston:2003:SIB,
  author =       "Christopher Olston and Ed H. Chi",
  title =        "{ScentTrails}: {Integrating} browsing and searching on
                 the {Web}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "177--197",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:10:51 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Katz:2003:ESB,
  author =       "Michael A. Katz and Michael D. Byrne",
  title =        "Effects of scent and breadth on use of site-specific
                 search on e-commerce {Web} sites",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "198--220",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:10:51 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Grayson:2003:YLM,
  author =       "David M. Grayson and Andrew F. Monk",
  title =        "Are you looking at me? {Eye} contact and desktop video
                 conferencing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "221--243",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:10:51 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Chok:2003:AGI,
  author =       "Sitt Sen Chok and Kim Marriott",
  title =        "Automatic generation of intelligent diagram editors",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "244--276",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 31 06:10:51 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Johnson:2003:IMC,
  author =       "Peter Johnson and Jon May and Hilary Johnson",
  title =        "Introduction to multiple and collaborative tasks",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "277--280",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 2 14:13:33 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Pinelle:2003:TAG,
  author =       "David Pinelle and Carl Gutwin and Saul Greenberg",
  title =        "Task analysis for groupware usability evaluation:
                 {Modeling} shared-workspace tasks with the mechanics of
                 collaboration",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "281--311",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 2 14:13:33 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{McCrickard:2003:MNS,
  author =       "D. Scott McCrickard and C. M. Chewar and Jacob P.
                 Somervell and Ali Ndiwalana",
  title =        "A model for notification systems
                 evaluation---assessing user goals for multitasking
                 activity",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "312--338",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 2 14:13:33 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Johnson:2003:TMI,
  author =       "Hilary Johnson and Joanne Hyde",
  title =        "Towards modeling individual and collaborative
                 construction of jigsaws using task knowledge structures
                 {(TKS)}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "339--387",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 2 14:13:33 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Grudin:2004:CD,
  author =       "Jonathan Grudin",
  title =        "Crossing the divide",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--25",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 6 07:10:40 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Huotari:2004:IGI,
  author =       "Jouni Huotari and Kalle Lyytinen and Marketta
                 Niemel{\"a}",
  title =        "Improving graphical information system model use with
                 elision and connecting lines",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "26--58",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 6 07:10:40 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Martin:2004:PCI,
  author =       "David Martin and Ian Sommerville",
  title =        "Patterns of cooperative interaction: {Linking}
                 ethnomethodology and design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--89",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 6 07:10:40 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Bederson:2004:DFC,
  author =       "Benjamin B. Bederson and Aaron Clamage and Mary P.
                 Czerwinski and George G. Robertson",
  title =        "{DateLens}: a fisheye calendar interface for
                 {PDAs}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--119",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 6 07:10:40 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{TOCHI-staff:2004:R,
  author =       "{Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction staff}",
  title =        "2003 reviewers",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "120--120",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 6 07:10:40 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Brotherton:2004:LLE,
  author =       "Jason A. Brotherton and Gregory D. Abowd",
  title =        "Lessons learned from {eClass}: {Assessing} automated
                 capture and access in the classroom",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "121--155",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:26:36 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ravasio:2004:PDE,
  author =       "Pamela Ravasio and Sissel Guttormsen Sch{\"a}r and
                 Helmut Krueger",
  title =        "In pursuit of desktop evolution: {User} problems and
                 practices with modern desktop systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "156--180",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:26:36 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Thimbleby:2004:UID,
  author =       "Harold Thimbleby",
  title =        "User interface design with matrix algebra",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "181--236",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:26:36 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Oviatt:2004:IMA,
  author =       "Sharon Oviatt and Stephanie Seneff",
  title =        "Introduction to mobile and adaptive conversational
                 interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "237--240",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:26:36 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Lemon:2004:MCR,
  author =       "Oliver Lemon and Alexander Gruenstein",
  title =        "Multithreaded context for robust conversational
                 interfaces: {Context-sensitive} speech recognition and
                 interpretation of corrective fragments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "241--267",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:26:36 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Meng:2004:IAT,
  author =       "Helen Meng and P. C. Ching and Shuk Fong Chan and Yee
                 Fong Wong and Cheong Chat Chan",
  title =        "{ISIS}: an adaptive, trilingual conversational system
                 with interleaving interaction and delegation dialogs",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "268--299",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:26:36 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Oviatt:2004:TAC,
  author =       "Sharon Oviatt and Courtney Darves and Rachel
                 Coulston",
  title =        "Toward adaptive conversational interfaces: {Modeling}
                 speech convergence with animated personas",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "300--328",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 4 08:26:36 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Feng:2004:UCS,
  author =       "Jinjuan Feng and Andrew Sears",
  title =        "Using confidence scores to improve hands-free speech
                 based navigation in continuous dictation systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "329--356",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 1 18:56:59 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hourcade:2004:DPT,
  author =       "Juan Pablo Hourcade and Benjamin B. Bederson and
                 Allison Druin and Fran{\c{c}}ois Guimbreti{\`e}re",
  title =        "Differences in pointing task performance between
                 preschool children and adults using mice",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "357--386",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 1 18:56:59 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Becker:2004:SWU,
  author =       "Shirley Ann Becker",
  title =        "A study of {Web} usability for older adults seeking
                 online health resources",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "387--406",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 1 18:56:59 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Velez:2004:WCH,
  author =       "Maria Velez and Marilyn Mantei Tremaine and Aleksandra
                 Sarcevic and Bogdan Dorohonceanu and Allan Krebs and
                 Ivan Marsic",
  title =        "``Who's in charge here?'': Communicating across
                 unequal computer platforms",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "407--444",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 1 18:56:59 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Whittaker:2004:COC,
  author =       "Steve Whittaker and Quentin Jones and Bonnie Nardi and
                 Mike Creech and Loren Terveen and Ellen Isaacs and John
                 Hainsworth",
  title =        "{ContactMap}: {Organizing} communication in a social
                 desktop",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "445--471",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 1 18:56:59 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Zhai:2005:ISB,
  author =       "Shumin Zhai and Victoria Bellotti",
  title =        "Introduction to sensing-based interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--2",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:02:49 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Benford:2005:ESD,
  author =       "Steve Benford and Holger Schn{\"a}delbach and Boriana
                 Koleva and Rob Anastasi and Chris Greenhalgh and Tom
                 Rodden and Jonathan Green and Ahmed Ghali and Tony
                 Pridmore and Bill Gaver and Andy Boucher and Brendan
                 Walker and Sarah Pennington and Albrecht Schmidt and
                 Hans Gellersen and Anthony Steed",
  title =        "Expected, sensed, and desired: a framework for
                 designing sensing-based interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--30",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:02:49 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hinckley:2005:FBI,
  author =       "Ken Hinckley and Jeff Pierce and Eric Horvitz and Mike
                 Sinclair",
  title =        "Foreground and background interaction with
                 sensor-enhanced mobile devices",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--52",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:02:49 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Dey:2005:DMC,
  author =       "Anind K. Dey and Jennifer Mankoff",
  title =        "Designing mediation for context-aware applications",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--80",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:02:49 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ullmer:2005:TCS,
  author =       "Brygg Ullmer and Hiroshi Ishii and Robert J. K.
                 Jacob",
  title =        "Token $+$ constraint systems for tangible interaction
                 with digital information",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "81--118",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:02:49 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Fogarty:2005:PHI,
  author =       "James Fogarty and Scott E. Hudson and Christopher G.
                 Atkeson and Daniel Avrahami and Jodi Forlizzi and Sara
                 Kiesler and Johnny C. Lee and Jie Yang",
  title =        "Predicting human interruptibility with sensors",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "119--146",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 12 07:02:49 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Jones:2005:I,
  author =       "Matt Jones and Bonnie Nardi and Elizabeth D. Mynatt",
  title =        "Introduction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "147--148",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 21 16:53:29 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Bell:2005:MMS,
  author =       "Genevieve Bell and Mark Blythe and Phoebe Sengers",
  title =        "Making by making strange: {Defamiliarization} and the
                 design of domestic technologies",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "149--173",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 21 16:53:29 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Adams:2005:SEE,
  author =       "Anne Adams and Ann Blandford and Peter Lunt",
  title =        "Social empowerment and exclusion: a case study on
                 digital libraries",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "174--200",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 21 16:53:29 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Maloney-Krichmar:2005:MAS,
  author =       "Diane Maloney-Krichmar and Jenny Preece",
  title =        "A multilevel analysis of sociability, usability, and
                 community dynamics in an online health community",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "201--232",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 21 16:53:29 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Carmien:2005:STE,
  author =       "Stefan Carmien and Melissa Dawe and Gerhard Fischer
                 and Andrew Gorman and Anja Kintsch and James F.
                 {Sullivan, Jr.}",
  title =        "Socio-technical environments supporting people with
                 cognitive disabilities using public transportation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "233--262",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 21 16:53:29 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Robertson:2005:VCD,
  author =       "Scott P. Robertson",
  title =        "Voter-centered design: {Toward} a voter decision
                 support system",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "263--292",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 21 16:53:29 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Bickmore:2005:EML,
  author =       "Timothy W. Bickmore and Rosalind W. Picard",
  title =        "Establishing and maintaining long-term human-computer
                 relationships",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "293--327",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 21 16:53:29 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Boyle:2005:LPL,
  author =       "Michael Boyle and Saul Greenberg",
  title =        "The language of privacy: {Learning} from video media
                 space analysis and design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "328--370",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 21 16:53:29 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Riedl:2005:ISS,
  author =       "John Riedl and Paul Dourish",
  title =        "Introduction to the special section on recommender
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "371--373",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 10 07:35:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Svensson:2005:DEK,
  author =       "Martin Svensson and Kristina H{\"o}{\"o}k and Rickard
                 C{\"o}ster",
  title =        "Designing and evaluating {Kalas}: a social
                 navigation system for food recipes",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "374--400",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 10 07:35:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Terveen:2005:SMF,
  author =       "Loren Terveen and David W. McDonald",
  title =        "Social matching: a framework and research agenda",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "401--434",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 10 07:35:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Grossman:2005:PAM,
  author =       "Tovi Grossman and Ravin Balakrishnan",
  title =        "A probabilistic approach to modeling two-dimensional
                 pointing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "435--459",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 10 07:35:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Guimbretiere:2005:BMC,
  author =       "Fran{\c{c}}ois Guimbreti{\`e}re and Andrew Martin and
                 Terry Winograd",
  title =        "Benefits of merging command selection and direct
                 manipulation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "460--476",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 10 07:35:56 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Qiu:2005:IET,
  author =       "Lingyun Qiu and Izak Benbasat",
  title =        "An investigation into the effects of {Text-To-Speech}
                 voice and {$3$D} avatars on the perception of presence
                 and flow of live help in electronic commerce",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "329--355",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 25 09:10:19 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Wiberg:2005:MAS,
  author =       "Mikael Wiberg and Steve Whittaker",
  title =        "Managing availability: {Supporting} lightweight
                 negotiations to handle interruptions",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "356--387",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 25 09:10:19 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{McGuffin:2005:FLE,
  author =       "Michael J. McGuffin and Ravin Balakrishnan",
  title =        "{Fitts}' law and expanding targets: {Experimental}
                 studies and designs for user interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "388--422",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 25 09:10:19 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Burke:2005:HCB,
  author =       "Moira Burke and Anthony Hornof and Erik Nilsen and
                 Nicholas Gorman",
  title =        "High-cost banner blindness: {Ads} increase perceived
                 workload, hinder visual search, and are forgotten",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "423--445",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 25 09:10:19 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Edwards:2005:PCC,
  author =       "W. Keith Edwards",
  title =        "Putting computing in context: an infrastructure to
                 support extensible context-enhanced collaborative
                 applications",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "446--474",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 25 09:10:19 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Neustaedter:2006:BFF,
  author =       "Carman Neustaedter and Saul Greenberg and Michael
                 Boyle",
  title =        "Blur filtration fails to preserve privacy for
                 home-based video conferencing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--36",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 21 05:25:38 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Liu:2006:QNM,
  author =       "Yili Liu and Robert Feyen and Omer Tsimhoni",
  title =        "{Queueing Network-Model Human Processor (QN-MHP)}: a
                 computational architecture for multitask performance in
                 human-machine systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "37--70",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 21 05:25:38 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Tan:2006:PLD,
  author =       "Desney S. Tan and Darren Gergle and Peter Scupelli and
                 Randy Pausch",
  title =        "Physically large displays improve performance on
                 spatial tasks",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "71--99",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 21 05:25:38 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Benford:2006:CYS,
  author =       "Steve Benford and Andy Crabtree and Martin Flintham
                 and Adam Drozd and Rob Anastasi and Mark Paxton and
                 Nick Tandavanitj and Matt Adams and Ju Row-Farr",
  title =        "Can you see me now?",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "100--133",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 21 05:25:38 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Cranor:2006:UIP,
  author =       "Lorrie Faith Cranor and Praveen Guduru and Manjula
                 Arjula",
  title =        "User interfaces for privacy agents",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "135--178",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1165734.1165735",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 7 09:34:20 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Most people do not often read privacy policies because
                 they tend to be long and difficult to understand. The
                 Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) addresses this
                 problem by providing a standard machine-readable format
                 for website privacy policies. P3P user agents can fetch
                 P3P privacy policies automatically, compare them with a
                 user's privacy preferences, and alert and advise the
                 user. Developing user interfaces for P3P user agents is
                 challenging for several reasons: privacy policies are
                 complex, user privacy preferences are often complex and
                 nuanced, users tend to have little experience
                 articulating their privacy preferences, users are
                 generally unfamiliar with much of the terminology used
                 by privacy experts, users often do not understand the
                 privacy-related consequences of their behavior, and
                 users have differing expectations about the type and
                 extent of privacy policy information they would like to
                 see. We developed a P3P user agent called Privacy Bird.
                 Our design was informed by privacy surveys and our
                 previous experience with prototype P3P user agents. We
                 describe our design approach, compare it with the
                 approach used in other P3P use agents, evaluate our
                 design, and make recommendations to designers of other
                 privacy agents.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Plumlee:2006:ZVM,
  author =       "Matthew D. Plumlee and Colin Ware",
  title =        "Zooming versus multiple window interfaces: {Cognitive}
                 costs of visual comparisons",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "179--209",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1165734.1165736",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 7 09:34:20 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In order to investigate large information spaces
                 effectively, it is often necessary to employ navigation
                 mechanisms that allow users to view information at
                 different scales. Some tasks require frequent movements
                 and scale changes to search for details and compare
                 them. We present a model that makes predictions about
                 user performance on such comparison tasks with
                 different interface options. A critical factor embodied
                 in this model is the limited capacity of visual working
                 memory, allowing for the cost of visits via fixating
                 eye movements to be compared to the cost of visits that
                 require user interaction with the mouse. This model is
                 tested with an experiment that compares a zooming user
                 interface with a multi-window interface for a
                 multiscale pattern matching task. The results closely
                 matched predictions in task performance times; however
                 error rates were much higher with zooming than with
                 multiple windows. We hypothesized that subjects made
                 more visits in the multi-window condition, and ran a
                 second experiment using an eye tracker to record the
                 pattern of fixations. This revealed that subjects made
                 far more visits back and forth between pattern
                 locations when able to use eye movements than they made
                 with the zooming interface. The results suggest that
                 only a single graphical object was held in visual
                 working memory for comparisons mediated by eye
                 movements, reducing errors by reducing the load on
                 visual working memory. Finally we propose a design
                 heuristic: extra windows are needed when visual
                 comparisons must be made involving patterns of a
                 greater complexity than can be held in visual working
                 memory.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ben-Bassat:2006:ESM,
  author =       "Tamar Ben-Bassat and Joachim Meyer and Noam
                 Tractinsky",
  title =        "Economic and subjective measures of the perceived
                 value of aesthetics and usability",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "210--234",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1165734.1165737",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 7 09:34:20 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The assessment of the relative value of different
                 design features for users is of great interest for
                 software designers. Users' evaluations are generally
                 measured through questionnaires. We suggest that other
                 evaluation methods, including economic measures, may
                 provide different estimates of the relative value of
                 features. In a laboratory experiment we created four
                 versions of a data-entry application by independently
                 manipulating the system's usability and aesthetics.
                 Users' evaluations of the four experimental systems
                 were obtained in a within-subjects design. In addition,
                 five between-subjects experimental conditions were
                 created, based on the evaluation method (questionnaire
                 alone or auction and questionnaire), monetary
                 incentives (present or absent), and experience in using
                 the system (present or absent). In questionnaire-based
                 responses, the systems' usability affected evaluations
                 of usability as well as aesthetics. Similarly, the
                 systems' aesthetics affected evaluations of both
                 aesthetics and usability. Questionnaire-based
                 evaluations of usability and aesthetics were not
                 affected by experience with the system or by monetary
                 performance incentives. Auction bids were only
                 influenced by the system's usability: bids corresponded
                 to the objective performance levels that could be
                 attained with the different systems. The results
                 suggest that by using economic methods, researchers and
                 practitioners can obtain system evaluations that are
                 strongly related to performance criteria and that may
                 be more valid when the evaluation context favors
                 task-oriented performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Sutcliffe:2006:IIC,
  author =       "Alistair Sutcliffe and Brian Gault and Terence
                 Fernando and Kevin Tan",
  title =        "Investigating interaction in {CAVE} virtual
                 environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "235--267",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1165734.1165738",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 7 09:34:20 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "An experimental comparison of interaction in the real
                 world and a CAVE virtual environment was carried out,
                 varying interaction with and without virtual hands and
                 comparing two manipulation tasks. The double-handed
                 task was possible in the real world but nearly
                 impossible in the VE, leading to changed behavior. The
                 single-handed task showed more errors in the VE but few
                 behavioral differences. Users encountered more errors
                 in the CAVE condition without the virtual hand than
                 with it, and few errors in the real world. Visual
                 feedback caused many usability problems in both tasks.
                 The implications for VE usability and virtual
                 prototyping are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kong:2006:SGG,
  author =       "Jun Kong and Kang Zhang and Xiaoqin Zeng",
  title =        "Spatial graph grammars for graphical user interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "268--307",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1165734.1165739",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 7 09:34:20 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In a graphical user interface, physical layout and
                 abstract structure are two important aspects of a
                 graph. This article proposes a new graph grammar
                 formalism which integrates both the spatial and
                 structural specification mechanisms in a single
                 framework. This formalism is equipped with a parser
                 that performs in polynomial time with an improved
                 parsing complexity over its nonspatial predecessor,
                 that is, the Reserved Graph Grammar. With the extended
                 expressive power, the formalism is suitable for many
                 user interface applications. The article presents its
                 application in adaptive Web design and presentation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hiltz:2006:ISI,
  author =       "Starr Roxanne Hiltz and Sara J. Czaja",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on information
                 systems for an aging society",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "309--312",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1183456.1183457",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 16:47:34 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Plaisant:2006:SFC,
  author =       "Catherine Plaisant and Aaron Clamage and Hilary Browne
                 Hutchinson and Benjamin B. Bederson and Allison Druin",
  title =        "Shared family calendars: {Promoting} symmetry and
                 accessibility",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "313--346",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1183456.1183458",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 16:47:34 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Newell:2006:DPO,
  author =       "Alan F. Newell and Anna Dickinson and Mick J. Smith
                 and Peter Gregor",
  title =        "Designing a portal for older users: a case study of
                 an industrial\slash academic collaboration",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "347--375",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1183456.1183459",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 16:47:34 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Moloney:2006:LDC,
  author =       "Kevin P. Moloney and Julie A. Jacko and Brani
                 Vidakovic and Fran{\c{c}}ois Sainfort and V. Kathlene
                 Leonard and Bin Shi",
  title =        "Leveraging data complexity: {Pupillary} behavior of
                 older adults with visual impairment during {HCI}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "376--402",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1183456.1183460",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 16:47:34 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Zaphiris:2006:TSD,
  author =       "Panayiotis Zaphiris and Rifaht Sarwar",
  title =        "Trends, similarities, and differences in the usage of
                 teen and senior public online newsgroups",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "403--422",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1183456.1183461",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 1 16:47:34 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Grinter:2006:CTC,
  author =       "Rebecca E. Grinter and Leysia Palen and Margery
                 Eldridge",
  title =        "Chatting with teenagers: {Considering} the place of
                 chat technologies in teen life",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "423--447",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1188816.1188817",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:32:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In the last few years, teenagers have been on the
                 forefront of adopting short message service (SMS), a
                 mobile phone-based text messaging system, and instant
                 messaging (IM), a computer-based text chat system.
                 However, while teenage adoption of SMS had led to a
                 series of studies examining the reasons for its
                 popularity, IM use in the teenage population remains
                 understudied. This omission becomes significant given
                 the increasing interest in domestic computing among
                 human-computer interaction (HCI) and computer-supported
                 cooperative work (CSCW) researchers. Further, because
                 of the dearth of empirical work on teenage use of IM,
                 we find that IM and SMS are sometimes incorrectly
                 assumed to share the same features of use. To address
                 these concerns, we revisit our own studies of SMS and
                 IM use and reexamine them in tandem with other
                 published studies on teenage chat. We consider
                 similarities and differences in styles of SMS and IM
                 use and how chat technologies enable the pursuit of
                 teenage independence. We examine how differences are
                 born out of technological differences and financial
                 cost structures. We discuss how SMS and IM are used in
                 concert to provide increased awareness and to
                 coordinate inter-household communications, and how
                 privacy is regulated within the individual household as
                 a means of maintaining these communications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "IMing; instant messaging; Text messaging; texting",
}

@Article{Mehra:2006:NHD,
  author =       "Sumit Mehra and Peter Werkhoven and Marcel Worring",
  title =        "Navigating on handheld displays: {Dynamic} versus
                 static peephole navigation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "448--457",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1188816.1188818",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:32:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Handheld displays leave little space for the
                 visualization and navigation of spatial layouts
                 representing rich information spaces. The most common
                 navigation method for handheld displays is static
                 peephole navigation: The peephole is static and we move
                 the spatial layout behind it (scrolling). A more
                 natural method is dynamic peephole navigation: here,
                 the spatial layout is static and we move the peephole
                 across it. In the experiment reported here, we compared
                 dynamic and static peephole navigation in otherwise
                 similar conditions. Subjects viewed a spatial layout
                 containing two lines on a static display screen. Only a
                 part of the screen---the peephole---was visible.
                 Subjects had to discriminate line length by either
                 moving a dynamic peephole across a static layout of the
                 lines or by moving a dynamic layout behind a static
                 peephole. In both conditions, they used mouse-cursor
                 control to move either the peephole or the
                 lines.Results show significant differences in
                 discrimination performance between conditions when
                 lines are larger than the size of the peephole.
                 Discrimination thresholds for static peephole
                 navigation were 50--75\% higher than for dynamic
                 peephole navigation. Furthermore, static peephole
                 navigation took 24\% more time than dynamic peephole
                 navigation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "handheld displays; Human-computer interaction;
                 navigation; visual perception",
}

@Article{Wobbrock:2006:AIS,
  author =       "Jacob O. Wobbrock and Brad A. Myers",
  title =        "Analyzing the input stream for character-level errors
                 in unconstrained text entry evaluations",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "458--489",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1188816.1188819",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:32:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Recent improvements in text entry error rate
                 measurement have enabled the running of text entry
                 experiments in which subjects are free to correct
                 errors (or not) as they transcribe a presented string.
                 In these ``unconstrained'' experiments, it is no longer
                 necessary to force subjects to unnaturally maintain
                 synchronicity with presented text for the sake of
                 performing overall error rate calculations. However,
                 the calculation of character-level error rates, which
                 can be trivial in artificially constrained evaluations,
                 is far more complicated in unconstrained text entry
                 evaluations because it is difficult to infer a
                 subject's intention at every character. For this
                 reason, prior character-level error analyses for
                 unconstrained experiments have only compared presented
                 and transcribed strings, not input streams. But input
                 streams are rich sources of character-level error
                 information, since they contain all of the text entered
                 (and erased) by a subject. The current work presents an
                 algorithm for the automated analysis of character-level
                 errors in input streams for unconstrained text entry
                 evaluations. It also presents new character-level
                 metrics that can aid method designers in refining text
                 entry methods. To exercise these metrics, we perform
                 two analyses on data from an actual text entry
                 experiment. One analysis, available from the prior
                 work, uses only presented and transcribed strings. The
                 other analysis uses input streams, as described in the
                 current work. The results confirm that input stream
                 error analysis yields richer information for the same
                 empirical data. To facilitate the use of these new
                 analyses, we offer pseudocode and downloadable software
                 for performing unconstrained text entry experiments and
                 analyzing data.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "character recognition; confusion matrix; deletion;
                 EdgeWrite; error rate; gesture; input stream;
                 insertion; minimum string distance; nonrecognition;
                 omission; optimal alignment; presented string;
                 recognizer; stream alignment; stroke; substitution;
                 Text entry; text input; transcribed string",
}

@Article{Blackwell:2006:RMD,
  author =       "Alan F. Blackwell",
  title =        "The reification of metaphor as a design tool",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "490--530",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1188816.1188820",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:32:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Despite causing many debates in human-computer
                 interaction (HCI), the term ``metaphor'' remains a
                 central element of design practice. This article
                 investigates the history of ideas behind user-interface
                 (UI) metaphor, not only technical developments, but
                 also less familiar perspectives from education,
                 philosophy, and the sociology of science. The
                 historical analysis is complemented by a study of
                 attitudes toward metaphor among HCI researchers 30
                 years later. Working from these two streams of
                 evidence, we find new insights into the way that
                 theories in HCI are related to interface design, and
                 offer recommendations regarding approaches to future UI
                 design research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design research; history of HCI; UI metaphor",
}

@Article{Sun:2006:TAS,
  author =       "Chengzheng Sun and Steven Xia and David Sun and David
                 Chen and Haifeng Shen and Wentong Cai",
  title =        "Transparent adaptation of single-user applications for
                 multi-user real-time collaboration",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "531--582",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1188816.1188821",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:32:51 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Single-user interactive computer applications are
                 pervasive in our daily lives and work. Leveraging
                 single-user applications for supporting multi-user
                 collaboration has the potential to significantly
                 increase the availability and improve the usability of
                 collaborative applications. In this article, we report
                 an innovative Transparent Adaptation (TA) approach and
                 associated supporting techniques that can be used to
                 convert existing and new single-user applications into
                 collaborative ones, without changing the source code of
                 the original application. The cornerstone of the TA
                 approach is the operational transformation (OT)
                 technique and the method of adapting the single-user
                 application programming interface to the data and
                 operation models of OT. This approach and supporting
                 techniques were developed and tested in the process of
                 transparently converting two commercial off-the-shelf
                 single-user applications (Microsoft Word and
                 PowerPoint) into real-time collaborative applications,
                 called CoWord and CoPowerPoint, respectively. CoWord
                 and CoPowerPoint not only retain the functionalities
                 and ``look-and-feel'' of their single-user
                 counterparts, but also provide advanced multi-user
                 collaboration capabilities for supporting multiple
                 interaction paradigms, ranging from concurrent and free
                 interaction to sequential and synchronized interaction,
                 and for supporting detailed workspace awareness,
                 including multi-user telepointers and radar views. The
                 TA approach and generic collaboration engine software
                 component developed from this work are potentially
                 applicable and reusable in adapting a wide range of
                 single-user applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Application sharing; computer-supported cooperative
                 work; CoPowerPoint; CoWord; operational transformation;
                 transparent adaptation",
}

@Article{Amant:2007:MBE,
  author =       "Robert St. Amant and Thomas E. Horton and Frank E.
                 Ritter",
  title =        "Model-based evaluation of expert cell phone menu
                 interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229855.1229856",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe concepts to support the analysis of cell
                 phone menu hierarchies, based on cognitive models of
                 users and easy-to-use optimization techniques. We
                 present an empirical study of user performance on five
                 simple tasks of menu traversal on an example cell
                 phone. Two of the models applied to these tasks, based
                 on GOMS and ACT-R, give good predictions of behavior.
                 We use the empirically supported models to create an
                 effective evaluation and improvement process for menu
                 hierarchies. Our work makes three main contributions: a
                 novel and timely study of a new, very common HCI task;
                 new versions of existing models for accurately
                 predicting performance; and a search procedure to
                 generate menu hierarchies that reduce traversal time,
                 in simulation studies, by about a third.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Frees:2007:PIE,
  author =       "Scott Frees and G. Drew Kessler and Edwin Kay",
  title =        "{PRISM} interaction for enhancing control in immersive
                 virtual environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229855.1229857",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "When directly manipulating 3D objects in an immersive
                 environment we cannot normally achieve the accuracy and
                 control that we have in the real world. This reduced
                 accuracy stems from hand instability. We present PRISM,
                 which dynamically adjusts the C/D ratio between the
                 hand and the controlled object to provide increased
                 control when moving slowly and direct, unconstrained
                 interaction when moving rapidly. We describe PRISM
                 object translation and rotation and present user
                 studies demonstrating their effectiveness. In addition,
                 we describe a PRISM-enhanced version of ray casting
                 which is shown to increase the speed and accuracy of
                 object selection.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "3D object manipulation; direct object manipulation;
                 precision manipulation; virtual reality",
}

@Article{McGrenere:2007:FEA,
  author =       "Joanna McGrenere and Ronald M. Baecker and Kellogg S.
                 Booth",
  title =        "A field evaluation of an adaptable two-interface
                 design for feature-rich software",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229855.1229858",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Two approaches for supporting personalization in
                 complex software are system-controlled adaptive menus
                 and user-controlled adaptable menus. We evaluate a
                 novel interface design for feature-rich productivity
                 software based on adaptable menus. The design allows
                 the user to easily customize a personalized interface,
                 and also supports quick access to the default interface
                 with all of the standard features. This design was
                 prototyped as a front-end to a commercial word
                 processor. A field experiment investigated users'
                 personalizing behavior and tested the effects of
                 different interface designs on users' satisfaction and
                 their perceived ability to navigate, control, and learn
                 the software. There were two conditions: a commercial
                 word processor with adaptive menus and our prototype
                 with adaptable menus for the same word processor. Our
                 evaluation shows: (1) when provided with a flexible,
                 easy-to-use and easy-to-understand customization
                 mechanism, the majority of users do effectively
                 personalize their interface; and (2) user-controlled
                 interface adaptation with our adaptable menus results
                 in better navigation and learnability, and allows for
                 the adoption of different personalization strategies,
                 as compared to a particular system-controlled adaptive
                 menu system that implements a single strategy. We
                 report qualitative data obtained from interviews and
                 questionnaires with participants in the evaluation in
                 addition to quantitative data.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "adaptable interfaces; adaptive interfaces; bloatware;
                 customization; featurism; field experiment;
                 Human-computer interaction; individual differences;
                 personalization",
}

