%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.116",
%%%     date            = "10 July 2014",
%%%     time            = "06:34:56 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "virtual-machines.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "08079 36634 168133 1740484",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography; BibTeX; QEMU; virtual machines;
%%%                        VMware; Xen",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a bibliography of books and other
%%%                        publications about virtual machines.  However,
%%%                        it specifically excludes publications about
%%%                        the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM), which
%%%                        is covered in a separate bibliography, pvm.bib.
%%%
%%%                        The ECMA and ISO Standard virtual machine,
%%%                        Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), is
%%%                        available on Microsoft .NET Framework on
%%%                        Microsoft Windows, GNU DotGNU's ilrun, and
%%%                        the Mono Project's mono.  These environments
%%%                        may offer compilers for C#, Visual Basic, C,
%%%                        C++, and possibly other languages.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.116, the year coverage looked
%%%                        like this:
%%%
%%%                             1966 (   1)    1983 (  11)    2000 (  27)
%%%                             1967 (   0)    1984 (  10)    2001 (  52)
%%%                             1968 (   1)    1985 (  10)    2002 (  35)
%%%                             1969 (   0)    1986 (  12)    2003 (  33)
%%%                             1970 (   2)    1987 (  12)    2004 (  23)
%%%                             1971 (   1)    1988 (  11)    2005 (  62)
%%%                             1972 (   4)    1989 (  17)    2006 ( 118)
%%%                             1973 (   3)    1990 (  21)    2007 (  52)
%%%                             1974 (   3)    1991 (  32)    2008 (  71)
%%%                             1975 (  15)    1992 (  21)    2009 (  48)
%%%                             1976 (   9)    1993 (  28)    2010 (  55)
%%%                             1977 (   5)    1994 (  22)    2011 (  45)
%%%                             1978 (   7)    1995 (   2)    2012 (  91)
%%%                             1979 (  10)    1996 (  14)    2013 (  92)
%%%                             1980 (   8)    1997 (  26)    2014 (  32)
%%%                             1981 (   4)    1998 (  23)
%%%                             1982 (   5)    1999 (  25)
%%%                             19xx (   4)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        769
%%%                             Book:           146
%%%                             InCollection:     4
%%%                             InProceedings:  115
%%%                             Manual:          14
%%%                             MastersThesis:   14
%%%                             Misc:             8
%%%                             PhdThesis:        7
%%%                             Proceedings:     84
%%%                             TechReport:      54
%%%
%%%                             Total entries: 1215
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
%%%                        count) utility output of lines, words, and
%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================

@Preamble{
   "\ifx \undefined \booktitle \def \booktitle#1{{{\em #1}}} \fi"
 # "\ifx \undefined \circled \def \circled #1{(#1)}\fi"
 # "\ifx \undefined \reg \def \reg {\circled{R}}\fi"
 # "\ifx \undefined \TM \def \TM {${}^{\sc TM}$} \fi"
 # "\ifx \undefined \url \def \url#1 {{\tt #1}} \fi"
}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Institution abbreviations:

@String{inst-SRC-IDA            = "Supercomputing Research Center: IDA"}

@String{inst-SRC-IDA:adr        = "Lanham, MD, USA"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-ACM-SIGSOFT           = "ACM Sigsoft"}

@String{j-ADA-USER              = "Ada User"}

@String{j-ADA-USER-J            = "Ada User Journal"}

@String{j-AUSTRALIAN-COMP-J     = "Australian Computer Journal"}

@String{j-BELL-LABS-TECH-J      = "Bell Labs Technical Journal"}

@String{j-BYTE                  = "Byte Magazine"}

@String{j-CACM                  = "Communications of the ACM"}

@String{j-CCCUJ                 = "C/C++ Users Journal"}

@String{j-CCPE                  = "Concurrency and Computation: Prac\-tice and
                                  Experience"}

@String{j-CGF                   = "Com{\-}pu{\-}ter Graphics Forum"}

@String{j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS        = "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News"}

@String{j-COMP-CONTROL-ENG-J    = "Computing and Control Engineering Journal"}

@String{j-COMP-J                = "The Computer Journal"}

@String{j-COMP-NET              = "Computer Networks: The International
                                  Journal of Distributed Informatique"}

@String{j-COMP-NET-AMSTERDAM    = "Computer Networks (Amsterdam, Netherlands:
                                  1999)"}

@String{j-COMP-SURV             = "ACM Computing Surveys"}

@String{j-COMP-SYS              = "Computing Systems"}

@String{j-COMPUT-SCI-ENG        = "Computing in Science and Engineering"}

@String{j-COMPUTER              = "Computer"}

@String{j-COMPUTERWORLD         = "ComputerWorld"}

@String{j-COMPUTING             = "Computing: Archiv f{\"u}r Informatik und
                                  Numerik"}

@String{j-CPE                   = "Concurrency: Prac\-tice and Experience"}

@String{j-DDJ                   = "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools"}

@String{j-DEC-TECH-J            = "Digital Technical Journal of Digital
                                  Equipment Corporation"}

@String{j-EMBED-SYS-PROG        = "Embedded Systems Programming"}

@String{j-FUT-GEN-COMP-SYS      = "Future Generation Computer Systems"}

@String{j-HEWLETT-PACKARD-J     = "Hew\-lett-Pack\-ard Journal: technical
                                  information from the laboratories of
                                  Hew\-lett-Pack\-ard Company"}

@String{j-HIGHER-ORDER-SYMB-COMPUT = "Higher-Order and Symbolic Computation"}

@String{j-IBM-JRD               = "IBM Journal of Research and Development"}

@String{j-IBM-SYS-J             = "IBM Systems Journal"}

@String{j-IEEE-ANN-HIST-COMPUT  = "IEEE Annals of the History of Computing"}

@String{j-IEEE-CONCURR          = "IEEE Concurrency"}

@String{j-IEEE-DISTRIB-SYST-ONLINE = "IEEE Distributed Systems Online"}

@String{j-IEEE-INT-SYMP-HIGH-PERF-DIST-COMP-PROC = "IEEE International
                                  Symposium on High Performance Distributed
                                  Computing, Proceedings"}

@String{j-IEEE-MICRO            = "IEEE Micro"}

@String{j-IEEE-PAR-DIST-TECH    = "IEEE parallel and distributed technology:
                                  systems and applications"}

@String{j-IEEE-SEC-PRIV         = "IEEE Security \& Privacy"}

@String{j-IEEE-SOFTWARE         = "IEEE Software"}

@String{j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT     = "IEEE Transactions on Computers"}

@String{j-IEEE-TRANS-NETWORKING = "IEEE\slash ACM Transactions on Networking"}

@String{j-IEEE-TRANS-PAR-DIST-SYS = "IEEE Transactions on Parallel and
                                    Distributed Systems"}

@String{j-IEEE-TRANS-SOFTW-ENG  = "IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering"}

@String{j-IJHPCA                = "The International Journal of High Performance
                                  Computing Applications"}

@String{j-INFO-PROC-LETT        = "Information Processing Letters"}

@String{j-INT-J-COMPUT-INF-SCI  = "International Journal of Computer and
                                  Information Sciences"}

@String{j-INT-J-COMPUT-SYST-SCI-ENG = "International Journal of Computer
                                  Systems Science and Engineering"}

@String{j-INT-J-PAR-EMER-DIST-SYS = "International Journal of Parallel,
                               Emergent and Distributed Systems: IJPEDS"}

@String{j-INT-J-PARALLEL-PROG   = "International Journal of Parallel
                                  Programming"}

@String{j-INT-J-SOFTW-TOOLS-TECHNOL-TRANSFER = "International Journal on
                                  Software Tools for Technology Transfer:
                                  STTT"}

@String{j-INTEL-TECH-J          = "Intel Technology Journal"}

@String{j-J-DIGITAL-INFO        = "Journal of Digital Information"}

@String{j-J-FORTH-APPL-RES      = "Journal of FORTH Application and Research"}

@String{j-J-FORTH-APPLIC-RESEARCH = "Journal of Forth Applications and
                                  Research"}

@String{j-J-GRID-COMP            = "Journal of Grid Computing"}

@String{j-J-LOGIC-ALG-PROG      = "Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming"}

@String{j-J-PAR-DIST-COMP       = "Journal of Parallel and Distributed
                                  Computing"}

@String{j-J-PHYS-IV-COLLOQUE    = "Journal de physique. IV, Colloque"}

@String{j-J-SUPERCOMPUTING      = "The Journal of Supercomputing"}

@String{j-J-SYST-SOFTW          = "The Journal of Systems and Software"}

@String{j-JAVA-REPORT           = "{Java} Report: The Source for {Java}
                                  Development"}

@String{j-JAVAWORLD             = "JavaWorld: IDG's magazine for the Java
                                  community"}

@String{j-JERIC                 = "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in
                                  Computing (JERIC)"}

@String{j-JETC                  = "ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies
                                  in Computing Systems (JETC)"}

@String{j-JOCCH                 = "Journal on Computing and Cultural
                                  Heritage (JOCCH)"}

@String{j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI   = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science"}

@String{j-LINUX-J               = "Linux Journal"}

@String{j-LISP-SYMB-COMPUT      = "Lisp and Symbolic Computation"}

@String{j-LOGIN                 = ";login: the USENIX Association newsletter"}

@String{j-OPER-SYS-REV          = "Operating Systems Review"}

@String{j-PARALLEL-COMPUTING    = "Parallel Computing"}

@String{j-PARALLEL-PROCESS-LETT = "Parallel Processing Letters"}

@String{j-PROC-IEEE             = "Proceedings of the IEEE"}

@String{j-PROC-VLDB-ENDOWMENT   = "Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment"}

@String{j-PROGRAMMIROVANIE      = "Programmirovanie"}

@String{j-QUEUE                 = "ACM Queue: Tomorrow's Computing Today"}

@String{j-SCI-COMPUT-PROGRAM    = "Science of Computer Programming"}

@String{j-SCI-PROG              = "Scientific Programming"}

@String{j-SCPE                  = "Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience"}

@String{j-SIGADA-LETTERS        = "ACM SIGADA Ada Letters"}

@String{j-SIGCSE                = "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group
                                  on Computer Science Education)"}

@String{j-SIGMETRICS            = "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation
                                 Review"}

@String{j-SIGMOD                = "SIGMOD Record (ACM Special Interest
                                  Group on Management of Data)"}

@String{j-SIGPLAN               = "ACM SIG{\-}PLAN Notices"}

@String{j-SPE                   = "Soft\-ware\emdash Prac\-tice and
                                  Experience"}

@String{j-SYS-ADMIN            = "Sys Admin: The Journal for UNIX Systems
                                  Administrators"}

@String{j-TAAS                  = "ACM Transactions on Autonomous and
                                  Adaptive Systems (TAAS)"}

@String{j-TACO                  = "ACM Transactions on Architecture and Code
                                  Optimization"}

@String{j-TECS                  = "ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing
                                  Systems"}

@String{j-TISSEC                = "ACM Transactions on Information and System
                                  Security"}

@String{j-TOCS                  = "ACM Transactions on Computer Systems"}

@String{j-TODAES                = "ACM Transactions on Design Automation of
                                   Electronic Systems."}

@String{j-TODS                  = "ACM Transactions on Database Systems"}

@String{j-TOPLAS                = "ACM Transactions on Programming
                                  Languages and Systems"}

@String{j-TOS                   = "ACM Transactions on Storage"}

@String{j-TRANS-AM-NUCL-SOC     = "Transactions of the American Nuclear
                                  Society"}

@String{j-TRETS                 = "ACM Transactions on Reconfigurable Technology
                                  and Systems (TRETS)"}

@String{j-UNIX-REVIEW           = "UNIX Review"}

@String{j-VLDB-J                = "VLDB Journal: Very Large Data Bases"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Publishers and their addresses:

@String{pub-ACM                 = "ACM Press"}
@String{pub-ACM:adr             = "New York, NY 10036, USA"}

@String{pub-APRESS              = "Apress"}
@String{pub-APRESS:adr          = "Berkeley, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-AUERBACH            = "Auerbach"}
@String{pub-AUERBACH:adr        = "Princeton, NJ, USA"}

@String{pub-AW                  = "Ad{\-d}i{\-s}on-Wes{\-l}ey"}
@String{pub-AW:adr              = "Reading, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-CARL-HANSER         = "Carl Hanser"}
@String{pub-CARL-HANSER:adr     = "M{\"{u}}nchen, Germany"}

@String{pub-CRC                 = "CRC Press"}
@String{pub-CRC:adr             = "2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, FL
                                  33431-9868, USA"}

@String{pub-ECMA                = "ECMA (European Association for
                                   Standardizing Information and
                                   Communication Systems)"}
@String{pub-ECMA:adr            = "Geneva, Switzerland"}

@String{pub-GOTOP-INFORMATION   = "GOTOP Information Inc."}
@String{pub-GOTOP-INFORMATION:adr = "5F, No.7, Lane 50, Sec.3 Nan Kang Road
                                  Taipei, Taiwan; Unit 1905,Metro Plaza Tower
                                  2, No.223 Hing Fong Road, Kwai Chung, N.T.,
                                  Hong Kong"}

@String{pub-IBM                 = "IBM Corporation"}
@String{pub-IBM:adr             = "San Jose, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-IEEE                = "IEEE Computer Society Press"}
@String{pub-IEEE:adr            = "1109 Spring Street, Suite 300,
                                  Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA"}

@String{pub-IOS                 = "IOS Press"}
@String{pub-IOS:adr             = "Amsterdam, The Netherlands"}

@String{pub-ISO                 = "International Organization for
                                  Standardization"}
@String{pub-ISO:adr             = "Geneva, Switzerland"}

@String{pub-KLUWER              = "Kluwer Academic Publishers Group"}
@String{pub-KLUWER:adr          = "Norwell, MA, USA, and Dordrecht,
                                  The Netherlands"}

@String{pub-MANNING             = "Manning Publications"}
@String{pub-MANNING:adr         = "Greenwich, CT, USA"}

@String{pub-MCGRAW-HILL         = "Mc{\-}Graw-Hill"}
@String{pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr     = "New York, NY, USA"}

@String{pub-MICROSOFT           = "Microsoft Press"}
@String{pub-MICROSOFT:adr       = "Bellevue, WA, USA"}

@String{pub-MORGAN-KAUFMANN     = "Morgan Kaufmann Publishers"}
@String{pub-MORGAN-KAUFMANN:adr = "Los Altos, CA 94022, USA"}
@String{pub-MORGAN-KAUFMANN:adrsf = "San Francisco, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-NO-STARCH           = "No Starch Press"}
@String{pub-NO-STARCH:adr       = "San Francisco, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-NORTH-HOLLAND       = "North-Hol{\-}land"}
@String{pub-NORTH-HOLLAND:adr   = "Amsterdam, The Netherlands"}

@String{pub-ORA                 = "O'Reilly \& Associates, Inc."}
@String{pub-ORA:adr             = "103a Morris Street,
                                  Sebastopol, CA 95472,
                                  USA,
                                  Tel: +1 707 829 0515,
                                  and
                                  90 Sherman Street,
                                  Cambridge, MA 02140,
                                  USA,
                                  Tel: +1 617 354 5800"}

@String{pub-ORA-MEDIA           = "O'Reilly Media, Inc."}
@String{pub-ORA-MEDIA:adr       = "1005 Gravenstein Highway North,
                                   Sebastopol, CA 95472, USA"}

@String{pub-PH                  = "Pren{\-}tice-Hall"}
@String{pub-PH:adr              = "Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458, USA"}

@String{pub-QUE                 = "Que Corporation"}
@String{pub-QUE:adr             = "Indianapolis, IN, USA"}

@String{pub-SAMS                = "SAMS Publishing"}
@String{pub-SAMS:adr            = "Indianapolis, IN, USA"}

@String{pub-SV                  = "Spring{\-}er-Ver{\-}lag"}
@String{pub-SV:adr              = "Berlin, Germany~/ Heidelberg, Germany~/
                                  London, UK~/ etc."}

@String{pub-SYBEX               = "Sybex"}
@String{pub-SYBEX:adr           = "2021 Challenger Driver, Suite 100,
                                  Alameda, CA 94501, USA"}

@String{pub-SYNGRESS            = "Syngress Publishing, Inc."}
@String{pub-SYNGRESS:adr        = "Rockland, MA, USA"}

@String{pub-USENIX              = "USENIX"}
@String{pub-USENIX:adr          = "San Francisco, CA, USA"}
@String{pub-USENIX-EL-CERRITO:adr = "P.O. Box 7, El Cerrito 94530, CA, USA"}

@String{pub-WILEY               = "Wiley"}
@String{pub-WILEY:adr           = "New York, NY, USA"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Series abbreviations:

@String{ser-LNCS                = "Lecture Notes in Computer Science"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries, sorted by ascending year and then by citation
%%% label, with `bibsort -byyear':

@TechReport{Adair:1966:VMS,
  author =       "R. J. Adair and R. U. Bayles and L. W. Comeau and R.
                 J. Creasy",
  title =        "A Virtual Machine System for the 360\slash 40",
  institution =  "International Business Machines (IBM), Data Processing
                 Division",
  year =         "1966",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "ABEND module of OS at SSC",
  keywords =     "IBM 360/40",
}

@Article{Thompson:1968:PTR,
  author =       "Ken Thompson",
  title =        "Programming Techniques: {Regular} expression search
                 algorithm",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "419--422",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1968",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/363347.363387",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Fri Nov 25 18:20:20 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm11.html#Thompson68;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cacm1960.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/plan9.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Kernighan:1999:REL,Cox:2007:REM,Cox:2009:REM,Cox:2010:REM,Cox:2012:REM}",
  URL =          "http://patft.uspto.gov/",
  abstract =     "A method for locating specific character strings
                 embedded in character text is described and an
                 implementation of this method in the form of a compiler
                 is discussed. The compiler accepts a regular expression
                 as source language and produces an IBM 7094 program as
                 object language. The object program then accepts the
                 text to be searched as input and produces a signal
                 every time an embedded string in the text matches the
                 given regular expression. Examples, problems, and
                 solutions are also presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  keywords =     "match; regular expression; search",
  oldlabel =     "Thompson68",
  remark =       "The on-the-fly compilation of regular expressions to
                 IBM 7094 machine code is part of US Patent \#3568156,
                 awarded 9 August 1967 to Kenneth L. Thompson.",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/Thompson68",
}