@Article{VanSchaik:2007:DPR,
  author =       "Paul {Van Schaik} and Jonathan Ling",
  title =        "Design parameters of rating scales for {Web} sites",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229855.1229859",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The effects of design parameters of rating scales on
                 the perceived quality of interaction with web sites
                 were investigated, using four scales (Disorientation,
                 Perceived ease of use, Perceived usefulness and Flow).
                 Overall, the scales exhibited good psychometric
                 properties. In Experiment 1, psychometric results
                 generally converged between two response formats
                 (visual analogue scale and Likert scale). However, in
                 Experiment 2, presentation of one questionnaire item
                 per page was better than all items presented on a
                 single page and direct interaction (using radio
                 buttons) was better than indirect interaction (using a
                 drop-down box). Practical implications and a framework
                 for measurement are presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Human-computer interaction; interaction mechanism;
                 Likert scale; online questionnaires; psychometrics;
                 questionnaire layout; response format; screen design;
                 visual analogue scale; web site",
}

@Article{Tang:2007:ALT,
  author =       "John C. Tang",
  title =        "Approaching and leave-taking: {Negotiating} contact in
                 computer-mediated communication",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1229855.1229860",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:13 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "A major difference between face-to-face interaction
                 and computer-mediated communication is how contact
                 negotiation---the way in which people start and end
                 conversations---is managed. Contact negotiation is
                 especially problematic for distributed group members
                 who are separated by distance and thus do not share
                 many of the cues needed to help mediate interaction. An
                 understanding of what resources and cues people use to
                 negotiate making contact when face-to-face identifies
                 ways to design support for contact negotiation in new
                 technology to support remote collaboration. This
                 perspective is used to analyze the design and use
                 experiences with three communication prototypes:
                 Desktop Conferencing Prototype, Montage, and Awarenex.
                 These prototypes use text, video, and graphic
                 indicators to share the cues needed to gracefully start
                 and end conversations. Experiences with using these
                 prototypes focused on how these designs support the
                 interactional commitment of the participants---when
                 they have to commit their attention to an interaction
                 and how flexibly that can be negotiated. Reviewing what
                 we learned from these research experiences identifies
                 directions for future research in supporting contact
                 negotiation in computer-mediated communication.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "awareness; Computer-mediated communication;
                 human-computer interaction; instant messaging;
                 interaction design; user research",
}

@Article{Hornbaek:2007:UUF,
  author =       "Kasper Hornb{\ae}k and Morten Hertzum",
  title =        "Untangling the usability of fisheye menus",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1275511.1275512",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Fisheye menus have become a prominent example of
                 fisheye interfaces, yet contain several nonfisheye
                 elements and have not been systematically evaluated.
                 This study investigates whether fisheye menus are
                 useful, and tries to untangle the impact on usability
                 of the following properties of fisheye menus: use of
                 distortion, index of letters for coarse navigation, and
                 the focus-lock mode for accurate movement. Twelve
                 participants took part in an experiment comparing
                 fisheye menus with three alternative menu designs
                 across known-item and browsing tasks, as well as across
                 alphabetical and categorical menu structures. The
                 results show that for finding known items, conventional
                 hierarchical menus are the most accurate and by far the
                 fastest. In addition, participants rate the
                 hierarchical menu as more satisfying than fisheye and
                 multifocus menus, but do not consistently prefer any
                 one menu. For browsing tasks, the menus neither differ
                 with respect to accuracy nor selection time.
                 Eye-movement data show that participants make little
                 use of nonfocus regions of the fisheye menu, though
                 these are a defining feature of fisheye interfaces.
                 Nonfocus regions are used more with the multifocus
                 menu, which enlarges important menu items in these
                 regions. With the hierarchical menu, participants make
                 shorter fixations and have shorter scanpaths,
                 suggesting lower requirements for mental activity and
                 visual search. We conclude by discussing why fisheye
                 menus are inferior to the hierarchical menu and how
                 both may be improved.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "context interfaces; fisheye menus; focus +
                 hierarchical menus; information visualization; menu
                 selection",
}

@Article{Corter:2007:CRS,
  author =       "James E. Corter and Jeffrey V. Nickerson and Sven K.
                 Esche and Constantin Chassapis and Seongah Im and Jing
                 Ma",
  title =        "Constructing reality: a study of remote, hands-on,
                 and simulated laboratories",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1275511.1275513",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Laboratories play a crucial role in the education of
                 future scientists and engineers, yet there is
                 disagreement among science and engineering educators
                 about whether and which types of technology-enabled
                 labs should be used. This debate could be advanced by
                 large-scale randomized studies addressing the critical
                 issue of whether remotely operated or simulation-based
                 labs are as effective as the traditional hands-on lab
                 format. The present article describes the results of a
                 large-scale ($N = 306$) study comparing learning
                 outcomes and student preferences for several different
                 lab formats in an undergraduate engineering course. The
                 lab formats that were evaluated included traditional
                 hands-on labs, remotely operated labs, and simulations.
                 Learning outcomes were assessed by a test of the
                 specific concepts taught in each lab. These knowledge
                 scores were as high or higher (depending on topic)
                 after performing remote and simulated laboratories
                 versus performing hands-on laboratories. In their
                 responses to survey items, many students saw advantages
                 to technology-enabled lab formats in terms of such
                 attributes as convenience and reliability, but still
                 expressed preference for hands-on labs. Also,
                 differences in lab formats led to changes in group
                 functions across the plan-experiment-analyze process:
                 For example, students did less face-to-face work when
                 engaged in remote or simulated laboratories, as opposed
                 to hands-on laboratories.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "coordination; distance learning; experimentation;
                 remote laboratories; simulation; Tele-operation",
}

@Article{Jay:2007:MED,
  author =       "Caroline Jay and Mashhuda Glencross and Roger
                 Hubbold",
  title =        "Modeling the effects of delayed haptic and visual
                 feedback in a collaborative virtual environment",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1275511.1275514",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) enable two
                 or more people, separated in the real world, to share
                 the same virtual ``space.'' They can be used for many
                 purposes, from teleconferencing to training people to
                 perform assembly tasks. Unfortunately, the
                 effectiveness of CVEs is compromised by one major
                 problem: the delay that exists in the networks linking
                 users together. Whilst we have a good understanding,
                 especially in the visual modality, of how users are
                 affected by delayed feedback from their own actions,
                 little research has systematically examined how users
                 are affected by delayed feedback from other people,
                 particularly in environments that support haptic
                 (force) feedback. The current study addresses this
                 issue by quantifying how increasing levels of latency
                 affect visual and haptic feedback in a collaborative
                 target acquisition task. Our results demonstrate that
                 haptic feedback in particular is very sensitive to low
                 levels of delay. Whilst latency affects visual feedback
                 from 50 ms, it impacts on haptic task performance 25 ms
                 earlier, and causes the haptic measures of performance
                 deterioration to rise far more steeply than visual. The
                 ``impact-perceive-adapt'' model of user performance,
                 which considers the interaction between performance
                 measures, perception of latency, and the breakdown of
                 perception of immediate causality, is proposed as an
                 explanation for the observed pattern of performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "distributed collaboration; Haptics; latency; virtual
                 environments",
}

@Article{Chan:2007:EBC,
  author =       "Hock Chuan Chan and Hock-Hai Teo",
  title =        "Evaluating the boundary conditions of the technology
                 acceptance model: an exploratory investigation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1275511.1275515",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The technology acceptance model (TAM) is very widely
                 used for studying technology acceptance. The model
                 states that an individual's behavioral intention (BI)
                 to use an information system is determined by his
                 perceived usefulness (PU) and perceived ease of use
                 (PEOU) of it. While many studies have applied the TAM,
                 none has examined the model's behavior over its entire
                 value range. We conducted two surveys to examine the
                 values of BI over the two-dimensional boundary space
                 formed by PU and PEOU. Contrary to current
                 understanding, we find that the effects of PU and PEOU
                 vary over the boundary space.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "behavioral intention; perceived ease of use; Perceived
                 usefulness; technology acceptance model",
}

@Article{Harper:2007:SSS,
  author =       "Simon Harper and Sean Bechhofer",
  title =        "{SADIe}: {Structural} semantics for accessibility and
                 device independence",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1275511.1275516",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Visually impaired users are hindered in their efforts
                 to access the largest repository of electronic
                 information in the world, namely, the World Wide Web
                 (web). A visually impaired user's information and
                 presentation requirements are different from a sighted
                 user's. These requirements can become problems in that
                 the web is visually centric with regard to presentation
                 and information order/layout. Finding semantic
                 information already encoded directly into documents can
                 help to alleviate these problems. Our approach can be
                 loosely described as follows. For a particular
                 cascading stylesheet (CSS), we provide an extension to
                 an upper-level ontology which represents the interface
                 between web documents and the programmatic
                 transformation mechanism. This extension gives the
                 particular characteristics of the elements appearing in
                 that specific CSS. We can consider this extension to be
                 an annotation of the CSS elements implicitly encoded
                 into the web document. This means that one ontology can
                 be used to accurately transform every web document that
                 references the CSS used to generate that ontology.
                 Simply one ontology accurately transforms an entire
                 site using a generalized programmatic machinery able to
                 cope with all sites using CSS. Here we describe our
                 method, implementation, and technical evaluation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "semantic web; transcoding; visual impairment; Web
                 accessibility",
}

@Article{Sears:2007:ISI,
  author =       "Andrew Sears and Vicki L. Hanson and Brad Myers",
  title =        "Introduction to special issue on computers and
                 accessibility",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1279700.1279701",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Sevilla:2007:WAI,
  author =       "Javier Sevilla and Gerardo Herrera and Bibiana
                 Mart{\'\i}nez and Francisco Alcantud",
  title =        "{Web} accessibility for individuals with cognitive
                 deficits: a comparative study between an existing
                 commercial {Web} and its cognitively accessible
                 equivalent",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1279700.1279702",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Tim Berners-Lee claimed in 2001 that ``the power of
                 the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone
                 regardless of disability is an essential aspect''. A
                 considerable amount of work has been done to make the
                 web accessible to those with sensory or motor
                 disability, with an increasing number of government and
                 enterprise intranet webs being ``accessible'', and also
                 with some consortiums and groups seriously approaching
                 this commitment. Some authors, such as Harrysson, have
                 already highlighted the need for a cognitively
                 accessible web. However, in spite of good intentions,
                 there has been little work to date that has tackled
                 this task. At least until now, the existing WAI and NI4
                 recommendations about cognitive disability are
                 extremely difficult (if not impossible) to test, as
                 they are only general recommendations. This article
                 explains an alternative Web that has been constructed
                 and tested on a sample of participants with cognitive
                 disabilities ($N = 20$) with positive results
                 encouraging us to dedicate more effort to fine tune
                 their requirements regarding specific cognitive
                 deficits and automating the process of creating and
                 testing cognitively accessible web content. This
                 alternative web implies the use of a simplified web
                 browser and an adequate web design. Discussion of the
                 need to have several levels of cognitive accessibility,
                 equivalent (although not identical) content for this
                 collective and the need for testable protocols of
                 accessibility that support these people's needs is also
                 included. This article finishes with conclusions about
                 the potential impact of accessible pages in the daily
                 life of people suffering from cognitive deficits,
                 outlining the features to be considered within a user
                 profile specification that support cognitive
                 difficulties and with reflections about the suitability
                 of Semantic Web Technologies for future developments in
                 this field.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Accessibility; annotation; cognitive disabilities;
                 complex socio-technical systems; design for all;
                 ontology; self-determination; TEACCH; universal design;
                 visualization ontology; wrapper",
}

@Article{Takagi:2007:ANW,
  author =       "Hironobu Takagi and Shin Saito and Kentarou Fukuda and
                 Chieko Asakawa",
  title =        "Analysis of navigability of {Web} applications for
                 improving blind usability",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1279700.1279703",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Various accessibility activities are improving blind
                 access to the increasingly indispensable WWW. These
                 approaches use various metrics to measure the Web's
                 accessibility. ``Ease of navigation'' (navigability) is
                 one of the crucial factors for blind usability,
                 especially for complicated webpages used in portals and
                 online shopping sites. However, it is difficult for
                 automatic checking tools to evaluate the navigation
                 capabilities even for a single webpage. Navigability
                 issues for complete Web applications are still far
                 beyond their capabilities.\par

                 This study aims at obtaining quantitative results about
                 the current accessibility status of real world Web
                 applications, and analyzes real users' behavior on such
                 websites. In Study 1, an automatic analysis method for
                 webpage navigability is introduced, and then a broad
                 survey using this method for 30 international online
                 shopping sites is described. The next study (Study 2)
                 focuses on a fine-grained analysis of real users'
                 behavior on some of these online shopping sites. We
                 modified a voice browser to record each user's actions
                 and the information presented to that user. We
                 conducted user testing on existing sites with this
                 tool. We also developed an analysis and visualization
                 method for the recorded information. The results showed
                 us that users strongly depend on scanning navigation
                 instead of logical navigation. A landmark-oriented
                 navigation model was proposed based on the results.
                 Finally, we discuss future possibilities for improving
                 navigability, including proposals for voice browsers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Accessibility; online shopping; usability testing;
                 voice browsers; Web accessibility",
}

@Article{Yesilada:2007:EDS,
  author =       "Yeliz Yesilada and Robert Stevens and Simon Harper and
                 Carole Goble",
  title =        "Evaluating {DANTE}: {Semantic} transcoding for
                 visually disabled users",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1279700.1279704",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The importance of the World Wide Web for information
                 dissemination is indisputable. However, the dominance
                 of visual design on the Web leaves visually disabled
                 people at a disadvantage. Although assistive
                 technologies, such as screen readers, usually provide
                 basic access to information, the richness of the Web
                 experience is still often lost. In particular,
                 traversing the Web becomes a complicated task since the
                 richness of visual objects presented to their sighted
                 counterparts are neither appropriate nor accessible to
                 visually disabled users. To address this problem, we
                 have proposed an approach called Dante in which Web
                 pages are annotated with semantic information to make
                 their traversal properties explicit. Dante supports
                 usage of different annotation techniques and as a
                 proof-of-concept in this article, pages are annotated
                 manually which when transcoded become rich. We first
                 introduce Dante and then present a user evaluation
                 which compares how visually disabled users perform
                 certain travel-related tasks on original and transcoded
                 versions of Web pages. We discuss the evaluation
                 methodology in detail and present our findings, which
                 provide useful insights into the transcoding process.
                 Our evaluation shows that, in tests with users,
                 document objects transcoded with Dante have a tendency
                 to be much easier for visually disabled users to
                 interact with when traversing Web pages.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "evaluation; Semantic Web; transcoding; Travel; visual
                 impairment",
}

@Article{Kennaway:2007:PSC,
  author =       "J. R. Kennaway and J. R. W. Glauert and I.
                 Zwitserlood",
  title =        "Providing signed content on the {Internet} by
                 synthesized animation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2007",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1279700.1279705",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:42 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Written information is often of limited accessibility
                 to deaf people who use sign language. The eSign project
                 was undertaken as a response to the need for
                 technologies enabling efficient production and
                 distribution over the Internet of sign language
                 content. By using an avatar-independent scripting
                 notation for signing gestures and a client-side web
                 browser plug-in to translate this notation into motion
                 data for an avatar, we achieve highly efficient
                 delivery of signing, while avoiding the inflexibility
                 of video or motion capture. Tests with members of the
                 deaf community have indicated that the method can
                 provide an acceptable quality of signing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Animation; avatar; deaf accessibility; HamNoSys;
                 scripting; SiGML; sign language; virtual reality",
}

@Article{McDonald:2008:PDS,
  author =       "David W. McDonald and Joseph F. McCarthy and Suzanne
                 Soroczak and David H. Nguyen and Al M. Rashid",
  title =        "Proactive displays: {Supporting} awareness in fluid
                 social environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1314683.1314684",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Academic conferences provide a social space for people
                 to present their work and interact with one another.
                 However, opportunities for interaction are unevenly
                 distributed among the attendees. We seek to extend the
                 opportunities for interaction among attendees by using
                 technology to enable them to reveal information about
                 their background and interests in different settings.
                 We evaluate a suite of applications that augment three
                 physical social spaces at an academic conference. The
                 applications were designed to augment formal conference
                 paper sessions and informal breaks. A mixture of
                 qualitative observation and survey response data are
                 used to frame the impacts from both individual and
                 group perspectives. Respondents reported on their
                 interactions and serendipitous findings of shared
                 interests with other attendees. However, some
                 respondents also identify distracting aspects of the
                 augmentation. Our discussion relates these results to
                 existing theory of group behavior in public places and
                 how these social space augmentations relate to
                 awareness as well as the problem of shared interaction
                 models.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "augmented social spaces; Awareness; evaluation;
                 proactive display",
}

@Article{Lunzer:2008:SIE,
  author =       "Aran Lunzer and Kasper Hornb{\ae}k",
  title =        "Subjunctive interfaces: {Extending} applications to
                 support parallel setup, viewing and control of
                 alternative scenarios",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1314683.1314685",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Many applications require exploration of alternative
                 scenarios; most support it poorly. Subjunctive
                 interfaces provide mechanisms for the parallel setup,
                 viewing and control of scenarios, aiming to support
                 users' thinking about and interaction with their
                 choices. We illustrate how applications for information
                 access, real-time simulation, and document design may
                 be extended with these mechanisms. To investigate the
                 usability of this form of extension, we compare a
                 simple census browser against a version with a
                 subjunctive interface. In the first of three studies,
                 subjects reported higher satisfaction with the
                 subjunctive interface, and relied less on interim marks
                 on paper. No reduction in task completion time was
                 found, however, mainly because some subjects
                 encountered problems in setting up and controlling
                 scenarios. At the end of a second, five-session study,
                 users of a redesigned interface completed tasks 27\%
                 more quickly than with the simple interface. In the
                 third study we examined how subjects reasoned about
                 multiple-scenario setups in pursuing complex,
                 open-ended data explorations. Our main observation was
                 that subjects treated scenarios as information holders,
                 using them creatively in various ways to facilitate
                 task completion.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "information exploration; multiple views; Subjunctive
                 interfaces; user study",
}

@Article{Liao:2008:PGB,
  author =       "Chunyuan Liao and Fran{\c{c}}ois Guimbreti{\`e}re and
                 Ken Hinckley and Jim Hollan",
  title =        "{PapierCraft}: a gesture-based command system for
                 interactive paper",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1314683.1314686",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Paper persists as an integral component of active
                 reading and other knowledge-worker tasks because it
                 provides ease of use unmatched by digital alternatives.
                 Paper documents are light to carry, easy to annotate,
                 rapid to navigate, flexible to manipulate, and robust
                 to use in varied environments. Interactions with paper
                 documents create rich webs of annotation, cross
                 reference, and spatial organization. Unfortunately, the
                 resulting webs are confined to the physical world of
                 paper and, as they accumulate, become increasingly
                 difficult to store, search, and access. XLibris
                 [Schilit et al. 1998] and similar systems address these
                 difficulties by simulating paper with tablet PCs. While
                 this approach is promising, it suffers not only from
                 limitations of current tablet computers (e.g., limited
                 screen space) but also from loss of invaluable paper
                 affordances.\par

                 In this article, we describe PapierCraft, a
                 gesture-based command system that allows users to
                 manipulate digital documents using paper printouts as
                 proxies. Using an Anoto [Anoto 2002] digital pen, users
                 can draw command gestures on paper to tag a paragraph,
                 e-mail a selected area, copy selections to a notepad,
                 or create links to related documents. Upon pen
                 synchronization, PapierCraft executes the commands and
                 presents the results in a digital document viewer.
                 Users can then search the tagged information and
                 navigate the web of annotated digital documents
                 resulting from interactions with the paper proxies.
                 PapierCraft also supports real time interactions across
                 mix-media, for example, letting users copy information
                 from paper to a Tablet PC screen. This article presents
                 the design and implementation of the PapierCraft system
                 and describes user feedback from initial use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "distributed systems; gesture-based interfaces; marking
                 interfaces; Paper interfaces; paper-augmented digital
                 documents; tablet computers; ubiquitous computing",
}

@Article{Wybrow:2008:CUO,
  author =       "Michael Wybrow and Kim Marriott and Linda Mciver and
                 Peter J. Stuckey",
  title =        "Comparing usability of one-way and multi-way
                 constraints for diagram editing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1314683.1314687",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We investigate the usability of constraint-based
                 alignment and distribution placement tools in diagram
                 editors. Currently one-way constraints are used to
                 provide alignment and distribution tools in many
                 commercial editors. We believe the limitations of these
                 constraints lead to serious usability issues, and thus
                 suggest that such tools be implemented using multi-way
                 constraints. We have conducted two usability studies,
                 the first studies we are aware of that examine the
                 relative usefulness of interactive graphical tools
                 based on one-way and multi-way constraints. They
                 provide strong evidence that multi-way constraint-based
                 alignment and distribution tools are more usable than
                 one-way constraint-based alignment and distribution
                 tools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Constraints; diagram manipulation; layout tools",
}

@Article{Frokjaer:2008:MHT,
  author =       "Erik Fr{\o}kj{\ae}r and Kasper Hornb{\ae}k",
  title =        "Metaphors of human thinking for usability inspection
                 and design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1314683.1314688",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Usability inspection techniques are widely used, but
                 few focus on users' thinking and many are appropriate
                 only for particular devices and use contexts. We
                 present a new technique (MOT) that guides inspection by
                 metaphors of human thinking. The metaphors concern
                 habit, the stream of thought, awareness and
                 associations, the relation between utterances and
                 thought, and knowing. The main novelty of MOT is its
                 psychological basis combined with its use of metaphors
                 to stimulate inspection. The first of three experiments
                 shows that usability problems uncovered with MOT are
                 more serious and more complex to repair than problems
                 found with heuristic evaluation. Problems found with
                 MOT are also judged more likely to persist for expert
                 users. The second experiment shows that MOT finds more
                 problems than cognitive walkthrough, and has a wider
                 coverage of a reference collection of usability
                 problems. Participants prefer using MOT over cognitive
                 walkthrough; an important reason being the wider scope
                 of MOT. The third experiment compares MOT, cognitive
                 walkthrough, and think aloud testing, in the context of
                 nontraditional user interfaces. Participants prefer
                 using think aloud testing, but identify few problems
                 with that technique that are not found also with MOT or
                 cognitive walkthrough. MOT identifies more problems
                 than the other techniques. Across experiments and
                 measures of usability problems' utility in systems
                 design, MOT performs better than existing inspection
                 techniques and is comparable to think aloud testing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cognitive walkthrough; heuristic evaluation; metaphors
                 of human thinking; think aloud testing; Usability
                 evaluation; usability inspection",
}

@Article{Bailey:2008:UCM,
  author =       "Brian P. Bailey and Shamsi T. Iqbal",
  title =        "Understanding changes in mental workload during
                 execution of goal-directed tasks and its application
                 for interruption management",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1314683.1314689",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Notifications can have reduced interruption cost if
                 delivered at moments of lower mental workload during
                 task execution. Cognitive theorists have speculated
                 that these moments occur at subtask boundaries. In this
                 article, we empirically test this speculation by
                 examining how workload changes during execution of
                 goal-directed tasks, focusing on regions between
                 adjacent chunks within the tasks, that is, the subtask
                 boundaries. In a controlled experiment, users performed
                 several interactive tasks while their pupil dilation, a
                 reliable measure of workload, was continuously measured
                 using an eye tracking system. The workload data was
                 extracted from the pupil data, precisely aligned to the
                 corresponding task models, and analyzed. Our principal
                 findings include (i) workload changes throughout the
                 execution of goal-directed tasks; (ii) workload
                 exhibits transient decreases at subtask boundaries
                 relative to the preceding subtasks; (iii) the amount of
                 decrease tends to be greater at boundaries
                 corresponding to the completion of larger chunks of the
                 task; and (iv) different types of subtasks induce
                 different amounts of workload. We situate these
                 findings within resource theories of attention and
                 discuss important implications for interruption
                 management systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Attention; interruption; pupil size; task models; user
                 studies; workload",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2008:R,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "2007 reviewers",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1314683.1315744",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:33:55 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Chen:2008:IAM,
  author =       "Sherry Y. Chen and Xiaohui Liu",
  title =        "An integrated approach for modeling learning patterns
                 of students in {Web}-based instruction: a cognitive
                 style perspective",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1352782.1352783",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:34:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Web-based instruction (WBI) programs, which have been
                 increasingly developed in educational settings, are
                 used by diverse learners. Therefore, individual
                 differences are key factors for the development of WBI
                 programs. Among various dimensions of individual
                 differences, the study presented in this article
                 focuses on cognitive styles. More specifically, this
                 study investigates how cognitive styles affect
                 students' learning patterns in a WBI program with an
                 integrated approach, utilizing both traditional
                 statistical and data-mining techniques. The former are
                 applied to determine whether cognitive styles
                 significantly affected students' learning patterns. The
                 latter use clustering and classification methods. In
                 terms of clustering, the K-means algorithm has been
                 employed to produce groups of students that share
                 similar learning patterns, and subsequently the
                 corresponding cognitive style for each group is
                 identified. As far as classification is concerned, the
                 students' learning patterns are analyzed using a
                 decision tree with which eight rules are produced for
                 the automatic identification of students' cognitive
                 styles based on their learning patterns. The results
                 from these techniques appear to be consistent and the
                 overall findings suggest that cognitive styles have
                 important effects on students' learning patterns within
                 WBI. The findings are applied to develop a model that
                 can support the development of WBI programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Cognitive style; data mining; learning patterns;
                 Web-based instruction",
}

@Article{Bhavnani:2008:SBI,
  author =       "Suresh K. Bhavnani and Frederick A. Peck and Frederick
                 Reif",
  title =        "Strategy-based instruction: {Lessons} learned in
                 teaching the effective and efficient use of computer
                 applications",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1352782.1352784",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:34:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Numerous studies have shown that many users do not
                 acquire the knowledge necessary for the effective and
                 efficient use of computer applications such as
                 spreadsheets and Web-authoring tools. While many
                 cognitive, cultural, and social reasons have been
                 offered to explain this phenomenon, there have been few
                 systematic attempts to address it. This article
                 describes how we identified a framework to organize
                 effective and efficient strategies to use computer
                 applications and used an approach called strategy-based
                 instruction to teach those strategies over five years
                 to almost 400 students. Controlled experiments
                 demonstrated that the instructional approach (1)
                 enables students to learn strategies without harming
                 command knowledge, (2) benefits students from technical
                 and nontechnical majors, and (3) is robust across
                 different instructional contexts and new applications.
                 Real-world classroom experience of teaching
                 strategy-based instruction over several instantiations
                 has enabled the approach to be disseminated to other
                 universities. The lessons learned throughout the
                 process of design, implementation, evaluation, and
                 dissemination should allow teaching a large number of
                 users in many organizations to rapidly acquire the
                 strategic knowledge to make more effective and
                 efficient use of computer applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Strategies; strategy-based instruction; teaching;
                 training",
}

@Article{Sharit:2008:IRK,
  author =       "Joseph Sharit and Mario A. Hern{\'a}ndez and Sara J.
                 Czaja and Peter Pirolli",
  title =        "Investigating the roles of knowledge and cognitive
                 abilities in older adult information seeking on the
                 {Web}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1352782.1352785",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:34:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This study investigated the influences of knowledge,
                 particularly Internet, Web browser, and search engine
                 knowledge, as well as cognitive abilities on older
                 adult information seeking on the Internet. The emphasis
                 on aspects of cognition was informed by a modeling
                 framework of search engine information-seeking
                 behavior. Participants from two older age groups were
                 recruited: twenty people in a younger-old group (ages
                 60-70) and twenty people in an older-old group (ages
                 71-85). Ten younger adults (ages 18-39) served as a
                 comparison group. All participants had at least some
                 Internet search experience. The experimental task
                 consisted of six realistic search problems, all
                 involving information related to health and well-being
                 and which varied in degree of complexity. The results
                 indicated that though necessary, Internet-related
                 knowledge was not sufficient in explaining
                 information-seeking performance, and suggested that a
                 combination of both knowledge and key cognitive
                 abilities is important for successful information
                 seeking. In addition, the cognitive abilities that were
                 found to be critical for task performance depended on
                 the search problem's complexity. Also, significant
                 differences in task performance between the younger and
                 the two older age groups were found on complex, but not
                 on simple problems. Overall, the results from this
                 study have implications for instructing older adults on
                 Internet information seeking and for the design of Web
                 sites.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "health information seeking; Human-computer
                 interaction; Internet; mental models; older adults;
                 Pathfinder networks; search engines",
}

@Article{Zhao:2008:DSU,
  author =       "Haixia Zhao and Catherine Plaisant and Ben Shneiderman
                 and Jonathan Lazar",
  title =        "Data Sonification for Users with Visual Impairment:
                 a Case Study with Georeferenced Data",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1352782.1352786",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:34:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe the development and evaluation of a tool,
                 iSonic, to assist users with visual impairment in
                 exploring georeferenced data using coordinated maps and
                 tables, augmented with nontextual sounds and speech
                 output. Our in-depth case studies with 7 blind users
                 during 42 hours of data collection, showed that iSonic
                 enabled them to find facts and discover trends in
                 georeferenced data, even in unfamiliar geographical
                 contexts, without special devices. Our design was
                 guided by an Action-by-Design-Component (ADC)
                 framework, which was also applied to scatterplots to
                 demonstrate its generalizability. Video and download is
                 available at www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/iSonic/.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "auditory user interfaces; information seeking;
                 Interactive sonification; universal usability; users
                 with visual impairment",
}

@Article{DeBruijn:2008:NFT,
  author =       "Oscar {De Bruijn} and Robert Spence",
  title =        "A New Framework for Theory-Based Interaction Design
                 Applied to Serendipitous Information Retrieval",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1352782.1352787",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:34:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The activities of opportunistic and involuntary
                 browsing offer the potential for many of a user's
                 latent problems to be resolved serendipitously, with
                 negligible cognitive effort. In this article, we
                 demonstrate how the design of two novel artifacts to
                 support such behavior was based on a set of Design
                 Actions which were derived from a model of browsing
                 behavior in combination with a cognitive model of human
                 visual information processing. We propose the concept
                 of Design Actions as a way of avoiding the need for an
                 interaction designer associated with these and similar
                 artifacts to understand the cognitive theories
                 underlying them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cognition; design actions; Human-computer interaction;
                 involuntary browsing; mobile Web browsing;
                 opportunistic browsing; rapid serial visual
                 presentation; serendipity; table-top interaction",
}

@Article{Wu:2008:QNM,
  author =       "Changxu Wu and Yili Liu",
  title =        "Queuing Network Modeling of Transcription Typing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1352782.1352788",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 16 11:34:07 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Transcription typing is one of the basic and common
                 activities in human-machine interaction and 34
                 transcription typing phenomena have been discovered
                 involving many aspects of human performance including
                 interkey time, typing units and spans, typing errors,
                 concurrent task performance, eye movements, and skill
                 effects. Based on the queuing network theory of human
                 performance [Liu 1996; 1997] and current discoveries in
                 cognitive and neural science, this article extends and
                 applies the Queuing Network-Model Human Processor
                 (QN-MHP [Liu et al. 2006]) to model 32 transcription
                 typing phenomena. The queuing network model of
                 transcription typing offers new insights into the
                 mechanisms of cognition and human-computer interaction.
                 Its value in proactive ergonomics design of user
                 interfaces is illustrated and discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cognitive modeling; human performance; Queuing
                 network; typing",
}

@Article{Lim:2008:APP,
  author =       "Youn-Kyung Lim and Erik Stolterman and Josh
                 Tenenberg",
  title =        "The anatomy of prototypes: {Prototypes} as filters,
                 prototypes as manifestations of design ideas",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1375761.1375762",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jul 3 11:10:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The role of prototypes is well established in the
                 field of HCI and Design. A lack of knowledge, however,
                 about the fundamental nature of prototypes still
                 exists. Researchers have attempted to identify
                 different types of prototypes, such as low- vs.
                 high-fidelity prototypes, but these attempts have
                 centered on evaluation rather than support of design
                 exploration. There have also been efforts to provide
                 new ways of thinking about the activity of using
                 prototypes, such as experience prototyping and paper
                 prototyping, but these efforts do not provide a
                 discourse for understanding fundamental characteristics
                 of prototypes. In this article, we propose an anatomy
                 of prototypes as a framework for prototype
                 conceptualization. We view prototypes not only in their
                 role in evaluation but also in their generative role in
                 enabling designers to reflect on their design
                 activities in exploring a design space. We base this
                 framework on the findings of two case studies that
                 reveal two key dimensions: prototypes as filters and
                 prototypes as manifestations. We explain why these two
                 dimensions are important and how this conceptual
                 framework can benefit our field by establishing more
                 solid and systematic knowledge about prototypes and
                 prototyping.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design; design space; human-computer interaction;
                 Prototype; prototyping",
}

@Article{Iachello:2008:PMP,
  author =       "Giovanni Iachello and Gregory D. Abowd",
  title =        "From privacy methods to a privacy toolbox:
                 {Evaluation} shows that heuristics are complementary",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1375761.1375763",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jul 3 11:10:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We describe the two-year-long development and
                 evaluation of the Proportionality Method, a design
                 method intended to aid HCI practitioners in designing
                 advanced IT applications with complex privacy
                 implications. The method is inspired by Data Protection
                 Authorities' (DPA) and Courts' practice and proposes to
                 balance the impact on privacy of IT applications with
                 their usefulness. We discuss the results of an
                 evaluation of the design method to verify its
                 usability, usefulness and effectiveness vis-{\`a}-vis
                 other design methods proposed in the HCI literature to
                 address similar issues. Results suggest that different
                 design methods for privacy highlight different sets of
                 issues and a combination of methods should be employed
                 in a comprehensive design process. We propose to judge
                 design methods based on their overall quantitative and
                 qualitative merits, including the type of application
                 and technology for which they are most fit and their
                 methodological approach. We finally propose to develop
                 a privacy toolbox, that is, a set of heuristic methods
                 that designers can choose from with knowledge and
                 understanding of their relative advantages and
                 limitations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "design methods; Privacy; proportionality; requirements
                 analysis; risk analysis; social issues; ubiquitous
                 computing",
}

@Article{Swan:2008:MPC,
  author =       "Laurel Swan and Alex S. Taylor and Richard Harper",
  title =        "Making place for clutter and other ideas of home",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1375761.1375764",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jul 3 11:10:10 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we examine the containment of clutter
                 in family homes and, from this, outline considerations
                 for design. Selected materials from an ethnographically
                 informed study of home life are used to detail the ways
                 in which families contain their clutter in bowls and
                 drawers. Clutter, within these containers, is found to
                 be made up of a heterogeneous collection of things
                 that, for all manner of reasons, hold an ambiguous
                 status in the home. It is shown that bowls and drawers
                 provide a ``safe'' site of containment for clutter,
                 giving the miscellany of content the ``space'' to be
                 properly dealt with and classified, or to be left
                 unresolved. The shared but idiosyncratic practices
                 families use to contain their clutter are seen to be
                 one of the ways in which the home, or at least the {\em
                 idea\/} of home, is collectively produced. It is also
                 part of the means by which families come to make their
                 homes distinct and unique. These findings are used to
                 consider what it might mean to design for the home, and
                 to do so in ways that are sensitive to the
                 idiosyncratic systems of household organization. In
                 conclusion, thought is given to how we design for
                 people's ideas of home, and how we might build sites of
                 uncertainty into homes, where physical as well as
                 digital things might coalesce.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Clutter; domestic technology; ethnography; home life;
                 sacred",
}

@Article{Petersen:2008:ISIa,
  author =       "Marianne Graves Petersen and Lars Halln{\"a}s and
                 Robert J. K. Jacob",
  title =        "Introduction to special issue on the aesthetics of
                 interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1453152.1453153",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 14:07:04 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Baljko:2008:AEC,
  author =       "Melanie Baljko and Nell Tenhaaf",
  title =        "The aesthetics of emergence: Co-constructed
                 interactions",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1453152.1453154",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 14:07:04 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we describe the {\em aesthetics of
                 emergence}, which is our theoretical framework for an
                 aesthetics of interaction and the underpinning of {\em
                 LoFi}, an interactive A-life artwork that we are
                 developing. We provide a survey of relevant concepts
                 from the A-life and new media research communities, and
                 we establish threads of commonalities with the HCI
                 research community and especially the subset of that
                 community that emphasizes aspects of user experience
                 other than those that are characterized by
                 performance-based measures. We describe and discuss
                 several exemplar A-life artworks that are drawn from
                 the last decade of jury selections of the annual Vida
                 Art and Artificial Life Competition, conducted by
                 Fundaci{\'o}n Telefonica. We conclude with a discussion
                 of issues that are common to the A-life and HCI
                 research communities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "A-life; Aesthetics; design; interactive art works; new
                 media",
}

@Article{Boehner:2008:IIM,
  author =       "Kirsten Boehner and Phoebe Sengers and Simeon Warner",
  title =        "Interfaces with the ineffable: Meeting aesthetic
                 experience on its own terms",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1453152.1453155",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 14:07:04 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "A variety of approaches have emerged in HCI that
                 grapple with the ineffable, ill-defined, and
                 idiosyncratic nature of aesthetic experience. The most
                 straightforward approach is to transform the ineffable
                 aspects of these experiences into precise
                 representations, producing systems that are
                 well-defined and testable but may miss the fullness of
                 the experienced phenomenon. But without formal models
                 and codified methods, how can we design and evaluate
                 for a phenomenon we aren't sure can be adequately
                 captured? In this article, we present a case study of a
                 system for reflection and awareness of emotional
                 presence that was, in a sense, lived into being.
                 Through system design, use, and evaluation we recount
                 how the system evolved into something that enhanced
                 rather than impoverished the sympathetic awareness of
                 another. In discussing the strategies and results of
                 the case study, we examine what it means for the HCI
                 community to not only design for aesthetic experiences
                 but also bring aesthetics into the practice of HCI.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "ambient displays; CSCW; experience design;
                 Human-computer interaction",
}

@Article{Dalsgaard:2008:PPS,
  author =       "Peter Dalsgaard and Lone Koefoed Hansen",
  title =        "Performing perception --- staging aesthetics of
                 interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1453152.1453156",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 14:07:04 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In interaction design for experience-oriented uses of
                 technology, a central facet of aesthetics of
                 interaction is rooted in the user's experience of
                 herself ``performing her perception.'' By drawing on
                 performance (theater) theory, phenomenology and
                 sociology and with references to recent HCI-work on the
                 relation between the system and the performer/user and
                 the spectator's relation to this dynamic, we show how
                 the user is simultaneously operator, performer and
                 spectator when interacting. By engaging with the
                 system, she continuously acts out these three roles and
                 her awareness of them is crucial in her experience. We
                 argue that this 3-in-1 is always already shaping the
                 user's understanding and perception of her interaction
                 as it is staged through her experience of the object's
                 form and expression. Through examples ranging from
                 everyday technologies utilizing performances of
                 interaction to spatial contemporary artworks, digital
                 as well as analogue, we address the notion of the
                 performative spectator and the spectating performer. We
                 demonstrate how perception is also performative and how
                 focus on this aspect seems to be crucial when designing
                 experience-oriented products, systems and services.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Aesthetics; art; experience design; human-computer
                 interaction; interaction design; performance theory",
}

@Article{Petersen:2008:ISIb,
  author =       "Marianne Graves Petersen and Lars Halln{\"a}s and
                 Robert J. K. Jacob",
  title =        "Introduction to special issue on the aesthetics of
                 interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1460355.1460356",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 14:07:06 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hartmann:2008:TTU,
  author =       "Jan Hartmann and Alistair Sutcliffe and Antonella {De
                 Angeli}",
  title =        "Towards a theory of user judgment of aesthetics and
                 user interface quality",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1460355.1460357",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 14:07:06 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The article introduces a framework for users' design
                 quality judgments based on Adaptive Decision Making
                 theory. The framework describes judgment on quality
                 attributes (usability, content/functionality,
                 aesthetics, customisation and engagement) with
                 dependencies on decision making arising from the user's
                 background, task and context. The framework is tested
                 and refined by three experimental studies. The first
                 two assessed judgment of quality attributes of websites
                 with similar content but radically different designs
                 for aesthetics and engagement. Halo effects were
                 demonstrated whereby attribution of good quality on one
                 attribute positively influenced judgment on another,
                 even in the face of objective evidence to the contrary
                 (e.g., usability errors). Users' judgment was also
                 shown to be susceptible to framing effects of the task
                 and their background. These appear to change the
                 importance order of the quality attributes; hence,
                 quality assessment of a design appears to be very
                 context dependent. The third study assessed the
                 influence of customisation by experiments on mobile
                 services applications, and demonstrated that evaluation
                 of customisation depends on the users' needs and
                 motivation. The results are discussed in the context of
                 the literature on aesthetic judgment, user experience
                 and trade-offs between usability and hedonic/ludic
                 design qualities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Aesthetics; interaction styles; judgment and
                 decision-making; usability",
}

@Article{Redstrom:2008:TIE,
  author =       "Johan Redstr{\"o}m",
  title =        "Tangled interaction: On the expressiveness of tangible
                 user interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1460355.1460358",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 14:07:06 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This is an analysis and exploration of a basic
                 aesthetic issue in interaction design: how an ambition
                 to design strong and persistent relations between
                 appearance and functionality, evident in approaches
                 such as tangible user interfaces, in crucial ways in
                 which conflicts with the ways miniaturization of
                 technology have changed the relation between the
                 object's surface and its internal complexity. To
                 further investigate this issue, four conceptual design
                 experiments are presented exploring the expressiveness
                 and aesthetic potential of overloading the object's
                 surface by adding several layers of interaction, thus
                 creating a kind of tangled interaction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Aesthetics; design theory; interaction design;
                 tangible user interfaces",
}

@Article{Rullo:2008:SQI,
  author =       "Alessia Rullo",
  title =        "The soft qualities of interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1460355.1460359",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 14:07:06 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This article provides a methodological perspective on
                 the notion of the aesthetics of interaction in ambient
                 computing systems. Aesthetics of interaction is
                 challenged by the design proposal for the soft
                 qualities of interaction, which is used as a tool to
                 complement existing design methodologies. The
                 perspective presented is based on work conducted in the
                 Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Siena Hospital in
                 Italy, as a part of the EU PalCom project. The early
                 outcomes provide a heuristic account which questions
                 the design process by fostering the novel complexity of
                 ambient technologies in delicate and fragile
                 settings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Aesthetics of interaction; neonatal care; noninvasive
                 and nonintrusive monitoring; soft qualities",
}

@Article{Wright:2008:AEC,
  author =       "Peter Wright and Jayne Wallace and John McCarthy",
  title =        "Aesthetics and experience-centered design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2008",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1460355.1460360",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 14:07:06 MST 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The aesthetics of human-computer interaction and
                 interaction design are conceptualized in terms of a
                 pragmatic account of human experience. We elaborate
                 this account through a framework for aesthetic
                 experience built around three themes: (1) a holistic
                 approach wherein the person with feelings, emotions,
                 and thoughts is the focus of design; (2) a
                 constructivist stance in which self is seen as
                 continuously engaged and constituted in making sense of
                 experience; and (3) a dialogical ontology in which
                 self, others, and technology are constructed as
                 multiple centers of value. We use this framework to
                 critically reflect on research into the aesthetics of
                 interaction and to suggest sensibilities for designing
                 aesthetic interaction. Finally, a digital jewelery case
                 study is described to demonstrate a design approach
                 that is open to the perspectives presented in the
                 framework and to consider how the framework and
                 sensibilities are reflected in engagement with
                 participants and approach to design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Aesthetic interaction; digital jewelery;
                 experience-centered design; wearables",
}

@Article{Lysecky:2009:ENC,
  author =       "Susan Lysecky and Frank Vahid",
  title =        "Enabling nonexpert construction of basic sensor-based
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1502800.1502801",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 21 16:34:39 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Technology trends have enabled deployment of low-cost
                 sensor-based systems, but designing customized
                 sensor-based systems to carry out specific tasks still
                 requires costly engineering by experts. We briefly
                 summarize eBlocks, a technology enabling nonexperts to
                 quickly construct basic customized sensor-based
                 systems, without requiring electronics or knowledge of
                 programming languages. We describe experiments
                 illustrating successful construction of Boolean
                 sensor-based systems by novice users, focusing on
                 intuitive logic and state block design. Additionally,
                 we present preliminary experiments demonstrating
                 usability of integer-based blocks and introduce a
                 programmable block and the corresponding configuration
                 methodology intended for nonexpert users.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Boolean logic; eBlocks; embedded computing systems;
                 Sensor networks; truth tables",
}

@Article{McLaughlin:2009:UDI,
  author =       "Anne Collins McLaughlin and Wendy A. Rogers and Arthur
                 D. Fisk",
  title =        "Using direct and indirect input devices: {Attention}
                 demands and age-related differences",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1502800.1502802",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 21 16:34:39 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Researchers have suggested that attention is a key
                 moderating variable predicting performance with an
                 input device [Greenstein and Arnaut 1988], although the
                 attention demands of devices have not been directly
                 investigated. We hypothesized that the attentional
                 demands of input devices are intricately linked to
                 whether the device matches the input requirements of
                 the on-screen task. Further, matching task and device
                 should be more important for attentionally reduced
                 groups, such as older adults. Younger and older adults
                 used either a direct (touch screen) or indirect (rotary
                 encoder) input device to perform matched or mismatched
                 input tasks under a spectrum of attention allocation
                 conditions. Input devices required attention --- more
                 so for older adults, especially in a mismatch
                 situation. In addition, task performance was influenced
                 by the match between task demands and input device
                 characteristics. Though both groups benefited from a
                 match between input device and task input requirements,
                 older adults benefited more, and this benefit increased
                 as less attention was available. We offer an {\em a
                 priori\/} method to choose an input device for a task
                 by considering the overlap between device attributes
                 and input requirements. This data should affect design
                 decisions concerning input device selection across age
                 groups and task contexts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "attentional demands; cognitive translation; direct
                 manipulation; Human-computer interaction; indirect
                 manipulation; older adults",
}

@Article{Edwards:2009:ERC,
  author =       "W. Keith Edwards and Mark W. Newman and Jana Z. Sedivy
                 and Trevor F. Smith",
  title =        "Experiences with recombinant computing: {Exploring} ad
                 hoc interoperability in evolving digital networks",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1502800.1502803",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 21 16:34:39 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This article describes an infrastructure that supports
                 the creation of interoperable systems while requiring
                 only limited prior agreements about the specific forms
                 of communication between these systems. Conceptually,
                 our approach uses a set of ``meta-interfaces'' ---
                 agreements on how to exchange new behaviors necessary
                 to {\em achieve compatibility at runtime}, rather than
                 requiring that communication specifics be {\em built in
                 at development time\/} --- to allow devices on the
                 network to interact with one another. While this
                 approach to interoperability can remove many of the
                 system-imposed constraints that prevent fluid, ad hoc
                 use of devices now, it imposes its own limitations on
                 the user experience of systems that use it. Most
                 importantly, since devices may be expected to work with
                 peers about which they have no detailed semantic
                 knowledge, it is impossible to achieve the sort of
                 tight semantic integration that can be obtained using
                 other approaches today, despite the fact that these
                 other approaches limit interoperability. Instead, under
                 our model, users must be tasked with performing the
                 sense-making and semantic arbitration necessary to
                 determine how any set of devices will be used together.
                 This article describes the motivation and details of
                 our infrastructure, its implications on the user
                 experience, and our experience in creating, deploying,
                 and using applications built with it over a period of
                 several years.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "discovery; infrastructure; interoperability; Mobile
                 code; Obje; recombinant computing; Speakeasy;
                 ubiquitous computing; user interfaces",
}

@Article{Dai:2009:SFA,
  author =       "Liwei Dai and Andrew Sears and Rich Goldman",
  title =        "Shifting the focus from accuracy to recallability: a
                 study of informal note-taking on mobile information
                 technologies",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1502800.1502804",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 21 16:34:39 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Mobile information technologies are theoretically
                 well-suited to digitally accommodate informal
                 note-taking, with the notes often recorded quickly and
                 under less than ideal circumstances. Unfortunately,
                 user adoption of mobile support for informal
                 note-taking has been hindered in large part by slow
                 text entry techniques. Building on research confirming
                 people's ability to recognize erroneous text, this
                 study explores two simple modifications to
                 Graffiti-based text entry with the goal of increasing
                 text entry speed: disabling text correction and
                 disabling visual feedback. As expected, both
                 modifications improved text entry speed at the cost of
                 recognizability. To address the decrease in
                 recognizability, a multiapproach text-enhancement
                 algorithm is introduced with the goal of modifying the
                 erroneous note to facilitate the process of recalling
                 the event or activity that originally motivated the
                 note. A study with 75 participants confirmed that the
                 proposed approach of discouraging user-initiated error
                 correction during note-taking, enhancing the resulting
                 erroneous notes, and facilitating recall with enhanced
                 alternative lists, increased note-taking speed by 47\%
                 with no negative impact on the participants' ability to
                 recall important details about the scenarios which
                 prompted the note-taking activities. This research
                 highlights the importance and efficacy of shifting the
                 focus from accuracy to recallability when examining the
                 overall efficacy of informal notes. The proposed
                 modifications and adaptations produce significant
                 benefits and have important implications for how mobile
                 technologies are designed to support both informal
                 note-taking and text entry in general.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Informal notes; mobile device; recognition error;
                 recognition-based text entry",
}

@Article{Ruddle:2009:BUW,
  author =       "Roy A. Ruddle and Simon Lessels",
  title =        "The benefits of using a walking interface to navigate
                 virtual environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1502800.1502805",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 21 16:34:39 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Navigation is the most common interactive task
                 performed in three-dimensional virtual environments
                 (VEs), but it is also a task that users often find
                 difficult. We investigated how body-based information
                 about the translational and rotational components of
                 movement helped participants to perform a navigational
                 search task (finding targets hidden inside boxes in a
                 room-sized space). When participants physically walked
                 around the VE while viewing it on a head-mounted
                 display (HMD), they then performed 90\% of trials
                 perfectly, comparable to participants who had performed
                 an equivalent task in the real world during a previous
                 study. By contrast, participants performed less than
                 50\% of trials perfectly if they used a tethered HMD
                 (move by physically turning but pressing a button to
                 translate) or a desktop display (no body-based
                 information). This is the most complex navigational
                 task in which a real-world level of performance has
                 been achieved in a VE. Behavioral data indicates that
                 both translational and rotational body-based
                 information are required to accurately update one's
                 position during navigation, and participants who walked
                 tended to avoid obstacles, even though collision
                 detection was not implemented and feedback not
                 provided. A walking interface would bring immediate
                 benefits to a number of VE applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "locomotion; navigation; Virtual reality; visual
                 fidelity",
}

@Article{Neustaedter:2009:CCC,
  author =       "Carman Neustaedter and A. J. Bernheim Brush and Saul
                 Greenberg",
  title =        "The calendar is crucial: {Coordination} and awareness
                 through the family calendar",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1502800.1502806",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 21 16:34:39 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Everyday family life involves a myriad of mundane
                 activities that need to be planned and coordinated. We
                 describe findings from studies of 44 different
                 families' calendaring routines to understand how to
                 best design technology to support them. We outline how
                 a {\em typology of calendars\/} containing family
                 activities is used by three different types of families
                 --- {\em monocentric}, {\em pericentric}, and {\em
                 polycentric\/} --- which vary in the level of family
                 involvement in the calendaring process. We describe
                 these family types, the content of family calendars,
                 the ways in which they are extended through annotations
                 and augmentations, and the implications from these
                 findings for design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "awareness; calendars; coordination; Families",
}

@Article{Paay:2009:TSP,
  author =       "Jeni Paay and Jesper Kjeldskov and Steve Howard and
                 Bharat Dave",
  title =        "Out on the town: a socio-physical approach to the
                 design of a context-aware urban guide",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1534903.1534904",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jun 12 10:37:53 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "As urban environments become increasingly hybridized,
                 mixing the social, built, and digital in interesting
                 ways, designing for computing in the city presents new
                 challenges --- how do we understand such hybridization,
                 and then respond to it as designers? Here we synthesize
                 earlier work in human-computer interaction, sociology
                 and architecture in order to deliberately influence the
                 design of digital systems with an understanding of
                 their built and social context of use. We propose,
                 illustrate, and evaluate a multidisciplinary approach
                 combining rapid ethnography, architectural analysis,
                 design sketching, and paper prototyping. Following the
                 approach we are able to provide empirically grounded
                 representations of the socio-physical context of use,
                 in this case people socializing in urban spaces. We
                 then use this understanding to influence the design of
                 a context aware system to be used while out on the
                 town. We believe that the approach is of value more
                 generally, particularly when achieving powerfully
                 situated interactions is the design ambition.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "conceptual framework; field evaluation; field study;
                 Pervasive computing; physical context; prototype
                 design; social context; urban environment",
}

@Article{Grinter:2009:IOH,
  author =       "Rebecca E. Grinter and W. Keith Edwards and Marshini
                 Chetty and Erika S. Poole and Ja-Young Sung and
                 Jeonghwa Yang and Andy Crabtree and Peter Tolmie and
                 Tom Rodden and Chris Greenhalgh and Steve Benford",
  title =        "The ins and outs of home networking: {The} case for
                 useful and usable domestic networking",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1534903.1534905",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jun 12 10:37:53 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Householders are increasingly adopting home networking
                 as a solution to the demands created by the presence of
                 multiple computers, devices, and the desire to access
                 the Internet. However, current network solutions are
                 derived from the world of work (and initially the
                 military) and provide poor support for the needs of the
                 home. We present the key findings to emerge from
                 empirical studies of home networks in the UK and US.
                 The studies reveal two key kinds of work that effective
                 home networking relies upon: one, the technical work of
                 setting up and maintaining the home network, and the
                 other, the collaborative and socially organized work of
                 the home which the network is embedded in and supports.
                 The two are thoroughly intertwined and rely upon one
                 another for their realization, yet neither is
                 adequately supported by current networking technologies
                 and applications. Explication of the ``work to make the
                 home network work'' opens up the design space for the
                 continued integration of the home network in domestic
                 life and elaboration of future support. Key issues for
                 development include the development of networking
                 facilities that do not require advanced networking
                 knowledge, that are flexible and support the local
                 social order of the home and the evolution of its
                 routines, and which ultimately make the home network
                 visible and accountable to household members.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Home networking; human computer interaction",
}

@Article{Salvucci:2009:RPE,
  author =       "Dario D. Salvucci",
  title =        "Rapid prototyping and evaluation of in-vehicle
                 interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1534903.1534906",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jun 12 10:37:53 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "As driver distraction from in-vehicle devices becomes
                 an increasingly critical issue, researchers have aimed
                 to establish better scientific understanding of
                 distraction along with better engineering tools to
                 build less distracting devices. This article presents a
                 new system, Distract-R, that allows designers to
                 rapidly prototype and evaluate new in-vehicle
                 interfaces. The core engine of the system relies on a
                 rigorous cognitive model of driver behavior which, when
                 integrated with models of task behavior on the
                 prototyped interfaces, generate predictions of driver
                 performance and distraction. Distract-R allows a
                 designer to prototype basic interfaces, demonstrate
                 possible tasks on these interfaces, specify relevant
                 driver characteristics and driving scenarios, and
                 finally simulate, visualize, and analyze the resulting
                 behavior as generated by the cognitive model. The
                 article includes three modeling studies that
                 demonstrate the system's ability to account for various
                 aspects of driver performance for several types of
                 in-vehicle interfaces. More generally, Distract-R
                 illustrates how cognitive models can be used as
                 internal simulation engines for design tools intended
                 for nonmodelers, with the ultimate goal of helping to
                 understand and predict user behavior in multitasking
                 environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cognitive modeling; driver distraction; Driving",
}

@Article{Bardram:2009:ABC,
  author =       "Jakob E. Bardram",
  title =        "Activity-based computing for medical work in
                 hospitals",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1534903.1534907",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jun 12 10:37:53 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Studies have revealed that people organize and think
                 of their work in terms of activities that are carried
                 out in pursuit of some overall objective, often in
                 collaboration with others. Nevertheless, modern
                 computer systems are typically single-user oriented,
                 that is, designed to support individual tasks such as
                 word processing while sitting at a desk. This article
                 presents the concept of Activity-Based Computing (ABC),
                 which seeks to create computational support for human
                 activities. The ABC approach has been designed to
                 address activity-based computing support for clinical
                 work in hospitals. In a hospital, the challenges
                 arising from the management of parallel activities and
                 interruptions are amplified because multitasking is now
                 combined with a high degree of mobility, collaboration,
                 and urgency. The article presents the empirical and
                 theoretical background for activity-based computing,
                 its principles, the Java-based implementation of the
                 ABC Framework, and an experimental evaluation together
                 with a group of hospital clinicians. The article
                 contributes to the growing research on support for
                 human activities, mobility, collaboration, and
                 context-aware computing. The ABC Framework presents a
                 unifying perspective on activity-based support for
                 human-computer interaction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "activity-awareness; activity-based computing;
                 architecture; cooperation; electronic patient record;
                 Framework; ubiquitous computing",
}

@Article{Tanaka-Ishii:2009:KLL,
  author =       "Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii and Julian Godon",
  title =        "{Kansuke}: a logograph look-up interface based on a
                 few modified stroke prototypes",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:17",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1534903.1534908",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jun 12 10:37:53 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We have developed a method that makes it easier for
                 language novices to look up Japanese and Chinese
                 logographs. Instead of using the arbitrary conventions
                 of logographs, this method is based on three simple
                 prototypes: horizontal, vertical, and other strokes.
                 For example, the code for the logograph [picture] ({\em
                 ta}, meaning rice field) is 3-3-0, indicating the
                 logograph consists of three horizontal strokes and
                 three vertical strokes. Such codes allow a novice to
                 look up logographs even with no knowledge of the
                 logographic conventions used by native speakers. To
                 make the search easier, a complex logograph can be
                 looked up via the components making up the logograph.
                 We conducted a user evaluation of this system and found
                 that novices could look up logographs with fewer
                 failures with our system than with conventional
                 methods.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "component tree; Logograph lookup interface",
}

@Article{Stevens:2009:CSA,
  author =       "Gunnar Stevens and Volker Wulf",
  title =        "Computer-supported access control",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1592440.1592441",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 21 16:11:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Traditionally, access control is understood as a
                 purely technical mechanism which rejects or accepts
                 access attempts automatically according to a specific
                 preconfiguration. However, such a perspective neglects
                 the practices of access control and the embeddedness of
                 technical mechanisms within situated action. In this
                 article, we reconceptualize the issue of access control
                 on a theoretical, methodological, and practical level.
                 On a theoretical level, we develop a terminology to
                 distinguish between access control practices and the
                 technical support mechanisms. We coin the term Computer
                 Supported Access Control (CSAC) to emphasize this
                 perspective. On a methodological level, we discuss
                 empirical investigations of access control behavior
                 from a situated action perspective. We discovered a
                 differentiated set of social practices around
                 traditional access control systems. By applying these
                 findings to a practical level, we enhance the design
                 space of computer supported access control mechanisms
                 by suggesting a matrix of technical mechanisms which go
                 beyond an ex-ante configuration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Access control; computer supported cooperative work
                 field; coordination mechanism; critical design;
                 ethnomethodology; study",
}