@Article{Brawn:1970:SPE,
  author =       "B. S. Brawn and F. G. Gustavson and E. S. Mankin",
  title =        "Sorting in a Paging Environment",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "483--494",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 13:26:09 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Graefe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This sorting study was part of an extensive
                 measurement project undertaken on the M44\slash 44X, an
                 experimental paging system which was conceived and
                 implemented at IBM Research in order to explore the
                 virtual machine concept. The study was concerned with
                 the implementation of sorting procedures in the context
                 of the dynamic paging environment characteristic of
                 virtual memory machines. Descriptions of the
                 experimental sort programs and analysis of the
                 performance measurement results obtained for them are
                 presented. The insight gained from the experimental
                 effort is used to arrive at a set of broad guidelines
                 for writing sort programs for a paging environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6130 (Data handling techniques)",
  corpsource =   "IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,
                 NY, USA",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "CACMA; computer, memories; computers; computers,
                 programming; dynamic memory management; External sort
                 virtual memory CACM; operating systems; sorting;
                 virtual machines",
}

@Article{Meyer:1970:VMT,
  author =       "Richard A. Meyer and Love H. Seawright",
  title =        "A Virtual Machine Time-Sharing System",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "199--218",
  year =         "1970",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 13:28:16 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/ibmsj/ibmsj9.html#MeyerS70;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The ControlProgram-67\slash Cambridge Monitor System
                 (CP-67\slash CMS) is a multiaccess system that manages
                 the resources of a computer set up for time-sharing
                 such that each (remote) user appears to have a
                 complete, dedicated computer at his disposal. This
                 concept is known as a virtual machine and allows each
                 user to select the operating system he wishes to run
                 because concurrent operation of several operating
                 systems is possible. The history and design objectives
                 of the system are discussed as well as its present
                 capabilities and some of the applications for its
                 use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  journalabr =   "IBM Syst J",
  oldlabel =     "MeyerS70",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/ibmsj/MeyerS70",
}

@Manual{Forum:1971:VMI,
  author =       "IBM (Forum)",
  title =        "On Virtual Machine Integrity",
  year =         "1971",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
}

@Article{McGrath:1972:VMC,
  author =       "Mark McGrath",
  title =        "Virtual machine computing in an engineering
                 environment",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "131--149",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 13:28:02 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/ibmsj/ibmsj11.html#McGrath72;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  oldlabel =     "McGrath72",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/ibmsj/McGrath72",
}

@Article{Morris:1972:SMO,
  author =       "D. Morris and G. D. Detlefsen and G. R. Frank and T.
                 J. Sweeney",
  title =        "The structure of the {MU5} operating system",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "113--116",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Fri Sep 29 08:52:02 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/150113.sgm.abs.html;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/113.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/114.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/115.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/116.tif",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  corpsource =   "Univ. Manchester, UK",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "1905E; ICL; modular structure; MU5; multicomputer
                 complex; operating system; operating systems
                 (computers); structure; virtual machine",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Parmelee:1972:VSV,
  author =       "Richard P. Parmelee and Theodore I. Peterson and Coyt
                 C. {Tillman, Jr.} and Donald J. Hatfield",
  title =        "Virtual Storage and Virtual Machine Concepts",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--130",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 13:29:15 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/ibmsj/ibmsj11.html#ParmeleePTH72;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  oldlabel =     "ParmeleePTH72",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/ibmsj/ParmeleePTH72",
}

@Article{Stoy:1972:OEOa,
  author =       "J. E. Stoy and C. Strachey",
  title =        "{OS6} --- an experimental operating system for a small
                 computer. {Part} 1: general principles and structure",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "117--124",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Fri Sep 29 08:52:02 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compj1970.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/150117.sgm.abs.html;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/117.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/118.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/119.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/120.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/121.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/122.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/123.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_15/Issue_02/tiff/124.tif",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  corpsource =   "Oxford Univ. Computing Lab., UK",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "BCPL; control structure; hierarchical; minicomputers;
                 operating system; operating systems (computers);
                 principles; small computer; structure; virtual
                 machine",
  treatment =    "G General Review; X Experimental",
}

@InProceedings{Goldberg:1973:AVM,
  author =       "R. P. Goldberg",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the {ACM} Workshop on Virtual Computer
                 Systems",
  title =        "Architecture of virtual machines",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "74--112",
  year =         "1973",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=803950&dl=ACM&coll=portal#",
  abstract =     "In this paper we develop a model which represents the
                 addressing of resources by processes executing on a
                 virtual machine. The model distinguishes two maps: the
                 $ \phi $-map which represents the map visible to the
                 operating system software running on the virtual
                 machine, and the $f$-map which is invisible to that
                 software but which is manipulated by the virtual
                 machine monitor running on the real machine. The $ \phi
                 $-map maps process names into resource names and the
                 $f$-map maps virtual resource names into real resource
                 names. Thus, a process running on a virtual machine
                 addresses its resources under the composed map $ f o
                 \phi $. In recursive operation, $f$ maps from one
                 virtual machine level to another and we have $ f o f o
                 \ldots {} o f o \phi $. The model is used to describe
                 and characterize previous virtual machine designs. We
                 also introduce and illustrate a general approach for
                 implementing virtual machines which follows directly
                 from the model. This design, the Hardware Virtualizer,
                 handles all process exceptions directly within the
                 executing virtual machine without software
                 intervention. All resource faults (VM-faults) generated
                 by a virtual machine are directed to the appropriate
                 virtual machine monitor without the knowledge of
                 processes on the virtual machine (regardless of the
                 level of recursion).",
  added-at =     "Wed Apr 9 10:12:31 2003",
  added-by =     "msteiner",
  annote =       "See also \cite{Goldbe72}",
}

@InProceedings{Madnick:1973:AAV,
  author =       "Stuart E. Madnick and John J. Donovan",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the {ACM} Workshop on Virtual Computer
                 Systems",
  title =        "Application and analysis of the virtual machine
                 approach to information system security and isolation",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "210--224",
  year =         "1973",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=803961&coll=portal&dl=ACM",
  abstract =     "Security is an important factor if the programs of
                 independent and possibly malicious users are to coexist
                 on the same computer system. In this paper we show that
                 a combined virtual machine monitor/operating system
                 (VMM/OS) approach to information system isolation
                 provides substantially better software security than a
                 conventional multiprogramming operating system
                 approach. This added protection is derived from
                 redundant security using independent mechanisms that
                 are inherent in the design of most VMM/OS systems.",
  added-at =     "Wed Apr 9 10:08:32 2003",
  added-by =     "msteiner",
}

@Article{Sitton:1973:PEL,
  author =       "Gary A. Sitton and Thomas A. Kendrick and A. Gil
                 Carrick",
  title =        "The {PL\slash EXUS} language and virtual machine",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "124--130",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:35 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Lesser:1974:DEP,
  author =       "Victor R. Lesser",
  title =        "The design of an emulator for a parallel machine
                 language",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "23--36",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:40 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5220 (Computer architecture); C6140B
                 (Machine-oriented languages); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  conflocation = "Harriman, NY, USA; 30 May-1 June 1973",
  conftitle =    "Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN-SIGMICRO interface
                 meeting on programming languages-Microprogramming",
  corpsource =   "Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "coded; complex emulator; control structure; coupled;
                 dynamic execution characteristics; dynamically;
                 emulator; machine oriented languages; microcomputer
                 architecture; microprocesses; microprogramming;
                 paradigm; parallel hardware environment; parallel
                 machine language; parallel processing; structured;
                 virtual machines; virtual machines processing",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  treatment =    "A Application; T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@TechReport{Madnick:1974:AAV,
  author =       "Stuart E. Madnick and John J. Donovan",
  title =        "Application and analysis of the virtual machine
                 approach to information system security and
                 reliability",
  number =       "722--74(2)",
  institution =  "MIT Center for Information Systems Research",
  address =      "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  pages =        "25",
  year =         "1974",
  LCCN =         "HD28 .M414 no.722, 74; HD28.M414",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:19 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  series =       "Sloan School of Management. Working paper;
                 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Alfred P. Sloan
                 School of Management. Center for Information Systems
                 Research. Report",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Popek:1974:FRV,
  author =       "Gerald J. Popek and Robert P. Goldberg",
  title =        "Formal Requirements for Virtualizable Third Generation
                 Architectures",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "412--421",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/800009.808061",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  MRclass =      "68A05",
  MRnumber =     "49 10177",
  MRreviewer =   "I. Kaufmann",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 07:13:00 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/pub/bibliography/Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm17.html#PopekG74;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Virtual machine systems have been implemented on a
                 limited number of third generation computer systems,
                 for example CP-67 on the IBM 360/67. The value of
                 virtual machine techniques to ease the development of
                 operating systems, to aid in program transferability,
                 and to allow the concurrent running of disparate
                 operating systems, test and diagnostic programs has
                 been well recognized. However, from previous empirical
                 studies, it is known that many third generation
                 computer systems, e.g. the DEC PDP-10, cannot support a
                 virtual machine system. In this paper, the hardware
                 architectural requirements for virtual machine systems
                 are discussed. First, a fairly specific definition of a
                 virtual machine is presented which includes the aspects
                 of efficiency, isolation, and identical behavior. A
                 model of third generation-like computer systems is then
                 developed. The model includes a processor with
                 supervisor and user modes, memory that has a simple
                 protection mechanism, and a trap facility. In this
                 context, instruction behavior is then carefully
                 characterized.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C5220 (Computer architecture); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  classification = "722",
  corpsource =   "Univ. California, Los Angeles, CA, USA",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "abstract model; architectures; computer architecture;
                 computer operating systems; formal requirements;
                 generation architecture; hypervisor; operating system;
                 sufficient conditions; systems; third; third generation
                 computer; virtual machine; virtual machine monitor;
                 virtual machines; virtual memory; virtualizable third
                 generation",
  oldlabel =     "PopekG74",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/PopekG74",
}

@InProceedings{Bagley:1975:SDS,
  author =       "John D. Bagley and E. R. Floto and S. C. Hsieh and V.
                 Watson",
  title =        "Sharing Data and Services in a Virtual Machine
                 System",
  crossref =     "ACM:1975:PFS",
  pages =        "82--88",
  year =         "1975",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 27 15:11:04 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/sosp/sosp75.html#BagleyFHW75;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  oldlabel =     "BagleyFHW75",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/sosp/BagleyFHW75",
}

@InProceedings{Belpaire:1975:FPR,
  author =       "Gerald Belpaire and Nai-Ting Nsu",
  title =        "Formal Properties of Recursive Virtual Machine
                 Architectures",
  crossref =     "ACM:1975:PFS",
  pages =        "89--96",
  year =         "1975",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 27 15:11:08 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/sosp/sosp75.html#BelpaireN75;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  oldlabel =     "BelpaireN75",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/sosp/BelpaireN75",
}

@Article{Callaway:1975:PMT,
  author =       "Peter H. Callaway",
  title =        "Performance Measurement Tools for {VM\slash 370}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "134--160",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 08 16:35:07 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "To support the smooth running of a Virtual Machine
                 Facility\slash 370 (VM\slash 370) installation,
                 performance measurements of various types are
                 desirable. This paper describes a range of measurement
                 facilities that have been developed for VM\slash 370
                 for use both on-line and off-line at the level of the
                 users (general user, operator, and system analyst) and
                 the installation management.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  journalabr =   "IBM Syst J",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems",
}

@Article{DeRemer:1975:PLV,
  author =       "Frank DeRemer and Hans Kron",
  title =        "Programming-in-the large versus
                 programming-in-the-small",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "114--121",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:49 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming); C6140
                 (Programming languages); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  conflocation = "Los Angeles, CA, USA; 21--23 April 1975",
  conftitle =    "International Conference on Reliable Software",
  corpsource =   "Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "compiler; fault tolerant computing; information
                 hiding; large programs; module interconnection
                 language; modules; programming; programming languages;
                 small programs; software reliability; virtual machines;
                 virtual machines languages",
  sponsororg =   "IEEE; ACM; et al",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
}

@Article{Donovan:1975:HAC,
  author =       "John J. Donovan and S. E. Madnick",
  title =        "Hierarchical Approach to Computer System Integrity",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "188--202",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 08 16:35:07 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See letters
                 \cite{Chandersekaran:1976:FVM,Donovan:1976:FAR}.",
  abstract =     "Security is an important factor if the programs of
                 independent and possibly error-prone or malicious users
                 are to coexist on the same computer system. In this
                 paper, it is shown that a hierarchically structured
                 operating system, such as produced by a virtual machine
                 system, that combines a virtual machine monitor with
                 several independent operating systems (VMM\slash OS),
                 provides substantially better software security than a
                 conventional two-level multiprogramming operating
                 system approach. This added protection is derived from
                 redundant security using independent mechanisms that
                 are inherent in the design of most VMM\slash OS
                 systems. Such a system can be obtained by exploiting
                 existing software resources.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  journalabr =   "IBM Syst J",
  keywords =     "computer operating systems; computer systems
                 programming --- Time Sharing Programs",
}

@InProceedings{Gaines:1975:ACV,
  author =       "Brian R. Gaines",
  title =        "Analogy Categories, Virtual Machines, and Structured
                 Programming",
  crossref =     "Muhlbacher:1975:GIF",
  pages =        "691--699",
  year =         "1975",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 23:24:01 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/gi/gi75.html#Gaines75;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  oldlabel =     "Gaines75",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/gi/Gaines75",
}

@Article{Infante:1975:PSP,
  author =       "R. Infante and U. Montanari",
  title =        "Proving structured programs correct, level by level",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "427--436",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:49 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming)",
  conflocation = "Los Angeles, CA, USA; 21--23 April 1975",
  conftitle =    "International Conference on Reliable Software",
  corpsource =   "Olivetti, Ivrea, Italy",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "assertions; fault tolerant computing; level axioms;
                 predicates; problem oriented data structures; problem
                 oriented predicates; programming; structured programs
                 correctness proof; theorem prover; virtual machines",
  sponsororg =   "IEEE; ACM; et al",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
}

@Article{Kamnitzer:1975:BXI,
  author =       "Stephen H. Kamnitzer",
  title =        "Bootstrapping {XPL} from {IBM\slash 360} to {UNIVAC
                 1100}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "14--20",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:47 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6150C (Compilers, interpreters and other
                 processors); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Sperry Univac, Cape Town, South Africa",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "compiler; IBM/360 to UNIVAC 1100 bootstrapping;
                 program compilers; UNIVAC 1100 series computers;
                 virtual machines; XPL Compiler Generator System",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
}

@TechReport{Lamming:1975:LVM,
  author =       "M. Lamming",
  title =        "{LITL} Virtual machine. Fixed or Variable Size
                 Blocks",
  number =       "QMW-DCS-1975-085; QMW-DCS-1975-091",
  institution =  "Queen Mary College, Department of Computer Science",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract-url = "http://www.dcs.qmw.ac.uk/publications/report_abstracts/1975/091;
                 http://www.dcs.qmw.ac.uk/publications/report_abstracts/1975/085",
  scope =        "misc",
  xxnote =       "Check: Two reports or one??",
}

@InProceedings{Popek:1975:PVM,
  author =       "Gerald J. Popek and Charles S. Kline",
  title =        "The {PDP-11} Virtual Machine Architecture: a Case
                 Study",
  crossref =     "ACM:1975:PFS",
  pages =        "97--105",
  year =         "1975",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 27 15:12:53 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/sosp/sosp75.html#PopekK75;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  oldlabel =     "PopekK75",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/sosp/PopekK75",
}

@Article{Popek:1975:VPS,
  author =       "Gerald J. Popek and Charles S. Kline",
  title =        "A verifiable protection system",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "294--304",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:49 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming); C6150J
                 (Operating systems); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  conflocation = "Los Angeles, CA, USA; 21--23 April 1975",
  conftitle =    "International Conference on Reliable Software",
  corpsource =   "Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "capability faulting; fault tolerant computing; fault
                 tolerant computing faulting; flexible information
                 sharing facilities; levels of kernels; multiuser
                 operating system; operating systems (computers);
                 program verification; programming; security kernels;
                 security of data; systems analysis; UCLA Virtual
                 Machine System; ultra high reliability protection;
                 verifiable protection system; virtual machines; virtual
                 memory",
  sponsororg =   "IEEE; ACM; et al",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
}

@Article{Saltzer:1975:PIC,
  author =       "Jerome H. Saltzer and Michael D. Schroeder",
  title =        "The Protection of Information in Computer Systems",
  journal =      j-PROC-IEEE,
  volume =       "63",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "1278--1308",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "IEEPAD",
  ISSN =         "0018-9219 (print), 1558-2256 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9219",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.mediacity.com/~norm/CapTheory/ProtInf/",
  abstract =     "This tutorial paper explores the mechanics of
                 protecting computer-stored information from
                 unauthorized use or modification. It concentrates on
                 those architectural structures--whether hardware or
                 software--that are necessary to support information
                 protection. The paper develops in three main sections.
                 Section I describes desired functions, design
                 principles, and examples of elementary protection and
                 authentication mechanisms. Any reader familiar with
                 computers should find the first section to be
                 reasonably accessible. Section II requires some
                 familiarity with descriptor-based computer
                 architecture. It examines in depth the principles of
                 modern protection architectures and the relation
                 between capability systems and access control list
                 systems, and ends with a brief analysis of protected
                 subsystems and protected objects. The reader who is
                 dismayed by either the prerequisites or the level of
                 detail in the second section may wish to skip to
                 Section III, which reviews the state of the art and
                 current research projects and provides suggestions for
                 further reading.",
  added-by =     "rah,sti",
  annote =       "Part I: --- Basics --- Design Principles: economy of
                 mechanism, fail-safe defaults, complete mediation, open
                 design, separation of privilege, least privilege, least
                 common mechanism, psychological acceptability. ---
                 separate virtual machines with controlled communication
                 Part II: --- Separation of addressing and protection
                 --- capabilities --- access control lists",
  fjournal =     "Proceedings of the IEEE",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5",
}

@Article{Williams:1975:CMI,
  author =       "M. H. Williams and H. L. Ossher",
  title =        "A computer model for instructional purposes",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "333--341",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 13:51:56 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/tiff/333.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/tiff/334.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/tiff/335.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/tiff/336.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/tiff/337.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/tiff/338.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/tiff/339.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/tiff/340.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_18/Issue_04/tiff/341.tif",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C0220 (Computing education and training); C7810C
                 (Computer-aided instruction)",
  classification = "721; 723; 901",
  corpsource =   "Department of Computer Sci., Rhodes Univ., Rhodes,
                 Grahamstown, South Africa",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "computer aided instruction; computer model; computer
                 programming languages; computer science; computer
                 simulator; computers; engineering education;
                 instructional purposes; machine architecture; teaching;
                 virtual machines",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
}

@Article{Adix:1976:IER,
  author =       "Mary S. Adix and Henrik A. Schutz",
  title =        "Interpretive execution of real-time control
                 applications",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "78--87",
  day =          "1",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:54 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6140D (High level languages); C6150C (Compilers,
                 interpreters and other processors); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  conflocation = "New Orleans, LA, USA; 4--6 March 1976",
  conftitle =    "ACM SIGMIN/SIGPLAN Interface Meeting on Programming
                 Systems in the Small Processor Environment",
  corpsource =   "General Motors Res. Labs., Warren, MI, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "interpretive execution; problem oriented languages;
                 program interpreters; real time control application;
                 space compaction; virtual machine language; virtual
                 machines",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
  xxpages =      "78--86",
}

@Article{Bagley:1976:SFM,
  author =       "John D. Bagley",
  title =        "Special feature: microprogrammable virtual machines",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "38--42",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 12 07:20:54 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "User alterable microprograms make it possible to
                 tailor the architecture of the computer to the
                 application domain but raises the problem of
                 microprogram development and testing. The technique
                 outlined provides a tool which furnishes the
                 microprogrammer with a virtual machine which is
                 microprogrammable. The function provided is similar to
                 that provided by a simulator, but the technique is more
                 efficient and allows multiple microprograms to be
                 executed concurrently with regular programs on a single
                 real machine.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
  journalabr =   "Computer",
  keywords =     "computer architecture; computer simulation; computer
                 systems programming --- testing",
}

@Article{Chandersekaran:1976:FVM,
  author =       "C. S. Chandersekaran and K. S. Shankar",
  title =        "Forum: On virtual machine integrity",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "264--269",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Donovan:1975:HAC,Donovan:1976:FAR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
}

@Article{Donovan:1976:FAR,
  author =       "J. J. Donovan and S. E. Madnick",
  title =        "Forum: Authors' reply",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "270--278",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ibmsysj.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Donovan:1975:HAC,Chandersekaran:1976:FVM}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
}

@TechReport{Donovan:1976:VMC,
  author =       "John J. Donovan and Henry D. Jacoby",
  title =        "Virtual machine communication for the implementation
                 of decision support systems",
  number =       "884--76(28)",
  institution =  "MIT Center for Information Systems Research",
  address =      "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  pages =        "3 + 29",
  year =         "1976",
  LCCN =         "HD28 .M414 no.884-76; HD28.M414",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:19 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Hamlet:1976:PBT,
  author =       "Richard Hamlet",
  title =        "The {PDP-11} as {B5500} in teaching systems
                 programming",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "47--52",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:56 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C0220 (Computing education and training); C6110
                 (Systems analysis and programming); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Computer Sci., Univ. of Maryland,
                 College Park, MD, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "B5500; computer aided instruction; PDP 11;
                 programming; SIMPL XI; systems programming; teaching;
                 virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Suski:1976:AGC,
  author =       "Gregory J. Suski",
  title =        "Automatic generation of computer graphics languages",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "113--122",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:57 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5540 (Terminals and graphic displays); C6140D (High
                 level languages); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  conflocation = "Miami Beach, FL, USA; 26--27 April 1976",
  conftitle =    "Symposium on Graphic Languages",
  corpsource =   "Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "computer graphics; computer graphics languages;
                 language generation system; LGS; mechanical language
                 generation; programming languages; virtual machines",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@TechReport{Taylor:1976:RRH,
  author =       "John McMay Taylor",
  title =        "Redundancy and recovery in the {HIVE} virtual
                 machine",
  type =         "Report",
  number =       "76010",
  institution =  "Procurement executive, Ministry of Defence, Royal
                 Signals and Radar Establishment",
  address =      "London, UK",
  year =         "1976",
  LCCN =         "1966",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:15 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.ox.ac.uk:210/ADVANCE",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Wallace:1976:SGI,
  author =       "Victor L. Wallace",
  title =        "The semantics of graphic input devices",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "11",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "61--65",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:13:57 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5540 (Terminals and graphic displays); C7430
                 (Computer engineering)",
  conflocation = "Miami Beach, FL, USA; 26--27 April 1976",
  conftitle =    "Symposium on Graphic Languages",
  corpsource =   "Department of Computer Sci., Univ. of North Carolina,
                 Chapel Hill, NC, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "computer graphics; graphic input devices; interactive
                 input; interactive terminals; primitive, nonprimitives;
                 semantics; virtual devices; virtual machines",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Donovan:1977:VMC,
  author =       "John J. Donovan and Henry D. Jacoby",
  title =        "Virtual Machine Communication for the Implementation
                 of Decision Support Systems",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-SOFTW-ENG,
  volume =       "SE-3",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "333--342",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "IESEDJ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSE.1977.231158",
  ISSN =         "0098-5589 (print), 1939-3520 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0098-5589",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 05:54:52 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/tse/tse3.html#DonovanJ77;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "incomplete",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=32",
  oldlabel =     "DonovanJ77",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/tse/DonovanJ77",
}

@Book{Hartmann:1977:CPC,
  author =       "A. C. Hartmann",
  key =          "Hartmann",
  title =        "A Concurrent Pascal Compiler for MiniComputers",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  year =         "1977",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 27 13:37:33 1984",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "This book describes a seven pass compiler for Per
                 Brinch Hansen's Concurrent Pascal programming language.
                 It requires 16,500 16-bit words of storage on a
                 PDP-11/45 computer, and compiles source text at the
                 rate of 240 characters per second (about 9--10 lines
                 per second). It generates code for an ideal virtual
                 machine that is simulated by a real machine. The
                 compiler is written in sequential Pascal and is easily
                 transported to other machines. [from the preface] The
                 compiler comprises seven passes: lexical analysis,
                 syntax analysis, name analysis, declaration analysis,
                 body analysis, code selection, and code assembly. After
                 an introduction and a chapter on each of the passes,
                 there are chapters on interpass topics, the virtual
                 machine, and implementation details. An appendix
                 provides syntax graphs for all the intermediate
                 languages, as well as the input and final code
                 languages. The seven-pass compiler has been running on
                 a PDP-ll/45 at CalTech since Jan 1975. Each pass is
                 described along with the virtual code that is output by
                 the last pass. The syntax graphs for each of the passes
                 is also given.",
  keywords =     "Concurrent Pascal",
}

@Article{Huxtable:1977:HSI,
  author =       "D. H. R. Huxtable and J. M. M. Pinkerton",
  title =        "The hardware\slash software interface of the {ICL}
                 2900 range of computers",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "290--295",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 13:51:56 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_04/",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_04/tiff/290.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_04/tiff/291.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_04/tiff/292.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_04/tiff/293.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_04/tiff/294.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_20/Issue_04/tiff/295.tif",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C5220 (Computer architecture); C6150 (Systems
                 software)",
  classification = "722; 723",
  corpsource =   "International Computers Ltd., Bracknell, UK",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "architecture; computer architecture; computer
                 software; computer systems, digital; concurrent
                 execution; hardware features; ICL 2900; independent
                 processes; instruction set; interference; mutual;
                 protection arrangements; support system software;
                 virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Keedy:1977:OIS,
  author =       "J. L. Keedy",
  title =        "An Outline of the {ICL} 2900 Series System
                 Architecture",
  journal =      j-AUSTRALIAN-COMP-J,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "53--62",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "ACMJB2",
  ISSN =         "0004-8917",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The system architecture of the ICL 2900 Series is
                 outlined informally. Its central feature, the virtual
                 machine concept, is described and related to virtual
                 storage, segmentation and paging. The procedural
                 approach is then discussed and its implementation by a
                 stack mechanism is described. Further sections outline
                 the protection mechanisms, and the instruction set and
                 related features. Finally the virtual machine approach
                 is related to global system activities. This paper has
                 been written such that it may be of interest to readers
                 without a specialist knowledge of computer archi
                 tecture.",
  fjournal =     "Australian Computer Journal",
  keywords =     "Computer Architecture, ICL 2900 series, Virtual
                 memory, descriptors, segmentation, Paging, Procedural
                 stacks, Protection. 6.21, 4.32.",
}

@MastersThesis{Wilding-White:1977:MBI,
  author =       "Arthur Llewellyn Wilding-White",
  title =        "A microprocessor {BCPL} implementation based on a
                 virtual stack machine",
  type =         "Thesis ({B.S.})",
  school =       "Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer
                 Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology",
  address =      "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  pages =        "143",
  year =         "1977",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:19 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  note =         "Supervised by Stephen A. Ward.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Microprocessors; BCPL (Computer program language);
                 Virtual computer systems",
}

@Article{Armstrong:1978:PPC,
  author =       "J. L. Armstrong",
  title =        "Programming a Parallel Computer for Robot Vision",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "215--218",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 13:51:56 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_21/Issue_03/",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_21/Issue_03/tiff/215.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_21/Issue_03/tiff/216.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_21/Issue_03/tiff/217.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_21/Issue_03/tiff/218.tif",
  abstract =     "Work a Edinburgh has directed itself towards the
                 automatic recognition and inspection of objects in an
                 industrial environment using a television camera. A
                 particular need for such systems arises in the context
                 of numerically controlled machine tools. FORTRAN
                 emulators of the CLIP array processor have enabled
                 preliminary tests to be made of a parallel approach to
                 removing noise and extracting primitive features from
                 digitized pictures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C3355C (Control applications in machining processes
                 and machine tools); C3355 (Control applications in
                 manufacturing processes); C6110 (Systems analysis and
                 programming); C7420 (Control engineering computing)",
  classification = "721; 723; 731; 741",
  corpsource =   "Machine Intelligence Res. Unit, Univ. of Edinburgh,
                 Edinburgh, UK",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "automatic recognition; camera; CLIP array processor;
                 computer programming; computerised pattern recognition;
                 computerised picture; emulators; FORTRAN; industrial
                 environment; industrial robots; inspection of objects;
                 numerical control; numerically controlled machine
                 tools; parallel approach; parallel computer; parallel
                 processing; processing; programming; robot vision;
                 robots; television; virtual machines; vision ---
                 Computer Applications",
  treatment =    "T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@Article{Bard:1978:AMV,
  author =       "Y. Bard",
  title =        "An analytic model of the {VM\slash 370} system",
  journal =      j-IBM-JRD,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "498--508",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "IBMJAE",
  ISSN =         "0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-8646",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 12 09:58:53 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  ZMnumber =     "382.68033",
  abstract =     "An Analytic model is described of an interactive
                 multiprogrammed computer system. The model accepts a
                 multiple-user-class, transaction-oriented workload
                 description and a system configuration description, and
                 it produces predictions of resource utilizations,
                 transaction rates, and average transaction response
                 times. The solution method involves nearly complete
                 decomposition, with a closed queuing network
                 representing the multiprogrammed set. Asymptotic
                 formulas are used to generate good initial guesses for
                 an overall iterative scheme. Extensive validation
                 results are presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  classification = "722; 723",
  corpsource =   "Cambridge Sci. Center, IBM, Cambridge, MA, USA",
  fjournal =     "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
  journalabr =   "IBM J Res Dev",
  keywords =     "analytic model; average; closed queuing network;
                 computer performance prediction; computer selection and
                 evaluation; computer systems programming ---
                 Multiprogramming; computer systems, digital;
                 interactive multiprogrammed computer; interactive
                 systems; iterative scheme; multiprogrammed set model;
                 multiprogramming; resource utilizations; system;
                 transaction rates; transaction response times;
                 validation; virtual machines; virtual storage; VM/370",
  treatment =    "A Application",
}

@Article{Comaa:1978:SGP,
  author =       "H. Comaa and J. Kramer and B. K. Penney",
  title =        "A student group project in operating system
                 implementation",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "197--202",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/990654.990624",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 07:38:04 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1970.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Papers of the SIGCSE\slash CSA Technical Symposium on
                 Computer Science Education.",
  abstract =     "A student operating system project is described. It
                 provides students, working in groups of 4 or 5, with
                 some insight into the design and organisation problems
                 of constructing a fairly large and complex piece of
                 software. The students design and implement the Nucleus
                 of a multiprogramming system which runs under the
                 control of a VM/CMS virtual machine. Aspects of the
                 project structure and its organisation are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Cremers:1978:FMV,
  author =       "Armin B. Cremers and Thomas N. Hibbard",
  title =        "Formal Modeling of Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-SOFTW-ENG,
  volume =       "SE-4",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "426--436",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "IESEDJ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSE.1978.233862",
  ISSN =         "0098-5589 (print), 1939-3520 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0098-5589",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 05:53:37 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/tse/tse4.html#CremersH78;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "incomplete",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=32",
  oldlabel =     "CremersH78",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/tse/CremersH78",
}

@Manual{Forum:1978:VMI,
  author =       "IBM (Forum)",
  title =        "On Virtual Machine Integrity",
  year =         "1978",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
}

@Article{Kumar:1978:PEH,
  author =       "B. Kumar and Edward S. Davidson",
  title =        "Performance Evaluation of Highly Concurrent Computers
                 by Deterministic Simulation",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "904--913",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 06:56:38 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm21.html#KumarD78;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Simulation is presented as a practical technique for
                 performance evaluation of alternative configurations of
                 highly concurrent computers. A technique is described
                 for constructing a detailed deterministic simulation
                 model of a system. In the model a control stream
                 replaces the instruction and data streams of the real
                 system. Simulation of the system model yields the
                 timing resource usage statistics needed for performance
                 evaluation, without the necessity of emulating the
                 system. As a case study, the implementation of a
                 simulation of a model of the CPU-memory subsystem of
                 the IBM 360\slash 191 is described. The results of
                 evaluating some alternative system designs are
                 discussed. The experiments reveal that, for the case
                 study, the major bottlenecks in the system are the
                 memory unit and the fixed point unit. Further, it
                 appears that many of the sophisticated pipelining and
                 buffering techniques implemented in the architecture of
                 the IBM 360\slash 91 are of little value when
                 high-speed (cache) memory is used, as in the IBM
                 360\slash 195.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C5220 (Computer architecture); C6150G (Diagnostic,
                 testing, debugging and evaluating systems); C7430
                 (Computer engineering)",
  classification = "722; 723",
  corpsource =   "Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA",
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  journalabr =   "Commun ACM",
  keywords =     "computer selection and evaluation; computer systems,
                 digital; CPU memory subsystem; deterministic
                 simulation; highly concurrent computers; IBM 360/91;
                 multiprocessing systems; performance evaluation;
                 virtual machines",
  oldlabel =     "KumarD78",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/KumarD78",
}

@TechReport{Renaud:1978:UVM,
  author =       "D. J. Renaud",
  title =        "The {UT} Virtual Machine Monitor",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "CS-TR-78-78",
  institution =  "University of Texas at Austin, Department of Computer
                 Sciences",
  address =      "Austin, TX, USA",
  day =          "1",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1978",
  bibdate =      "November 24, 98",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Wed, 23 Jun 104 21:38:33 GMT",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.cs.utexas.edu/pub/techreports/tr78-78a.pdf;
                 ftp://ftp.cs.utexas.edu/pub/techreports/tr78-78b.pdf",
}

@Article{Attanasio:1979:VCS,
  author =       "C. R. Attanasio",
  title =        "Virtual Control Storage --- Security Measures in
                 {VM\slash 370}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93--110",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 08 16:35:07 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "An experimental extension to VM\slash 370 is described
                 whereby a distinct execution and data domain (Virtual
                 Control Storage) is made available to virtual machines
                 that require access to a resource manager, without
                 requiring a change in the scheduling unit. Thus
                 scheduling overhead and delays are avoided when
                 transition is made between user program and resource
                 manager. A mechanism is described for exchanging data
                 between execution domains by means of address-space
                 mapping.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  journalabr =   "IBM Syst J",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital",
}

@InProceedings{Canon:1979:VME,
  author =       "M. D. Canon and D. H. Fritz and John H. Howard and T.
                 D. Howell and Michael F. Mitoma and Juan
                 Rodriguez-Rossel",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 7th ACM Symposium on Operating
                 Systems Principles (SOSP)",
  title =        "A Virtual Machine Emulator for Performance Evaluation
                 (Summary)",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "1--??",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 27 15:11:21 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/sosp/sosp79.html#CanonFHHMR79;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  oldlabel =     "CanonFHHMR79",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/sosp/CanonFHHMR79",
}

@PhdThesis{Halstead:1979:RTN,
  author =       "R. H. Halstead",
  key =          "Halstead",
  title =        "Reference Tree Networks: Virtual Machine and
                 Implementation",
  type =         "Thesis ({Ph.D.})",
  school =       "Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer
                 Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology",
  address =      "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  pages =        "252",
  year =         "1979",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 5 09:49:44 1986",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Also issued as Technical Report MIT/LCS/TR-222.",
  abstract =     "A current-technology computing machine may be roughly
                 decomposed into a processor, a memory, and a data path
                 connecting them. The interposition of this data path
                 between processing and storage elements creates a
                 bottleneck, which inhibits progress at the
                 high-performance end of the technological spectrum.
                 Additionally, the monolithic nature of present-day
                 processors resists incremental addition or removal of
                 processing power. The research described here attacks
                 the problem of constructing more powerful and more
                 flexible computer systems along three fronts: the
                 definition of a virtual machine providing for parallel
                 computation using objects and object references, the
                 development of a distributed implementation mechanism
                 ({"reference} {trees"}) supporting object management
                 functions including garbage collection, and the
                 reinvestigation of scheduling algorithms and collection
                 performance results. A reference tree network using
                 these concepts is composed of a multitude of
                 independent small processors, yet operates as a
                 coherent programming system. Programs and data spread
                 automatically and transparently through the network to
                 occupy underused resources. The modular structure of
                 the network provides many parallel data paths as well
                 as allowing for easy addition or removal of modules,
                 thus addressing some of the problems discussed above. A
                 prototype reference tree network, the MuNet, is
                 currently in operation. {AD A076-570}",
  notes =        "Cost is \$26. Keywords: message passing, distributed
                 computing, multiprocessor systems, distributed object
                 management, networks",
  owner =        "seufert",
}

@Article{Hendricks:1979:EVM,
  author =       "Edson C. Hendricks and Timothy C. Hartmann",
  title =        "Evolution of a Virtual Machine Subsystem",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "111--142",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 13:25:19 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/ibmsj/ibmsj18.html#HendricksH79;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Early investigation of virtual machine subsystem
                 flexibility centered on telecommunications support and
                 intercomputer networking and proceeded in two phases.
                 The first phase focused on an experimental program for
                 the virtual machine control program CP-67 that
                 supported remote work stations and pioneered
                 intercomputer spool communications. The results of that
                 effort inspired a second effort in the same area with
                 some significant redirection. This second phase
                 ultimately led to the remote spooling communications
                 subsystem component of VM\slash 370, the VM\slash 370
                 networking package (VNET), and a large network of
                 interactive computer systems within IBM. These phases
                 are discussed along with suggestions for several
                 continuing lines of work based on current results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  journalabr =   "IBM Syst J",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital",
  oldlabel =     "HendricksH79",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/ibmsj/HendricksH79",
}