@Article{Hundhausen:2009:CDM,
  author =       "Christopher D. Hundhausen and Sean F. Farley and
                 Jonathan L. Brown",
  title =        "Can direct manipulation lower the barriers to computer
                 programming and promote transfer of training? {An}
                 experimental study",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1592440.1592442",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 21 16:11:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Novices face many barriers when learning to program a
                 computer, including the need to learn both a new syntax
                 and a model of computation. By constraining syntax and
                 providing concrete visual representations on which to
                 operate, direct manipulation programming environments
                 can potentially lower these barriers. However, what if
                 the ultimate learning goal of the novice is to be able
                 to program in conventional textual languages, as is the
                 case for introductory computer science students? Can
                 direct manipulation programming environments lower the
                 initial barriers to programming, and, at the same time,
                 facilitate positive transfer to textual programming? To
                 address this question, we designed a new direct
                 manipulation programming interface for novices, and
                 conducted an experimental study to compare the
                 programming processes and outcomes promoted by the
                 direct manipulation interface against those promoted by
                 a textual programming interface. We found that the
                 direct manipulation interface promoted significantly
                 better initial programming outcomes, positive transfer
                 to the textual interface, and significant differences
                 in programming processes. Our results show that direct
                 manipulation interfaces can provide novices with a
                 ``way in'' to traditional textual programming.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Direct manipulation; programming education; semantic
                 components analysis; transfer of training; video
                 analysis",
}

@Article{Song:2009:MFC,
  author =       "Hyunyoung Song and Fran{\c{c}}ois Guimbreti{\`e}re and
                 Hod Lipson",
  title =        "The {ModelCraft} framework: {Capturing} freehand
                 annotations and edits to facilitate the {$3$D} model
                 design process using a digital pen",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1592440.1592443",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 21 16:11:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Recent advancements in rapid prototyping techniques
                 such as 3D printing and laser cutting are changing the
                 perception of physical 3D models in architecture and
                 industrial design. Physical models are frequently
                 created not only to finalize a project but also to
                 demonstrate an idea in early design stages. For such
                 tasks, models can easily be annotated to capture
                 comments, edits, and other forms of feedback.
                 Unfortunately, these annotations remain in the physical
                 world and cannot easily be transferred back to the
                 digital world. Our system, ModelCraft, addresses this
                 problem by augmenting the surface of a model with a
                 traceable pattern. Any sketch drawn on the surface of
                 the model using a digital pen is recovered as part of a
                 digital representation. Sketches can also be
                 interpreted as edit marks that trigger the
                 corresponding operations on the CAD model. ModelCraft
                 supports a wide range of operations on complex models,
                 from editing a model to assembling multiple models, and
                 offers physical tools to capture free-space input.
                 Several interviews and a formal study with the
                 potential users of our system proved the ModelCraft
                 system useful. Our system is inexpensive, requires no
                 tracking infrastructure or per object calibration, and
                 we show how it could be extended seamlessly to use
                 current 3D printing technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Pen-based interactions; rapid prototyping; tangible
                 interactions",
}

@Article{Barkhuus:2009:UTU,
  author =       "Louise Barkhuus and Barry Brown",
  title =        "Unpacking the television: {User} practices around a
                 changing technology",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1592440.1592444",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 21 16:11:06 MDT 2009",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This article investigates the changing television
                 watching practices amongst early adopters of personal
                 hard-disk video recorders (such as Tivo) and Internet
                 downloading of video. Through in-depth interviews with
                 21 video enthusiasts, we describe how the rhythms of
                 television watching change when decoupled from
                 broadcast TV schedules. Devices such as Tivo do not
                 simply replace videotapes; TV watching becomes more
                 active as programs are gathered from the schedules,
                 played from a stored collection and fast forwarded and
                 paused during playback. Downloads users exploit the
                 Internet to view shows and movies not broadcast, yet
                 this watching is not fundamentally different from
                 recording shows using a PVR, since both involve
                 selection of shows from a limited range and a wait
                 before the shows can be watched.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Domestic technologies; downloading; ethnography; file
                 sharing; television",
}

@Article{Shaer:2009:ISI,
  author =       "Orit Shaer and Robert J. K. Jacob and Mark Green and
                 Kris Luyten",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on {UIDL} for
                 next-generation user interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 18:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Nichols:2009:CLU,
  author =       "Jeffrey Nichols and Brad A. Myers",
  title =        "Creating a lightweight user interface description
                 language: an overview and analysis of the personal
                 universal controller project",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 18:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Navarre:2009:IMB,
  author =       "David Navarre and Philippe Palanque and Jean-Francois
                 Ladry and Eric Barboni",
  title =        "{ICOs}: a model-based user interface description
                 technique dedicated to interactive systems addressing
                 usability, reliability and scalability",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 18:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Paterno:2009:MUD,
  author =       "Fabio Paterno' and Carmen Santoro and Lucio Davide
                 Spano",
  title =        "{MARIA}: a universal, declarative, multiple
                 abstraction-level language for service-oriented
                 applications in ubiquitous environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 18:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Shaer:2009:SPD,
  author =       "Orit Shaer and Robert J. K. Jacob",
  title =        "A specification paradigm for the design and
                 implementation of tangible user interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 18:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Wingrave:2009:NTE,
  author =       "Chadwick A. Wingrave and Joseph J. {Laviola, Jr.} and
                 Doug A. Bowman",
  title =        "A natural, tiered and executable {UIDL} for {$3$D}
                 user interfaces based on {Concept-Oriented Design}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2009",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 15 18:30:54 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Chen:2010:EDM,
  author =       "Sherry Y. Chen and Robert D. Macredie and Xiaohui Liu
                 and Alistair Sutcliffe",
  title =        "Editorial: {Data} mining for understanding user
                 needs",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1721831.1721832",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 2 17:06:57 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kostakos:2010:BES,
  author =       "Vassilis Kostakos and Eamonn O'Neill and Alan Penn and
                 George Roussos and Dikaios Papadongonas",
  title =        "Brief encounters: {Sensing}, modeling and visualizing
                 urban mobility and copresence networks",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1721831.1721833",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 2 17:06:57 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Moving human-computer interaction off the desktop and
                 into our cities requires new approaches to
                 understanding people and technologies in the built
                 environment. We approach the city as a system, with
                 human, physical and digital components and behaviours.
                 In creating effective and usable urban pervasive
                 computing systems, we need to take into account the
                 patterns of movement and encounter amongst people,
                 locations, and mobile and fixed devices in the city.
                 Advances in mobile and wireless communications have
                 enabled us to detect and record the presence and
                 movement of devices through cities. This article makes
                 a number of methodological and empirical contributions.
                 We present a toolkit of algorithms and visualization
                 techniques that we have developed to model and make
                 sense of spatial and temporal patterns of mobility,
                 presence, and encounter. Applying this toolkit, we
                 provide an analysis of urban Bluetooth data based on a
                 longitudinal dataset containing millions of records
                 associated with more than 70000 unique devices in the
                 city of Bath, UK. Through a novel application of
                 established complex network analysis techniques, we
                 demonstrate a significant finding on the relationship
                 between temporal factors and network structure.
                 Finally, we suggest how our understanding and
                 exploitation of these data may begin to inform the
                 design and use of urban pervasive systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Bluetooth; brief encounter; complex network;
                 copresence; encounter; epidemic; information diffusion;
                 mobile interaction; mobility; Pervasive; sensing;
                 social network; trail; ubiquitous; urban computing;
                 virus; visualisation",
}

@Article{Fern:2010:MPS,
  author =       "Xiaoli Fern and Chaitanya Komireddy and Valentina
                 Grigoreanu and Margaret Burnett",
  title =        "Mining problem-solving strategies from {HCI} data",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1721831.1721834",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 2 17:06:57 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Can we learn about users' problem-solving strategies
                 by observing their actions? This article introduces a
                 data mining system that extracts complex behavioral
                 patterns from logged user actions to discover users'
                 high-level strategies. Our application domain is an HCI
                 study aimed at revealing users' strategies in an
                 end-user debugging task and understanding how the
                 strategies relate to gender and to success. We cast
                 this problem as a sequential pattern discovery problem,
                 where user strategies are manifested as sequential
                 behavior patterns. Problematically, we found that the
                 patterns discovered by standard data mining algorithms
                 were difficult to interpret and provided limited
                 information about high-level strategies. To help
                 interpret the patterns as strategies, we examined
                 multiple ways of clustering the patterns into
                 meaningful groups. This collectively led to interesting
                 findings about users' behavior in terms of both gender
                 differences and debugging success. These common
                 behavioral patterns were novel HCI findings about
                 differences in males' and females' behavior with
                 software, and were verified by a parallel study with an
                 independent data set on strategies. As a research
                 endeavor into the interpretability issues faced by data
                 mining techniques, our work also highlights important
                 research directions for making data mining more
                 accessible to non-data-mining experts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Clustering; human-computer interaction; sequential
                 patterns",
}

@Article{Teevan:2010:PP,
  author =       "Jaime Teevan and Susan T. Dumais and Eric Horvitz",
  title =        "Potential for personalization",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1721831.1721835",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 2 17:06:57 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Current Web search tools do a good job of retrieving
                 documents that satisfy the most common intentions
                 associated with a query, but do not do a very good job
                 of discerning different individuals' unique search
                 goals. We explore the variation in what different
                 people consider relevant to the same query by mining
                 three data sources: (1) {\em explicit\/} relevance
                 judgments, (2) clicks on search results (a {\em
                 behavior-based implicit\/} measure of relevance), and
                 (3) the similarity of desktop content to search results
                 (a {\em content-based implicit\/} measure of
                 relevance). We find that people's explicit judgments
                 for the same queries differ greatly. As a result, there
                 is a large gap between how well search engines could
                 perform if they were to tailor results to the
                 individual, and how well they currently perform by
                 returning results designed to satisfy everyone. We call
                 this gap the {\em potential for personalization}. The
                 two implicit indicators we studied provide
                 complementary value for approximating this variation in
                 result relevance among people. We discuss several uses
                 of our findings, including a personalized search system
                 that takes advantage of the implicit measures by
                 ranking personally relevant results more highly and
                 improving click-through rates.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "individual differences; Personalized search; user
                 modeling; Web search",
}

@Article{Chen:2010:EPB,
  author =       "Li Chen and Pearl Pu",
  title =        "Experiments on the preference-based organization
                 interface in recommender systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1721831.1721836",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 2 17:06:57 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "As e-commerce has evolved into its second generation,
                 where the available products are becoming more complex
                 and their abundance is almost {\em unlimited}, the task
                 of locating a desired choice has become too difficult
                 for the average user. Therefore, more effort has been
                 made in recent years to develop recommender systems
                 that recommend products or services to users so as to
                 assist in their decision-making process. In this
                 article, we describe crucial experimental results about
                 a novel recommender technology, called the {\em
                 preference-based organization\/} (Pref-ORG), which
                 generates critique suggestions in addition to
                 recommendations according to users' preferences. The
                 critique is a form of feedback (``I would like
                 something cheaper than this one'') that users can
                 provide to the currently displayed product, with which
                 the system may better predict what the user truly
                 wants. We compare the {\em preference-based
                 organization\/} technique with related approaches,
                 including the ones that also produce critique
                 candidates, but without the consideration of user
                 preferences. A simulation setup is first presented,
                 that identified Pref-ORG's significantly higher
                 algorithm accuracy in predicting critiques and choices
                 that users should intend to make, followed by a
                 real-user evaluation which practically verified its
                 significant impact on saving users' decision effort.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "association rule mining; critique suggestion;
                 preference-based organization; Recommender system;
                 simulation; user evaluation",
}

@Article{Bernstein:2010:PF,
  author =       "Michael S. Bernstein and Desney Tan and Greg Smith and
                 Mary Czerwinski and Eric Horvitz",
  title =        "Personalization via friendsourcing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1746259.1746260",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 21 12:22:14 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "When information is known only to friends in a social
                 network, traditional crowdsourcing mechanisms struggle
                 to motivate a large enough user population and to
                 ensure accuracy of the collected information. We thus
                 introduce {\em friendsourcing,\/} a form of
                 crowdsourcing aimed at collecting accurate information
                 available only to a small, socially-connected group of
                 individuals. Our approach to friendsourcing is to
                 design socially enjoyable interactions that produce the
                 desired information as a side effect.\par

                 We focus our analysis around Collabio, a novel social
                 tagging game that we developed to encourage friends to
                 tag one another within an online social network.
                 Collabio encourages friends, family, and colleagues to
                 generate useful information about each other. We
                 describe the design space of incentives in social
                 tagging games and evaluate our choices by a combination
                 of usage log analysis and survey data. Data acquired
                 via Collabio is typically accurate and augments tags
                 that could have been found on Facebook or the Web. To
                 complete the arc from data collection to application,
                 we produce a trio of prototype applications to
                 demonstrate how Collabio tags could be utilized: an
                 aggregate tag cloud visualization, a personalized RSS
                 feed, and a question and answer system. The social data
                 powering these applications enables them to address
                 needs previously difficult to support, such as question
                 answering for topics comprehensible only to a few of a
                 user's friends.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "friendsourcing; human computation; Social computing;
                 social tagging",
}

@Article{VanVugt:2010:EFS,
  author =       "Henriette C. {Van Vugt} and Jeremy N. Bailenson and
                 Johan F. Hoorn and Elly A. Konijn",
  title =        "Effects of facial similarity on user responses to
                 embodied agents",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1746259.1746261",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 21 12:22:14 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We investigated the effects of facial similarity
                 between users and embodied agents under different
                 experimental conditions. Sixty-four undergraduates
                 interacted with two different embodied agents: in one
                 case the agent was designed to look somewhat similar to
                 the user, and in the other case the agent was designed
                 to look dissimilar. We varied between subjects how
                 helpful the agent was for a given task. Results showed
                 that the facial similarity manipulation sometimes
                 affected participants' responses, even though they did
                 not consciously detect the similarity. Specifically,
                 when the agent was helpful, facial similarity increased
                 participants' ratings of involvement. However, when
                 exposed to unhelpful agents, male participants had
                 negative responses to the similar-looking agent
                 compared to the dissimilar one. These results suggest
                 that using facially similar embodied agents has a
                 potential large downside if that embodied agent is
                 perceived to be unhelpful.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "3D morphing; engagement with embodied agents; Facial
                 similarity; I-PEFiC model; use intentions",
}

@Article{Janlert:2010:CI,
  author =       "Lars-Erik Janlert and Erik Stolterman",
  title =        "Complex interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1746259.1746262",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 21 12:22:14 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "An almost explosive growth of complexity puts pressure
                 on people in their everyday doings. Digital artifacts
                 and systems are at the core of this development. How
                 should we handle complexity aspects when designing new
                 interactive devices and systems? In this article we
                 begin an analysis of {\em interaction complexity}. We
                 portray different views of complexity; we explore not
                 only negative aspects of complexity, but also positive,
                 making a case for the existence of {\em benign\/}
                 complexity. We argue that complex interaction is not
                 necessarily bad, but designers need a deeper
                 understanding of interaction complexity and need to
                 treat it in a more intentional and thoughtful way. We
                 examine interaction complexity as it relates to
                 different loci of complexity: {\em internal}, {\em
                 external}, and {\em mediated\/} complexity. Our purpose
                 with these analytical exercises is to pave the way for
                 design that is informed by a more focused and precise
                 understanding of interaction complexity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "benign complexity; design approach; design theory;
                 Interaction complexity; interface design; product
                 design",
}

@Article{Apitz:2010:FDE,
  author =       "Georg Apitz and Fran{\c{c}}ois Guimbreti{\`e}re and
                 Shumin Zhai",
  title =        "Foundations for designing and evaluating user
                 interfaces based on the crossing paradigm",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1746259.1746263",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 21 12:22:14 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Traditional graphical user interfaces have been
                 designed with the desktop mouse in mind, a device well
                 characterized by Fitts' law. Yet in recent years,
                 hand-held devices and tablet personal computers using a
                 pen (or fingers) as the primary mean of interaction
                 have become more and more popular. These new
                 interaction modalities have pushed the traditional
                 focus on pointing to its limit. In this paper we
                 explore whether a different paradigm --- goal
                 crossing-based on pen strokes --- may substitute or
                 complement pointing as another fundamental interaction
                 method. First we describe a study in which we establish
                 that goal crossing is dependent on an index of
                 difficulty analogous to Fitts' law, and that in some
                 settings, goal crossing completion time is shorter or
                 comparable to pointing performance under the same index
                 of difficulty. We then demonstrate the expressiveness
                 of the crossing-based interaction paradigm by
                 implementing CrossY, an application which only uses
                 crossing for selecting commands. CrossY demonstrates
                 that crossing-based interactions can be more expressive
                 than the standard point and click approach. We also
                 show how crossing-based interactions encourage the
                 fluid composition of commands. Finally after observing
                 that users' performance could be influenced by the
                 general direction of travel, we report on the results
                 of a study characterizing this effect. These latter
                 results led us to propose a general guideline for
                 dialog box interaction. Together, these results provide
                 the foundation for the design of effective
                 crossing-based interactions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "command composition; crossing-based interfaces;
                 events; Fitts' law; fluid interaction; Goal crossing;
                 graphical widgets; input; input performance;
                 pen-computing; pointing",
}

@Article{Kirk:2010:HRV,
  author =       "David S. Kirk and Abigail Sellen",
  title =        "On human remains: {Values} and practice in the home
                 archiving of cherished objects",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1806923.1806924",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 28 15:58:25 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Creating digital archives of personal and family
                 artifacts is an area of growing interest, but which
                 seemingly is often not supported by a thorough
                 understanding of current home archiving practice. In
                 this article we seek to excavate the home archive,
                 exploring those things that people choose to keep
                 rather than simply accumulate. Based on extensive field
                 research in family homes we present an investigation of
                 the kinds of sentimental objects, both physical and
                 digital, to be found in homes, and through in-depth
                 interviews with family members we explore the values
                 behind archiving practices, explaining why and how
                 sentimental artefacts are kept. In doing this we wish
                 to highlight the polysemous nature of things and to
                 argue that archiving practice in the home is not solely
                 concerned with the invocation of memory. In support of
                 this we show how sentimental artifacts are also used to
                 connect with others, to define the self and the family,
                 to fulfill obligations and, quite conversely to efforts
                 of remembering, to safely forget. Such values are
                 fundamental to family life where archiving takes place
                 and consequently we explore how home archiving is
                 achieved as a familial practice in the negotiated
                 spaces of the home. From this grounded understanding of
                 existing practices and values, in context, we derive
                 requirements and implications for the design of future
                 forms of domestic archiving technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "Archiving; artifacts; domestic technology; families;
                 home life",
}

@Article{Mackenzie:2010:SSA,
  author =       "I. Scott Mackenzie and Torsten Felzer",
  title =        "{SAK}: {Scanning} ambiguous keyboard for efficient
                 one-key text entry",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1806923.1806925",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 28 15:58:25 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The design and evaluation of a scanning ambiguous
                 keyboard (SAK) is presented. SAK combines the most
                 demanding requirement of a scanning keyboard --- input
                 using one key or switch --- with the most appealing
                 feature of an ambiguous keyboard --- one key press per
                 letter. The optimal design requires just 1.713 scan
                 steps per character for English text entry. In a
                 provisional evaluation, 12 able-bodied participants
                 each entered 5 blocks of text with the scanning
                 interval decreasing from 1100 ms initially to 700 ms at
                 the end. The average text entry rate in the 5$^{th}$
                 block was 5.11 wpm with 99\% accuracy. One participant
                 performed an additional five blocks of trials and
                 reached an average speed of 9.28 wpm on the 10$^{th}$
                 block. Afterwards, the usefulness of the approach for
                 persons with severe physical disabilities was shown in
                 a case study with a software implementation of the idea
                 explicitly adapted for that target community.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "ambiguous keyboards; assistive technologies;
                 intentional muscle contractions; keyboards; mobile
                 computing; scanning keyboards; Text entry",
}

@Article{Fu:2010:SIS,
  author =       "Wai-Tat Fu and Thomas Kannampallil and Ruogu Kang and
                 Jibo He",
  title =        "Semantic imitation in social tagging",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1806923.1806926",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 28 15:58:25 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a semantic imitation model of social
                 tagging and exploratory search based on theories of
                 cognitive science. The model assumes that social tags
                 evoke a spontaneous {\em tag-based topic inference\/}
                 process that primes the semantic interpretation of
                 resource contents during exploratory search, and the
                 semantic priming of existing tags in turn influences
                 future tag choices. The model predicts that (1) users
                 who can see tags created by others tend to create tags
                 that are semantically similar to these existing tags,
                 demonstrating the social influence of tag choices; and
                 (2) users who have similar information goals tend to
                 create tags that are semantically similar, but this
                 effect is mediated by the semantic representation and
                 interpretation of social tags. Results from the
                 experiment comparing tagging behavior between a social
                 group (where participants can see tags created by
                 others) and a nominal group (where participants cannot
                 see tags created by others) confirmed these
                 predictions. The current results highlight the critical
                 role of human semantic representations and
                 interpretation processes in the analysis of large-scale
                 social information systems. The model implies that
                 analysis at both the individual and social levels are
                 important for understanding the active, dynamic
                 processes between human knowledge structures and
                 external folksonomies. Implications on how social
                 tagging systems can facilitate exploratory search,
                 interactive information retrievals, knowledge exchange,
                 and other higher-level cognitive and learning
                 activities are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "cognitive models; human information processing;
                 multilevel models; Semantic imitation; semantic
                 representations; social tagging",
}

@Article{Cockburn:2010:MNE,
  author =       "Andy Cockburn and Carl Gutwin",
  title =        "A model of novice and expert navigation performance in
                 constrained-input interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1806923.1806927",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 28 15:58:25 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Many interactive systems require users to navigate
                 through large sets of data and commands using
                 constrained input devices --- such as scroll rings,
                 rocker switches, or specialized keypads --- that
                 provide less power and flexibility than traditional
                 input devices like mice or touch screens. While
                 performance with more traditional devices has been
                 extensively studied in human-computer interaction,
                 there has been relatively little investigation of human
                 performance with constrained input. As a result, there
                 is little understanding of what factors govern
                 performance in these situations, and how interfaces
                 should be designed to optimize interface actions such
                 as navigation and selection. Since constrained input is
                 now common in a wide variety of interactive systems
                 (such as mobile phones, audio players, in-car
                 navigation systems, and kiosk displays), it is
                 important for designers to understand what factors
                 affect performance. To aid in this understanding, we
                 present the Constrained Input Navigation (CIN) model, a
                 predictive model that allows accurate determination of
                 human navigation and selection performance in
                 constrained-input scenarios. CIN identifies three
                 factors that underlie user efficiency: the performance
                 of the interface type for single-level item selection
                 (where interface type depends on the input and output
                 devices, the interactive behavior, and the data
                 organization), the hierarchical structure of the
                 information space, and the user's experience with the
                 items to be selected. We show through experiments that,
                 after empirical calibration, the model's predictions
                 fit empirical data well, and discuss why and how each
                 of the factors affects performance. Models like CIN can
                 provide valuable theoretical and practical benefits to
                 designers of constrained-input systems, allowing them
                 to explore and compare a much wider variety of
                 alternate interface designs without the need for
                 extensive user studies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
  keywords =     "HCI theory; Models of interaction; predictive models",
}