@Article{Jensen:1979:FAC,
  author =       "Richard M. Jensen",
  title =        "A Formal Approach for Communication Between Logically
                 Isolated Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "71--92",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 13:25:57 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/ibmsj/ibmsj18.html#Jensen79;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The growing use of the virtual machine concept has
                 resulted in the necessity for communication between the
                 virtual machines. The design and operation of the
                 Virtual Machine Communication Facility is discussed as
                 an approach to offering such communication. The
                 facility is an interface allowing a logical connection
                 between two or more virtual machines. Potential
                 applications for this facility conclude the
                 discussion.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  journalabr =   "IBM Syst J",
  keywords =     "computers, digital",
  oldlabel =     "Jensen79",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/ibmsj/Jensen79",
}

@Article{Kobayashi:1979:SMC,
  author =       "Y. Kobayashi and T. L. Kunii",
  title =        "A simulation of a minicomputer controlled system and
                 its use as a debugging tool",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "22",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "41--49",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 13:51:56 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/tiff/41.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/tiff/42.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/tiff/43.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/tiff/44.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/tiff/45.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/tiff/46.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/tiff/47.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/tiff/48.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_22/Issue_01/tiff/49.tif",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6150G (Diagnostic, testing, debugging and evaluating
                 systems)",
  classification = "722; 723",
  corpsource =   "Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "computer programming languages --- Program Debugging;
                 computer simulation; computerised control; computers,
                 miniature; debugging real programs; mechanism;
                 minicomputer controlled system; program debugging;
                 simulation; time flow; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{MacKinnon:1979:CVM,
  author =       "Richard A. MacKinnon",
  title =        "The Changing Virtual Machine Environment: Interfaces
                 to Real Hardware, Virtual Hardware, and Other Virtual
                 Machines",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "18--46",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 13:27:26 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/ibmsj/ibmsj18.html#MacKinnon79;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "A survey is presented of changes to virtual machine
                 interfaces, implementation, architecture, and
                 simulation techniques as they affect IBM System\slash
                 370 and 303X (3031, 3032, 3033) processors, the system
                 control program to which virtual machines interface,
                 and other virtual machines executing on the same real
                 computing system or elsewhere. New uses of virtual
                 machine subsystems are discussed as they relate to
                 inter-virtual-machine communication.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  journalabr =   "IBM Syst J",
  keywords =     "computer systems, digital",
  oldlabel =     "MacKinnon79",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/ibmsj/MacKinnon79",
}

@TechReport{Moore:1979:IVM,
  author =       "J. S. Moore II",
  title =        "The {InterLISP} Virtual Machine Specification",
  type =         "Report",
  number =       "CSL 76-5",
  institution =  "Xerox, Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)",
  address =      "Palo Alto, CA, USA",
  year =         "1979",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Sep. 1976, Rvsd. March 1979",
  keywords =     "LISP",
}

@Article{Parnas:1979:DSE,
  author =       "D. L. Parnas",
  key =          "Parnas",
  title =        "Designing Software for Ease of Expansion and
                 Contraction",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-SOFTW-ENG,
  volume =       "SE-5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "128--138",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "IESEDJ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSE.1979.234169",
  ISSN =         "0098-5589 (print), 1939-3520 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0098-5589",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "Focuses on design of software that can be subseted and
                 expanded. Families of programs sharing subsets of
                 modules. Loops in the 'uses' relation should be
                 avoided. Minimal program subset and minimal increments.
                 Virtual machines, modules, uses relation. Criteria for
                 letting a module use another module. Example. 21
                 references.",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=32",
}

@Article{Rajaraman:1979:PPV,
  author =       "M. K. Rajaraman",
  title =        "Performance prediction of a virtual machine",
  journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "1--2",
  pages =        "57--62",
  month =        "Spring-Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1041853.1041858",
  ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5999",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 10:53:30 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Modeling and simulation of computer systems have two
                 main objectives. First, to evaluate the performance of
                 a given configuration of a machine and second, to
                 derive a mechanism for prediction of performance when
                 configuration parameters change. This paper addresses
                 the second issue and reports the result of a recent
                 investigation of a Virtual Memory Computer. The results
                 indicate which variables or combination of variables
                 have significant effect on the performance and which do
                 not.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@TechReport{Abramson:1980:WGL,
  author =       "Harvey Abramson",
  title =        "Why Is a Goto Like a Dynamic Vector in the {BCPL-Slim}
                 Computing System",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "TR-80-09",
  institution =  "Department of Computer Science, University of British
                 Columbia",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1980",
  bibdate =      "July 21, 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Mon, 21 Jul 1997 19:29:13 GMT",
  abstract =     "The Slim computer is a new virtual machine which can
                 be used in the translation and porting of the BCPL
                 compiler, and eventually, in the porting of an
                 operating system written in BCPL. For the purposes of
                 this paper, the Slim computer is a stack machine with a
                 single accumulator and a register which points to the
                 top of the stack. The procedures LEVEL and LONGJUMP,
                 traditionally used to implement transfers of control
                 across BCPL procedures, and which are usually written
                 in the assembler language of a host machine, cannot be
                 used with this architecture. In developing procedures
                 to implement \underline{all} transfers of control, we
                 show how these essential procedures --- though highly
                 dependent on the Slim architecture --- can be written
                 portably in BCPL, and discover an interesting
                 connection between implementing jumps and dynamic
                 vectors (by means of Aptovec) in the BCPL-Slim
                 computing system. Some parameters of portability in
                 rapping an abstract machine to host machines are
                 identified, and it is shown how to maintain the
                 portability of the above mentioned procedures in the
                 face of various mapping problems. Finally, we are led
                 to a comment on the design of BCPL to the effect that
                 \underline{goto}'s are an unnecessary feature of the
                 language.",
}

@Article{Canon:1980:VME,
  author =       "M. D. Canon and D. H. Fritz and John H. Howard and T.
                 D. Howell and Michael F. Mitoma and Juan
                 Rodriguez-Rossel",
  title =        "A Virtual Machine Emulator for Performance
                 Evaluation",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "71--80",
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 06:29:30 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cacm/cacm23.html#CanonFHHMR80;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
  oldlabel =     "CanonFHHMR80",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cacm/CanonFHHMR80",
}

@InCollection{Dommergaard:1980:DVM,
  author =       "O. Dommergaard",
  key =          "Dommergaard80",
  booktitle =    "Abstract Software Specifications",
  title =        "The Design of a Virtual Machine for Ada",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "463--605",
  year =         "1980",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "Derives the design and formalizes the architecture of
                 a virtual machine for efficient execution of Ada
                 programs. This, the so-called A-code machine, is then
                 the basis for a compiling algorithm specification.",
}

@TechReport{Dommergaard:1980:FDP,
  author =       "S. Bodilsen O. Dommergaard",
  key =          "Dommergaard\&80",
  title =        "A Formal Definition of {P}-Code",
  institution =  "Department of Comp. Sci.",
  address =      "Techn. Univ. of Denmark",
  year =         "1980",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "Like \cite{Dommergaard80a} this formalizes a(nother)
                 virtual machine, that of P-Code, for efficient
                 execution of Pascal programs.",
}

@Article{Groves:1980:DVM,
  author =       "L. J. Groves and W. J. Rogers",
  title =        "The design of a virtual machine for {Ada}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "223--234",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:14:31 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6130 (Data handling techniques); C6140D (High level
                 languages); C6150C (Compilers, interpreters and other
                 processors); C6150J (Operating systems)",
  conflocation = "Boston, MA, USA; 9--11 Dec. 1980",
  conftitle =    "Proceedings of the ACM-SIGPLAN Symposium on the Ada
                 Programming Language",
  corpsource =   "Univ. of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "Ada; addressing; blocks; compiler portability; control
                 flow; data handling; data storage; exceptions;
                 generating code; machine-independent translator;
                 manipulation; program compilers; program interpreters;
                 storage allocation; storage structure; subprograms;
                 task handling; virtual machine; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "A Application",
}

@Article{Kent:1980:PNV,
  author =       "S. A. Kent",
  title =        "A Programmable Network Virtual Machine",
  journal =      j-COMP-NET,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "125--137",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "CNETDP",
  ISSN =         "0376-5075 (print), 1878-3120 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0376-5075",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 07:26:10 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/cn/cn4.html#Kent80;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ Coll, London, Engl",
  annote =       "The increasing diversity of resources which is
                 becoming available to users through the introduction of
                 computer networks has opened up new areas of
                 investigation. One of the problems encountered is that
                 of providing uniform and common access procedures where
                 functionally similar facilities exist on different
                 systems. \ldots{} One approach to solving these
                 problems is to create an agent that is able both to
                 automate remote access procedures on the \ldots{}",
  classification = "722; 723",
  descriptors =  "Computer network; design; access control; network
                 management;",
  enum =         "1638",
  fjournal =     "Computer Networks",
  journalabr =   "Comput Networks",
  keywords =     "computer networks; computers, digital",
  language =     "English",
  location =     "RWTH-AC-DFV: Bibl.",
  oldlabel =     "Kent80",
  references =   "36",
  revision =     "14/01/92",
  WARNING =      "Additional, or modified, lettercase-preserving braces
                 are likely to be required in title and booktitle
                 fields.",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/cn/Kent80",
}

@Article{Kerridge:1980:STC,
  author =       "J. M. Kerridge and N. Willis",
  title =        "A simulator for teaching computer architecture",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "65--71",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/989253.989264",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 08:07:49 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the specification, implementation
                 and use of a computer system simulator. The simulator
                 project was begun as a result of teaching a second year
                 undergraduate course in computer systems.It became
                 apparent that students only fully appreciate the
                 differences in computer architecture when they are able
                 to have ``hands on'' experience. This simulator, which
                 operates at the register transfer level, allows
                 students to gain experience of many different
                 architectures without recourse to many different
                 computers. This experience, in the first instance, is
                 gained by the students being able to run programs on
                 the simulated computers and then investigating the
                 state of the computer after each machine or micro
                 instruction. The design of these teaching computers is
                 chosen so that they demonstrate a particular
                 architectural detail. Subsequently students can design
                 their own computer systems and compare them with
                 simulations of commercially available computers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
  keywords =     "STARTLE simulator",
}

@TechReport{Warren:1980:IPI,
  author =       "D. H. D. Warren",
  key =          "Warren",
  title =        "An Improved {Prolog} Implementation Which Optimises
                 Tail Recursion",
  type =         "Research Paper",
  number =       "156",
  institution =  "Department of AI, Univeristy of Edinburgh",
  year =         "1980",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 13 12:29:53 1983",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  keywords =     "compiler; Implementation; tail recursion; virtual
                 machine",
}

@Article{Sarda:1981:CAD,
  author =       "N. L. Sarda and J. R. Isaac",
  title =        "Computer aided design of database internal schema",
  journal =      j-INT-J-COMPUT-INF-SCI,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "219--234",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1981",
  CODEN =        "IJCIAH",
  ISSN =         "0091-7036",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 26 12:20:22 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming); C6120
                 (File organisation); C6160 (Database management systems
                 (DBMS)); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Computer Centre, Indian Inst. of Technol., Bombay,
                 India",
  fjournal =     "International Journal of Computer and Information
                 Sciences",
  keywords =     "computer aided design; data structures; database
                 internal schema; database management systems; database
                 systems; design; systems analysis; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Wang:1981:VMB,
  author =       "Richard T. Wang and James C. Browne",
  title =        "Virtual Machine-Based Simulation of Distributed
                 Computing and Network Computing",
  crossref =     "ACM:1981:ASC",
  pages =        "154--156",
  year =         "1981",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 15:38:35 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/sigmetrics/sigmetrics81.html#WangB81;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  oldlabel =     "WangB81",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/sigmetrics/WangB81",
}

@TechReport{Abramsky:1982:SMV,
  author =       "S. Abramsky",
  title =        "{SECD-M}: a virtual machine for applicative
                 multiprogramming",
  number =       "QMW-DCS-1982-322; QMW-DCS-1982-339",
  institution =  "Department of Computer Science, Queen Mary College",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1982",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "(LA has)",
  abstract-url = "http://www.dcs.qmw.ac.uk/publications/report_abstracts/1982/322;
                 http://www.dcs.qmw.ac.uk/publications/report_abstracts/1982/339",
  keywords =     "Applicative programming , functional programming, SECD
                 machines multiprogramming, non-determinism, operating
                 systems.",
  scope =        "theory",
}

@TechReport{Baden:1982:HPS,
  author =       "Scott B. Baden",
  title =        "High Performance Storage Reclamation in an
                 Object-Based Memory System",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "CSD-84-167",
  institution =  "University of California, Berkeley",
  pages =        "52",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1982",
  bibdate =      "June 22, 1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Measurements of the Smalltalk Virtual Machine indicate
                 that 20\%-30\% of the time is spent reclaiming disused
                 storage. Following the work of Deutsch, Bobrow, and
                 Snyder [Deutsch and Bobrow 76] [Deutsch 82a] [Deutsch
                 82b] [Snyder 79] we introduce a strategy that reduces
                 the overhead of storage reclamation by more than 80\%.
                 We discuss the design of hardware to support this
                 strategy, and compare the hardware to a traditional
                 software implementation. We conclude by suggesting
                 directions for future research.",
}

@Article{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,
  author =       "Mahadevan Ganapathi and Charles N. Fischer and John L.
                 Hennessy",
  key =          "Ganapathi et al.",
  title =        "Retargetable Compiler Code Generation",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "573--592",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  ISSN =         "0010-4892",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 18 07:42:17 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Wulf:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,Fraser:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRb}.",
  abstract =     "A classification of automated retargetable code
                 generation techniques and a survey of the work on these
                 techniques is presented. Retargetable code generation
                 research is classified into three categories:
                 interpretive code generation, pattern-matched code
                 generation, and table-driven code generation.
                 Interpretive code generation approaches generate code
                 for a virtual machine and then expand into real target
                 code. Pattern-matched code generation approaches
                 separate the machine description from the code
                 generation algorithm. Table-driven code generation
                 approaches employ a formal machine description and use
                 a code-generator generator to produce code generators
                 automatically. An analysis of these techniques and a
                 critique of automatic code generation algorithms are
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Code-generator generator; compiler compiler; computer
                 programming languages; intermediate representation;
                 machine description; machine-dependent optimization",
  owner =        "manning",
}

@Article{Thanh:1982:ITC,
  author =       "Nguyen the Thanh and E. Walter Raschner",
  title =        "Indirect threaded code used to emulate a virtual
                 machine",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "80--89",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 28 16:17:03 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6130 (Data handling techniques); C6150C (Compilers,
                 interpreters and other processors); C6150J (Operating
                 systems)",
  corpsource =   "E. Walter Raschner, Nixdorf Computer AG, Paderborn,
                 West Germany",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "assembler programs; codes; Indirect Threaded Code;
                 Pascal compiler; program assemblers; program
                 interpreters; Threaded Code; virtual machine; virtual
                 machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Unger:1982:OSZ,
  author =       "B. Unger and D. Bidulock and G. Lomow and P. Belanger
                 and C. Hankins and N. Jain",
  title =        "An {OASIS} simulation of the {ZNET} microcomputer
                 network",
  journal =      j-IEEE-MICRO,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "70--84",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1982",
  CODEN =        "IEMIDZ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MM.1982.291024",
  ISSN =         "0272-1732 (print), 1937-4143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0272-1732",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 14 06:08:58 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Science Citation Index database (1980--2000)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C5620 (Computer networks and techniques); C7430
                 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Univ. of Calgary, Alta., Canada",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Micro",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/index.html",
  keywords =     "architecture; communication protocols; computer
                 networks; distributed programs; hardware; local; MCZ-2;
                 microcomputer network; multicomputer; network; OASIS;
                 prototype software; Prototyping System; simulation;
                 software; Software; systems; virtual machines; Zilog;
                 ZNET",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
  xxauthor =     "B. Unger and P. Belanger and D. Bidulock and C.
                 Hankins and N. Jain and G. Lomow",
}

@TechReport{Baker:1983:MAS,
  author =       "T. P. Baker",
  title =        "Mapping {Ada} onto a Simple Virtual Machine",
  number =       "ADA-83-02",
  institution =  "Florida State University",
  year =         "1983",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
}

@TechReport{Cohen:1983:PSR,
  author =       "Shismon Cohen and Roni Rosner and Ari Zidon",
  title =        "{PARALISP Simulator (Reference Manual)}",
  type =         "Research Report",
  number =       "83-2",
  institution =  "Computer Science Department, Hebrew University",
  address =      "Jerusalem, Israel",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1983",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "PLISP (``Parallel Lisp'') is the current
                 implementation of ``Senile Parallel Execution of Lisp
                 Programs'' (Lehmann and Cohen). PLISP may be thought of
                 as a virtual machine designed to evaluate LISP
                 expressions in a parallel fashion. The language of this
                 virtual machine is PARALISP. This means, for example,
                 that when a function application contains several
                 formal arguments, these arguments may be evaluated in
                 parallel, under the assumption that there are no
                 dependencies, or side effects. Therefore, PARALISP is a
                 version of LISP designed to enable parallel evaluation
                 to occur without side effects.",
  keywords =     "functional parallel; Lisp",
}

@Article{Fraser:1983:SFR,
  author =       "Christopher W. Fraser",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Retargetable} Code Generators",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "281--283",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/356914.356922",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,Wulf:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,Ganapathi:1983:SFRb}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,
  author =       "M. Ganapathi and J. L. Hennessy and C. N. Fischer",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Retargetable} Code Generators",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "280--281",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/356914.356921",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,Wulf:1983:SFR,Fraser:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRb}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Ganapathi:1983:SFRb,
  author =       "M. Ganapathi and J. L. Hennessy and C. N. Fischer",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Retargetable} Code Generators",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "283--284",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/356914.356923",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,Wulf:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,Fraser:1983:SFR}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@Article{Gum:1983:SEA,
  author =       "Peter H. Gum",
  title =        "{System\slash 370} Extended Architecture: Facilities
                 for Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-IBM-JRD,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "530--544",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "IBMJAE",
  ISSN =         "0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-8646",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 22 13:12:28 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/ibmrd/ibmrd27.html#Gum83;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the evolution of facilities for
                 virtual machines on IBM System\slash 370 computers, and
                 presents the elements of a new architectural facility
                 designed for the virtual-machine environment. Assists
                 that have been added to various System\slash 370 models
                 to support the use of virtual machines are summarized,
                 and a general facility for this purpose which was
                 introduced with the System\slash 370 Extended
                 Architecture (370-XA) is described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C5220 (Computer architecture); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  classification = "723",
  corpsource =   "IBM Information Systems and Technol. Group,
                 Poughkeepsie, NY, USA",
  fjournal =     "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
  journalabr =   "IBM J Res Dev",
  keywords =     "370-XA architecture; computer architecture; computers;
                 data storage, digital; dynamic address translation;
                 Extended Architecture; IBM System/370; privileged
                 instructions; virtual machines",
  oldlabel =     "Gum83",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/ibmrd/Gum83",
}