@Article{Kjeldskov:2010:IUM,
  author =       "Jesper Kjeldskov and Jeni Paay",
  title =        "Indexicality: {Understanding} mobile human-computer
                 interaction in context",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1879831.1879832",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 12 17:05:47 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "A lot of research has been done within the area of
                 mobile computing and context-awareness over the last 15
                 years, and the idea of systems adapting to their
                 context has produced promising results for overcoming
                 some of the challenges of user interaction with mobile
                 devices within various specialized domains. However,
                 today it is still the case that only a limited body of
                 theoretically grounded knowledge exists that can
                 explain the relationship between users, mobile system
                 user interfaces, and their context. Lack of such
                 knowledge limits our ability to elevate learning from
                 the mobile systems we develop and study from a concrete
                 to an abstract level.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Iqbal:2010:OFL,
  author =       "Shamsi T. Iqbal and Brian P. Bailey",
  title =        "{Oasis}: a framework for linking notification
                 delivery to the perceptual structure of goal-directed
                 tasks",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1879831.1879833",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 12 17:05:47 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "A notification represents the proactive delivery of
                 information to a user and reduces the need to visually
                 scan or repeatedly check an external information
                 source. At the same time, notifications often interrupt
                 user tasks at inopportune moments, decreasing
                 productivity and increasing frustration. Controlled
                 studies have shown that linking notification delivery
                 to the perceptual structure of a user's tasks can
                 reduce these interruption costs. However, in these
                 studies, the scheduling was always performed manually,
                 and it was not clear whether it would be possible for a
                 system to mimic similar techniques. This article
                 contributes the design and implementation of a novel
                 system called Oasis that aligns notification scheduling
                 with the perceptual structure of user tasks.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Olsen:2010:TWS,
  author =       "Dan R. Olsen and Brett Partridge and Stephen Lynn",
  title =        "Time warp sports for {Internet} television",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1879831.1879834",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 12 17:05:47 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Internet-based video delivery offers new opportunities
                 for interactive television. The creation and usability
                 of interactive television is very different from
                 desktop or web-based interaction. The concepts of
                 frameworks and genres provides an approach to learnable
                 interaction in an entertainment rather than
                 task-oriented activity. The concept of a framework
                 defines the tools required for both producing and
                 viewing a particular style of interactive video
                 experience. An interactive framework for televised
                 sports is presented. This framework implements a sports
                 television experience that support play-by-play
                 navigation as well as viewer's interactive choice of
                 camera angles. Tools for creating and viewing
                 interactive sports are developed in parallel.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Lee:2010:IDM,
  author =       "Young Eun Lee and Izak Benbasat",
  title =        "Interaction design for mobile product recommendation
                 agents: {Supporting} users' decisions in retail
                 stores",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1879831.1879835",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 12 17:05:47 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Mobile product recommendation agents (RAs) are
                 software systems that operate on mobile handheld
                 devices, using wireless Internet to support users'
                 decisions en route, such as consumers' product choices
                 in retail stores. As the demand for ubiquitous access
                 to the web grows, potential benefits of mobile RAs have
                 been recognized, albeit with little supporting
                 empirical evidence. We investigate whether and how
                 mobile RAs enhance users' decisions in retail stores by
                 reducing the effort to make purchase decisions while
                 augmenting the accuracy of the decisions. In addition,
                 to identify potential design principles for mobile RAs,
                 we compare and evaluate two interaction styles of
                 mobile RAs: alternative-driven (RA-AL) versus
                 attribute-driven (RA-AT) interactions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Dow:2010:PPL,
  author =       "Steven P. Dow and Alana Glassco and Jonathan Kass and
                 Melissa Schwarz and Daniel L. Schwartz and Scott R.
                 Klemmer",
  title =        "Parallel prototyping leads to better design results,
                 more divergence, and increased self-efficacy",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2010",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1879831.1879836",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 12 17:05:47 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Iteration can help people improve ideas. It can also
                 give rise to fixation, continuously refining one option
                 without considering others. Does creating and receiving
                 feedback on multiple prototypes in parallel, as opposed
                 to serially, affect learning, self-efficacy, and design
                 exploration? An experiment manipulated whether
                 independent novice designers created graphic Web
                 advertisements in parallel or in series. Serial
                 participants received descriptive critique directly
                 after each prototype. Parallel participants created
                 multiple prototypes before receiving feedback. As
                 measured by click-through data and expert ratings, ads
                 created in the Parallel condition significantly
                 outperformed those from the Serial condition. Moreover,
                 independent raters found Parallel prototypes to be more
                 diverse.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Lindgaard:2011:ERB,
  author =       "Gitte Lindgaard and Cathy Dudek and Devjani Sen and
                 Livia Sumegi and Patrick Noonan",
  title =        "An exploration of relations between visual appeal,
                 trustworthiness and perceived usability of homepages",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1959022.1959023",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 28 08:33:27 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Extremely high correlations between repeated judgments
                 of visual appeal of homepages shown for 50 milliseconds
                 have been interpreted as evidence for a mere exposure
                 effect [Lindgaard et al. 2006]. Continuing that work,
                 the present research had two objectives. First, it
                 investigated the relationship between judgments
                 differing in cognitive demands. Second, it began to
                 identify specific visual attributes that appear to
                 contribute to different judgments. Three experiments
                 are reported. All used the stimuli and viewing time as
                 before. Using a paradigm known to disrupt processing
                 beyond the stimulus offset, Experiment 1 was designed
                 to ensure that the previous findings could not be
                 attributed to such continued processing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Medhi:2011:DMI,
  author =       "Indrani Medhi and Somani Patnaik and Emma Brunskill
                 and S. N. Nagasena Gautama and William Thies and
                 Kentaro Toyama",
  title =        "Designing mobile interfaces for novice and
                 low-literacy users",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1959022.1959024",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 28 08:33:27 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "While mobile phones have found broad application in
                 bringing health, financial, and other services to the
                 developing world, usability remains a major hurdle for
                 novice and low-literacy populations. In this article,
                 we take two steps to evaluate and improve the usability
                 of mobile interfaces for such users. First, we offer an
                 ethnographic study of the usability barriers facing 90
                 low-literacy subjects in India, Kenya, the Philippines,
                 and South Africa. Then, via two studies involving over
                 70 subjects in India, we quantitatively compare the
                 usability of different points in the mobile design
                 space. In addition to text interfaces such as
                 electronic forms, SMS, and USSD, we consider three
                 text-free interfaces: a spoken dialog system, a
                 graphical interface, and a live operator.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ohara:2011:BIS,
  author =       "Kenton O'hara and Jesper Kjeldskov and Jeni Paay",
  title =        "Blended interaction spaces for distributed team
                 collaboration",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1959022.1959025",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 28 08:33:27 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In recent years there has been an introduction of
                 sophisticated new video conferencing technologies
                 (e.g., HP Halo, Cisco Telepresence) that have led to
                 enhancements in the collaborative user experience over
                 traditional video conferencing technologies.
                 Traditional video conferencing set-ups often distort
                 the shared spatial properties of action and
                 communication due to screen and camera orientation
                 disparities and other asymmetries. These distortions
                 affect access to the common resources used to mutually
                 organize action and communication. By contrast, new
                 systems, such as Halo, are physically configured to
                 reduce these asymmetries and orientation disparities,
                 thereby minimizing these spatial distortions. By
                 creating appropriate shared spatial geometries, the
                 distributed spaces become ``blended'' where the spatial
                 geometries of the local space continue coherently
                 across the distributed boundary into the remote site,
                 providing the illusion of a single unified space.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Obrenovic:2011:SIS,
  author =       "{\v{Z}}eljko Obrenovic and Jean-Bernard Martens",
  title =        "Sketching interactive systems with sketchify",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1959022.1959026",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 28 08:33:27 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Recent discussions in the interaction design community
                 have called attention to sketching as an omnipresent
                 element of any disciplined activity of design, and have
                 pointed out that sketching should be extended beyond
                 the simple creation of a pencil trace on paper. More
                 specifically, the need to deal with all attributes of a
                 user experience, especially the timing, phrasing, and
                 feel of the interaction, has been identified. In this
                 article, we propose extending the concept of sketching
                 with a pencil on paper to the more generic concept of
                 fluent exploration of interactive materials. We define
                 interactive materials as any piece of software or
                 hardware that represents or simulates a part of the
                 interactive user experience, such as input from
                 sensors, output in the form of sound, video, or image,
                 or interaction with Web services or specialized
                 programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Lindtner:2011:TFP,
  author =       "Silvia Lindtner and Judy Chen and Gillian R. Hayes and
                 Paul Dourish",
  title =        "Towards a framework of publics: Re-encountering media
                 sharing and its user",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1970378.1970379",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 28 18:25:36 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Design and evaluation of user-generated media
                 production and sharing in Human-Computer Interaction
                 (HCI) often focus on formal and informal media sharing,
                 such as communication within social networks, automatic
                 notifications of activities, and the exchange of
                 digital artifacts. However, conceptual tools for
                 understanding how people relate to the audiences they
                 reach through these systems are limited. The increasing
                 interest in user-generated content in HCI demands the
                 infusion of new methods and theories that explicitly
                 engage the construction and use of media within and
                 among large groups of individuals and systems. In this
                 paper, we suggest that the notion of ``publics,'' drawn
                 from media theory, provides useful insights into
                 user-driven, social, and cultural forms of technology
                 use and digital content creation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Li:2011:DEC,
  author =       "Wei Li and Justin Matejka and Tovi Grossman and Joseph
                 A. Konstan and George Fitzmaurice",
  title =        "Design and evaluation of a command recommendation
                 system for software applications",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1970378.1970380",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 28 18:25:36 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We examine the use of modern recommender system
                 technology to aid command awareness in complex software
                 applications. We first describe our adaptation of
                 traditional recommender system algorithms to meet the
                 unique requirements presented by the domain of software
                 commands. A user study showed that our item-based
                 collaborative filtering algorithm generates 2.1 times
                 as many good suggestions as existing techniques.
                 Motivated by these positive results, we propose a
                 design space framework and its associated algorithms to
                 support both global and contextual recommendations. To
                 evaluate the algorithms, we developed the
                 CommunityCommands plug-in for AutoCAD. This plug-in
                 enabled us to perform a 6-week user study of real-time,
                 within-application command recommendations in actual
                 working environments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Benbunan-Fich:2011:MMB,
  author =       "Raquel Benbunan-Fich and Rachel F. Adler and Tamilla
                 Mavlanova",
  title =        "Measuring multitasking behavior with activity-based
                 metrics",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1970378.1970381",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 28 18:25:36 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Multitasking is the result of time allocation
                 decisions made by individuals faced with multiple
                 tasks. Multitasking research is important in order to
                 improve the design of systems and applications. Since
                 people typically use computers to perform multiple
                 tasks at the same time, insights into this type of
                 behavior can help develop better systems and ideal
                 types of computer environments for modern multitasking
                 users. In this paper, we define multitasking based on
                 the principles of task independence and performance
                 concurrency and develop a set of metrics for
                 computer-based multitasking. The theoretical foundation
                 of this metric development effort stems from an
                 application of key principles of Activity Theory and a
                 systematic analysis of computer usage from the
                 perspective of the user, the task and the technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Reinecke:2011:IPP,
  author =       "Katharina Reinecke and Abraham Bernstein",
  title =        "Improving performance, perceived usability, and
                 aesthetics with culturally adaptive user interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1970378.1970382",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 28 18:25:36 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "When we investigate the usability and aesthetics of
                 user interfaces, we rarely take into account that what
                 users perceive as beautiful and usable strongly depends
                 on their cultural background. In this paper, we argue
                 that it is not feasible to design one interface that
                 appeals to all users of an increasingly global
                 audience. Instead, we propose to design culturally
                 adaptive systems, which automatically generate
                 personalized interfaces that correspond to cultural
                 preferences. In an evaluation of one such system, we
                 demonstrate that a majority of international
                 participants preferred their personalized versions over
                 a nonadapted interface of the same Website. Results
                 show that users were 22\% faster using the culturally
                 adapted interface, needed fewer clicks, and made fewer
                 errors, in line with subjective results demonstrating
                 that they found the adapted version significantly
                 easier to use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Sease:2011:OHM,
  author =       "Robin Sease and David W. McDonald",
  title =        "The organization of home media",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1970378.1970383",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 28 18:25:36 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The growing volume of digital music, photos and video
                 challenges media management software and organizing
                 schemes alike. Through 20 in situ, two hour interviews
                 we explored the when, why and how of our participants'
                 organizational schemes. We sought and studied
                 significantly larger media collections than in previous
                 studies. For these larger media collections some common
                 assumptions like the distinction between popular and
                 classical music collectors do not hold. Our analysis
                 identifies organizing schemes commonly used on a
                 day-to-day basis. We found that participants often rely
                 on overrides or exceptions to their organizational
                 schemes that they consider idiosyncrasies. However, our
                 findings illustrate that those idiosyncratic behaviors
                 are more common than participants believe.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ruddle:2011:WIY,
  author =       "Roy A. Ruddle and Ekaterina Volkova and Heinrich H.
                 B{\"u}lthoff",
  title =        "Walking improves your cognitive map in environments
                 that are large-scale and large in extent",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1970378.1970384",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jun 28 18:25:36 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This study investigated the effect of body-based
                 information (proprioception, etc.) when participants
                 navigated large-scale virtual marketplaces that were
                 either small (Experiment 1) or large in extent
                 (Experiment 2). Extent refers to the size of an
                 environment, whereas scale refers to whether people
                 have to travel through an environment to see the detail
                 necessary for navigation. Each participant was provided
                 with full body-based information (walking through the
                 virtual marketplaces in a large tracking hall or on an
                 omnidirectional treadmill), just the translational
                 component of body-based information (walking on a
                 linear treadmill, but turning with a joystick), just
                 the rotational component (physically turning but using
                 a joystick to translate) or no body-based information
                 (joysticks to translate and rotate).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Benford:2011:CSD,
  author =       "Steve Benford and Andy Crabtree and Martin Flintham
                 and Chris Greenhalgh and Boriana Koleva and Matt Adams
                 and Nick Tandavanitj and Ju Row Farr and Gabriella
                 Giannachi and Irma Lindt",
  title =        "Creating the spectacle: Designing interactional
                 trajectories through spectator interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993060.1993061",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:31:44 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "An ethnographic study reveals how professional artists
                 created a spectator interface for the interactive game
                 Day of the Figurines, designing the size, shape, height
                 and materials of two tabletop interfaces before
                 carefully arranging them in a local setting. We also
                 show how participants experienced this interface. We
                 consider how the artists worked with a multi-scale
                 notion of interactional trajectory that combined
                 trajectories through individual displays, trajectories
                 through a local ecology of displays, and trajectories
                 through an entire experience.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hamdy:2011:HPB,
  author =       "Omar Hamdy and Issa Traor{\'e}",
  title =        "Homogeneous physio-behavioral visual and mouse-based
                 biometric",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993060.1993062",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:31:44 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In this research, we propose a novel biometric system
                 for static user authentication that homogeneously
                 combines mouse dynamics, visual search capability and
                 short-term memory effect. The proposed system
                 introduces the visual search capability, and short-term
                 memory effect to the biometric-based security world for
                 the first time. The use of a computer mouse for its
                 dynamics, and as an input sensor for the other two
                 biometrics, means no additional hardware is required
                 than the standard mouse. Experimental evaluation showed
                 the system effectiveness using variable or one-time
                 passwords. All of these attributes qualify the proposed
                 system to be effectively deployed as a static
                 authentication mechanism.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Chapuis:2011:EMS,
  author =       "Olivier Chapuis and Pierre Dragicevic",
  title =        "Effects of motor scale, visual scale, and quantization
                 on small target acquisition difficulty",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993060.1993063",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:31:44 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Targets of only a few pixels are notoriously difficult
                 to acquire. Despite many attempts at facilitating
                 pointing, the reasons for this difficulty are poorly
                 understood. We confirm a strong departure from Fitts'
                 Law for small target acquisition using a mouse and
                 investigate three potential sources of problems: motor
                 accuracy, legibility, and quantization. We find that
                 quantization is not a problem, but both motor and
                 visual sizes are limiting factors. This suggests that
                 small targets should be magnified in both motor and
                 visual space to facilitate pointing. Since performance
                 degrades exponentially as targets get very small, we
                 further advocate the exploration of uniform,
                 target-agnostic magnification strategies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Arthur:2011:XWT,
  author =       "Richard Arthur and Dan R. {Olsen, Jr.}",
  title =        "{XICE} windowing toolkit: Seamless display
                 annexation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993060.1993064",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:31:44 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Users are increasingly nomadic, carrying computing
                 power with them. To gain rich input and output, users
                 could annex displays and input devices when available,
                 but annexing via VGA cable is insufficient. This
                 article introduces XICE, which uses wireless networks
                 to connect portable devices to display servers. Network
                 connections eliminate cables, allow multiple people to
                 share a display, and ease input annexation. XICE
                 mitigates potentially malicious input, and facilitates
                 comfortable viewing on a variety of displays via
                 view-independent coordinates. The XICE-distributed
                 graphics model greatly reduces portable device CPU
                 usage and extends portable device battery life.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hayes:2011:RAR,
  author =       "Gillian R. Hayes",
  title =        "The relationship of action research to human-computer
                 interaction",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993060.1993065",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:31:44 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Alongside the growing interest within HCI, and
                 arguably computing more generally, in conducting
                 research that has substantial societal benefits, there
                 is a need for new ways to think about and to articulate
                 the challenges of these engaged research projects as
                 well as their results. Action Research (AR) is a class
                 of methods and approaches for conducting democratic and
                 collaborative research with community partners. AR has
                 evolved over the last several decades and offers HCI
                 researchers theoretical lenses, methodological
                 approaches, and pragmatic guidance for conducting
                 socially relevant, collaborative, and engaged
                 research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kin:2011:THM,
  author =       "Kenrick Kin and Bj{\"o}rn Hartmann and Maneesh
                 Agrawala",
  title =        "Two-handed marking menus for multitouch devices",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993060.1993066",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:31:44 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We investigate multistroke marking menus for
                 multitouch devices and we show that using two hands can
                 improve performance. We present two new two-handed
                 multistroke marking menu variants in which users either
                 draw strokes with both hands simultaneously or
                 alternate strokes between hands. In a pair of studies
                 we find that using two hands simultaneously is faster
                 than using a single, dominant-handed marking menu by
                 10--15\%. Alternating strokes between hands doubles the
                 number of accessible menu items for the same number of
                 strokes, and is similar in performance to using a
                 one-handed marking menu. We also examine how stroke
                 direction affects performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Plimmer:2011:STL,
  author =       "Beryl Plimmer and Peter Reid and Rachel Blagojevic and
                 Andrew Crossan and Stephen Brewster",
  title =        "Signing on the tactile line: a multimodal system for
                 teaching handwriting to blind children",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1993060.1993067",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:31:44 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We present McSig, a multimodal system for teaching
                 blind children cursive handwriting so that they can
                 create a personal signature. For blind people
                 handwriting is very difficult to learn as it is a
                 near-zero feedback activity that is needed only
                 occasionally, yet in important situations; for example,
                 to make an attractive and repeatable signature for
                 legal contracts. McSig aids the teaching of signatures
                 by translating digital ink from the teacher's stylus
                 gestures into three non-visual forms: (1) audio pan and
                 pitch represents the x and y movement of the stylus;
                 (2) kinaesthetic information is provided to the student
                 through a force-feedback haptic pen that mimics the
                 teacher's stylus movement; and (3) a physical tactile
                 line on the writing sheet is created by the haptic
                 pen.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hiltz:2011:ISM,
  author =       "Starr Roxanne Hiltz and Paloma Diaz and Gloria Mark",
  title =        "Introduction: {Social} media and collaborative systems
                 for crisis management",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2063231.2063232",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 30 17:39:15 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Grabowski:2011:HRV,
  author =       "Martha Grabowski and Karlene Roberts",
  title =        "High reliability virtual organizations: Co-adaptive
                 technology and organizational structures in tsunami
                 warning systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2063231.2063233",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 30 17:39:15 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Highly reliable organizations (HROs) are those
                 organizations, which by nature or design, cannot or
                 must not fail; the consequences of failure in such
                 systems are usually catastrophic. Systems that combine
                 the characteristics of highly reliable operations and
                 distributed, virtual organizations are known as highly
                 reliable virtual organizations (HRVOs)---distributed
                 and electronically linked groups of organizations that
                 excel in high-consequence settings. Tsunami warning
                 systems (TWS) are one example of virtual organizations
                 that operate under enormous expectations for
                 reliability. Adaptive structuration theory suggests
                 that, in complex systems, technology and organizational
                 structures co-evolve, and users adapt technology to
                 their needs, creating shared meaning about the role and
                 utility of technology in various settings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kwon:2011:SCA,
  author =       "Gyu Hyun Kwon and Tonya L. Smith-Jackson and Charles
                 W. Bostian",
  title =        "Socio-cognitive aspects of interoperability:
                 Understanding communication task environments among
                 different organizations",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2063231.2063234",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 30 17:39:15 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Emergency communication systems (ECS) are a key
                 element in collaborations among different public safety
                 organizations. The need for interoperability in
                 emergency communication systems has hastened the
                 development of interoperable communication technology
                 that is an enabling technology to automatically
                 identify environmental variables including appropriate
                 radio frequencies and to connect different networks
                 used by different organizations. Even though the
                 technology has been researched from many perspectives
                 and has shown that is possible to connect different
                 organizations, there still remain many issues in terms
                 of socio-cognitive aspects. Thus, this study examines
                 the socio-cognitive dimensions of interoperability,
                 which equal the technical dimensions of the problem in
                 importance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Semaan:2011:TMS,
  author =       "Bryan Semaan and Gloria Mark",
  title =        "Technology-mediated social arrangements to resolve
                 breakdowns in infrastructure during ongoing
                 disruption",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2063231.2063235",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 30 17:39:15 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "When societies experience disruption as caused by
                 natural disasters, various official government
                 agencies, relief organizations, and emergent citizen
                 groups engage in activities that aid in the recovery
                 effort---the process that leads to the resumption of
                 normal life. In war environments however, societal
                 trust can be affected and people may develop distrust
                 of the institutions and associated individuals that
                 provide and resolve breakdowns in infrastructure. This
                 article reports on an ethnographic study of the use of
                 information and communication technologies (ICTs) by
                 citizens experiencing ongoing disruption in a conflict
                 zone. We conducted 90 semistructured interviews with
                 Iraqi civilians who experienced the 2nd Gulf War
                 beginning in March 2003.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Convertino:2011:SCG,
  author =       "Gregorio Convertino and Helena M. Mentis and
                 Aleksandra Slavkovic and Mary Beth Rosson and John M.
                 Carroll",
  title =        "Supporting common ground and awareness in emergency
                 management planning: a design research project",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2063231.2063236",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 30 17:39:15 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a design research project on knowledge
                 sharing and activity awareness in distributed emergency
                 management planning. In three experiments we studied
                 groups using three different prototypes, respectively:
                 a paper-prototype in a collocated work setting, a first
                 software prototype in a distributed setting, and a
                 second, enhanced software prototype in a distributed
                 setting. In this series of studies we tried to better
                 understand the processes of knowledge sharing and
                 activity awareness in complex cooperative work by
                 developing and investigating new tools that can support
                 these processes. We explicate the design rationale
                 behind each prototype and report the results of each
                 experiment investigating it.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Toups:2011:TCG,
  author =       "Zachary O. Toups and Andruid Kerne and William A.
                 Hamilton",
  title =        "The team coordination game: Zero-fidelity simulation
                 abstracted from fire emergency response practice",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2011",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2063231.2063237",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 30 17:39:15 MST 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Crisis response engenders a high-stress environment in
                 which teams gather, transform, and mutually share
                 information. Prior educational approaches have not
                 successfully addressed these critical skills. The
                 assumption has been that the highest fidelity
                 simulations result in the best learning. Deploying
                 high-fidelity simulations is expensive and dangerous;
                 they do not address team coordination. Low-fidelity
                 approaches are ineffective because they are not
                 stressful. Zero-fidelity simulation develops and
                 invokes the principle of abstraction, focusing on
                 human-information and human-human transfers of meaning,
                 to derive design from work practice. Our principal
                 hypothesis is that crisis responders will experience
                 zero-fidelity simulation as effective simulation of
                 team coordination.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Yuill:2012:MCD,
  author =       "Nicola Yuill and Yvonne Rogers",
  title =        "Mechanisms for collaboration: a design and evaluation
                 framework for multi-user interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2147783.2147784",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 5 05:53:40 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Multi-user interfaces are said to provide ``natural''
                 interaction in supporting collaboration, compared to
                 individual and noncolocated technologies. We identify
                 three mechanisms accounting for the success of such
                 interfaces: high awareness of others' actions and
                 intentions, high control over the interface, and high
                 availability of background information. We challenge
                 the idea that interaction over such interfaces is
                 necessarily ``natural'' and argue that everyday
                 interaction involves constraints on awareness, control,
                 and availability. These constraints help people
                 interact more smoothly. We draw from social
                 developmental psychology to characterize the design of
                 multi-user interfaces in terms of how constraints on
                 these mechanisms can be best used to promote
                 collaboration. We use this framework of mechanisms and
                 constraints to explain the successes and failures of
                 existing designs, then apply it to three case studies
                 of design, and finally derive from them a set of
                 questions to consider when designing and analysing
                 multi-user interfaces for collaboration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Schleyer:2012:CAR,
  author =       "Titus Schleyer and Brian S. Butler and Mei Song and
                 Heiko Spallek",
  title =        "Conceptualizing and advancing research networking
                 systems",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2147783.2147785",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 5 05:53:40 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Science in general, and biomedical research in
                 particular, is becoming more collaborative. As a
                 result, collaboration with the right individuals,
                 teams, and institutions is increasingly crucial for
                 scientific progress. We propose Research Networking
                 Systems (RNS) as a new type of system designed to help
                 scientists identify and choose collaborators, and
                 suggest a corresponding research agenda. The research
                 agenda covers four areas: foundations, presentation,
                 architecture, and evaluation. Foundations includes
                 project-, institution- and discipline-specific
                 motivational factors; the role of social networks; and
                 impression formation based on information beyond
                 expertise and interests. Presentation addresses
                 representing expertise in a comprehensive and
                 up-to-date manner; the role of controlled vocabularies
                 and folksonomies; the tension between seekers' need for
                 comprehensive information and potential collaborators'
                 desire to control how they are seen by others; and the
                 need to support serendipitous discovery of
                 collaborative opportunities. Architecture considers
                 aggregation and synthesis of information from multiple
                 sources, social system interoperability, and
                 integration with the user's primary work context.
                 Lastly, evaluation focuses on assessment of
                 collaboration decisions, measurement of user-specific
                 costs and benefits, and how the large-scale impact of
                 RNS could be evaluated with longitudinal and
                 naturalistic methods. We hope that this article
                 stimulates the human-computer interaction,
                 computer-supported cooperative work, and related
                 communities to pursue a broad and comprehensive agenda
                 for developing research networking systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Liao:2012:EUU,
  author =       "Chunyuan Liao and Fran{\c{c}}cois Guimbreti{\`e}ere",
  title =        "Evaluating and understanding the usability of a
                 pen-based command system for interactive paper",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2147783.2147786",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 5 05:53:40 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "To combine the affordances of paper and computers,
                 prior research has proposed numerous interactive paper
                 systems that link specific paper document content to
                 digital operations such as multimedia playback and
                 proofreading. Yet, it remains unclear to what degree
                 these systems bridge the inherent gap between paper and
                 computers when compared to existing paper-only and
                 computer-only interfaces. In particular, given the
                 special properties of paper, such as limited dynamic
                 feedback, how well does an average new user learn to
                 master the interactive paper system? What factors
                 affect the user performance? And how does the paper
                 interface work in a typical use scenario? To answer
                 these questions, we conducted two empirical experiments
                 on a generic pen-gesture-based command system, called
                 PapierCraft [Liao et al. 2008], for paper-based
                 interfaces. With it, people can select sections of
                 printed document and issue commands such as copy and
                 paste, linking and in-text search. The first experiment
                 focused on the user performance of drawing pen gestures
                 on paper. It proves that users can learn the command
                 system in about 30 minutes and achieve a performance
                 comparable to a table PC-based interface supporting the
                 same gestures. The second experiment examined the
                 application of the command system in active reading
                 tasks. The results show promise for seamless
                 integration of paper and computers in active reading
                 for their combined affordances. In addition, our study
                 identifies some key design issues, such as the pen form
                 factor and feedback of gestures. This article
                 contributes to better understanding on pros and cons of
                 paper and computers, and sheds light on the design of
                 future interfaces for document interaction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Koulouri:2012:WTY,
  author =       "Theodora Koulouri and Stanislao Lauria and Robert D.
                 Macredie and Sherry Chen",
  title =        "Are we there yet?: {The} role of gender on the
                 effectiveness and efficiency of user-robot
                 communication in navigational tasks",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2147783.2147787",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 5 05:53:40 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Many studies have identified gender differences in
                 communication related to spatial navigation in real and
                 virtual worlds. Most of this research has focused on
                 single-party communication (monologs), such as the way
                 in which individuals either give or follow route
                 instructions. However, very little work has been
                 reported on spatial navigation dialogs and whether
                 there are gender differences in the way that they are
                 conducted. This article will address the lack of
                 research evidence by exploring the dialogs between
                 partners of the same and of different gender in a
                 simulated Human-Robot Interaction study. In the
                 experiments discussed in this article, pairs of
                 participants communicated remotely; in each pair, one
                 participant (the instructor) was under the impression
                 that s/he was giving route instructions to a robot (the
                 follower), avoiding any perception of gendered
                 communication. To ensure the naturalness of the
                 interaction, the followers were given no guidelines on
                 what to say, however, each had to control a robot based
                 on the user's instructions. While many monolog-based
                 studies suggest male superiority in a multitude of
                 spatial activities and domains, this study of dialogs
                 highlights a more complex pattern of results. As
                 anticipated, gender influences task performance and
                 communication. However, the findings suggest that it is
                 the interaction-the combination of gender and role
                 (i.e., instructor or follower)-that has the most
                 significant impact. In particular, pairs of female
                 users/instructors and male ``robots''/followers are
                 associated with the fastest and most accurate
                 completion of the navigation tasks. Moreover,
                 dialog-based analysis illustrates how pairs of male
                 users/instructors and female ``robots''/followers
                 achieved successful communication through ``alignment''
                 of spatial descriptions. In particular, males seem to
                 adapt the content of their instructions when
                 interacting with female ``robots''/followers and employ
                 more landmark references compared to female
                 users/instructors or when addressing males (in
                 male-male pairings). This study describes the
                 differences in how males and females interact with the
                 system, and proposes that any female ``disadvantage''
                 in spatial communication can disappear through
                 interactive mechanisms. Such insights are important for
                 the design of navigation systems that are equally
                 effective for users of either gender.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Grigoreanu:2012:EUD,
  author =       "Valentina Grigoreanu and Margaret Burnett and Susan
                 Wiedenbeck and Jill Cao and Kyle Rector and Irwin
                 Kwan",
  title =        "End-user debugging strategies: a sensemaking
                 perspective",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2147783.2147788",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 5 05:53:40 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Despite decades of research into how professional
                 programmers debug, only recently has work emerged about
                 how end-user programmers attempt to debug programs.
                 Without this knowledge, we cannot build tools to
                 adequately support their needs. This article reports
                 the results of a detailed qualitative empirical study
                 of end-user programmers' sensemaking about a
                 spreadsheet's correctness. Using our study's data, we
                 derived a sensemaking model for end-user debugging and
                 categorized participants' activities and verbalizations
                 according to this model, allowing us to investigate how
                 participants went about debugging. Among the results