@Article{Kamrad:1983:ROA,
  author =       "J. M. {Kamrad III}",
  key =          "Kamrad",
  title =        "Runtime Organization for the {Ada} Language System
                 Programs",
  journal =      j-SIGADA-LETTERS,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "58--68",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "AALEE5",
  ISSN =         "0736-721X",
  ISSN-L =       "0736-721X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Mar 6 10:04:32 1985",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The runtime organization provides the execution
                 environment for generated code of a source program. The
                 runtime organization includes the primitive data
                 elements, such as scalar and composite data objects;
                 system data elements, such as stack and heaps; and a
                 runtime system to provide functionality not supported
                 in the target computer. In effect the runtime
                 organization provides an abstract or virtual machine.
                 This paper is a brief overview of the runtime
                 organization that is the execution environment for the
                 code generated by the Ada compiler in the Army Ada
                 Language System. Since this compiler translates the
                 full Ada language, the runtime organization must
                 provide support not normally found in other languages,
                 such as exception handling and tasking. As
                 retargetability is a major goal of the Ada Language
                 System, The runtime organization must also exist on
                 many targets, both with or without an operating system
                 support. While this paper specifically describes the
                 runtime organization for the VAX/VMS 11/780, it does
                 explore the design flexibility that enables the design
                 to support generated code over a variety of targets.",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGADA Ada Letters",
}

@InProceedings{Kojima:1983:AMI,
  author =       "Tomihiko Kojima and Hidehiko Akita and Hisashi
                 Hashimoto",
  title =        "An Approach to a Machine Independent {UNIX} --- {UNIX}
                 on {HITAC M-series} Virtual Machines",
  crossref =     "STUG:1983:PUA",
  pages =        "363--369",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1983",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 18 07:24:24 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.uu.net/library/bibliography;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Hitachi Ltd.",
}

@Article{Mendelsohn:1983:RVF,
  author =       "Noah Mendelsohn and Mark H. Linehan and William J.
                 Anzick",
  title =        "Reflections on {VM\slash Pass-Through}: a Facility for
                 Interactive Networking",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "1-2",
  pages =        "63--79",
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 08 16:35:07 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "An introduction to Pass-Through networking describes
                 features of the system, supported configurations, and
                 use of Pass-Through within the IBM Corporation. A brief
                 history of Pass-Through's development is also provided.
                 Pass-Through is then used to motivate a technical
                 discussion of interactive network technology and
                 virtual machine subsystems. Topics covered include
                 appropriate use of the virtual machine environment,
                 choice of routing strategy, and performance
                 considerations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  journalabr =   "IBM Syst J",
  keywords =     "computer networks",
}

@Article{Wulf:1983:SFR,
  author =       "William A. Wulf and Joe Newcomer and Bruce Leverett
                 and Rick Cattell and Paul Knueven",
  title =        "Surveyor's Forum: {Retargetable} Code Generators",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "279--280",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1983",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/356914.356920",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 09:32:37 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Ganapathi:1982:RCC,Ganapathi:1983:SFRa,Fraser:1983:SFR,Ganapathi:1983:SFRb}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
}

@InProceedings{Gold:1984:KR,
  author =       "B. D. Gold and R. R. Linde and P. F. Cudney",
  title =        "{KVM\slash 370} In Retrospect",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1984:PSS",
  pages =        "13--23",
  year =         "1984",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "KVM/370 (Kernelized Virtual Machine System 370) is
                 based on IBM's Virtual Machine operating system,
                 VM/370. KVM/370 is a general purpose operating system
                 that enforces DoD military security policy using kernel
                 technology. Funded as a small research project in 1976,
                 the system has undergone continuous development since
                 1978 when implementation was begun by System
                 Development Corporation. This paper describes KVM/370's
                 architecture, security controls and performance. Based
                 on insights gained during the retrofit, recommendations
                 are made as to how a more efficient system might be
                 designed.",
}

@Article{Ibsen:1984:PVM,
  author =       "Leif Ibsen",
  title =        "A Portable Virtual Machine for {Ada}",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "17--29",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Sat May 31 13:36:16 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
}

@InProceedings{Kim:1984:EVM,
  author =       "K. H. Kim",
  title =        "Evolution of a Virtual Machine Supporting
                 Fault-Tolerant Distributed Processes at a Research
                 Laboratory",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1984:DE",
  pages =        "620--628",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1984",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 27 14:07:28 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/icde/icde84.html#Kim84;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/icde/Kim84.html",
  bookpages =    "????",
  cdrom =        "ICDE84/P620.pdf",
  cites-label =  "B1 (\ldots{}); C1 (\ldots{}); H1
                 (books/sp/Hartmann77); H2 (\ldots{}); K1 (\ldots{}); K2
                 (\ldots{}); V1 (\ldots{})",
  oldlabel =     "conf/icde/Kim84",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/icde/Kim84",
}

@Article{MacGregor:1984:MM,
  author =       "Doug MacGregor and Dave Mothersole and Bill Moyer",
  title =        "The {Motorola MC68020}",
  journal =      j-IEEE-MICRO,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "101--118",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "IEMIDZ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MM.1984.291226",
  ISSN =         "0272-1732 (print), 1937-4143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0272-1732",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 14 06:08:58 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Science Citation Index database (1980--2000)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "B1265F (Microprocessors and microcomputers); C5130
                 (Microprocessor chips)",
  classification = "722; 723; 902",
  corpsource =   "Motorola Inc., Austin, TX, USA",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Micro",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/index.html",
  keywords =     "32-bit microprocessor; cache; compatibility; computer
                 interfaces; computer programming --- Modular
                 Construction; computers, microprocessor; coprocessor
                 interface; high-speed asynchronous bus; instruction;
                 instruction set; microprocessor chips; Motorola MC
                 6802; Motorola MC68020; performance; programmer's
                 model; system enhancements; testability; virtual
                 memory/virtual machine",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{SPE::Ibsen1984,
  author =       "Leif Ibsen",
  title =        "A Portable Virtual Machine for {Ada}",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "17--29",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
}

@Article{Steensgaard-Madsen:1984:DPL,
  author =       "J. Steensgaard-Madsen and L. M. Olsen",
  title =        "Definition of the programming language {MODEF}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "92--110",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1984",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 25 11:46:37 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming); C6140D
                 (High level languages)",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "application programs; data abstraction; discrete
                 events; high level languages; MODEF; programming;
                 programming language; semantics; sequential process;
                 statement-oriented approach; user defined operators;
                 virtual machine virtual machine",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
}

@MastersThesis{Turek:1984:IDV,
  author =       "John Joseph E. Turek",
  title =        "Issues in the design of a virtual network for the
                 connection machine",
  type =         "Thesis ({B.S.})",
  school =       "Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer
                 Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology",
  address =      "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  pages =        "67",
  year =         "1984",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:56:30 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Supervised by Thomas Knight.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InCollection{Uehara:1984:BPB,
  author =       "K. Uehara and R. Ochitani and O. Kakusho and J.
                 Toyoda",
  booktitle =    "1984 International Symposium on Logic Programming",
  title =        "A Bottom-up Parser Base on Predicate Logic: a Survey
                 of the Formalism and its Implementation Techniques",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  year =         "1984",
  ISBN =         "0-8186-0522-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8186-0522-2",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "CH2007-3/84/0000-0220\$01.00",
  abstract =     "The authors present a grammar formalism for natural
                 language analysis based on the subset of predictive
                 logic, called PAMPS, and its implementation technique.
                 PAMPS has a bottom-up, left-to-right, parallel parser,
                 augmented by topdown filtering and a look-ahead
                 facility. Rules of a PAMPS grammar can have procedures
                 included in their right-hand sides, defined as Horn
                 clauses. These procedures are executed in a to-down,
                 depth-first manner. PAMPS can thus be seen to be an
                 elaborate mixture of an efficient bottom-up parser and
                 the programming language PROLOG. The authors have
                 developed two versions of PAMPS implementation. One is
                 an interpreter, and the other is a virtual machine and
                 its compiler. The technique for the virtual machine is
                 based on that of the DEC-10 PROLOG. Some modifications
                 are added so that the technique for the virtual machine
                 does not depend on any particular searching strategy.
                 It runs faster than the interpreter by a factor of 20
                 to 76. The technique is also useful in implementing
                 pseudo or-parallelism of PROLOG on a sequential
                 machine.",
  keywords =     "Program Compilers; Programming Theory; Software
                 Engineering",
}

@InProceedings{Abramski:1985:SMV,
  author =       "S. Abramski and R. Sykes",
  editor =       "Jean-Pierre Jouannaud",
  booktitle =    "{FPCA '85, Functional Programming Languages and
                 Computer Architecture}",
  title =        "{Secd-m: A Virtual Machine for Applicative
                 Programming}",
  volume =       "201",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "81--98",
  year =         "1985",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  abstract =     "We present a virtual machine to support {\em
                 applicative multiprogramming\/} --- the description of
                 concurrent, asynchronous systems such as operating
                 systems in a functional style. The machine extend's
                 Landin's secd machine to support multiple concurrent
                 expression evaluation, non-determinism in the form of
                 the fair merge, and a full range of input and output
                 devices. This allows system programs to be written in a
                 functional style. The secd-m machine has been
                 implemented and a number of functional concurrent
                 programs demonstrated.",
  keywords =     "SECD, Abstract Machine, Operating System",
}

@InCollection{Abramsky:1985:SMV,
  author =       "Samson Abramsky and R. Sykes",
  title =        "{{\sc SECD-M}}: a virtual machine for applicative
                 programming",
  crossref =     "Jouannaud:1985:FPL",
  pages =        "81--98",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1985",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 22:52:55 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/fpca/fpca85.html#AbramskyS85;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "We present a virtual machine to support applicative
                 multiprogramming - the description of concurrent,
                 asynchronous systems such as operating systems in a
                 functional style. The machine extend's Landin's secd
                 machine to support multiple concurrent expression
                 evaluation, non-determinism in the form of the fair
                 merge, and a full range of input and output devices.
                 This allows system programs to be written in a
                 functional style. The secd-m machine has been
                 implemented and a number of functional concurrent
                 programs demonstrated.",
  keywords =     "functional nancy symposium parallel non-determinism",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/fpca/AbramskyS85",
}

@InProceedings{Bachrach:1985:XVM,
  author =       "Jonathan Bachrach and John Wallerius and
                 Jehan-Fran{\c{c}}ois Paris",
  title =        "A {XINU} Virtual Machine",
  crossref =     "USENIX:1985:SCP",
  pages =        "348--355",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1985",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 18 07:24:24 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.uu.net/library/bibliography;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "University of California, San Diego",
}

@Article{Clocksin:1985:DSS,
  author =       "W. F. Clocksin",
  title =        "Design and simulation of a sequential {PROLOG}
                 machine",
  journal =      "New Generation Comput.",
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  address =      "Japan",
  pages =        "101--20",
  year =         "1985",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "PROLOG-X is an implemented portable interactive
                 sequential prolog system in which clauses are
                 incrementally compiled for a virtual machine called the
                 ZIP machine. At present, the ZIP machine is emulated by
                 software, but it has been designed to permit easy
                 implementation in microcode or hardware. PROLOG-X
                 running on the software-based emulator provides
                 performance comparable with existing prolog
                 interpreters. To demonstrate its efficiency,
                 compatibility, and comprehensiveness of implementation,
                 PROLOG-X has been used to compile and run several large
                 applications programs. Several novel techniques are
                 used in the implementation, particularly in the areas
                 of the representation of the record database, the
                 selection of clauses, and the compilation of arithmetic
                 expressions.",
  keywords =     "program compilers; program interpreters; PROLOG;
                 virtual machines",
}

@Article{Gaudiot:1985:PES,
  author =       "J. L. Gaudiot and M. D. Ercegovac",
  title =        "Performance evaluation of a simulated data-flow
                 computer with low-resolution actors",
  journal =      j-J-PAR-DIST-COMP,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "321--351",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "JPDCER",
  ISSN =         "0743-7315 (print), 1096-0848 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0743-7315",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 14 07:47:33 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA,
                 USA",
  classification = "713; 723; 921; C5220 (Computer architecture); C5440
                 (Multiprocessing systems); C5470 (Performance
                 evaluation and testing); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Comput. Res. Inst., Univ. of Southern California, Los
                 Angeles, CA, USA",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
  journalabr =   "J Parallel Distrib Comput",
  keywords =     "array handling; associative memory cycle time; chain;
                 communication costs; communication issues; computer;
                 computer architecture; computer programming languages;
                 computer simulation; computer systems, digital ---
                 Performance; computers --- Data Communication Systems;
                 daisy; deterministic simulation; directed acyclic
                 graphs; dual counter-rotating rings; evaluation;
                 integrated circuits, VLSI; interconnection networks;
                 low-resolution actors; Mathematical Models; operations;
                 optimal double loop network; parallel processing;
                 parallelism limitation; performance; performance
                 degradation; performance evaluation; program
                 structures; simulated data-flow; simulated data-flow
                 computer; size actors; variable-; variable-resolution
                 scheme; vector; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "X Experimental",
}

@Manual{IBM:1985:VM,
  author =       "{IBM}",
  title =        "Virtual machine",
  organization = "IBM Corporation",
  address =      "Endicott, NY, USA",
  edition =      "Fourth",
  pages =        "282",
  year =         "1985",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 V451 1985",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:28 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 melvyl.cdlib.org:210/CDL90",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "Publication number SX20-4400-3.",
  subject =      "Virtual computer systems; IBM 370 (Computer)",
}

@Article{Nanba:1985:VAV,
  author =       "S. Nanba and N. Ohno and H. Kubo and H. Morisue and T.
                 Ohshima and H. Yamagishi",
  title =        "{VM\slash 4}: {ACOS-4} virtual machine architecture",
  journal =      j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "171--178",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1985",
  CODEN =        "CANED2",
  ISSN =         "0163-5964 (ACM), 0884-7495 (IEEE)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5964",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 12 09:40:54 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/isca/isca85.html#NanbaOKMOY85;
                 http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
  oldlabel =     "NanbaOKMOY85",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/isca/NanbaOKMOY85",
}

@Article{Ballard:1986:QSD,
  author =       "M. B. Ballard and D. Maier and A. Wirfs-Brock",
  title =        "{QUICKTALK}: a {Smalltalk-80} dialect for defining
                 primitive methods",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "140--140",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 25 11:46:37 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "QUICKTALK is a dialect of Smalltalk-80 that can be
                 compiled directly into native machine code, instead of
                 virtual machine bytecodes. The dialect includes
                 ``hints'' on the class of method arguments, instance
                 variables, and class variables. We designed the dialect
                 to describe primitive Smalltalk methods. QUICKTALK
                 achieves improved performance over bytecodes by
                 eliminating the interpreter loop on bytecode execution,
                 by reducing the number of message send/returns via
                 binding some target methods at compilation, and by
                 eliminating redundant class checking. We identify
                 changes to the Smalltalk-80 system and compiler to
                 support the dialect, and give performance
                 measurements.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6140D (High level languages)",
  conflocation = "Portland, OR, USA; 29 Sept.-2 Oct. 1986",
  conftitle =    "OOPSLA '86. Object-Oriented Programming Systems,
                 Languages and Applications. Conference Proceedings",
  corpsource =   "Oregon Graduate Center, Beaverton, OR, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "bytecode execution; bytecodes; high level languages;
                 interpreter loop; machine code; performance
                 measurements; primitive methods; QUICKTALK; redundant
                 class checking; Smalltalk-80; virtual machine
                 bytecodes",
  owner =        "manning",
  pubcountry =   "USA A14",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Bernat:1986:IIG,
  author =       "Andrew P. Bernat",
  title =        "An interactive interpreter\slash graphic-simulator for
                 {IBM S\slash 370} architecture assembly language",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13--16",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/15075.15078",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 07:38:26 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Bhaskar:1986:VIO,
  author =       "K. S. Bhaskar and J. K. Peckol and J. L. Beug",
  title =        "{Virtual Instruments}: object-oriented program
                 synthesis",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "303--303",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 25 11:46:37 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6115 (Programming support); C7410D (Electronic
                 engineering)",
  conflocation = "Portland, OR, USA; 29 Sept.-2 Oct. 1986",
  conftitle =    "OOPSLA '86. Object-Oriented Programming Systems,
                 Languages and Applications. Conference Proceedings",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "automatic test equipment; Berkeley Smalltalk;
                 bottom-up synthesis; human interface models; interface
                 models; object-oriented program synthesis; programming
                 environment; programming environments; programming
                 paradigm; software development; SUN workstation; test
                 engineers; user interfaces; Virtual Instruments;
                 virtual machines",
  pubcountry =   "USA B05",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@TechReport{Danvy:1986:LVM,
  author =       "Olivier Danvy",
  title =        "{LILA}: a Virtual Machine for Functional and
                 Declarative Languages",
  number =       "86--38",
  institution =  "LITP, France",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1986",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Workshop on Future Directions in Computer Science and
                 Software",
}

@InProceedings{Genter:1986:UVM,
  author =       "Robert E. (Rick) Genter",
  title =        "{Unix} as a Virtual Machine Environment",
  crossref =     "USENIX:1986:SCP",
  pages =        "475--485",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1986",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 18 07:24:24 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.uu.net/library/bibliography;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "BBN Laboratories Inc.",
}

@Article{Ishikawa:1986:COO,
  author =       "Y. Ishikawa and M. Tokoro",
  title =        "A concurrent object-oriented knowledge representation
                 language {Orient 84\slash K}: its features and
                 implementation",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "232--232",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 25 11:46:37 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6140D (High level languages); C6150J (Operating
                 systems)",
  conflocation = "Portland, OR, USA; 29 Sept.-2 Oct. 1986",
  conftitle =    "OOPSLA '86. Object-Oriented Programming Systems,
                 Languages and Applications. Conference Proceedings",
  corpsource =   "Department of Electr. Eng., Keio Univ., Yokohama,
                 Japan",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "behavior part; concurrent object oriented language;
                 concurrent object-oriented knowledge representation
                 language; high level languages; implementation issues;
                 knowledge systems; knowledge-base part; monitor part;
                 multiprocessing programs; object framework; Orient
                 84/K; virtual machine",
  pubcountry =   "USA A23",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@TechReport{Lee:1986:DSE,
  author =       "Joon Sup Lee",
  title =        "{Dartmouth-Smalltalk: An Exercise in Implementation}",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "PCS-TR86-108",
  institution =  "Dartmouth College, Computer Science",
  address =      "Hanover, NH, USA",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1986",
  bibdate =      "January 20, 1995",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This report discusses a preliminary implementation of
                 the Smalltalk-80 virtual machine for VAX/Unix.",
}