                 are identification of the prevalence of information
                 foraging during end-user debugging, two successful
                 strategies for traversing the sensemaking model,
                 potential ties to gender differences in the literature,
                 sensemaking sequences leading to debugging progress,
                 and sequences tied with troublesome points in the
                 debugging process. The results also reveal new
                 implications for the design of spreadsheet tools to
                 support end-user programmers' sensemaking during
                 debugging.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Leong:2012:ECD,
  author =       "Tuck W. Leong and Frank Vetere and Steve Howard",
  title =        "Experiencing coincidence during digital music
                 listening",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2147783.2147789",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 5 05:53:40 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "People have reported encountering coincidences when
                 using particular technologies to interact with personal
                 digital content. However, to date, there is a paucity
                 of research to understand these experiences. This
                 article applies McCarthy and Wright's [2004; 2005]
                 experiential framework to analyze these kinds of
                 technology-mediated coincidences. By focusing upon
                 encounters of coincidence during people's digital music
                 listening, we identified the elements at play,
                 elucidated the properties of the individual elements,
                 their inter-relationships, and an understanding of how
                 coincidences can arise. We also reveal how, under
                 particular conditions, such elements provide people
                 with opportunities to encounter coincidence. This
                 understanding of coincidence demonstrates how McCarthy
                 and Wright's [2004; 2005] framework can be usefully
                 applied to an empirical investigation of user
                 experience.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Li:2012:UCR,
  author =       "Ian Li and Anind K. Dey and Jodi Forlizzi",
  title =        "Using context to reveal factors that affect physical
                 activity",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2147783.2147790",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 5 05:53:40 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "There are many physical activity awareness systems
                 available in today's market. These systems show
                 physical activity information (e.g., step counts,
                 energy expenditure, heart rate) which is sufficient for
                 many self-knowledge needs, but information about the
                 factors that affect physical activity may be needed for
                 deeper self-reflection and increased self-knowledge. We
                 explored the use of contextual information, such as
                 events, places, and people, to support reflection on
                 the factors that affect physical activity. We present
                 three findings from our studies. First, users make
                 associations between physical activity and contextual
                 information that help them become aware of factors that
                 affect their physical activity. Second, reflecting on
                 physical activity and context can increase people's
                 awareness of opportunities for physical activity.
                 Lastly, automated tracking of physical activity and
                 contextual information benefits long-term reflection,
                 but may have detrimental effects on immediate
                 awareness.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Tashman:2012:WLL,
  author =       "Craig Tashman and W. Keith Edwards",
  title =        "{WindowScape}: {Lessons} learned from a task-centric
                 window manager",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2147783.2147791",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 5 05:53:40 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "People frequently experience difficulty switching
                 between computer-mediated tasks. To help address this,
                 we created WindowScape, a zooming window manager that
                 uses implicit grouping to help users sort windows
                 according to task. WindowScape was intended to provide
                 a more flexible and intuitive grouping model than prior
                 systems. We report on the design process leading up to
                 the system, and alternative designs we explored. We
                 describe a series of formative evaluations that
                 resulted in significant modifications to our initial
                 prototype, as well as a deployment study of the final
                 version, where users lived with WindowScape on a
                 day-to-day basis. Our results from this study reveal
                 how users react to novel aspects of our system,
                 including its particular uses of miniaturization and
                 its approach to grouping. We also discuss the impact of
                 a task-oriented approach to window management on other
                 aspects of user behavior, and the implications of this
                 for future system design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Cohen:2012:DCM,
  author =       "Mark A. Cohen and Frank E. Ritter and Steven R.
                 Haynes",
  title =        "Dimensions of Concern: a Method to Use Cognitive
                 Dimensions to Evaluate Interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2240156.2240157",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 6 13:36:58 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Producing useful and usable software often requires
                 continuous and iterative evaluation. This paper
                 introduces a novel usability evaluation method based on
                 the Cognitive Dimensions of Notations framework. The
                 target of our evaluation is Herbal a suite of tools
                 designed to simplify agent development by providing a
                 high-level language and maintenance-oriented
                 development environment. The method introduced here
                 uncovers dimensions of concern, which are used to
                 measure the usability of Herbal and to identify areas
                 for improvement in the design. In this article, we
                 demonstrate how we used dimensions of concern to
                 effectively evaluate and improve usability, and we
                 discuss ways in which our method can be adapted,
                 extended, and applied to improving the usability of
                 other interactive systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Cerrolaza:2012:SPM,
  author =       "Juan J. Cerrolaza and Arantxa Villanueva and Rafael
                 Cabeza",
  title =        "Study of Polynomial Mapping Functions in
                 Video-Oculography Eye Trackers",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2240156.2240158",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 6 13:36:58 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Gaze-tracking data have been used successfully in the
                 design of new input devices and as an observational
                 technique in usability studies. Polynomial-based
                 Video-Oculography (VOG) systems are one of the most
                 attractive gaze estimation methods thanks to their
                 simplicity and ease of implementation. Although the
                 functionality of these systems is generally acceptable,
                 there has been no thorough comparative study to date of
                 how the mapping equations affect the final system
                 response. After developing a taxonomic classification
                 of calibration functions, we examined over 400,000
                 models and evaluated the validity of several
                 conventional assumptions. Our rigorous experimental
                 procedure enabled us to optimize the calibration
                 process for a real VOG gaze-tracking system and halve
                 the calibration time while avoiding a detrimental
                 effect on the accuracy or tolerance to head movement.
                 Finally, a geometry-based method is implemented and
                 tested. The results and performance is compared with
                 those obtained by the general purpose expressions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{vanSchaik:2012:UEI,
  author =       "Paul van Schaik and Marc Hassenzahl and Jonathan
                 Ling",
  title =        "User-Experience from an Inference Perspective",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2240156.2240159",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 6 13:36:58 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In many situations, people make judgments on the basis
                 of incomplete information, inferring unavailable
                 attributes from available ones. These inference
                 processes may also well operate when judgments about a
                 product's user-experience are made. To examine this, an
                 inference model of user-experience, based on Hassenzahl
                 and Monk's [2010], was explored in three studies using
                 Web sites. All studies supported the model's
                 predictions and its stability, with hands-on
                 experience, different products, and different usage
                 modes (action mode versus goal mode). Within a unified
                 framework of judgment as inference [Kruglanski et al.
                 2007], our approach allows for the integration of the
                 effects of a wide range of information sources on
                 judgments of user-experience.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Xu:2012:MEU,
  author =       "Lingling Xu and Julian Lin and Hock Chuan Chan",
  title =        "The Moderating Effects of Utilitarian and Hedonic
                 Values on Information Technology Continuance",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2240156.2240160",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 6 13:36:58 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This study examines how the nature of technology
                 affects users' intention to continue using information
                 technologies. It proposes an extended technology
                 acceptance model, with perceived ease of use, perceived
                 usefulness and pleasure affecting the intention to
                 continue using a technology. We hypothesized that these
                 effects are moderated by the technology's utilitarian
                 and hedonic values. The model was validated for
                 smartphone functions. A user survey showed that
                 perceived ease of use significantly affected the
                 intention to continue using only for high-utilitarian
                 functions, whereas pleasure affected the intention to
                 continue using only for high-hedonic functions. The
                 effect of perceived ease of use on perceived usefulness
                 was stronger for high-utilitarian than for
                 low-utilitarian functions. The effect of pleasure on
                 perceived usefulness was stronger for high-hedonic than
                 for low-hedonic functions. The results suggest that
                 marketing should consider the nature of the
                 functions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Sarcevic:2012:TET,
  author =       "Aleksandra Sarcevic and Ivan Marsic and Randal S.
                 Burd",
  title =        "Teamwork Errors in Trauma Resuscitation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2240156.2240161",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 6 13:36:58 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Human errors in trauma resuscitation can have
                 cascading effects leading to poor patient outcomes. To
                 determine the nature of teamwork errors, we conducted
                 an observational study in a trauma center over a
                 two-year period. While eventually successful in
                 treating the patients, trauma teams had problems
                 tracking and integrating information in a longitudinal
                 trajectory, which resulted in inefficiencies and
                 near-miss errors. As an initial step in system design
                 to support trauma teams, we proposed a model of
                 teamwork and a novel classification of team errors.
                 Four types of team errors emerged from our analysis:
                 communication errors, vigilance errors, interpretation
                 errors, and management errors. Based on these findings,
                 we identified key information structures to support
                 team cognition and decision making. We believe that
                 displaying these information structures will support
                 distributed cognition of trauma teams. Our findings
                 have broader applicability to other collaborative and
                 dynamic work settings that are prone to human error.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Jeon:2012:SSI,
  author =       "Myounghoon Jeon and Bruce N. Walker and Abhishek
                 Srivastava",
  title =        "{``Spindex'' (Speech Index)} Enhances Menus on Touch
                 Screen Devices with Tapping, Wheeling, and Flicking",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2240156.2240162",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 6 13:36:58 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Users interact with many electronic devices via menus
                 such as auditory or visual menus. Auditory menus can
                 either complement or replace visual menus. We
                 investigated how advanced auditory cues enhance
                 auditory menus on a smartphone, with tapping, wheeling,
                 and flicking input gestures. The study evaluated a
                 spindex (speech index), in which audio cues inform
                 users where they are in a menu; 122 undergraduates
                 navigated through a menu of 150 songs. Study variables
                 included auditory cue type (text-to-speech alone or TTS
                 plus spindex), visual display mode (on or off), and
                 input gesture (tapping, wheeling, or flicking). Target
                 search time and subjective workload were lower with
                 spindex than without for all input gestures regardless
                 of visual display mode. The spindex condition was rated
                 subjectively higher than plain speech. The effects of
                 input method and display mode on navigation behaviors
                 were analyzed with the two-stage navigation strategy
                 model. Results are discussed in relation to attention
                 theories and in terms of practical applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Black:2012:SPN,
  author =       "Rolf Black and Annalu Waller and Ross Turner and Ehud
                 Reiter",
  title =        "Supporting Personal Narrative for Children with
                 Complex Communication Needs",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2240156.2240163",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 6 13:36:58 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Children with complex communication needs who use
                 voice output communication aids seldom engage in
                 extended conversation. The ``How was School today...?''
                 system has been designed to enable such children to
                 talk about their school day. The system uses
                 data-to-text technology to generate narratives from
                 sensor data. Observations, interviews and prototyping
                 were used to ensure that stakeholders were involved in
                 the design of the system. Evaluations with three
                 children showed that the prototype system, which
                 automatically generates utterances, has the potential
                 to support disabled individuals to participate better
                 in interactive conversation. Analysis of a
                 conversational transcript and observations indicate
                 that the children were able to access relevant
                 conversation and had more control in the conversation
                 in comparison to their usual interactions where control
                 lay mainly with the speaking partner. Further research
                 to develop an improved, more rugged system that
                 supports users with different levels of language
                 ability is now underway.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Akers:2012:BEI,
  author =       "David Akers and Robin Jeffries and Matthew Simpson and
                 Terry Winograd",
  title =        "Backtracking Events as Indicators of Usability
                 Problems in Creation-Oriented Applications",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2240156.2240164",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 6 13:36:58 MDT 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "A diversity of user goals and strategies make
                 creation-oriented applications such as word processors
                 or photo-editors difficult to comprehensively test.
                 Evaluating such applications requires testing a large
                 pool of participants to capture the diversity of
                 experience, but traditional usability testing can be
                 prohibitively expensive. To address this problem, this
                 article contributes a new usability evaluation method
                 called backtracking analysis, designed to automate the
                 process of detecting and characterizing usability
                 problems in creation-oriented applications. The key
                 insight is that interaction breakdowns in
                 creation-oriented applications often manifest
                 themselves in backtracking operations that can be
                 automatically logged (e.g., undo and erase operations).
                 Backtracking analysis synchronizes these events to
                 contextual data such as screen capture video, helping
                 the evaluator to characterize specific usability
                 problems. The results from three experiments
                 demonstrate that backtracking events can be effective
                 indicators of usability problems in creation-oriented
                 applications, and can yield a cost-effective
                 alternative to traditional laboratory usability
                 testing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Arthur:2012:WBC,
  author =       "Richard Arthur and Dan R. {Olsen, Jr.}",
  title =        "Window brokers: Collaborative display space control",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362364.2362365",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 5 18:10:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "As users travel from place to place, they can
                 encounter display servers, that is, machines which
                 supply a collaborative content-sharing environment.
                 Users need a way to control how content is arranged on
                 these display spaces. The software for controlling
                 these display spaces should be consistent from display
                 server to display server. However, display servers
                 could be controlled by institutions which may not allow
                 for the control software to be installed. This article
                 introduces the window broker protocol which allows
                 users to carry familiar control techniques on portable
                 personal devices and use the control technique on any
                 display server without installing the control software
                 on the display server. This article also discusses how
                 the window broker protocol mitigates some security
                 risks that arise from potentially malicious display
                 servers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Chen:2012:DMS,
  author =       "Nicholas Chen and Francois Guimbretiere and Abigail
                 Sellen",
  title =        "Designing a multi-slate reading environment to support
                 active reading activities",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362364.2362366",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 5 18:10:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Despite predictions of the paperless office, most
                 knowledge workers and students still rely heavily on
                 paper in most of their document practices. Research has
                 shown that paper's dominance can be attributed to the
                 fact that it supports a broad range of these users'
                 diverse reading requirements. Our analysis of the
                 literature suggests that a new class of reading device
                 consisting of an interconnected environment of thin and
                 lightweight electronic slates could potentially unify
                 the distinct advantages of e-books, PCs, and tabletop
                 computers to offer an electronic reading solution
                 providing functionality comparable to, or even
                 exceeding, that of paper. This article presents the
                 design and construction of such a system. In it, we
                 explain how data can be mapped to slates, detail
                 interactions for linking the slates, and describe tools
                 that leverage the connectivity between slates. A
                 preliminary study of the system indicates that such a
                 system has the potential of being an electronic
                 alternative to paper.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Chuang:2012:CUW,
  author =       "Jason Chuang and Christopher D. Manning and Jeffrey
                 Heer",
  title =        "``Without the clutter of unimportant words'':
                 Descriptive keyphrases for text visualization",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362364.2362367",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 5 18:10:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Keyphrases aid the exploration of text collections by
                 communicating salient aspects of documents and are
                 often used to create effective visualizations of text.
                 While prior work in HCI and visualization has proposed
                 a variety of ways of presenting keyphrases, less
                 attention has been paid to selecting the best
                 descriptive terms. In this article, we investigate the
                 statistical and linguistic properties of keyphrases
                 chosen by human judges and determine which features are
                 most predictive of high-quality descriptive phrases.
                 Based on 5,611 responses from 69 graduate students
                 describing a corpus of dissertation abstracts, we
                 analyze characteristics of human-generated keyphrases,
                 including phrase length, commonness, position, and part
                 of speech. Next, we systematically assess the
                 contribution of each feature within statistical models
                 of keyphrase quality. We then introduce a method for
                 grouping similar terms and varying the specificity of
                 displayed phrases so that applications can select
                 phrases dynamically based on the available screen space
                 and current context of interaction. Precision-recall
                 measures find that our technique generates keyphrases
                 that match those selected by human judges. Crowdsourced
                 ratings of tag cloud visualizations rank our approach
                 above other automatic techniques. Finally, we discuss
                 the role of HCI methods in developing new algorithmic
                 techniques suitable for user-facing applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Dalbis:2012:PSC,
  author =       "Tiziano D'albis and Rossella Blatt and Roberto Tedesco
                 and Licia Sbattella and Matteo Matteucci",
  title =        "A predictive speller controlled by a brain-computer
                 interface based on motor imagery",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362364.2362368",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 5 18:10:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Persons suffering from motor disorders have limited
                 possibilities for communicating and normally require
                 assistive technologies to fulfill this primary need.
                 Promising means of providing basic communication
                 abilities to subjects affected by severe motor
                 impairments include brain-computer interfaces (BCIs),
                 that is, systems that directly translate brain signals
                 into device commands, bypassing any muscle or nerve
                 mediation. To date, the use of BCIs for effective
                 verbal communication is yet an open issue, primarily
                 due to the low rates of information transfer that can
                 be achieved with this technology. Still, performance of
                 BCI spelling applications could be considerably
                 improved by a smart user interface design and by the
                 adoption of natural language processing (NLP)
                 techniques for text prediction. The objective of this
                 work is to suggest an approach and a user interface for
                 BCI spelling applications combining state-of-the-art
                 BCI and NLP techniques to maximize the overall
                 communication rate of the system. The BCI paradigm
                 adopted is motor imagery, that is, when the subject
                 imagines moving a certain part of the body, he/she
                 produces modifications to specific brain rhythms that
                 are detected in real-time through an
                 electroencephalogram and translated into commands for a
                 spelling application. By maximizing the overall
                 communication rate, our approach is twofold: on one
                 hand, we maximize the information transfer rate from
                 the control signal, on the other hand, we optimize the
                 way this information is employed for the purpose of
                 verbal communication. The achieved results are
                 satisfactory and comparable with the latest works
                 reported in literature on motor-imagery BCI spellers.
                 For the three subjects tested, we obtained a spelling
                 rate of respectively 3 char/min, 2.7 char/min, and 2
                 char/min.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Buechley:2012:CTR,
  author =       "Leah Buechley and Hannah Perner-Wilson",
  title =        "Crafting technology: Reimagining the processes,
                 materials, and cultures of electronics",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362364.2362369",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 5 18:10:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This article examines the practice of electronics
                 building in the context of other crafts. We compare the
                 experience of making electronics with the experiences
                 of carving, sewing, and painting. Our investigation is
                 grounded in a survey of 40 practicing craftspeople who
                 are working in each of these disciplines. We then use
                 this survey as a foundation for a discussion of hybrid
                 craft-integrations of electronics with carving, sewing,
                 and painting. We present examples of hybrid craft and
                 discuss the ways in which blended practices can enrich
                 and diversify technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Oviatt:2012:IIA,
  author =       "Sharon Oviatt and Adrienne Cohen and Andrea Miller and
                 Kumi Hodge and Ariana Mann",
  title =        "The impact of interface affordances on human ideation,
                 problem solving, and inferential reasoning",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362364.2362370",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 5 18:10:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents two studies investigating how
                 computer interface affordances influence basic
                 cognition, including ideational fluency, problem
                 solving, and inferential reasoning. In one study
                 comparing interfaces with different input capabilities,
                 students expressed 56\% more nonlinguistic
                 representations (diagrams, symbols, numbers) when using
                 pen interfaces. A linear regression confirmed that
                 nonlinguistic communication directly mediated a
                 substantial increase (38.5\%) in students' ability to
                 produce appropriate science ideas. In contrast,
                 students expressed 41\% more linguistic content when
                 using a keyboard-based interface, which mediated a drop
                 in science ideation. A follow-up study pursued the
                 question of how interfaces that prime nonlinguistic
                 communication so effectively facilitate cognition. This
                 study examined the relation between students'
                 expression of nonlinguistic representations and their
                 inference accuracy when using analogous digital and
                 non-digital pen tools. Perhaps surprisingly, the
                 digital pen interface stimulated construction of more
                 diagrams, more correct Venn diagrams, and more accurate
                 domain inferences. Students' construction of multiple
                 diagrams to represent a problem also directly
                 suppressed overgeneralization errors, which were the
                 most common inference failure. These research results
                 reveal that computer interfaces have communications
                 affordances which elicit communication patterns that
                 can substantially stimulate or impede basic cognition.
                 Implications are discussed for designing new digital
                 tools for thinking, with an emphasis on nonlinguistic
                 and especially spatial representations that are most
                 poorly supported by current keyboard-based
                 interfaces.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hook:2012:SCI,
  author =       "Kristina H{\"o}{\"o}k and Jonas L{\"o}wgren",
  title =        "Strong concepts: Intermediate-level knowledge in
                 interaction design research",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362364.2362371",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 5 18:10:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Design-oriented research practices create
                 opportunities for constructing knowledge that is more
                 abstracted than particular instances, without aspiring
                 to be at the scope of generalized theories. We propose
                 an intermediate design knowledge form that we name
                 strong concepts that has the following properties: is
                 generative and carries a core design idea, cutting
                 across particular use situations and even application
                 domains; concerned with interactive behavior, not
                 static appearance; is a design element and a part of an
                 artifact and, at the same time, speaks of a use
                 practice and behavior over time; and finally, resides
                 on an abstraction level above particular instances. We
                 present two strong concepts-social navigation and
                 seamfulness-and discuss how they fulfil criteria we
                 might have on knowledge, such as being contestable,
                 defensible, and substantive. Our aim is to foster an
                 academic culture of discursive knowledge construction
                 of intermediate-level knowledge and of how it can be
                 produced and assessed in design-oriented HCI
                 research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Zancanaro:2012:CNC,
  author =       "Massimo Zancanaro and Oliviero Stock and Zvi
                 Eisikovits and Chaya Koren and Patrice L. Weiss",
  title =        "Co-narrating a conflict: an interactive tabletop to
                 facilitate attitudinal shifts",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2362364.2362372",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 5 18:10:11 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "A multi-user tabletop interface was designed to
                 support reconciliation of a conflict aimed at shifting
                 hostile attitudes and achieving a greater understanding
                 of another viewpoint. The interface provided a setting
                 for face-to-face shared narration and support for the
                 management of disagreements. The interface allows for
                 escalation and de-escalation of the conflict emerging
                 in the shared narration and requires that participants
                 perform joint actions when a contribution to the story
                 is to be removed from the overall narration. A
                 between-subjects experiment compared the tabletop
                 interface and a desktop multimedia interface with mixed
                 pairs (male Israeli-Jewish and Palestinian-Arab youth).
                 The results demonstrated that the experience with the
                 tabletop interface appears to be motivating and, most
                 importantly, produces at least a short-term shift of
                 attitude toward the other.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Schnadelbach:2012:EPD,
  author =       "Holger Schn{\"a}delbach and Ainojie Irune and David
                 Kirk and Kevin Glover and Patrick Brundell",
  title =        "{ExoBuilding}: Physiologically Driven Adaptive
                 Architecture",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395131.2395132",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 10 17:35:24 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Our surroundings are becoming infused with sensors
                 measuring a variety of data streams about the
                 environment, people and objects. Such data can be used
                 to make the spaces that we inhabit responsive and
                 interactive. Personal data in its different forms are
                 one important data stream that such spaces are designed
                 to respond to. In turn, one stream of personal data
                 currently attracting high levels of interest in the HCI
                 community is physiological data (e.g., heart rate,
                 electrodermal activity), but this has seen little
                 consideration in building architecture or the design of
                 responsive environments. In this context, we developed
                 a prototype mapping a single occupant's respiration to
                 its size and form, while it also sonifies their
                 heartbeat. The result is a breathing building
                 prototype, formative trials of which suggested that it
                 triggers behavioral and physiological adaptations in
                 inhabitants without giving them instructions and it is
                 perceived as a relaxing experience. In this paper, we
                 present and discuss the results of a controlled study
                 of this prototype, comparing three conditions: the
                 static prototype, regular movement and sonification and
                 a biofeedback condition, where the occupant's
                 physiological data directly drives the prototype and
                 presents this data back to them. The study confirmed
                 that the biofeedback condition does indeed trigger
                 behavioral changes and changes in participants'
                 physiology, resulting in lower respiration rates as
                 well as higher respiration amplitudes, respiration to
                 heart rate coherence and lower frequency heart rate
                 variability. Self-reported state of relaxation is more
                 dependent on inhabitant preferences, their knowledge of
                 physiological data and whether they found space to `let
                 go'. We conclude with a discussion of ExoBuilding as an
                 immersive but also sharable biofeedback training
                 interface and the wider potential of this approach to
                 making buildings adapt to their inhabitants.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hundhausen:2012:ESP,
  author =       "C. D. Hundhausen and D. Fairbrother and M. Petre",
  title =        "An Empirical Study of the ``Prototype Walkthrough'': a
                 Studio-Based Activity for {HCI} Education",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395131.2395133",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 10 17:35:24 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "For over a century, studio-based instruction has
                 served as an effective pedagogical model in
                 architecture and fine arts education. Because of its
                 design orientation, human-computer interaction (HCI)
                 education is an excellent venue for studio-based
                 instruction. In an HCI course, we have been exploring a
                 studio-based learning activity called the prototype
                 walkthrough, in which a student project team simulates
                 its evolving user interface prototype while a student
                 audience member acts as a test user. The audience is
                 encouraged to ask questions and provide feedback. We
                 have observed that prototype walkthroughs create
                 excellent conditions for learning about user interface
                 design. In order to better understand the educational
                 value of the activity, we performed a content analysis
                 of a video corpus of 16 prototype walkthroughs held in
                 two HCI courses. We found that the prototype
                 walkthrough discussions were dominated by relevant
                 design issues. Moreover, mirroring the justification
                 behavior of the expert instructor, students justified
                 over 80 percent of their design statements and
                 critiques, with nearly one-quarter of those
                 justifications having a theoretical or empirical basis.
                 Our findings suggest that PWs provide valuable
                 opportunities for students to actively learn HCI design
                 by participating in authentic practice, and provide
                 insight into how such opportunities can be best
                 promoted.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Brown:2012:BRL,
  author =       "Barry Brown",
  title =        "Beyond Recommendations: Local Review {Web} Sites and
                 Their Impact",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395131.2395134",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 10 17:35:24 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Online review Web sites have enabled new interactions
                 between companies and their customers. In this article
                 we draw on interviews with users, reviewers, and
                 establishments to explore how local review Web sites
                 can change interactions around local places. Review Web
                 sites such as Yelp and Tripadvisor allow customers to
                 ``previsit'' establishments and areas of a city before
                 an actual visit. The collection of a large numbers of
                 user-generated reviews has also created a new genre of
                 writing, with reviewers gaining considerable pleasure
                 from passing on word of mouth and influencing others'
                 choices. Reviews also offer a new channel of
                 communication between establishments, customers, and
                 competitors. We discuss how review Web sites can be
                 designed to cater for a broader range of interactions
                 around reviews beyond a focus on recommendations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Shoemaker:2012:TPM,
  author =       "Garth Shoemaker and Takayuki Tsukitani and Yoshifumi
                 Kitamura and Kellogg S. Booth",
  title =        "Two-Part Models Capture the Impact of Gain on Pointing
                 Performance",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395131.2395135",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 10 17:35:24 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We establish that two-part models of pointing
                 performance (Welford's model) describe pointing on a
                 computer display significantly better than traditional
                 one-part models (Fitts's Law). We explore the space of
                 pointing models and describe how independent
                 contributions of movement amplitude and target width to
                 pointing time can be captured in a parameter k. Through
                 a reanalysis of data from related work we demonstrate
                 that one-part formulations are fragile in describing
                 pointing performance, and that this fragility is
                 present for various devices and techniques. We show
                 that this same data can be significantly better
                 described using two-part models. Finally, we
                 demonstrate through further analysis of previous work
                 and new experimental data that k increases linearly
                 with gain. Our primary contribution is the
                 demonstration that Fitts's Law is more limited in
                 applicability than previously appreciated, and that
                 more robust models, such as Welford's formulation,
                 should be adopted in many cases of practical
                 interest.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ardito:2012:EAP,
  author =       "Carmelo Ardito and Maria F. Costabile and Antonella
                 {De Angeli} and Rosa Lanzilotti",
  title =        "Enriching Archaeological Parks with Contextual Sounds
                 and Mobile Technology",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395131.2395136",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 10 17:35:24 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The importance of cultural heritage in forging a sense
                 of identity is becoming increasingly evident.
                 Information and communication technologies have a great
                 potential to promote a greater awareness and
                 appreciation of cultural heritage. This article
                 presents some findings on how mobile technology can be
                 used to foster a better understanding of an
                 archaeological site by reconstructing the ancient
                 environment and life. Children aged 11--13 years old
                 are the target of our research. To motivate and engage
                 them, a pervasive educational game has been developed
                 and implemented in Explore!, a system aimed at
                 supporting children exploring sites of cultural
                 interest. Special attention has been devoted to the
                 design of a soundscape that may improve players'
                 navigation in degraded physical environments and enrich
                 their overall experience. A field study indicated that
                 children judged their experience both useful and
                 entertaining: not only did they enjoy playing the game,
                 but they also learned historical notions and facts
                 related to ancient Roman life. Contextual sounds were
                 found to have a facilitating effect on space
                 navigation, reducing the need for map reading and
                 improving spatial orientation. This work provides
                 insights into the design of educational games for use
                 with cultural heritage and a model to enrich historical
                 sites through the creation of soundscapes which can
                 help visitors to navigate a site and feel its
                 historical atmosphere.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hassenzahl:2012:AYN,
  author =       "Marc Hassenzahl and Stephanie Heidecker and Kai
                 Eckoldt and Sarah Diefenbach and Uwe Hillmann",
  title =        "All You Need is Love: Current Strategies of Mediating
                 Intimate Relationships through Technology",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395131.2395137",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 10 17:35:24 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "A wealth of evidence suggests that love, closeness,
                 and intimacy---in short relatedness---are important for
                 people's psychological well-being. Nowadays, however,
                 couples are often forced to live apart. Accordingly,
                 there has been a growing and flourishing interest in
                 designing technologies that mediate (and create) a
                 feeling of relatedness when being separated, beyond the
                 explicit verbal communication and simple emoticons
                 available technologies offer. This article provides a
                 review of 143 published artifacts (i.e., design
                 concepts, technologies). Based on this, we present six
                 strategies used by designers/researchers to create a
                 relatedness experience: Awareness, expressivity,
                 physicalness, gift giving, joint action, and memories.
                 We understand those strategies as starting points for
                 the experience-oriented design of technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Gao:2012:WDT,
  author =       "Yuan Gao and Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze and Hongying
                 Meng",
  title =        "What Does Touch Tell Us about Emotions in
                 Touchscreen-Based Gameplay?",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395131.2395138",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 10 17:35:24 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The increasing number of people playing games on
                 touch-screen mobile phones raises the question of
                 whether touch behaviors reflect players' emotional
                 states. This prospect would not only be a valuable
                 evaluation indicator for game designers, but also for
                 real-time personalization of the game experience.
                 Psychology studies on acted touch behavior show the
                 existence of discriminative affective profiles. In this
                 article, finger-stroke features during gameplay on an
                 iPod were extracted and their discriminative power
                 analyzed. Machine learning algorithms were used to
                 build systems for automatically discriminating between
                 four emotional states (Excited, Relaxed, Frustrated,
                 Bored), two levels of arousal and two levels of
                 valence. Accuracy reached between 69\% and 77\% for the
                 four emotional states, and higher results
                 ($\approx$89\%) were obtained for discriminating
                 between two levels of arousal and two levels of
                 valence. We conclude by discussing the factors relevant
                 to the generalization of the results to applications
                 other than games.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Berkovsky:2012:PAM,
  author =       "Shlomo Berkovsky and Jill Freyne and Mac Coombe",
  title =        "Physical Activity Motivating Games: Be Active and Get
                 Your Own Reward",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "32:1--32:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2012",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2395131.2395139",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 10 17:35:24 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "People's daily lives have become increasingly
                 sedentary, with extended periods of time being spent in
                 front of a host of electronic screens for learning,
                 work, and entertainment. We present research into the
                 use of an adaptive persuasive technology, which
                 introduces bursts of physical activity into a
                 traditionally sedentary activity: computer game
                 playing. Our game design approach leverages the
                 playfulness and addictive nature of computer games to
                 motivate players to engage in mild physical activity.
                 The design allows players to gain virtual in-game
                 rewards in return for performing real physical activity
                 captured by sensory devices. This article presents a
                 two-stage analysis of the activity-motivating game
                 design approach applied to a prototype game. Initially,
                 we detail the overall acceptance of active games
                 discovered when trialing the technology with 135 young
                 players. Results showed that players performed more
                 activity without negatively affecting their perceived
                 enjoyment of the playing experience. The analysis did
                 discover, however, a lack of balance between the
                 amounts of physical activity carried out by players
                 with various gaming skills, which prompted a subsequent
                 investigation into adaptive techniques for balancing