@TechReport{McDonald:1986:TND,
  author =       "D. McDonald and J. Brooks and B. Woolf and P. Werner",
  title =        "Transition Networks for Discourse Management",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "UM-CS-1986-034",
  institution =  "University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Computer
                 Science",
  month =        dec # " 31,",
  year =         "1986",
  bibdate =      "April 3, 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Transition networks are a natural notation for
                 formalizing the space of actions and interpretations
                 through which a program must navigate when holding a
                 conversation with a human user [7], [19]. However,
                 dissatisfaction with the augmented transition network
                 formalism that we used in earlier work on tutoring
                 dialogs [28] has led us to develop the new formalism
                 that we present in this paper. We have implemented a
                 program framework --- a virtual machine --- that
                 defines a node and arc notation interpreted
                 semantically in terms of situations (arcs) that dictate
                 the actions (nodes) that the system is to take. Our
                 work is based on analyses of recorded conversations and
                 grounded in an experimental man-machine interface by
                 which a human lawyer would get advice from a legal
                 reasoning program. We present the motivations behind a
                 discourse manager and its place within a man-machine
                 interface, a definition of our formalism, and
                 illustrations of its use in two different domains.",
  language =     "English",
  notes =        "This report is only available in hardcopy form. For
                 ordering hard copies of reports which are currently
                 unavailable via ftp, please send email to:
                 techrept@cs.umass.edu U.S. mail to: Librarian Computer
                 Science Department Lederle Graduate Research Center
                 University of Massachusetts Amherst, Ma. 01003",
  retrieval =    "Send email to techrept@cs.umass.edu",
  revision =     "April 3, 1996",
}

@Article{Samples:1986:SSB,
  author =       "A. Dain Samples and David Ungar and Paul Hilfinger",
  key =          "Samples \& Ungar \& Hilfinger",
  title =        "{SOAR}: {Smalltalk} without bytecodes",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "107--118",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1986",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 25 11:46:37 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "OOPSLA '86 Conference Proceedings, Norman Meyrowitz
                 (editor), September 1986, Portland, Oregon.",
  abstract =     "We have implemented Smalltalk-80 on an
                 instruction-level simulator for a RISC microcomputer
                 called SOAR. Measurements suggest that even a
                 conventional computer can provide high performance for
                 Smalltalk-80 by abandoning the `Smalltalk Virtual
                 Machine' in favor of compiling Smalltalk directly to
                 SOAR machine code, linearizing the object table, and
                 replacing reference counting with a new technique
                 called Generation Scavenging. In order to implement
                 these techniques, we had to find new ways of hashing
                 objects, accessing often-used objects, invoking blocks,
                 referencing activation records, managing activation
                 record stacks, and converting the virtual machine
                 images.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "High performance for Smalltalk-80 results from
                 abandoning the Smalltalk Virtual Machine, compiling
                 directly into machine code, linearizing the activation
                 records on the stack, eliminating the object table, and
                 replacing reference counting with generation
                 scavenging. 22 references.",
  classification = "C6140 (Programming languages); C6150 (Systems
                 software)",
  conflocation = "Portland, OR, USA; 29 Sept.-2 Oct. 1986",
  conftitle =    "OOPSLA '86. Object-Oriented Programming Systems,
                 Languages and Applications. Conference Proceedings",
  corpsource =   "Department of Electr. Eng. and Comput. Sci.,
                 California Univ., Berkeley, CA, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "activation records; bytecodes; Generation Scavenging;
                 hashing objects; instruction level simulator; invoking
                 blocks; microcomputers; often-used objects; programming
                 languages; reference counting; RISC microcomputer;
                 SOAR; SOAR machine code; virtual machine images;
                 virtual machine images invoking blocks; virtual
                 machines",
  owner =        "manning",
  pubcountry =   "USA A11",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@TechReport{Schoen:1986:CS,
  author =       "Eric Schoen",
  title =        "The {CAOS} System",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "CS-TR-86-1125",
  institution =  "Stanford University, Department of Computer Science",
  pages =        "76",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1986",
  bibdate =      "May 01, 1995",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The CAOS system is a framework designed to facilitate
                 the development of highly concurrent real-time signal
                 interpretation applications. It explores the potential
                 of multiprocessor architectures to improve the
                 performance of expert systems in the domain of signal
                 interpretation. CAOS is implemented in Lisp on a
                 (simulated) collection of processor-memory sites,
                 linked by a high-speed communications subsystem. The
                 {"virtual} {machine"} on which it depends provides
                 remote evaluation and packet-based message exchange
                 between processes, using virtual circuits known as
                 streams. To this presentation layer, CAOS adds (1) a
                 flexible process scheduler, and (2) an object-centered
                 notion of agents, dynamically-instantiable entities
                 which model interpreted signal features. This report
                 documents the principal ideas, programming model, and
                 implementation of CAOS. A model of real-time signal
                 interpretation, based on replicated {"abstraction"}
                 pipelines, is presented. For some applications, this
                 model offers a means by which large numbers of
                 processors may be utilized without introducing
                 synchronization-necessitated software bottlenecks. The
                 report concludes with a description of the performance
                 of a large CAOS application over various sizes of
                 multiprocessor configurations. Lessons about problem
                 decomposition grain size, global problem solving
                 control strategy, and appropriate service provided to
                 CAOS by the underlying architecture are discussed.",
  notes =        "[Adminitrivia V1/Prg/19950501]",
}

@PhdThesis{Watson:1986:PRL,
  author =       "Paul Watson",
  title =        "The Parallel Reduction of Lambda Calculus Expression",
  school =       "University of Manchester",
  pages =        "133",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1986",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Also available as UMCS-87-2-1",
  abstract =     "Models of computation for the evaluation of Functional
                 Programs are based on the rules for reducing Lambda
                 Calculus expressions. Reduction is achieved by the
                 application of the b-conversion rule to suitable
                 redexes, but few models of computation provide a full
                 implementation of this rule because of the complexity
                 of avoiding variable name clashes. Consequently,
                 evaluation orders are restricted to those in which name
                 clashes cannot occur. This thesis develops a model of
                 computation for the parallel reduction of Lambda
                 Calculus expressions, represented in De Bruijn's
                 name-free notation, which does provide a full
                 implementation of b-conversion, allowing expression to
                 be reduced by any evaluation order. The model is
                 designed to allow reduction to be performed on a
                 parallel machine comprised of a set of processor/store
                 pairs connected by a communications network. A data-
                 driven, graph reduction execution mechanism is used to
                 exploit the parallel hardware efficiently. A language
                 for specifying graph reduction models of computation is
                 proposed, and is used to give full specification of the
                 Lambda Calculus reduction model. Specifications in the
                 language can be compiled to the instruction set of a
                 virtual machine. The code produced can then be executed
                 by a virtual machine emulator, or could be recompiled
                 to the order code of a physical processor to allow the
                 high performance simulation of models of computation.
                 The virtual machine is used as the foundation for the
                 design of a physical machine which would support the
                 parallel reduction of lambda calculus expressions. One
                 of the major issues in the design of graph reduction
                 models of computation is the removal of redundant parts
                 of the expression graph. Neither of the two standard
                 Garbage Collection schemes: Reference Count, or
                 Mark-Scan is entirely suitable for a distributed
                 machine, mainly because of the synchronisation they
                 require. A modified Reference Garbage Collection scheme
                 is described which removes the need for
                 synchronisation, and enhances some of the attractive
                 properties of Reference Count Garbage Collection.",
}

@TechReport{Baden:1987:RTP,
  author =       "Scott B. Baden",
  title =        "Run-Time Partitioning of Scientific Continuum
                 Calculations Running on Multiprocessors",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "CSD-87-366",
  institution =  "University of California, Berkeley",
  pages =        "154",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1987",
  bibdate =      "June 10, 1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "A wide range of scientific continuum calculations
                 typically concentrate computational effort
                 non-uniformly over localized regions of physical space.
                 We present a run-time partitioning strategy, intended
                 for such methods, that distributes work evenly across a
                 team of processors and that can exploit the spatial
                 localization present in the original computation in
                 order to avoid high overhead costs. We tried out our
                 strategy on Anderson's Methods of Local Corrections, a
                 type of vortex method for computational fluid dynamics.
                 Because computational effort follows particles that
                 congregate and disperse irregularly about the domain,
                 this problem is hard to partition in a way that
                 distributes the work evenly among the processors. We
                 ran experiments on 32 processors of an Intel Personal
                 Scientific Computer-- a message-passing hypercube
                 multiprocessor--and on 4 processors of a Cray X-MP--a
                 shared-memory vector architecture--and achieved good
                 parallel speedups of 22 and 3.6, respectively. The
                 partitioner may be implemented as a virtual machine
                 (VM) and made available to the programmer as a library
                 of run-time utilities. The semantics of the VM are
                 insensitive to the application and to the computer
                 architecture on which the VM are insensitive to the
                 application and to the computer architecture on which
                 the VM is implemented. The VM works with ordinary
                 programming languages, incurs modest overhead costs,
                 and requires no special hardware support. It should
                 apply to diverse applications, including finite
                 difference methods, and to diverse architectures
                 without requiring that the application be reprogrammed
                 extensively for each new architecture.",
  retrieval =    "tiff (in {001-154}.tif)",
}

@Article{Bergh:1987:HEH,
  author =       "Arndt B. Bergh and Keith Keilman and Daniel J.
                 Magenheimer and James A. Miller",
  title =        "{HP} 3000 Emulation on {HP} Precision Architecture
                 Computers",
  journal =      j-HEWLETT-PACKARD-J,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "87--89",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "HPJOAX",
  ISSN =         "0018-1153",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 14:12:15 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Two software subsystems for HP Precision Architecture
                 machines provide program execution that duplicates that
                 of HP 3000s running the MPE V operating system. The HP
                 3000 Emulator and the HP 3000 Object Code Translator
                 (OCT), provide program execution that duplicates that
                 of MPE V on the non-HP-Precision-Architecture HP 3000s.
                 The Emulator enables a user program to be loaded and
                 run without preparation or modification on an HP
                 Precision Architecture computer with the normal MPE
                 commands. In the case of the OCT, specific action by
                 the user is required to produce a translated program
                 before it can be run in the improved-performance
                 translated mode. This involves no code modification but
                 only a compiler-like invocation of the OCT for
                 translation, after which the target program will
                 automatically execute translated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  classification = "722; 723",
  fjournal =     "Hewlett-Packard Journal: technical information from
                 the laboratories of Hewlett-Packard Company",
  journalabr =   "Hewlett Packard J",
  keywords =     "3000 Object Code Translator; commercial operating
                 system; compatibility mode; computer architecture;
                 computer operating systems --- Program Compilers;
                 computers; environment; Hewlett Packard computers; HP;
                 HP 3000 emulator; HP 3000 Emulator; HP 3000 object code
                 translator (oct); HP 3000 Series 930; HP Precision
                 Architecture; MPE V; MPE XL operating system; operating
                 systems (computers); program execution; program
                 translation; software portability; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical; R Product Review",
}

@InProceedings{Bush:1987:CSR,
  author =       "W. R. Bush and A. D. Samples and D. Ungar and P. N.
                 Hilfinger",
  key =          "Bush et al.",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the Second International Conference on
                 Architectural Support for Programming Languages and
                 Operating Systems-ASPLOSII",
  title =        "Compiling {Smalltalk-80} to a {RISC}",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "112--116",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1987",
  bibdate =      "Mon Nov 16 15:42:30 1987",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The Smalltalk On A RISC project at U.C. Berkeley
                 proves that a high-level object-oriented language can
                 attain high performance on a modified reduced
                 instruction set architecture. The single most important
                 optimization is the removal of a layer of
                 interpretation, compiling the bytecoded virtual machine
                 instructions into low-level, register-based, hardware
                 instructions. This paper describes the compiler and how
                 it was affected by SOAR architectural features. The
                 compiler generates code of reasonable density and
                 speed. Because of Smalltalk-80's semantics, relatively
                 few optimizations are possible, but hardware and
                 software mechanisms at runtime offset these
                 limitations. Register allocation for an architecture
                 with register windows comprises the major task of the
                 compiler. Performance analysis suggests that SOAR is
                 not simple enough; several hardware features could be
                 efficiently replaced by instruction sequences
                 constructed by the compiler.",
  owner =        "manning",
}

@Article{Carr:1987:EUC,
  author =       "Harold Carr and Robert R. Kessler",
  title =        "Emulator for {Utah Common Lisp}'s {Abstract Virtual
                 Register Machine}",
  journal =      j-J-FORTH-APPL-RES,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "JFAREL",
  ISSN =         "0738-2022",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 6 19:54:46 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Univ of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA",
  classification = "723",
  fjournal =     "Journal of FORTH Application and Research",
  journalabr =   "J Forth Appl Res",
  keywords =     "abstract virtual register machine; computer operating
                 systems; computer programming languages --- Lisp;
                 forth; Utah Common Lisp; virtual machine emulator",
  pagecount =    "1987",
}

@Article{Donaldson:1987:TOS,
  author =       "John L. Donaldson",
  title =        "Teaching operating systems in a virtual machine
                 environment",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "206--211",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/31726.31759",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 07:38:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Gayer:1987:CPA,
  author =       "Richard Gayer and Catherine M. Beise and G. Scott
                 Owen",
  title =        "Conversion of a {PDP-11\slash 40} assembler and
                 simulator from mainframe {Pascal} to {Ada} on {IBM PC}
                 microcomputers",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "378--381",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/31726.31790",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 07:38:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The assembly language course at Georgia State
                 University is taught using a PDP-11/40 Assembler and
                 Simulator, written in Pascal, running on a Sperry
                 UNIVAC mainframe. In the past two years most of the
                 computer science program has been switched to IBM PC
                 compatible microcomputers. This, coupled with the fact
                 that the UNIVAC system is about to be retired,
                 motivated us to translate the PDP-11/40 system to the
                 microcomputers. The translation is from the mainframe
                 Pascal version to Ada for the PC's. The use of the
                 assembler and simulator, the rationale for the use of
                 Ada, and the problems encountered in the translation
                 are all discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Iacobovici:1987:VSP,
  author =       "S. Iacobovici and C. C. Ng",
  title =        "{VLSI} and System Performance Modeling",
  journal =      j-IEEE-MICRO,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "59--72",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "IEMIDZ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MM.1987.304883",
  ISSN =         "0272-1732 (print), 1937-4143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0272-1732",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 14 06:08:58 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Science Citation Index database (1980--2000)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "B1130B (Computer-aided circuit analysis and design);
                 B2570 (Semiconductor integrated circuits); C7410D
                 (Electronic engineering); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Nat. Semicond., Santa Clara, CA, USA",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Micro",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/index.html",
  keywords =     "circuit analysis computing; CPU; digital simulation;
                 evaluation; high-level; high-level simulation
                 environment; PAWS; performance; Performance Analysis
                 Workbench; performance-evaluation; simulation language;
                 simulation languages; System; system performance
                 modeling; virtual machines; VLSI; VLSI chips",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
  xxpages =      "59--71",
}

@TechReport{Lau:1987:OCV,
  author =       "A. S. K. Lau",
  title =        "Overview of the {CLIP7} Virtual Machine",
  type =         "Report",
  number =       "87/6",
  institution =  "Department of Physics and Astronomy, University
                 College London",
  address =      "London, UK",
  year =         "1987",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  keywords =     "multiprocessors, architecture, CLIP7",
}

@Article{Maxim:1987:TPA,
  author =       "Bruce R. Maxim and Bruce S. Elenbogen",
  title =        "Teaching programming algorithms aided by computer
                 graphics",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "297--301",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/31726.31775",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sun Nov 18 07:38:27 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Effects of operations on abstract data objects are
                 often difficult for students to comprehend. Visual
                 models can be helpful to students, when the connections
                 among the data object models, virtual machine
                 representations of data objects, and algorithms
                 operating on the data objects are made clear to the
                 students. This paper discusses the design criteria used
                 to develop a series of Pascal programs, implemented on
                 widely used microcomputers, which make use of graphics
                 to illustrate the effects of programming algorithms on
                 common data structures. These programs were designed to
                 be used in classroom demonstrations and by individual
                 students working in the computing laboratory.$^1$A
                 non-machine specific design of an algorithm teacher is
                 proposed. It is a programmed environment to help
                 students in a beginning computer science course learn
                 problem solving skills. This paper provides an overview
                 of the problem, a motivation and justification,
                 followed by a brief description of what the program
                 should provide the student.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Odette:1987:CPF,
  author =       "L. L. Odette",
  title =        "Compiling {Prolog} to {Forth}",
  journal =      j-J-FORTH-APPLIC-RESEARCH,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "487--534",
  year =         "1987",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The fact that the focus of a Prolog computation is the
                 structure of the program leads directly to a view of a
                 Prolog compiler as a procedure that takes a collection
                 of Prolog clauses and produces a description of their
                 structure that just happens to be executable. Forth
                 lends itself naturally to the description of both
                 structures and processes. In fact, some hold that Forth
                 programming involves creating the parts of speech
                 required to describe an application. This article
                 proposes that for this reason, Forth is a very good
                 language for prototyping Prolog compilers. A simple
                 object language for a Prolog to Forth compiler is
                 presented and discussed.",
  checked =      "19940317",
  keywords =     "source",
  sjb =          "Ignore all but the last sentence of the abstract, the
                 last sentence is what this paper is all about. It
                 describes a virtual machine for executing Prolog, how
                 this virtual machine can be implemented in Forth and
                 how the virtual machine instructions can be created
                 from Prolog source. Appendices contain the code to
                 implement the virtual machine and Prolog to virtual
                 machine mapping. The compiled code is over ten times
                 quicker than the interpreter described
                 in~cite{Odette:Paloski:jfar:1987}. An optimised version
                 has been ported to the NC4000P where it runs the naive
                 reverse benchmark at 6K LIPS at a clock rate of 4MHz.
                 Does {\em not} do garbage collection.",
}

@Article{Umeno:1987:NMR,
  author =       "Hidenori Umeno and Shunji Tanaka",
  title =        "New Methods for Realizing Plural Near-Native
                 Performance Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
  volume =       "C-36",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "1076--1087",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1987",
  CODEN =        "ITCOB4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TC.1987.5009538",
  ISSN =         "0018-9340 (print), 1557-9956 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9340",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 9 09:28:55 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/journals/tc/tc36.html#UmenoT87;
                 http://www.computer.org/tc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=5009538",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
  oldlabel =     "UmenoT87",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#journals/tc/UmenoT87",
}

@PhdThesis{Watson:1987:PRL,
  author =       "Paul Watson",
  title =        "The Parallel Reduction of Lambda Calculus Expression",
  type =         "Ph.{D}. Thesis",
  number =       "UMCS-87-2-1",
  school =       "University of Manchester, Computer Science
                 Department",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1987",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/csonly/cstechrep/Abstracts/UMCS-87-2-1.html;
                 mailto:techreports@cs.man.ac.uk",
  abstract =     "Models of computation for the evaluation of Functional
                 Programs are based on the rules for reducing Lambda
                 Calculus expressions. Reduction is achieved by the
                 application of the b-conversion rule to suitable
                 redexes, but few models of computation provide a full
                 implementation of this rule because of the complexity
                 of avoiding variable name clashes. Consequently,
                 evaluation orders are restricted to those in which name
                 clashes cannot occur. \_ This thesis develops a model
                 of computation for the parallel reduction of Lambda
                 Calculus expressions, represented in De Bruijn's
                 name-free notation, which does provide a full
                 implementation of b-conversion, allowing expression to
                 be reduced by any evaluation order. The model is
                 designed to allow reduction to be performed on a
                 parallel machine comprised of a set of processor/store
                 pairs connected by a communications network. A data-
                 driven, graph reduction execution mechanism is used to
                 exploit the parallel hardware efficiently. \_ A
                 language for specifying graph reduction models of
                 computation is proposed, and is used to give full
                 specification of the Lambda Calculus reduction model.
                 Specifications in the language can be compiled to the
                 instruction set of a virtual machine. The code produced
                 can then be executed by a virtual machine emulator, or
                 could be recompiled to the order code of a physical
                 processor to allow the high performance simulation of
                 models of computation. The virtual machine is used as
                 the foundation for the design of a physical machine
                 which would support the parallel reduction of lambda
                 calculus expressions. \_ One of the major issues in the
                 design of graph reduction models of computation is the
                 removal of redundant parts of the expression graph.
                 Neither of the two standard Garbage Collection schemes:
                 Reference Count, or Mark-Scan is entirely suitable for
                 a distributed machine, mainly because of the
                 synchronisation they require. A modified Reference
                 Garbage Collection scheme is described which removes
                 the need for synchronisation, and enhances some of the
                 attractive properties of Reference Count Garbage
                 Collection.",
}

@Article{Bodlaender:1988:CFU,
  author =       "Hans L. Bodlaender",
  title =        "The complexity of finding uniform emulations on fixed
                 graphs",
  journal =      j-INFO-PROC-LETT,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "137--141",
  day =          "26",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "IFPLAT",
  ISSN =         "0020-0190 (print), 1872-6119 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0020-0190",
  MRclass =      "68Q25 (05C99 68R10)",
  MRnumber =     "90e:68044",
  MRreviewer =   "Pavel Tomasta",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 11 12:16:26 MST 1998",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliationaddress = "Utrecht, Neth",
  classification = "722; 723; 921; C4240 (Programming and algorithm
                 theory)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput. Sci., Utrecht Univ.,
                 Netherlands",
  fjournal =     "Information Processing Letters",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00200190",
  journalabr =   "Inf Process Lett",
  keywords =     "complexity; computational complexity; Computer
                 Simulation; Computer Systems, Digital; directed graphs;
                 Fixed Graphs; fixed graphs; graph theory; Mathematical
                 Techniques--Graph Theory; NP-complete; NP-completeness;
                 parallel algorithms; Parallel Processing; Processor
                 Networks; structure-preserving simulations; theory;
                 Uniform Emulations; uniform emulations; verification;
                 virtual machines",
  subject =      "F.1.2 Theory of Computation, COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT
                 DEVICES, Modes of Computation, Parallelism \\ F.1.3
                 Theory of Computation, COMPUTATION BY ABSTRACT DEVICES,
                 Complexity Classes, Reducibility and completeness \\
                 G.2.m Mathematics of Computing, DISCRETE MATHEMATICS,
                 Miscellaneous \\ G.1.0 Mathematics of Computing,
                 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS, General, Parallel algorithms",
  treatment =    "T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@Article{Donahue:1988:UAL,
  author =       "Barry Donahue",
  title =        "Using assembly language to teach concepts in the
                 introductory course",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "20",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "158--162",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/52965.53003",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 18:57:05 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1980.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "While current trends in the teaching of the
                 introductory course are very positive, several problems
                 still remain to be faced. Among these are: A basic
                 understanding of the operation of a computer. An
                 emphasis on concept development rather than skill
                 development. A proper historical perspective of
                 computer science. To help remove these deficiencies, a
                 very simple virtual machine is introduced. Beginning
                 students learn to program on this machine with a very
                 limited instruction set. Many topics related to
                 software engineering, data structures, algorithm
                 design, etc. are introduced in a top down fashion with
                 details being developed with the aid of the virtual
                 machine. When a high level language is introduced,
                 students progress more rapidly and with a greater
                 understanding of what is taking place in the machine.
                 Students also develop a feel for computer science as a
                 dynamic field and tend not to think of a particular
                 language as being what computer science is.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@TechReport{Gilbert:1988:TSW,
  author =       "P. (Paul) Gilbert and others",
  title =        "Typed {Smalltalk} working papers, 1988",
  volume =       "UIUCDCS-R-88-1457; UILU-ENG-88-1762",
  type =         "Report",
  institution =  "Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois
                 at Urbana-Champaign",
  address =      "1304 W. Springfield Ave., Urbana 61801, IL, USA",
  pages =        "118",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1988",
  LCCN =         "QA76 .I4 no. 1457; QA76.73.S59",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:48 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "A user's guide to Typed Smalltalk / Ralph E. Johnson
                 and Justin O. Graver -- High level optimization in a
                 Typed Smalltalk compiler / by Joseph Patrick Loyall
                 (iii, 44 p.) -- The virtual machine architecture of
                 Typed Smalltalk / Ralph E. Johnson, Lawrence W.
                 Zurawski -- An implementation-independent definition of
                 Smalltalk execution contexts / Lawrence W. Zurawski --
                 Creating stand-alone Smalltalk applications / Paul D.
                 Gilbert.",
  subject =      "Smalltalk (Computer program language); Object-oriented
                 programming (Computer science)",
}

@Manual{IBM:1988:VMSa,
  author =       "{IBM Corporation}",
  title =        "Virtual machine \slash{} extended architecture system
                 product: application development guide for {FORTRAN}
                 and {COBOL}",
  organization = pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  pages =        "iii--x + 263",
  year =         "1988",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 27 13:40:57 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Index. ``SC23-0369-0.'' ``Licensed program
                 5664-308''.",
  keywords =     "IBM Manuals.",
}

@Manual{IBM:1988:VMSb,
  author =       "{International Business Machines Corporation}",
  title =        "Virtual machine \slash{} system product: application
                 development guide for {FORTRAN} and {COBOL}",
  organization = pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  edition =      "Fourth",
  pages =        "x + 280",
  year =         "1988",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 27 13:40:57 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Spine title: VM/SP Application Development Guide for
                 FORTRAN and COBOL. ``SC24-5247-03.'' ``July 1988''
                 ``File number S370/4300-50.'' Includes index.
                 Bibliography: p.263-266.",
  keywords =     "Virtual computer systems.",
}

@Article{Janakiram:1988:RPB,
  author =       "V. K. Janakiram and E. F. Gehringer and D. P. Agrawal
                 and Mehrotra and R.",
  title =        "A randomized parallel branch-and-bound algorithm",
  journal =      j-INT-J-PARALLEL-PROG,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "277--301",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "IJPPE5",
  ISSN =         "0885-7458 (print), 1573-7640 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0885-7458",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 26 11:04:14 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0885-7458&volume=17&issue=3;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C4240 (Programming and algorithm theory); C5470
                 (Performance evaluation and testing); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "AT and T Bell Labs, Holmdel, NJ, USA",
  fjournal =     "International Journal of Parallel Programming",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/journal/16",
  keywords =     "computational complexity; knapsack problem;
                 multiprocessor simulator; parallel algorithms; parallel
                 branch-and-bound algorithm; parallel deterministic
                 algorithms; performance evaluation; randomized
                 algorithms; reliability; software reliability; speedup
                 bounds; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical; T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@Article{Kermarrec:1988:SEA,
  author =       "Y. Kermarrec",
  title =        "Some experiments with {Ada}",
  journal =      j-ADA-USER,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "79--82",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "ADUSEB",
  ISSN =         "0268-652X",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 8 18:43:50 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming); C7430
                 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department Inf. et Reseaux, Ecole Nat. Sup{\'e}rieure
                 des Telecommun. de Bretagne, Brest, France",
  fjournal =     "Ada User",
  keywords =     "Ada; Ada programming language; computer networks;
                 distributed algorithms; Occam; Occam debugging;
                 parallel programming; program debugging; transputer
                 network simulator; transputers; virtual machines",
  pubcountry =   "UK",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InCollection{Low:1988:SPO,
  author =       "C. Low",
  editor =       "S. Gjessing and K. Nygaard",
  booktitle =    "ECOOP '88 European Conference on Object-Oriented
                 Programming",
  title =        "A Shared, Persistent Object Store",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "390--410",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1988",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Smalltalk-80 is presented as a useful testbed for
                 prototyping applications involving shared, persistent
                 objects, and a detailed design of a shared persistent
                 object store is discussed. The store is a set of named
                 containers for object state, and it provides low-cost
                 atomic transactions using an optimistic synchronization
                 technique. The standard Smalltalk-80 virtual machine is
                 modified to support a new object class, the
                 Transaction,and an example of a Smalltalk program using
                 nested sub-transactions is given. Immutability of
                 object state is identified both as an important
                 property of objects, and a basis for producing an
                 efficient implementation within a distributed system
                 environment.",
  keywords =     "Persistent Objects",
}

@Article{Sandberg:1988:EOO,
  author =       "David W. Sandberg",
  title =        "Experience With an Object-oriented Virtual Machine",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "415--426 (or 415--425??)",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Sat May 31 13:36:16 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software---Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
}

@Article{So:1988:PLV,
  author =       "K. So and V. Zecca",
  title =        "Program locality of vectorized applications running on
                 the {IBM} 3090 with {Vector Facility}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "436--452",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "An Instruction-level simulator is used to study the
                 program locality of large scientific applications. The
                 simulator, which models an IBM 3090 processor with
                 Vector Facility and a cache, was developed to help a
                 programmer improve the performance of an application
                 through better understanding and use of the Vector
                 Facility and the memory hierarchy of the IBM 3090
                 system. The main observations on a set of scientific
                 applications are as follows: although the applications
                 have different characteristics of memory accesses and
                 vectorization, their program locality is high enough to
                 take advantage of conventional cache structures; the
                 cache hit ratio of the vector execution can be quite
                 different from (but not significantly lower than) that
                 of the scalar execution of the same application; and
                 the application programs that are written to optimize
                 the use of the memory hierarchy in the system generally
                 result in higher cache hit ratios than the others. The
                 cache performance of these applications with respect to
                 various cache parameters is also presented. In
                 particular, the study finds that the cache structure of
                 the IBM 3090 is well suited for large scientific
                 applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Res. Div., Yorktown Heights, NY, USA",
  classification = "C5440 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques); C5470
                 (Performance evaluation and testing); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Cache performance; Conventional cache structures;
                 design, Instruction-level simulator; IBM 3090;
                 measurement; performance; Scientific applications;
                 Vector Facility",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  subject =      "C.4 Computer Systems Organization, PERFORMANCE OF
                 SYSTEMS \\ C.5.3 Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION, Microcomputers \\ B.3.2
                 Hardware, MEMORY STRUCTURES, Design Styles, Cache
                 memories",
  thesaurus =    "Buffer storage; IBM computers; Parallel machines;
                 Performance evaluation; Virtual machines",
}

@Article{Tucker:1988:AAC,
  author =       "Lewis W. Tucker and George G. Robertson",
  title =        "Architecture and Applications of the {Connection
                 Machine}",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "8",
  institution =  "TMC",
  pages =        "26--38",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1988",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 17 16:07:35 1996",
  bibsource =    "Database/Graefe.bib; Graphics/rosenfeld/1988.bib;
                 Graphics/vision.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Misc/IMMD_IV.bib; Parallel/par.misc.bib",
  annote =       "I think this is a better article than the Scientific
                 American or other papers I've seen on this. --enm There
                 is some salesmanship.",
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
  keywords =     "CM, CM-2, data vault, virtual machines, nexus, *LISP,
                 C*, SIMD, image analysis example,, Thinking Machines,
                 image processing, digital",
}

@Article{Birmingham:1989:MSC,
  author =       "William P. Birmingham and Anurag P. Gupta and Daniel
                 P. Siewiorek",
  title =        "The {Micon} System for Computer Design",
  journal =      j-IEEE-MICRO,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "61--67",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "IEMIDZ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/40.45823",
  ISSN =         "0272-1732 (print), 1937-4143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0272-1732",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 14 06:08:58 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Science Citation Index database (1980--2000)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
  classcodes =   "C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  classification = "722; 723",
  corpsource =   "Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Micro",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/index.html",
  keywords =     "artificial intelligence; computer; Computer Hardware;
                 Computers, Microcomputer--Design; databases; Design;
                 design; Design Automation; design synthesis; Micon
                 system; microprocessor configurer system; tool
                 environment; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical; R Product Review",
  xxauthor =     "W. P. Birmingham and D. P. Siewiorek and A. P. Gupta",
}

@Article{Blandy:1989:VSM,
  author =       "G. O. Blandy and S. R. Newson",
  title =        "{VM\slash XA} storage management",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "175--191",
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The VM/XA System Product manages the vast amounts of
                 real and expanded storage available on the new
                 Enterprise Systems Architecture/370 processors for both
                 guest use and support of internal operating system
                 functions. The management algorithms are examined, and
                 the rationale for their selection is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Data Syst. Div., Kingston, NY, USA",
  classification = "C5220 (Computer architecture); C5420 (Mainframes and
                 minicomputers); C6120 (File organisation); C6150J
                 (Operating systems)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Enterprise Systems Architecture/370; Expanded storage;
                 Guest use; IBM; Internal operating system functions;
                 Mainframes; Storage management; Virtual machines;
                 VM/XA",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "Computer architecture; IBM computers; Mainframes;
                 Storage allocation; Storage management; Virtual
                 machines; Virtual storage",
}

@TechReport{Blelloch:1989:SPP,
  author =       "G. E. Blelloch",
  title =        "{SCAN} {PRIMITIVES} {AND} {PARALLEL} {VECTOR}
                 {MODELS}",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "MIT/LCS/TR-463",
  institution =  "Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Laboratory for
                 Computer Science",
  pages =        "256",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1989",
  bibdate =      "February 25, 1995",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Cost is \$26. Date: Oct. 1989 Keywords: parallel
                 algorithms, parallel computing, P-RAM, parallel
                 compilers, data-parallel, scan operation, vector
                 models",
  abstract =     "This thesis defines a class of machine models called
                 parallel vector models and demonstrates that these
                 models are excellent both as algorithmic models on
                 which the complexity of algorithms can be analyzed, and
                 as instruction sets for virtual machines to which very
                 high-level programming languages can be compiled. As
                 algorithmic models, the thesis argues that the parallel
                 vector models permit a simpler and more concise
                 description and complexity analysis of algorithms than
                 the Parallel-RAM models. The thesis describes and
                 analyzes a broad variety of parallel algorithms in the
                 parallel vector models ranging from graph algorithms to
                 numerical algorithms. The thesis also describes a
                 compiler that compiles a high-level language,
                 PARALATION LISP, into the models and describes how the
                 models can be implemented on an actual parallel
                 machine, the Connection Machine. A set of scan
                 primitives and a set of segmented primitives play a
                 crucial role in the algorithms and the algorithms and
                 the compiler described in the thesis. The scan
                 primitives can be used for a huge variety of tasks and
                 improve the asymptotic complexity of many algorithms by
                 an O (lg n) factor. The segmented instructions can be
                 used to execute a vector routine over many sets of
                 values in parallel. They form the foundation of a
                 technique for flattening nested parallelism used by the
                 compiler.",
  notes =        "Cost is \$26. Date: Oct. 1989 Keywords: parallel
                 algorithms, parallel computing, P-RAM, parallel
                 compilers, data-parallel, scan operation, vector
                 models",
}

@Article{Bozman:1989:VSM,
  author =       "G. P. Bozman",
  title =        "{VM\slash XA SP2} minidisk cache",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "165--174",
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Given the growing disparity between CPU power and the
                 speed of secondary storage, a data cache exploiting
                 large processor storage has the potential to improve
                 response time dramatically in many situations. The
                 VM/XA SP2 minidisk cache facility, the result of
                 research activity on the characteristics of interactive
                 file-system activity, uses expanded storage to cache
                 input/output to minidisks on the Conversational Monitor
                 System. The size of the cache is dynamically adjusted
                 by an arbitration process to optimize system
                 performance. Several other functions improve the
                 performance of the cache during periods of unusual I/O
                 loads.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Res. Div., T. J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown
                 Heights, NY, USA",
  classification = "C5320C (Storage on moving magnetic media); C5320G
                 (Semiconductor storage); C6150J (Operating systems)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Conversational Monitor System; CPU power; Data cache;
                 Expanded storage; I/O loads; IBM; Input/output;
                 Interactive file-system activity; Large processor
                 storage; Response time; Secondary storage; System
                 performance; Virtual Machine/Extended Architecture;
                 VM/XA SP2 minidisk cache",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "Buffer storage; IBM computers; Magnetic disc storage;
                 Storage allocation; Storage management",
}

@TechReport{Brorsson:1989:ESV,
  author =       "Mats Brorsson",
  key =          "198910",
  title =        "{Emulation of Shared Virtual Memory on an Experimental
                 Multiprocessor}",
  institution =  "Department of Computer Engineering, Lund University",
  address =      "P.O. Box 118, S-221~00 Lund, Sweden",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1989",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "The performance of a paged virtual memory system is
                 relative to program behaviour, which makes it important
                 to use realistic workloads in the evaluation. Memory
                 traces are often used to drive simulation models of
                 paging performance. In the case of multiprocessors,
                 however, the complex interactions between parallel
                 processes cannot be captured by static traces. An
                 experimental environment for performance evaluation of
                 shared virtual memory systems on a class of
                 multiprocessors has been developed. It is based on
                 emulation of memory structures in software, which
                 combines the flexibility of simulation with the
                 efficiency of dedicated hardware. Each memory reference
                 is handled by software executed on special purpose
                 emulation hardware, which makes it possible to
                 implement a wide range of memory management mechanisms.
                 By combining hardware (containing 38 processing
                 elements) with emulation software, virtual machines
                 capable of executing real life parallel programs are
                 created. Non-invasive run-time measurements targeted
                 for each particular experiment can be done by means of
                 'software probes' integrated in the emulation software.
                 In order to show how the experimental system can be
                 used, a particular decentralized virtual memory
                 management scheme has been implemented. It is based on
                 a generalized version of the Denning working set policy
                 also handling shared pages. As part of the example,
                 facilities for automatic experimental control and
                 graphical result presentation are demonstrated.",
  ftp =          "dit.lth.se:/pub/techreports/complete-papers/Dt-070.ps.Z",
  location =     "070",
}