                 the amount of physical activity performed by players.
                 An evaluation of additional 90 players showed that
                 adaptive techniques successfully overcame the gaming
                 skills dependence and achieved more balanced activity
                 levels. Overall, this work positions
                 activity-motivating games as an approach that can
                 potentially change the way players interact with
                 computer games and lead to healthier lifestyles.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "32",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Marshall:2013:ISI,
  author =       "Paul Marshall and Alissa Antle and Elise {Van Den
                 Hoven} and Yvonne Rogers",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on the theory and
                 practice of embodied interaction in {HCI} and
                 interaction design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 5 18:46:54 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Dourish:2013:EWA,
  author =       "Paul Dourish",
  title =        "Epilogue: Where the action was, wasn't, should have
                 been, and might yet be",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 5 18:46:54 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kirsh:2013:ECM,
  author =       "David Kirsh",
  title =        "Embodied cognition and the magical future of
                 interaction design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 5 18:46:54 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The theory of embodied cognition can provide HCI
                 practitioners and theorists with new ideas about
                 interaction and new principles for better designs. I
                 support this claim with four ideas about cognition: (1)
                 interacting with tools changes the way we think and
                 perceive --- tools, when manipulated, are soon absorbed
                 into the body schema, and this absorption leads to
                 fundamental changes in the way we perceive and conceive
                 of our environments; (2) we think with our bodies not
                 just with our brains; (3) we know more by doing than by
                 seeing --- there are times when physically performing
                 an activity is better than watching someone else
                 perform the activity, even though our motor resonance
                 system fires strongly during other person observation;
                 (4) there are times when we literally think with
                 things. These four ideas have major implications for
                 interaction design, especially the design of tangible,
                 physical, context aware, and telepresence systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Quek:2013:EBS,
  author =       "Francis Quek and Francisco Oliveira",
  title =        "Enabling the blind to see gestures",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 5 18:46:54 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Human discourse is an embodied activity emerging from
                 the embodied imagery and construction of our talk.
                 Gesture and speech are coexpressive, conveying this
                 imagery and meaning simultaneously. Mathematics
                 instruction and discourse typically involve two modes
                 of communication: speech and graphical presentation.
                 Our goal is to assist Individuals who are Blind or
                 Severely Visually Impaired (IBSVI) to access such
                 instruction/communication. We employ a haptic glove
                 interface to furnish the IBSVI with awareness of the
                 deictic gestures performed by the instructor over the
                 graphic in conjunction with speech. We present a series
                 of studies spanning two years where we show how our
                 Haptic Deictic System (HDS) can support learning in
                 inclusive classrooms where IBSVI receive instruction
                 alongside sighted students. We discuss how the
                 introduction of the HDS was advantageous to all
                 parties: IBSVI, instructor, and sighted students. The
                 HDS created more learning opportunities, increasing
                 mutual understanding and promoting greater
                 engagement.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ohara:2013:NTP,
  author =       "Kenton O'hara and Richard Harper and Helena Mentis and
                 Abigail Sellen and Alex Taylor",
  title =        "On the naturalness of touchless: Putting the
                 ``interaction'' back into {NUI}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 5 18:46:54 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Luff:2013:EIA,
  author =       "Paul Luff and Marina Jirotka and Naomi Yamashita and
                 Hideaki Kuzuoka and Christian Heath and Grace Eden",
  title =        "Embedded interaction: The accomplishment of actions in
                 everyday and video-mediated environments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 5 18:46:54 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "A concern with ``embodied action'' has informed both
                 the analysis of everyday action through technologies
                 and also suggested ways of designing innovative
                 systems. In this article, we consider how these two
                 programs, the analysis of everyday embodied interaction
                 on the one hand, and the analysis of
                 technically-mediated embodied interaction on the other,
                 are interlinked. We draw on studies of everyday
                 interaction to reveal how embodied conduct is embedded
                 in the environment. We then consider a collaborative
                 technology that attempts to provide a coherent way of
                 presenting life-sized embodiments of participants
                 alongside particular features of the environment. These
                 analyses suggest that conceptions of embodied action
                 should take account of the interactional accomplishment
                 of activities and how these are embedded in the
                 material environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Loke:2013:MMS,
  author =       "Lian Loke and Toni Robertson",
  title =        "Moving and making strange: an embodied approach to
                 movement-based interaction design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 5 18:46:54 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "There is growing interest in designing for
                 movement-based interactions with technology, now that
                 various sensing technologies are available enabling a
                 range of movement possibilities from gestural to
                 whole-body interactions. We present a design
                 methodology of Moving and Making Strange, an approach
                 to movement-based interaction design that recognizes
                 the central role of the body and movement in lived
                 cognition. The methodology was developed through a
                 series of empirical projects, each focusing on
                 different conceptions of movement available within
                 motion-sensing interactive, immersive spaces. The
                 methodology offers designers a set of principles,
                 perspectives, methods, and tools for exploring and
                 testing movement-related design concepts. It is
                 innovative for the inclusion of the perspective of the
                 mover, together with the traditional perspectives of
                 the observer and the machine. Making strange is put
                 forward as an important tactic for rethinking how to
                 approach the design of movement-based interaction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Svanaes:2013:IDL,
  author =       "Dag Svan{\ae}s",
  title =        "Interaction design for and with the lived body: Some
                 implications of {Merleau-Ponty}'s phenomenology",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 5 18:46:54 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In 2001, Paul Dourish proposed the term embodied
                 interaction to describe a new paradigm for interaction
                 design that focuses on the physical, bodily, and social
                 aspects of our interaction with digital technology.
                 Dourish used Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of
                 perception as the theoretical basis for his discussion
                 of the bodily nature of embodied interaction. This
                 article extends Dourish's work to introduce the
                 human-computer interaction community to ideas related
                 to Merleau-Ponty's concept of the lived body. It also
                 provides a detailed analysis of two related topics: (1)
                 embodied perception: the active and embodied nature of
                 perception, including the body's ability to extent its
                 sensory apparatus through digital technology; and (2)
                 kinaesthetic creativity: the body's ability to relate
                 in a direct and creative fashion with the ``feel''
                 dimension of interactive products during the design
                 process.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Jay:2013:PWU,
  author =       "Caroline Jay and Andy Brown and Simon Harper",
  title =        "Predicting whether users view dynamic content on the
                 {World Wide Web}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 22 16:55:50 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Dynamic micro-content-interactive or updating widgets
                 and features-is now widely used on the Web, but there
                 is little understanding of how people allocate
                 attention to it. In this article we present the results
                 of an eye-tracking investigation examining how the
                 nature of dynamic micro-content influences whether or
                 not the user views it. We propose and validate the
                 Dynamic Update Viewing-likelihood (DUV) model, a
                 CHi-squared Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID)
                 model that predicts with around 80\% accuracy whether
                 users view dynamic updates as a function of how they
                 are initiated, their size, and their duration. The
                 model is constructed with data from live Web sites and
                 does not rely on knowledge of the user's task to make
                 its predictions, giving it a high level of external
                 validity. We discuss one example of its application:
                 informing how dynamic content should be presented in
                 audio via assistive technology for people with visual
                 impairments.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{DeOliveira:2013:IPS,
  author =       "Rodrigo {De Oliveira} and Mauro Cherubini and Nuria
                 Oliver",
  title =        "Influence of personality on satisfaction with mobile
                 phone services",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 22 16:55:50 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose a conceptual model that explains the
                 relationship between the users' personality profile and
                 their satisfaction with basic mobile phone services
                 (calls, messages, and simple GPRS/3G services). The
                 model captures direct and indirect effects on
                 satisfaction by means of two variables: actual mobile
                 phone usage and perceived usability of the related
                 services. We empirically validate the model with data
                 gathered from 603 customers of a telecommunication
                 operator, and find that: (1) extroversion,
                 conscientiousness, and intellect have a significant
                 impact on customer satisfaction-positively for the
                 first two traits and negatively for the latter; (2)
                 extroversion positively influences mobile phone usage;
                 and (3) extroversion and conscientiousness positively
                 influence the users' perceived usability of mobile
                 services. Interestingly, usability has the strongest
                 positive impact on satisfaction, whereas mobile phone
                 usage has a negative impact on satisfaction. We discuss
                 key findings of this model and propose several
                 implications for the design of mobile phone services.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ganglbauer:2013:NFW,
  author =       "Eva Ganglbauer and Geraldine Fitzpatrick and Rob
                 Comber",
  title =        "Negotiating food waste: Using a practice lens to
                 inform design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 22 16:55:50 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Ecological sustainability is becoming of increasing
                 concern to the HCI community, though little focus has
                 been given yet to issues around food waste. Given the
                 environmental impact of food waste, there is potential
                 to make a significant difference. To understand
                 everyday domestic practices around food and waste, we
                 took a ``practice'' lens and carried out a study in 14
                 households that involved interviews, in-home tours and,
                 in five of the households, a FridgeCam technology
                 probe. The analysis highlights that food waste is the
                 unintended result of multiple moments of consumption
                 dispersed in space and time across other integrated
                 practices such as shopping and cooking, which are
                 themselves embedded in broader contextual factors and
                 values. We highlight the importance of respecting the
                 complex negotiations that people make within given
                 structural conditions and competing values and
                 practices, and suggest design strategies to support
                 dispersed as well as integrated food practices, rather
                 than focusing on waste itself.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Schwartz:2013:UPM,
  author =       "Tobias Schwartz and Gunnar Stevens and Leonardo
                 Ramirez and Volker Wulf",
  title =        "Uncovering practices of making energy consumption
                 accountable: a phenomenological inquiry",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 22 16:55:50 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Reacting to the discussion on global warming, the HCI
                 community has started to explore the design of tools to
                 support responsible energy consumption. An important
                 part of this research focuses on motivating energy
                 savings by providing feedback tools which present
                 consumption metrics interactively. In this line of
                 work, the configuration of feedback has been mainly
                 discussed using cognitive or behavioral factors. This
                 narrow focus, however, misses a highly relevant
                 perspective for the design of technology that supports
                 sustainable lifestyles: to investigate the multiplicity
                 of forms in which individuals or collectives actually
                 consume energy. In this article, we broaden this focus,
                 by taking a phenomenological lens to study how people
                 use off-the-shelf eco-feedback systems in private
                 households to make energy consumption accountable and
                 explainable. By reconstructing accounting practices, we
                 delineate several constitutive elements of the
                 phenomenon of energy usage in daily life. We complement
                 these elements with a description of the sophisticated
                 methods used by people to organize their energy
                 practices and to give a meaning to their energy
                 consumption. We describe these elements and methods,
                 providing examples coming from the fieldwork and
                 uncovering observed strategies to account for
                 consumption. Based on our results, we provide a
                 critical perspective on existing eco-feedback
                 mechanisms and describe several elements for a design
                 rationale for designing support for responsible energy
                 consumption. We argue that interactive feedback systems
                 should not simply be an end, but rather a resource for
                 the construction of the artful practice of making
                 energy consumption accountable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Crabtree:2013:ISI,
  author =       "Andy Crabtree and Alan Chamberlain and Rebecca E.
                 Grinter and Matt Jones and Tom Rodden and Yvonne
                 Rogers",
  title =        "Introduction to the Special Issue of {``The Turn to The
                 Wild''}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2491500.2491501",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 17 07:29:12 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Benford:2013:PLR,
  author =       "Steve Benford and Chris Greenhalgh and Andy Crabtree
                 and Martin Flintham and Brendan Walker and Joe Marshall
                 and Boriana Koleva and Stefan Rennick Egglestone and
                 Gabriella Giannachi and Matt Adams and Nick Tandavanitj
                 and Ju Row Farr",
  title =        "Performance-Led Research in the Wild",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2491500.2491502",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 17 07:29:12 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We explore the approach of performance-led research in
                 the wild in which artists drive the creation of novel
                 performances with the support of HCI researchers that
                 are then deployed and studied at public performance in
                 cultural settings such as galleries, festivals and on
                 the city streets. We motivate the approach and then
                 describe how it consists of three distinct activities
                 --- practice, studies and theory --- that are
                 interleaved in complex ways through nine different
                 relationships. We present a historical account of how
                 the approach has evolved over a fifteen-year period,
                 charting the evolution of a complex web of projects,
                 papers, and relationships between them. We articulate
                 the challenges of pursuing each activity as well as
                 overarching challenges of balancing artistic and
                 research interests, flexible management of
                 relationships, and finally ethics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Adams:2013:CTB,
  author =       "Anne Adams and Elizabeth Fitzgerald and Gary
                 Priestnall",
  title =        "Of Catwalk Technologies and Boundary Creatures",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2491500.2491503",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 17 07:29:12 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Researchers designing and deploying technologies in
                 the wild can find it difficult to balance pure
                 innovation with scalable solutions. Tensions often
                 relate to expectations around current and future roles
                 of the technology development. We propose a catwalk
                 technology metaphor where researchers as boundary
                 creatures focus on innovation whilst providing links to
                 pr{\^e}t-{\`a}-porter (ready to wear) developments.
                 Evidence from 140 participants, within three
                 ``in-the-wild'' field-based learning case studies (for
                 mobile, distributed, sensor and augmented reality
                 systems), conceptualise the researchers' ``boundary
                 creature'' role in managing design process tensions.
                 Stakeholders, including participants, expected the
                 research projects to produce ready to wear
                 (pr{\^e}t-{\`a}-porter) boundary objects for current
                 practices even when researchers sought to take catwalk
                 approaches by innovating technologies and changing
                 practices. The researcher design role (RDR) model
                 articulates researchers' narratives with the design
                 team, stakeholders and users around what is innovated
                 (e.g., technology, activities) and how the intervention
                 changes or sustains current practices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Carroll:2013:WHN,
  author =       "John M. Carroll and Mary Beth Rosson",
  title =        "Wild at Home: The Neighborhood as a Living
                 Laboratory for {HCI}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2491500.2491504",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 17 07:29:12 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "HCI can ``turn to the wild'' but still stay home.
                 Local community life presents a rich context for
                 understanding challenges and possibilities of
                 information technology. We summarize and reflect upon a
                 program of participatory design research in which we
                 facilitated activities and experiences of our neighbors
                 through developing a series of community-oriented
                 programs and information systems through the past two
                 decades. We organize these reflections around five
                 overlapping themes: visibility of community actors,
                 creation of community information infrastructures, the
                 role of place-based identity and activity in community,
                 the effectiveness of participatory relationships, and
                 the research designs and methods appropriate. We frame
                 these reflections around a conceptual model of
                 community, and the suggestion that the local community
                 can be a living laboratory for HCI in the wild.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Memarovic:2013:PLL,
  author =       "Nemanja Memarovic and Marc Langheinrich and Keith
                 Cheverst and Nick Taylor and Florian Alt",
  title =        "{P-LAYERS} --- a Layered Framework Addressing the
                 Multifaceted Issues Facing Community-Supporting Public
                 Display Deployments",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2491500.2491505",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 17 07:29:12 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The proliferation of digital signage systems has
                 prompted a wealth of research that attempts to use
                 public displays for more than just advertisement or
                 transport schedules, such as their use for supporting
                 communities. However, deploying and maintaining display
                 systems ``in the wild'' that can support communities is
                 challenging. Based on the authors' experiences in
                 designing and fielding a diverse range of
                 community-supporting public display deployments, we
                 identify a large set of challenges and issues that
                 researchers working in this area are likely to
                 encounter. Grouping them into five distinct layers ---
                 (1) hardware, (2) system architecture, (3) content, (4)
                 system interaction, and (5) community interaction
                 design --- we draw up the P-LAYERS framework to enable
                 a more systematic appreciation of the diverse range of
                 issues associated with the development, the deployment,
                 and the maintenance of such systems. Using three of our
                 own deployments as illustrative examples, we will
                 describe both our experiences within each individual
                 layer, as well as point out interactions between the
                 layers. We believe our framework provides a valuable
                 aid for researchers looking to work in this space,
                 alerting them to the issues they are likely to
                 encounter during their deployments, and help them plan
                 accordingly.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Bonsignore:2013:SSW,
  author =       "Elizabeth Bonsignore and Alexander J. Quinn and
                 Allison Druin and Benjamin B. Bederson",
  title =        "Sharing Stories ``in the Wild'': a Mobile Storytelling
                 Case Study Using {StoryKit}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2491500.2491506",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 17 07:29:12 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Today's mobile devices are equipped with a variety of
                 tools that enable users to capture and share their
                 daily experiences. However, designing authoring tools
                 that effectively integrate the discrete media-capture
                 components of mobile devices to enable rich
                 expression---especially by children---remains a
                 challenge. Evaluating such tools authentically, as they
                 are being used in-situ, can be even more challenging.
                 We detail a long-term, multimethod study on the use of
                 StoryKit, a mobile storytelling application. By taking
                 advantage of a public distribution channel, we were
                 able to evaluate StoryKit's use on a scale beyond that
                 usually found in lab settings or limited field trials.
                 Our results show that StoryKit's simple but
                 well-integrated interface attracted a high number of
                 dedicated users in education contexts at all levels,
                 including children with special learning needs. We
                 include a discussion of the challenges and
                 opportunities that similar ``in the wild'' studies hold
                 for HCI research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Rooksby:2013:WLD,
  author =       "John Rooksby",
  title =        "Wild in the Laboratory: a Discussion of Plans and
                 Situated Actions",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2491500.2491507",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 17 07:29:12 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Suchman's book Plans and Situated Actions has been
                 influential in HCI (Human Computer Interaction). The
                 book is often discussed with reference to ethnographic
                 fieldwork, sometimes being cited as if it were a field
                 study. However, the book uses examples from a
                 laboratory study and contains criticisms of
                 ethnography. This article explores how and why Suchman
                 carried out a laboratory study. Based upon this
                 exploration, it argues that social analysis in HCI does
                 not necessitate fieldwork outside the laboratory. More
                 broadly, the paper argues that an appreciation of Plans
                 and Situated Actions can help in moving towards forms
                 of social analysis that span both the laboratory and
                 the world outside. If there is to be a ``turn to the
                 wild'' in HCI, this should not be a turn away from the
                 laboratory but a turn away from research methods that
                 ignore human practice. This is not to defend laboratory
                 experiments, but to defend laboratory-based studies
                 that explicate technology in practice.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Pierce:2013:ISI,
  author =       "James Pierce and Yolande Strengers and Phoebe Sengers
                 and Susanne B{\o}dker",
  title =        "Introduction to the special issue on practice-oriented
                 approaches to sustainable {HCI}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2494260",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 18 17:40:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kuijer:2013:PUD,
  author =       "Lenneke Kuijer and Annelise de Jong and Daan van
                 Eijk",
  title =        "Practices as a unit of design: an exploration of
                 theoretical guidelines in a study on bathing",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2493382",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 18 17:40:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The sustainability challenges facing society today
                 require approaches that look beyond single product-user
                 interactions. Focusing on socially shared
                 practices-e.g. cooking, laundering-has been identified
                 as a promising direction. Building on a growing body of
                 research in sustainable HCI that takes practices as
                 unit of analysis, this article explores what it means
                 to take practices as a unit of design. Drawing on
                 theories of practice, it proposes that
                 practice-oriented design approaches should: involve
                 bodily performance, create crises of routine and
                 generate a variety of performances. These guidelines
                 were integrated into a Generative Improv Performances
                 (GIP) approach, entailing a series of performances by
                 improvisation actors with low-fidelity prototypes in a
                 lab environment. The approach was implemented in an
                 empirical study on bathing. Although the empirical
                 example does not deal with common types of interactive
                 technologies, the guidelines and GIP approach offer
                 sustainable HCI a way to think beyond immediate
                 interactions and to conceptualize change on a practice
                 level.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Bidwell:2013:WSL,
  author =       "Nicola J. Bidwell and Masbulele Siya and Gary Marsden
                 and William D. Tucker and M. Tshemese and N. Gaven and
                 S. Ntlangano and Simon Robinson and Kristen Ali
                 Eglinton",
  title =        "Walking and the social life of solar charging in rural
                 {Africa}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2493524",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 18 17:40:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We consider practices that sustain social and physical
                 environments beyond those dominating sustainable HCI
                 discourse. We describe links between walking,
                 sociality, and using resources in a case study of
                 community-based, solar, cellphone charging in villages
                 in South Africa's Eastern Cape. Like 360 million rural
                 Africans, inhabitants of these villages are poor and,
                 like 25\% and 92\% of the world, respectively, do not
                 have domestic electricity or own motor vehicles. We
                 describe nine practices in using the charging stations
                 we deployed. We recorded 700 people using the stations,
                 over a year, some regularly. We suggest that the way we
                 frame practices limits insights about them, and
                 consider various routines in using and sharing local
                 resources to discover relations that might also feature
                 in charging. Specifically, walking interconnects
                 routines in using, storing, sharing and sustaining
                 resources, and contributes to knowing, feeling, wanting
                 and avoiding as well as to different aspects of
                 sociality, social order and perspectives on
                 sustainability. Along the way, bodies acquire
                 literacies that make certain relationalities legible.
                 Our study shows we cannot assert what sustainable
                 practice means a priori and, further, that detaching
                 practices from bodies and their paths limits solutions,
                 at least in rural Africa. Thus, we advocate a more
                 ``alongly'' integrated approach to data about
                 practices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Wakkary:2013:SDF,
  author =       "Ron Wakkary and Audrey Desjardins and Sabrina Hauser
                 and Leah Maestri",
  title =        "A sustainable design fiction: Green practices",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2494265",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 18 17:40:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we argue that an approach informed by
                 practice theory coupled with design fiction provides
                 useful insights into the role of interaction design
                 with respect to environmental sustainability. We argue
                 that a practice-oriented approach can help interaction
                 designers step away from models of individual behavior
                 and studies of artifacts towards seeing sustainable
                 behaviors as part of multidimensional and interrelated
                 practices and practice elements. We analyze two
                 previously conducted studies. The first study of
                 everyday repair focuses on how people repair their
                 broken objects. The second study of green-DIY examines
                 how green enthusiasts facilitate their practices of
                 making sustainable DIY (do-it-yourself) projects. We
                 describe the practices of everyday repairers and green
                 enthusiasts in terms of materials, competences, and
                 meanings, and the interrelations among those elements,
                 using the framework of Shove et al. [2012]. We argue
                 that understanding the dynamics of practice and their
                 unique configurations is a starting point to redefine
                 the roles of sustainable interaction design (SID). We
                 propose that designers design towards resources and
                 tools in ways that reflect on the challenges of
                 intelligibility of their design interventions in
                 practices. In addition to considering SID in the light
                 of practice theories, we reveal how design fictions are
                 readily incorporated into green practices in ways that
                 transform those practices and hold implications for
                 transformations of design as well. We bring forward
                 opportunities for designers to co-design with DIY
                 enthusiasts, targeted as practitioners in their own
                 right, designing toward or within a design fiction. As
                 a result, we conclude with the possibility for
                 sustainable interaction designers to become
                 practice-oriented designers who design with transparent
                 open strategies and accessible materials and
                 competences.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "23",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Tomlinson:2013:CIP,
  author =       "Bill Tomlinson and Eli Blevis and Bonnie Nardi and
                 Donald J. Patterson and M. Six Silberman and Yue Pan",
  title =        "Collapse informatics and practice: Theory, method, and
                 design",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "24:1--24:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2493431",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 18 17:40:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "What happens if efforts to achieve sustainability
                 fail? Research in many fields argues that contemporary
                 global industrial civilization will not persist
                 indefinitely in its current form, and may, like many
                 past human societies, eventually collapse. Arguments in
                 environmental studies, anthropology, and other fields
                 indicate that this transformation could begin within
                 the next half-century. While imminent collapse is far
                 from certain, it is prudent to consider now how to
                 develop sociotechnical systems for use in these
                 scenarios. We introduce the notion of collapse
                 informatics-the study, design, and development of
                 sociotechnical systems in the abundant present for use
                 in a future of scarcity. We sketch the design space of
                 collapse informatics and a variety of example projects.
                 We ask how notions of practice-theorized as collective
                 activity in the ``here and now''-can shift to the
                 future since collapse has yet to occur.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "24",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Pink:2013:ALS,
  author =       "Sarah Pink and Kerstin Leder Mackley and Val Mitchell
                 and Marcus Hanratty and Carolina Escobar-Tello and
                 Tracy Bhamra and Roxana Morosanu",
  title =        "Applying the lens of sensory ethnography to
                 sustainable {HCI}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "25:1--25:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2494261",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 18 17:40:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Sociological appropriations of practice theory as
                 applied to sustainable design have successfully
                 problematized overly simplistic and individualistic
                 models of consumer choice and behavior change. By
                 taking everyday practices as the principal units of
                 analysis, they move towards acknowledging the socially
                 and materially structured nature of human activity.
                 However, to inform sustainable HCI we also need to
                 understand how practices are part of wider experiential
                 environments and flows of practical activity. In this
                 article, we develop an approach rooted in
                 phenomenological anthropology and sensory ethnography.
                 This approach builds on theories of place, perception
                 and movement and enables us to situate practices, and
                 understand practical activity, as emplaced within
                 complex and shifting ecologies of things. Drawing on an
                 interdisciplinary study of domestic energy consumption
                 and digital media use, we discuss ethnographic and
                 design practice examples. We demonstrate how this
                 theoretical and methodological framework can be aligned
                 with the 3rd paradigm of HCI.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "25",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Disalvo:2013:CSI,
  author =       "Carl Disalvo and Johan Redstr{\"o}m and Matt Watson",
  title =        "Commentaries on the special issue on practice-oriented
                 approaches to sustainable {HCI}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "26:1--26:??",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2509404.2509408",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 18 17:40:15 MDT 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "26",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kokkalis:2013:TAP,
  author =       "Nicolas Kokkalis and Thomas K{\"o}hn and Johannes
                 Huebner and Moontae Lee and Florian Schulze and Scott
                 R. Klemmer",
  title =        "{TaskGenies}: Automatically Providing Action Plans
                 Helps People Complete Tasks",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "27:1--27:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2513560",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 8 17:05:55 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "People complete tasks more quickly when they have
                 concrete plans. However, they often fail to create such
                 action plans. (How) can systems provide these concrete
                 steps automatically? This article demonstrates that
                 these benefits can also be realized when these plans
                 are created by others or reused from similar tasks.
                 Four experiments test these approaches, finding that
                 people indeed complete more tasks when they receive
                 externally-created action plans. To automatically
                 provide plans, we introduce the Genies workflow that
                 combines benefits of crowd wisdom, collaborative
                 refinement, and automation. We demonstrate and evaluate
                 this approach through the TaskGenies system, and
                 introduce an NLP similarity algorithm for reusing
                 plans. We demonstrate that it is possible for people to
                 create action plans for others, and we show that it can
                 be cost effective.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "27",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Ferres:2013:ETI,
  author =       "Leo Ferres and Gitte Lindgaard and Livia Sumegi and
                 Bruce Tsuji",
  title =        "Evaluating a Tool for Improving Accessibility to
                 Charts and Graphs",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "28:1--28:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2533682.2533683",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 8 17:05:55 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "This article reports a case study of the iterative
                 design and evaluation of a natural language-driven
                 assistive technology, iGraph -Lite, providing people
                 who are blind access to line graphs. Two
                 laboratory-based usability studies involving blind and
                 sighted people are presented with a discussion of the
                 ensuing implementation of changes. Blind participants
                 were found to adopt different graph interrogation
                 strategies than sighted participants. A small field
                 study is then reported in which a blind user who works
                 with graphs took part to determine the degree to which
                 the iGraph -Lite commands would meet the needs of blind
                 graph experts. The final study invited sighted graph
                 experts and novices to visually inspect and explain a
                 set of line graphs comparable to those used in the
                 usability studies. It aimed to highlight the concepts
                 and the range of words sighted people use, to ascertain
                 the appropriateness of the iGraph -Lite lexicon. A set
                 of preliminary guidelines is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "28",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Borsci:2013:REF,
  author =       "Simone Borsci and Robert D. Macredie and Julie Barnett
                 and Jennifer Martin and Jasna Kuljis and Terry Young",
  title =        "Reviewing and Extending the Five-User Assumption: a
                 Grounded Procedure for Interaction Evaluation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "29:1--29:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2506210",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 8 17:05:55 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The debate concerning how many participants represents
                 a sufficient number for interaction testing is
                 well-established and long-running, with prominent
                 contributions arguing that five users provide a good
                 benchmark when seeking to discover interaction
                 problems. We argue that adoption of five users in this
                 context is often done with little understanding of the
                 basis for, or implications of, the decision. We present
                 an analysis of relevant research to clarify the meaning
                 of the five-user assumption and to examine the way in
                 which the original research that suggested it has been
                 applied. This includes its blind adoption and
                 application in some studies, and complaints about its
                 inadequacies in others. We argue that the five-user
                 assumption is often misunderstood, not only in the
                 field of Human-Computer Interaction, but also in fields
                 such as medical device design, or in business and
                 information applications. The analysis that we present
                 allows us to define a systematic approach for
                 monitoring the sample discovery likelihood, in
                 formative and summative evaluations, and for gathering
                 information in order to make critical decisions during
                 the interaction testing, while respecting the aim of
                 the evaluation and allotted budget. This approach ---
                 which we call the Grounded Procedure --- is introduced
                 and its value argued.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "29",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Bentley:2013:HMP,
  author =       "Frank Bentley and Konrad Tollmar and Peter Stephenson
                 and Laura Levy and Brian Jones and Scott Robertson and
                 Ed Price and Richard Catrambone and Jeff Wilson",
  title =        "Health Mashups: Presenting Statistical Patterns
                 between Wellbeing Data and Context in Natural Language
                 to Promote Behavior Change",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "30:1--30:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2503823",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 8 17:05:55 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "People now have access to many sources of data about
                 their health and wellbeing. Yet, most people cannot
                 wade through all of this data to answer basic questions
                 about their long-term wellbeing: Do I gain weight when
                 I have busy days? Do I walk more when I work in the
                 city? Do I sleep better on nights after I work out? We
                 built the Health Mashups system to identify connections
                 that are significant over time between weight, sleep,
                 step count, calendar data, location, weather, pain,
                 food intake, and mood. These significant observations
                 are displayed in a mobile application using natural
                 language, for example, ``You are happier on days when
                 you sleep more.'' We performed a pilot study, made
                 improvements to the system, and then conducted a 90-day
                 trial with 60 diverse participants, learning that
                 interactions between wellbeing and context are highly
                 individual and that our system supported an increased
                 self-understanding that lead to focused behavior
                 changes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "30",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Katzeff:2013:ESP,
  author =       "Cecilia Katzeff and Loove Broms and Li J{\"o}nsson and
                 Ulrika Westholm and Minna R{\"a}s{\"a}nen",
  title =        "Exploring Sustainable Practices in Workplace Settings
                 through Visualizing Electricity Consumption",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "31:1--31:??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2501526",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 8 17:05:55 MST 2013",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "People's domestic habits are increasingly being
                 targeted to reduce levels of CO2 emissions. Whereas
                 domestic energy consumption has received a lot of
                 attention with several reported studies on sustainable
                 practices, there are very few studies on workplace
                 practices. Nevertheless, these are considered as having
                 much potential for reducing energy consumption. This
                 article presents the findings from two field studies
                 where two different types of prototypes for visualizing
                 energy use were designed, implemented and evaluated in
                 different types of workplace settings --- factories and
                 offices. The studies used design probes to explore how
                 visual feedback for electricity use was interpreted and
                 acted upon by employees in work settings. A striking
                 observation was that it is very difficult to get people
                 to change to more pro-environmental behavior and
                 practices in a workplace environment. The article
                 discusses why this might be the case.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "31",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kulkarni:2013:PSA,
  author =       "Chinmay Kulkarni and Koh Pang Wei and Huy Le and
                 Daniel Chia and Kathryn Papadopoulos and Justin Cheng
                 and Daphne Koller and Scott R. Klemmer",
  title =        "Peer and self assessment in massive online classes",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "33:1--33:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2505057",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 9 15:10:49 MST 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Peer and self-assessment offer an opportunity to scale
                 both assessment and learning to global classrooms. This
                 article reports our experiences with two iterations of
                 the first large online class to use peer and
                 self-assessment. In this class, peer grades correlated
                 highly with staff-assigned grades. The second iteration
                 had 42.9\% of students' grades within 5\% of the staff
                 grade, and 65.5\% within 10\%. On average, students
                 assessed their work 7\% higher than staff did. Students
                 also rated peers' work from their own country 3.6\%
                 higher than those from elsewhere. We performed three
                 experiments to improve grading accuracy. We found that
                 giving students feedback about their grading bias
                 increased subsequent accuracy. We introduce short,
                 customizable feedback snippets that cover common issues
                 with assignments, providing students more qualitative
                 peer feedback. Finally, we introduce a data-driven
                 approach that highlights high-variance items for
                 improvement. We find that rubrics that use a parallel
                 sentence structure, unambiguous wording, and
                 well-specified dimensions have lower variance. After
                 revising rubrics, median grading error decreased from
                 12.4\% to 9.9\%.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "33",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Gerber:2013:CMD,
  author =       "Elizabeth M. Gerber and Julie Hui",
  title =        "Crowdfunding: Motivations and deterrents for
                 participation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "34:1--34:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2530540",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 9 15:10:49 MST 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Crowdfunding is changing how, why, and which ideas are
                 brought into existence. With the increasing number of
                 crowdfunded projects, it is important to understand
                 what drives people to either create or fund these
                 projects. To shed light on this new social phenomenon,
                 we present a grounded theory of motivation informed by
                 the first cross-platform qualitative study of the
                 crowdfunding community. By performing 83 semistructured
                 interviews, we uncover creator motivations, which
                 include the desire to raise funds, expand awareness of
                 work, connect with others, gain approval, maintain
                 control, and learn; and supporter motivations, which
                 include the desire to collect rewards, help others,
                 support causes, and be part of a community. We also
                 explore deterrents to crowdfunding participation,
                 including, among creators, fear of failure, and, for
                 supporters, lack of trust. Based on these findings, we
                 provide three emergent design principles to inform the
                 design of effective crowdfunding platforms and support
                 tools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "34",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Chen:2013:SCA,
  author =       "Zhi-Hong Chen and Sherry Y. Chen",
  title =        "A surrogate competition approach to enhancing
                 game-based learning",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "35:1--35:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2524264",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 9 15:10:49 MST 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Competition is useful in game-based learning, although
                 it can also generate negative influences. To expand the
                 potential for competition models in game-based
                 learning, this study proposes the notion of surrogate
                 competition, which eliminates direct competition
                 between students. Such surrogates could be employed as
                 buffers so that the competition between students is
                 more relaxed. To explore the possible benefits of a
                 surrogate approach to competition, the My-Pet-My-Arena
                 system has been developed and evaluated. Two empirical
                 studies were conducted to examine the effects of the
                 surrogate competition. The results revealed that
                 surrogate competition enhanced students' learning
                 achievement as well as increased their motivation.
                 Furthermore, the surrogate competition might also
                 assist students in attributing competitive failures to
                 a lack of effort. Working from the results obtained in
                 these two studies, a general model of surrogate
                 competition is proposed to help designers implement
                 forms of surrogate competition in other systems for
                 game-based learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "35",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Xambo:2013:LJR,
  author =       "Anna Xamb{\'o} and Eva Hornecker and Paul Marshall and
                 Sergi Jord{\`a} and Chris Dobbyn and Robin Laney",
  title =        "Let's jam the reactable: Peer learning during musical
                 improvisation with a tabletop tangible interface",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "36:1--36:??",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2013",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2530541",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 9 15:10:49 MST 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "There has been little research on how interactions
                 with tabletop and Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) by
                 groups of users change over time. In this article, we
                 investigate the challenges and opportunities of a
                 tabletop tangible interface based on constructive
                 building blocks. We describe a long-term lab study of
                 groups of expert musicians improvising with the
                 Reactable, a commercial tabletop TUI for music
                 performance. We examine interaction, focusing on
                 interface, tangible, musical, and social phenomena. Our
                 findings reveal a practice-based learning between peers
                 in situated contexts, and new forms of participation,
                 all of which is facilitated by the Reactable's tangible
                 interface, if compared to traditional musical
                 ensembles. We summarise our findings as a set of design
                 considerations and conclude that construction processes
                 on interactive tabletops support learning by doing and
                 peer learning, which can inform constructivist
                 approaches to learning with technology.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "36",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Zhai:2014:ETT,
  author =       "Shumin Zhai",
  title =        "Editorial: {TOCHI} turns twenty",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1:1--1:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2568193",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:30:48 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "1",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Liao:2014:ADC,
  author =       "Q. Vera Liao and Wai-Tat Fu",
  title =        "Age differences in credibility judgments of online
                 health information",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2:1--2:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2534410",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:30:48 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Older adults are a notable group among the
                 exponentially growing population of online health
                 information consumers. In order to better support older
                 adults' health-related information seeking on the
                 Internet, it is important to understand how they judge
                 the credibility of such information when compared to
                 younger users. We conducted two laboratory studies to
                 explore how the credibility cues in message contents,
                 website features, and user-generated comments
                 differentially impact younger (19 to 26 years of age)
                 and older adults' (58 to 80 years of age) credibility
                 judgments. Results from the first experiment showed
                 that older adults were less sensitive to the
                 credibility cues in message contents and those in
                 website features than younger adults. Verbal protocol
                 analysis revealed that these differences could be
                 caused by the higher tendency of older adults to
                 passively accept web information, and their lack of
                 deliberation on its quality and attention towards
                 contextual web features (e.g., design look, source
                 identity). In the second experiment, we studied how
                 credibility cues from user reviews might differentially
                 impact older and younger adults' credibility judgments
                 of online health information. Results showed that
                 consistent credibility cues in user reviews and message
                 contents could facilitate older adults' credibility
                 judgments. When the two were inconsistent, older
                 adults, as compared to younger ones, were less swayed
                 by highly appraising user reviews given to low
                 credibility information. These results provided
                 important implications for designing health information
                 technologies that better fit the older population.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "2",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Faeth:2014:EEM,
  author =       "Adam Faeth and Chris Harding",
  title =        "Emergent effects in multimodal feedback from virtual
                 buttons",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3:1--3:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2535923",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:30:48 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The continued advancement in computer interfaces to
                 support 3D tasks requires a better understanding of how
                 users will interact with 3D user interfaces in a
                 virtual workspace. This article presents two studies
                 that investigated the effect of visual, auditory, and
                 haptic sensory feedback modalities presented by a
                 virtual button in a 3D environment on task performance
                 (time on task and task errors) and user rating.
                 Although we expected task performance to improve for
                 conditions that combined two or three feedback
                 modalities over a single modality, we instead found a
                 significant emergent behavior that decreased
                 performance in the trimodal condition. We found a
                 significant increase in the number of presses when a
                 user released the button before closing the virtual
                 switch, suggesting that the combined visual, auditory,
                 and haptic feedback led participants to prematurely
                 believe they actuated a button. This suggests that in
                 the design of virtual buttons, considering the effect
                 of each feedback modality independently is not
                 sufficient to predict performance, and unexpected
                 effects may emerge when feedback modalities are
                 combined.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "3",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Walmsley:2014:DII,
  author =       "William S. Walmsley and W. Xavier Snelgrove and Khai
                 N. Truong",
  title =        "Disambiguation of imprecise input with one-dimensional
                 rotational text entry",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4:1--4:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2542544",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:30:48 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We introduce a distinction between disambiguation
                 supporting continuous versus discrete ambiguous text
                 entry. With continuous ambiguous text entry methods,
                 letter selections are treated as ambiguous due to
                 expected imprecision rather than due to discretized
                 letter groupings. We investigate the simple case of a
                 one-dimensional character layout to demonstrate the
                 potential of techniques designed for imprecise entry.
                 Our rotation-based sight-free technique, Rotext, maps
                 device orientation to a layout optimized for
                 disambiguation, motor efficiency, and learnability. We
                 also present an audio feedback system for efficient
                 selection of disambiguated word candidates and explore
                 the role that time spent acknowledging word-level
                 feedback plays in text entry performance. Through a
                 user study, we show that despite missing on average by
                 2.46--2.92 character positions, with the aid of a
                 maximum a posteriori (MAP) disambiguation algorithm,
                 users can average a sight-free entry speed of 12.6wpm
                 with 98.9\% accuracy within 13 sessions (4.3 hours). In
                 a second study, expert users are found to reach 21wpm
                 with 99.6\% accuracy after session 20 (6.7 hours) and
                 continue to grow in performance, with individual
                 phrases entered at up to 37wpm. A final study revisits
                 the learnability of the optimized layout. Our modeling
                 of ultimate performance indicates maximum overall
                 sight-free entry speeds of 29.0wpm with audio feedback,
                 or 40.7wpm if an expert user could operate without
                 relying on audio feedback.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "4",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Lederman:2014:MOS,
  author =       "Reeva Lederman and Greg Wadley and John Gleeson and
                 Sarah Bendall and Mario {\'A}lvarez-Jim{\'e}nez",
  title =        "Moderated online social therapy: Designing and
                 evaluating technology for mental health",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5:1--5:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2513179",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:30:48 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Although the use and prevalence of Web-based mental
                 health applications have grown over the past decade,
                 many of these services suffer high rates of attrition.
                 This is problematic, as face-to-face support for mental
                 health is limited. To determine appropriate design
                 guidelines for increasing engagement, we conducted a
                 study of First-Episode Psychosis (FEP) patients and
                 reviewed theories on the use of existing online
                 services. We produced a set of design goals, developed
                 an online application that combined social networking
                 and online therapy within a clinician-moderated site,
                 and conducted a 6-week trial with a group of young FEP
                 patients. The design goals, based on existing theory
                 including Supportive Accountability and Positive
                 Psychology, are operationalised through a model we call
                 Moderated Online Social Therapy (MOST). The trial
                 results indicate that our implementation achieved the
                 design goals and that the MOST model can inform the
                 development of more effective and engaging online
                 therapies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "5",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Yang:2014:UUC,
  author =       "Huahai Yang and Yunyao Li and Michelle X. Zhou",
  title =        "Understand users' comprehension and preferences for
                 composing information visualizations",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "6:1--6:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2541288",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 1 06:19:15 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We are developing an automated visualization system
                 that helps users combine two or more existing
                 information graphics to form an integrated view. To
                 establish empirical foundations for building such a
                 system, we designed and conducted two studies on Amazon
                 Mechanical Turk to understand users' comprehension and
                 preferences of composite visualization under different
                 conditions (e.g., data and tasks). In Study 1, we
                 collected more than 1,500 textual descriptions
                 capturing about 500 participants' insights of given
                 information graphics, which resulted in a task-oriented
                 taxonomy of visual insights. In Study 2, we asked 240
                 participants to rank composite visualizations by their
                 suitability for acquiring a given visual insight
                 identified in Study 1, which resulted in ranked user
                 preferences of visual compositions for acquiring each
                 type of insight. In this article, we report the details
                 of our two studies and discuss the broader implications
                 of our crowdsourced research methodology and results to
                 HCI-driven visualization research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "6",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Truschin:2014:DIM,
  author =       "Sergej Truschin and Michael Schermann and Suparna
                 Goswami and Helmut Krcmar",
  title =        "Designing interfaces for multiple-goal environments:
                 Experimental insights from in-vehicle speech
                 interfaces",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7:1--7:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2544066",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:30:48 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Designing computer-human interfaces for multiple-goal
                 environments is challenging because people pursue
                 multiple goals with conflicting priorities.
                 Safety-critical environments, such as driving,
                 aggravate the need for a more nuanced understanding of
                 interfaces that may reconcile conflicting tasks. Speech
                 interfaces are prime examples of such interfaces. In
                 this article, we investigate how design variations of
                 an in-vehicle speech interface influence performance of
                 a primary task (driving safely) and a secondary task
                 (e-mailing). In a controlled experiment, we test the
                 performance implications of using single
                 computer-generated Text-To-Speech (TTS) voice and
                 multiple matching TTS voices while users respond to
                 e-mails with varying levels of complexity during
                 driving. Our results indicate that the number of voices
                 used has a significant effect on both driving
                 performance and handling e-mail--related activities. We
                 discuss potentially unintended consequences of making
                 the interface too naturalistic and too engaging for the
                 driver and conclude with theoretical and practical
                 implications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "7",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Vertanen:2014:CTE,
  author =       "Keith Vertanen and Per Ola Kristensson",
  title =        "Complementing text entry evaluations with a
                 composition task",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "8:1--8:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2555691",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:29:18 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "A common methodology for evaluating text entry methods
                 is to ask participants to transcribe a predefined set
                 of memorable sentences or phrases. In this article, we
                 explore if we can complement the conventional
                 transcription task with a more externally valid
                 composition task. In a series of large-scale
                 crowdsourced experiments, we found that participants
                 could consistently and rapidly invent high quality and
                 creative compositions with only modest reductions in
                 entry rates. Based on our series of experiments, we
                 provide a best-practice procedure for using composition
                 tasks in text entry evaluations. This includes a
                 judging protocol which can be performed either by the
                 experimenters or by crowdsourced workers on a microtask
                 market. We evaluated our composition task procedure
                 using a text entry method unfamiliar to participants.
                 Our empirical results show that the composition task
                 can serve as a valid complementary text entry
                 evaluation method.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "8",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kuttal:2014:BPV,
  author =       "Sandeep K. Kuttal and Anita Sarma and Gregg
                 Rothermel",
  title =        "On the benefits of providing versioning support for
                 end users: an empirical study",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "9:1--9:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2560016",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:29:18 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "End users with little formal programming background
                 are creating software in many different forms,
                 including spreadsheets, web macros, and web mashups.
                 Web mashups are particularly popular because they are
                 relatively easy to create, and because many programming
                 environments that support their creation are available.
                 These programming environments, however, provide no
                 support for tracking versions or provenance of mashups.
                 We believe that versioning support can help end users
                 create, understand, and debug mashups. To investigate
                 this belief, we have added versioning support to a
                 popular wire-oriented mashup environment, Yahoo! Pipes.
                 Our enhanced environment, which we call ``Pipes
                 Plumber,'' automatically retains versions of pipes and
                 provides an interface with which pipe programmers can
                 browse histories of pipes and retrieve specific
                 versions. We have conducted two studies of this
                 environment: an exploratory study and a larger
                 controlled experiment. Our results provide evidence
                 that versioning helps pipe programmers create and debug
                 mashups. Subsequent qualitative results provide further
                 insights into the barriers faced by pipe programmers,
                 the support for reuse provided by our approach, and the
                 support for debugging provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "9",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Church:2014:LSS,
  author =       "Karen Church and Mauro Cherubini and Nuria Oliver",
  title =        "A large-scale study of daily information needs
                 captured in situ",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "10:1--10:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2552193",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:29:18 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "The goal of this work is to provide a fundamental
                 understanding of the daily information needs of people
                 through a large-scale, in-depth, quantitative
                 investigation. To this end, we have conducted one of
                 the most comprehensive studies of information needs to
                 date, spanning a 3-month period and involving more than
                 100 users. The study employed a contextual experience
                 sampling method, a snippet-based diary technique using
                 SMS technology, and an online Web diary to gather in
                 situ insights into the types of needs that occur from
                 day to day, how those needs are addressed, and how
                 contextual, technological, and demographic factors
                 impact on those needs. Our results not only complement
                 earlier studies but also provide a new understanding of
                 the intricacies of people's daily information needs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "10",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Jakobsen:2014:CPC,
  author =       "Mikkel R. Jakobsen and Kasper Hornb{\ae}k",
  title =        "Up close and personal: Collaborative work on a
                 high-resolution multitouch wall display",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "11:1--11:??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2576099",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 11 18:29:18 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Multitouch wall-sized displays afford new forms of
                 collaboration: They can be used up close by several
                 users simultaneously, offer high resolution, and
                 provide sufficient space for intertwining individual
                 and joint work. The difference to displays without
                 these capabilities is not well understood. To better
                 understand the collaboration of groups around
                 high-resolution multitouch wall displays, we conducted
                 an exploratory study. Pairs collaborated on a
                 problem-solving task using a 2.8m $ \times $ 1.2m
                 multitouch display with 24.8 megapixels. The study
                 examines how participants collaborate; navigate
                 relative to the display and to each other; and interact
                 with and share the display. Participants physically
                 navigated among different parts of the display,
                 switched fluidly between parallel and joint work, and
                 shared the display evenly. The results contrast earlier
                 research that suggests difficulties in sharing and
                 collaborating around wall displays. The study suggests
                 that multitouch wall displays can support different
                 collaboration styles and fluid transitions in group
                 work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "11",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Mayer:2014:UIS,
  author =       "Simon Mayer and Andreas Tschofen and Anind K. Dey and
                 Friedemann Mattern",
  title =        "User interfaces for smart things --- A generative
                 approach with semantic interaction descriptions",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "12:1--12:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2584670",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 8 06:33:35 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "With ever more everyday objects becoming ``smart'' due
                 to embedded processors and communication capabilities,
                 the provisioning of intuitive user interfaces to
                 control smart things is quickly gaining importance. We
                 present a model-based interface description scheme that
                 enables automatic, modality-independent user interface
                 generation. User interface description languages based
                 on our approach carry enough information to suggest
                 intuitive interfaces while still being easily
                 producible for developers. This is enabled by
                 describing the atomic interactive components of a
                 device and capturing the semantics of interactions with
                 the device. We propose a taxonomy of abstract sensing
                 and actuation primitives and present a smartphone
                 application that can act as a ubiquitous device
                 controller. An evaluation of the mobile application in
                 a laboratory setup, home environments, and an
                 educational setting as well as the results of a user
                 study highlight the accessibility of the proposed
                 scheme for application developers and its suitability
                 for controlling smart devices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "12",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Dombrowski:2014:GIC,
  author =       "Lynn Dombrowski and Gillian R. Hayes and Melissa
                 Mazmanian and Amy Voida",
  title =        "{E}-government intermediaries and the challenges of
                 access and trust",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13:1--13:??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2559985",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 8 06:33:35 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we present the results of a study
                 examining challenges related to access and trust for
                 nutrition assistance outreach workers and suggest
                 design implications for these challenges. Outreach
                 workers are e-government intermediaries who assist
                 clients with accessing and using e-government online
                 applications, systems, and services. E-government
                 intermediaries are not typical end users; they use
                 e-government systems on behalf of clients, and as such
                 their challenges differ from those of primary users. We
                 detail social and technical aspects of these challenges
                 to develop a nuanced understanding of access and trust
                 in the ecosystems surrounding e-government systems.
                 First, we describe how the practical accomplishment of
                 access involves multiple stakeholders, actors, and
                 practices. Second, we highlight how trust emerges
                 through the e-government intermediaries' work to
                 project themselves as professional and competent
                 through their technical practice. Last, we propose
                 design implications sensitive to both the social and
                 technical aspects of these challenges.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "13",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Kerne:2014:UMC,
  author =       "Andruid Kerne and Andrew M. Webb and Steven M. Smith
                 and Rhema Linder and Nic Lupfer and Yin Qu and Jon
                 Moeller and Sashikanth Damaraju",
  title =        "Using Metrics of Curation to Evaluate
                 Information-Based Ideation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "14:1--14:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2591677",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:51 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Evaluating creativity support environments is
                 challenging. Some approaches address people's
                 experiences of creativity. The present method measures
                 creativity, across conditions, in the products that
                 people make. This research introduces information-based
                 ideation (IBI), a paradigm for investigating open-ended
                 tasks and activities in which users develop new ideas.
                 IBI tasks span imagining, planning, and reflecting on a
                 weekend, vacation, outfit, makeover, paper, internship,
                 thesis, design, campaign, crisis response, career, or
                 invention. What products do people create through
                 engagement in IBI? Curation of digital media
                 incorporates conceptualization, finding and choosing
                 information objects, annotation, and synthesis. Through
                 engagement in IBI tasks, people create curation
                 products. This article formulates a quantitative
                 methodology for evaluating IBI support tools, building
                 on prior creative cognition research in engineering
                 design to derive a battery of ideation metrics of
                 curation. Elemental ideation metrics evaluate
                 creativity within curated found objects. Holistic
                 ideation metrics evaluate how a curation puts elements
                 together. IBI support environments are characterized by
                 their underlying medium of curation. Curation media
                 include lists, such as listicles, and grids, such as
                 the boards of Pinterest. An in-depth case study
                 investigates information composition, an art-based
                 medium representing a curation as a freeform visual
                 semantic connected whole. We raise two creative
                 cognition challenges for IBI. One challenge is
                 overcoming fixation-for instance, when a person gets
                 stuck in a counterproductive mental set. The other
                 challenge is to bridge information visualization's
                 synthesis gap, by providing support for connecting
                 findings. To address the challenges, we develop
                 mixed-initiative information composition (MI$^2$ C),
                 integrating human curation of information composition
                 with automated agents of information retrieval and
                 visualization. We hypothesize that MI$^2$ C generates
                 provocative stimuli that help users overcome fixation
                 to become more creative on IBI tasks. We hypothesize
                 that MI$^2$ C's integration of curation and
                 visualization bridges the synthesis gap to help users
                 become more creative. To investigate these hypotheses,
                 we apply ideation metrics of curation to interpret
                 results from experiments with 44 and 49 participants.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "14",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Zoran:2014:HAC,
  author =       "Amit Zoran and Roy Shilkrot and Suranga Nanyakkara and
                 Joseph Paradiso",
  title =        "The Hybrid Artisans: a Case Study in Smart Tools",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "15:1--15:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2617570",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:51 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We present an approach to combining digital
                 fabrication and craft, demonstrating a hybrid
                 interaction paradigm where human and machine work in
                 synergy. The FreeD is a hand-held digital milling
                 device, monitored by a computer while preserving the
                 makers freedom to manipulate the work in many creative
                 ways. Relying on a pre-designed 3D model, the computer
                 gets into action only when the milling bit risks the
                 objects integrity, preventing damage by slowing down
                 the spindle speed, while the rest of the time it allows
                 complete gestural freedom. We present the technology
                 and explore several interaction methodologies for
                 carving. In addition, we present a user study that
                 reveals how synergetic cooperation between human and
                 machine preserves the expressiveness of manual
                 practice. This quality of the hybrid territory evolves
                 into design personalization. We conclude on the
                 creative potential of open-ended procedures within this
                 hybrid interactive territory of manual smart tools and
                 devices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "15",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Petrelli:2014:FRP,
  author =       "Daniela Petrelli and Ann Light",
  title =        "Family Rituals and the Potential for Interaction
                 Design: a Study of {Christmas}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "16:1--16:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2617571",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:51 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Drawing on a field study with eight families in
                 northern England, we explore the traditions and rituals
                 carried out at Christmas, looking at the artifacts and
                 processes that constitute family life at this time of
                 year. In addition to individual differences, a common
                 pattern emerges: an extended preparation is carried out
                 by the hosting household over a few weeks to set up the
                 celebration and build expectations; preparation gives
                 way to a short but intense celebration shared with the
                 family or intimate friends; then decorations are stored
                 and there is a return to normal life. The celebration
                 is across generations, and everyone takes part. We note
                 examples of new and evolving rituals. Starting from the
                 three identified phases, we discuss the theoretical and
                 technical implications of our findings for the design
                 of more sympathetic technology that holds potential for
                 augmenting family rituals sensitively and possibly
                 creating new ones.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "16",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Liu:2014:MWF,
  author =       "Yong Liu and Jayant Venkatanathan and Jorge Goncalves
                 and Evangelos Karapanos and Vassilis Kostakos",
  title =        "Modeling What Friendship Patterns on {Facebook} Reveal
                 About Personality and Social Capital",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "17:1--17:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2617572",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:51 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In this study, we demonstrate how analysis of users'
                 social network structure-a topic that has remained
                 until recently inconspicuous within Human-Computer
                 Interaction (HCI) research on social systems-can
                 contribute to our understanding of Social Networking
                 Services (SNS) effect on users. Despite a consensus
                 that SNS enhance people's social capital, prior studies
                 on SNS have provided inconsistent evidence on this
                 process. In a multipronged study, we analyze
                 personality, social capital, and Facebook data from a
                 cohort of participants to model the extent to which
                 one's SNS reflects aspects of his or personality and
                 affects his bridging social capital. Our empirically
                 validated model shows that empathy and
                 conscientiousness influence the structural holes in
                 one's social network, which in turn affects bridging
                 social capital. These findings highlight the importance
                 of network structure as an intermediary between one's
                 personality and the social benefits one reaps from
                 using SNS. Our work demonstrates how the implicit
                 structural information embedded in users' social
                 networks can provide key insights into users'
                 personality and social capital.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "17",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Nansen:2014:RHS,
  author =       "Bjorn Nansen and Frank Vetere and Toni Robertson and
                 John Downs and Margot Brereton and Jeannette Durick",
  title =        "Reciprocal Habituation: a Study of Older People and
                 the {Kinect}",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "18:1--18:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2617573",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:51 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "We explore relationships between habits and technology
                 interaction by reporting on older people's experience
                 of the Kinect for Xbox. We contribute to theoretical
                 and empirical understandings of habits in the use of
                 technology to inform understanding of the habitual
                 qualities of our interactions with computing
                 technologies, particularly systems exploiting natural
                 user interfaces. We situate ideas of habit in relation
                 to user experience and usefulness in interaction
                 design, and draw on critical approaches to the concept
                 of habit from cultural theory to understand the
                 embedded, embodied, and situated contexts in our
                 interactions with technologies. We argue that
                 understanding technology habits as a process of
                 reciprocal habituation in which people and technologies
                 adapt to each other over time through design, adoption,
                 and appropriation offers opportunities for research on
                 user experience and interaction design within
                 human-computer interaction, especially as newer
                 gestural and motion control interfaces promise to
                 reshape the ways in which we interact with computers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "18",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hayes:2014:EMC,
  author =       "Gillian R. Hayes and Karen G. Cheng and Sen H. Hirano
                 and Karen P. Tang and Marni S. Nagel and Dianne E.
                 Baker",
  title =        "{Estrellita}: a Mobile Capture and Access Tool for the
                 Support of Preterm Infants and Their Caregivers",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "19:1--19:??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2617574",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:51 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "In this article, we describe the design process and
                 principles used in the development of Estrellita, a
                 tool to support parents of preterm infants to track
                 health data. We tested Estrellita in the homes of seven
                 families for 4 months while following seven additional
                 families without Estrellita. The feedback from this
                 trial, including in-depth interviews, surveys, and log
                 analyses, sheds light on how parents can use a mobile
                 data collection tool to enhance their problem-solving
                 processes about their own health and that of their
                 infants, as well as to share with others who support
                 them in this care. In addition to presenting the design
                 of a recording technology for preterm infants and its
                 use in a real-life setting, the results of this
                 research provide a deep understanding of how technology
                 can and should be used to support home care of at-risk
                 patients, in which data capture may be essential.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "19",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Mentis:2014:MSY,
  author =       "Helena M. Mentis and Jarmo Laaksolahti and Kristina
                 H{\"o}{\"o}k",
  title =        "My Self and You: Tension in Bodily Sharing of
                 Experience",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "20:1--20:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2617945",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:52 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "There is a growing interest in designing systems for
                 sharing experience through bodily interaction. To
                 explore this design space, we built a probe system we
                 named the Lega. In our 2-month-long research design
                 process, we noted that the users' attention was set on
                 their own reflective experience, rather than attending
                 to the person(s) with which they were sharing their
                 experience. To explain these findings, we present an
                 inductive analysis of the data through a
                 phenomenological lens to pinpoint what causes such
                 behavior. Our analysis extends our understanding of how
                 to design for social embodied interaction, pointing to
                 how we need to embrace the tension between
                 self-reflection and shared experience, making inward
                 listening and social expression visible acts,
                 accessible to social construction and understanding. It
                 entails experiencing our embodied self as others
                 experience us in order to build a dialogue.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "20",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Cherry:2014:QCS,
  author =       "Erin Cherry and Celine Latulipe",
  title =        "Quantifying the Creativity Support of Digital Tools
                 through the Creativity Support Index",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "21:1--21:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2617588",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:52 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "Creativity support tools help people engage creatively
                 with the world, but measuring how well a tool supports
                 creativity is challenging since creativity is
                 ill-defined. To this end, we developed the Creativity
                 Support Index (CSI), which is a psychometric survey
                 designed for evaluating the ability of a creativity
                 support tool to assist a user engaged in creative work.
                 The CSI measures six dimensions of creativity support:
                 Exploration, Expressiveness, Immersion, Enjoyment,
                 Results Worth Effort, and Collaboration. The CSI allows
                 researchers to understand not just how well a tool
                 supports creative work overall, but what aspects of
                 creativity support may need attention. In this article,
                 we present the CSI, along with scenarios for how it can
                 be deployed in a variety of HCI research settings and
                 how the CSI scores can help target design improvements.
                 We also present the iterative, rigorous development and
                 validation process used to create the CSI.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "21",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Hu:2014:CMT,
  author =       "Chang Hu and Philip Resnik and Benjamin B. Bederson",
  title =        "Crowdsourced Monolingual Translation",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "22:1--22:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2627751",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:52 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/tochi/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/tochi.bib",
  abstract =     "An enormous potential exists for solving certain
                 classes of computational problems through rich
                 collaboration among crowds of humans supported by
                 computers. Solutions to these problems used to involve
                 human professionals, who are expensive to hire or
                 difficult to find. Despite significant advances, fully
                 automatic systems still have much room for improvement.
                 Recent research has involved recruiting large crowds of
                 skilled humans (``crowdsourcing''), but crowdsourcing
                 solutions are still restricted by the availability of
                 those skilled human participants. With translation, for
                 example, professional translators incur a high cost and
                 are not always available; machine translation systems
                 have been greatly improved recently but still can only
                 provide passable translation; and crowdsourced
                 translation is limited by the availability of bilingual
                 humans. This article describes crowdsourced monolingual
                 translation, where monolingual translation is
                 translation performed by monolingual people.
                 Crowdsourced monolingual translation is a collaborative
                 form of translation performed by two crowds of people
                 who speak the source or the target language,
                 respectively, with machine translation as the mediating
                 device. This article describes a general protocol to
                 handle crowdsourced monolingual translation and
                 analyzes three systems that implemented the protocol.
                 These systems were studied in various settings and were
                 found to supply significant improvement in quality over
                 both machine translation and monolingual editing of
                 machine translation output (``postediting'').",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articleno =    "22",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J756",
}

@Article{Huh:2014:HVS,
  author =       "Jina Huh and Leslie S. Liu and Tina Neogi and Kori
                 Inkpen and Wanda Pratt",
  title =        "Health Vlogs as Social Support for Chronic Illness
                 Management",
  journal =      j-TOCHI,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "23:1--23:??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2014",
  CODEN =        "ATCIF4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2630067",
  ISSN =         "1073-0516 (print), 1557-7325 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1073-0516",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 13 13:22:52 MDT 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/con