@TechReport{Demillo:1989:DSC,
  author =       "Richard A. Demillo and Richard J. Lipton",
  title =        "Defining Software by Continuous, Smooth Functions",
  number =       "SERC-TR-49-P",
  institution =  "Software Engineering Research Centre",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1989",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "A simple proof is given that for every operational
                 description of a software system expressed as a
                 discrete state transition function on a virtual machine
                 there is a continuous smooth function on the reals that
                 agrees with the state transition function on all legal
                 states and has exactly the same complexity. An
                 implication of this result is that there is no reason
                 in principle that the methods of classical analysis
                 cannot be used in software engineering.",
}

@Article{Farrow:1989:VCB,
  author =       "Rodney Farrow and Alec G. Stanculescu",
  title =        "A {VHDL} compiler based on attribute grammar
                 methodology",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "120--130",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:15:41 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/pldi/73141/index.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/proceedings/pldi/73141/p120-farrow/",
  abstract =     "This paper presents aspects of a compiler for a new
                 hardware description language (VHDL) written using
                 attribute grammar techniques. VHDL is introduced, along
                 with the new compiler challenges brought by a language
                 that extends an Ada subset for the purpose of
                 describing hardware. Attribute grammar programming
                 solutions are presented for some of the language
                 challenges. The organization of the compiler and of the
                 target virtual machine represented by the simulation
                 kernel are discussed, and performance and code-size
                 figures are presented. The paper concludes that
                 attribute grammars can be used for large commercial
                 compilers with excellent results in terms of rapid
                 development time and enhanced maintainability, and
                 without paying any substantial penalty in terms of
                 either the complexity of the language that can be
                 handled or the resulting compilation speed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Published as part of the Proceedings of PLDI'89.",
  classification = "722; 723",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the SIGPLAN '89 Conference on
                 Programming Language Design and Implementation",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  journalabr =   "SIGPLAN Not",
  keywords =     "Attribute Grammar Methodology; Computer Hardware
                 Description Languages; Computer Operating
                 Systems--Program Compilers; Computer Programming
                 Languages--Ada; Design; design; languages",
  meetingaddress = "Portland, OR, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Jun 21--23 1989",
  meetingdate2 = "06/21--23/89",
  sponsor =      "ACM, Special Interest Group on Programming Languages,
                 New York; SS NY, USA",
  subject =      "{\bf B.6.3} Hardware, LOGIC DESIGN, Design Aids,
                 Hardware description languages. {\bf D.3.4} Software,
                 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Processors, Compilers. {\bf
                 D.2.10} Software, SOFTWARE ENGINEERING, Design**,
                 Methodologies**.",
}

@Article{Giacalone:1989:FSI,
  author =       "Alessandro Giacalone and Prateek Mishra and Sanjiva
                 Prasad",
  title =        "{FACILE}: a Symmetric Integration of Concurrent and
                 Functional Programming",
  journal =      j-INT-J-PARALLEL-PROG,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "121--160",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "IJPPE5",
  DOI =          "http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.1007/BF01491213",
  ISSN =         "0885-7458 (print), 1573-7640 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0885-7458",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 6 16:39:43 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://springerlink.metapress.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue&issn=0885-7458&volume=18&issue=2;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Misc/Functional.bib; Parallel/Pfpbib.bib",
  note =         "Also in TAPSOFT '89, ed. J. Diaz and F. Orejas, pp.
                 184-209, Springer-Verlag, Lecture Notes in Computer
                 Science 352 (1989).",
  URL =          "http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&issn=0885-7458&volume=18&issue=2&spage=121",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C4220 (Automata theory); C6110 (Systems analysis and
                 programming); C6140D (High level languages); C7430
                 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York,
                 Stony Brook, NY, USA",
  fjournal =     "International Journal of Parallel Programming",
  journal-URL =  "http://link.springer.com/journal/16",
  keywords =     "abstract model; automata theory; C-FAM; compilation
                 rules; Concurrent and Functional Abstract Machine;
                 concurrent processes; execution rules; expression
                 evaluation; Facile; functional programming; high level
                 languages; labeled transition system; multi-paradigm
                 languages; operational behavior; operational semantics;
                 parallel programming; structural operational semantics;
                 virtual machines",
  treatment =    "B Bibliography; P Practical",
}

@Article{Perez-Cazares:1989:DAL,
  author =       "J.-R. Perez-Cazares and R. Rannou",
  title =        "Developing an Animated Local Network Simulator",
  journal =      j-CGF,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "139--142",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "CGFODY",
  ISSN =         "0167-7055 (print), 1467-8659 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-7055",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 14 10:23:20 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Ecole Natl Sup{\'e}rieure des Telecommunications de
                 Bretagne",
  affiliationaddress = "Brest, Fr",
  classification = "718; 723; C5620L (Local area networks); C6110
                 (Systems analysis and programming); C6130B (Graphics
                 techniques); C7430 (Computer engineering); C7810C
                 (Computer-aided instruction)",
  conference =   "7th Annual Eurographic (UK) Conference",
  conflocation = "Manchester, UK; 29--31 March 1989",
  conftitle =    "7th EUROGRAPHICS UK Conference",
  corpsource =   "Lab. Infor. de Brest Ecole Nat. Sup{\'e}rieure des
                 Telecommun. de Bretagne, Brest, France",
  fjournal =     "Com{\-}pu{\-}ter Graphics Forum",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1467-8659/",
  keywords =     "Ada; Ada code; animated; Animated environment;
                 animated local network; Animated local network
                 simulator; Animation; computer aided instruction;
                 computer animation; Computer Graphics; Computer
                 Networks--Local Networks; Computer Programming
                 Languages--Ada; Computer Simulation--Applications;
                 Design methodology; design methodology; design process;
                 Design process; designer; digital; distributed systems
                 research group; Distributed systems research group;
                 environment; graphical; Graphical representation; IEEE
                 animated network simulator; internal behaviour;
                 Internal behaviour; languages, IEEE animated network
                 simulator; local area networks; methods; network;
                 Network designer; Object-Oriented Development, design;
                 parallelism; Parallelism; pictorial; Pictorial methods;
                 representation; simulation; simulator; Software
                 engineering; software engineering; teaching support;
                 Teaching support; teaching support; virtual machines",
  meetingaddress = "Manchester, Engl",
  meetingdate =  "Mar 29--31 1989",
  meetingdate2 = "03/29--31/89",
  subject =      "I.3.5 Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                 Computational Geometry and Object Modeling, Modeling
                 packages \\ C.2.5 Computer Systems Organization,
                 COMPUTER-COMMUNICATION NETWORKS, Local Networks \\
                 I.3.7 Computing Methodologies, COMPUTER GRAPHICS,
                 Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism, Animation",
  thesaurus =    "Ada; Computer aided instruction; Computer animation;
                 Digital simulation; Local area networks; Software
                 engineering; Virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@TechReport{Scott:1989:EOS,
  author =       "M. L. Scott and T. J. LeBlanc and B. D. Marsh",
  title =        "Evolution of an Operating System for Large-Scale
                 Shared-Memory Multiprocessors",
  type =         "TR",
  number =       "TR309",
  institution =  "University of Rochester, Computer Science Department",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1989",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Thu, 17 Jul 97 09:00:00 GMT",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.cs.rochester.edu/pub/papers/systems/89.TR309.Psyche_Evolution.ps.Z",
  abstract =     "Scalable shared-memory multiprocessors (those with
                 non-uniform memory access times) are among the most
                 flexible architectures for high-performance parallel
                 computing, admitting efficient implementations of a
                 wide range of process models, communication mechanisms,
                 and granularities of parallelism. Such machines present
                 opportunities for general-purpose parallel computing
                 that cannot be exploited by existing operating systems,
                 because the traditional approach to operating system
                 design presents a virtual machine in which the
                 definition of processes, communication, and grain size
                 are outside the control of the user. Psyche is an
                 operating system designed to enable the most effective
                 use possible of large-scale shared memory
                 multiprocessors. The Psyche project is characterized by
                 (1) a design that permits the implementation of
                 multiple models of parallelism, both within and among
                 applications, (2) the ability to trade protection for
                 performance, with information sharings as the default,
                 rather than the exception, (3) explicit, user-level
                 control of process structure and scheduling, and (4) a
                 kernel implementation that uses shared memory itself,
                 and that provides users with the illusion of uniform
                 memory access times.\par

                 The postscript here was reconstructed from old troff
                 source, and does not match the formatting of the
                 hard-copy TR. In particular, the bibliography has
                 re-built from a newer database, and in several cases
                 cites newer versions of papers -- versions that
                 postdate the TR.",
  annote =       "Scalable shared-memory multiprocessors (those with
                 non-uniform memory access times) are among the most
                 flexible architectures for high-performance parallel
                 computing, admitting efficient implementations of a
                 wide range of process models, communication mechanisms,
                 and granularities of parallelism. Such machines present
                 opportunities for general-purpose parallel computing
                 that cannot be exploited by existing operating systems,
                 because the traditional approach to operating system
                 design presents a virtual machine in which the
                 definition of processes, communication, and grain size
                 are outside the control of the user. Psyche is an
                 operating system designed to enable the most effective
                 use possible of large-scale shared memory
                 multiprocessors. The Psyche project is characterized by
                 (1) a design that permits the implementation of
                 multiple models of parallelism, both within and among
                 applications, (2) the ability to trade protection for
                 performance, with information sharing as the default,
                 rather than the exception, (3) explicit, user-level
                 control of process structure and scheduling, and (4) a
                 kernel implementation that uses shared memory itself,
                 and that provides users with the illusion of uniform
                 memory access times. The postscript here was
                 reconstructed from old troff source, and does not match
                 the formatting of the hard-copy TR. In particular, the
                 bibliography has re-built from a newer database, and in
                 several cases cites newer versions of papers --
                 versions that postdate the TR.
                 89.TR309.Psyche_Evolution.ps.Z",
  keywords =     "psyche tr309",
}

@InProceedings{Signorini:1989:HSM,
  author =       "J. Signorini",
  title =        "How a {SIMD} machine can implement a complex cellular
                 automaton? a case study: {von Neumann}'s 29-state
                 cellular automaton",
  crossref =     "ACM:1989:PSN",
  pages =        "175--186",
  year =         "1989",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 15 19:32:44 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C4220 (Automata theory); C5220 (Computer
                 architecture); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department d'Inf., Paris 8 Univ., St. Denis, France",
  keywords =     "14 bit per processing element; 29-state cellular
                 automaton; complex cellular automaton; decoder; finite
                 automata; parallel architectures; periodic pulser; SIMD
                 machine; transition rule; virtual machines",
  sponsororg =   "ACM; IEEE",
  treatment =    "X Experimental",
}

@Article{Tetzlaff:1989:ABS,
  author =       "William H. Tetzlaff and Martin G. Kienzle and Juan A.
                 Garay",
  title =        "Analysis of block-paging strategies",
  journal =      j-IBM-JRD,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--59",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "IBMJAE",
  ISSN =         "0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-8646",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 14:26:59 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The performance of interactive paging systems in
                 general and Virtual Machine/System Product (VM/SP)
                 systems with the High Performance Option (HPO) in
                 particular depends upon locality of reference. This
                 storage-management dependency, often considered in the
                 context of individual programs, extends in fact to a
                 significant degree across most virtual-machine
                 transactions. This paper investigates strategies to
                 exploit locality of reference at the system level by
                 analyzing page-reference strings gathered from live
                 systems. Alternative strategies are evaluated using
                 trace-driven simulations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Res. Div., Thomas J. Watson Res. Center",
  affiliationaddress = "Yorktown Heights, NY, USA",
  classcodes =   "C6120 (File organisation)",
  classification = "721; 722; 723; C6120 (File organisation)",
  corpsource =   "IBM Res. Div., Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown
                 Heights, NY, USA",
  fjournal =     "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
  journalabr =   "IBM J Res Dev",
  keywords =     "Block-Paging Strategies; Block-paging strategies;
                 block-paging strategies; Computer Programming; Data
                 Processing; Data Storage, Digital; High Performance
                 Option; Interactive Paging; interactive paging systems;
                 Interactive paging systems; Live systems; live systems;
                 Machine/System Product; management dependency; page-;
                 Page-Reference Strings; Page-reference strings;
                 reference strings; storage management; storage-;
                 Storage-Management Dependency; Storage-management
                 dependency; Trace-Driven Simulations; Trace-driven
                 simulations; trace-driven simulations; Virtual; Virtual
                 Machine/System Product; virtual storage;
                 Virtual-machine transactions; virtual-machine
                 transactions; Virtual-Machine Transactions",
  thesaurus =    "Storage management; Virtual storage",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Thomas:1989:AMM,
  author =       "David A. Thomas and Wilf R. LaLonde and John Duimovich
                 and Michael Wilson and Jeff McAffer and Brian Barry",
  title =        "{Actra} --- a multitasking\slash multiprocessing
                 {Smalltalk}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "87--90",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1989",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:15:37 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database; http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/proceedings/plan/67386/p87-thomas/",
  abstract =     "The Actra project is investigating future generation
                 industrial computer systems based on the actor or
                 object-oriented metaphor. It is designed to provide an
                 integrated, multi-user, multi-processor object-oriented
                 program development environment for use in medium and
                 high performance industrial applications dealing with
                 complex man-machine systems. Typical areas include
                 command and control systems, manufacturing systems,
                 simulation and intelligent assistants. In this paper we
                 have presented concurrent programming features of Actra
                 a multiprocessor Smalltalk. The design builds on
                 existing message passing primitives and requires
                 minimal changes to the Smalltalk virtual machine and
                 applications programs. We have introduced operations
                 for creating and communicating between active
                 objects(actors) which are consistent with the
                 object-oriented viewpoint. The resulting system
                 provides a powerful facility for performing
                 anthropomorphic programming in a multitasking\slash
                 multiprocessor environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Carleton Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Ottawa, Ont, Can",
  classification = "723",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN Workshop on
                 Object-Based Concurrent Programming",
  confname =     "Proceedings of the ACM SIGPLAN workshop on
                 Object-based concurrent programming, September 26--27
                 1988, San Diego, CA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  journalabr =   "SIGPLAN Not",
  keywords =     "Actor Based Systems; Computer Programming Languages;
                 Computer Systems Programming--Multiprocessing Programs;
                 Concurrent Programming; design; languages; Object-Based
                 Programming; Programming Language Actra",
  meetingaddress = "San Diego, CA, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Sep 26--27 1988",
  meetingdate2 = "09/26--27/88",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.2} Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Smalltalk-80.",
}

@InProceedings{Wang:1989:NNS,
  author =       "C.-J. Wang and C.-H. Wu and S. Sivasundaram",
  title =        "Neural network simulation on shared-memory vector
                 multiprocessors",
  crossref =     "ACM:1989:PSN",
  pages =        "197--204",
  year =         "1989",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 15 19:32:44 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C1230 (Artificial intelligence)C4240 (Programming
                 and algorithm theory); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Electr. and Comput. Eng., Colorado
                 Univ., Colorado Springs, CO, USA",
  keywords =     "Alliant FX/80; concurrent operations; delay
                 differential equation; feedforward network; Fourier
                 transform; Hopfield network; learning systems; neural
                 computing; neural nets; neural network simulation;
                 parallel algorithms; parallel architectures; parallel
                 machine; parallel machines; parallel training
                 algorithm; recurrent network; shared-memory vector
                 multiprocessors; training algorithms; training data
                 size; training time; travelling salesman problem;
                 vector multiprocessor; virtual machines",
  sponsororg =   "ACM; IEEE",
  treatment =    "P Practical; X Experimental",
}

@InProceedings{Wendorf:1989:SOS,
  author =       "J. W. Wendorf and R. G. Wendorf and H. Tokuda",
  title =        "Scheduling operating system processing on small-scale
                 multiprocessors",
  crossref =     "Shriver:1989:PTA",
  pages =        "904--913 (vol. 2)",
  year =         "1989",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 29 06:28:50 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "North American Philips Corp., Briarcliff Manor, NY,
                 USA",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  keywords =     "Assignment policies; Asymmetric handling; Discrete
                 event simulator; Load conditions; Mach; Operating
                 system processing; Performance; Preemptive priority;
                 Scheduling policies; Small-scale multiprocessors;
                 Symmetric scheduling; System configurations;
                 VAX-11/784",
  thesaurus =    "DEC computers; Multiprocessing programs; Operating
                 systems [computers]; Performance evaluation;
                 Scheduling; Virtual machines",
}

@InProceedings{Bessiere:1990:VMM,
  author =       "P. Bessiere and A. Chams and T. Muntean",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the International Neural Network
                 Conference Paris",
  title =        "A virtual machine model for artificial neural network
                 programming",
  publisher =    pub-KLUWER,
  address =      pub-KLUWER:adr,
  pages =        "689--692",
  year =         "1990",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  ref =          "INNC",
}

@Article{Blelloch:1990:CCO,
  author =       "G. E. Blelloch and G. W. Sabot",
  title =        "Compiling Collection-Oriented Languages onto Massively
                 Parallel Computers",
  journal =      j-J-PAR-DIST-COMP,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "119--134",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "JPDCER",
  ISSN =         "0743-7315 (print), 1096-0848 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0743-7315",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 12 17:13:17 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5440 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques); C6110
                 (Systems analysis and programming); C6150C (Compilers,
                 interpreters and other processors)",
  corpsource =   "Carnegie Mellon Univ., Sch. of Comput. Sci.,
                 Pittsburgh, PA, USA",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
  keywords =     "collection oriented languages compilation; compiler;
                 descriptions; flat virtual machine; high-level;
                 massively; nested collections; nested parallelism;
                 PARALATION LISP; parallel computers; parallel
                 processing; parallel programming; program compilers",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Board:1990:PPN,
  author =       "J. A. {Board, Jr.} and J. Shue-Jen Lu",
  title =        "Performance of parallel neural network simulations",
  crossref =     "Board:1990:TRA",
  pages =        "185--200",
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 28 20:21:01 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Department of Electr. Eng., Duke Univ., Durham, NC,
                 USA",
  classification = "C1230 (Artificial intelligence); C5440
                 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques); C5470
                 (Performance evaluation and testing); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  keywords =     "BBN Butterfly; C language; Communication overhead;
                 Constraint satisfaction; INMOS Transputer; MACH
                 operating system; Network size; Occam 2; Parallel
                 neural network simulations; Partitioned algorithm;
                 Performance evaluation; Speedup limit; T800 Transputer;
                 Transputer Development System programming environment;
                 Uniform System programming environment",
  thesaurus =    "Neural nets; Parallel algorithms; Performance
                 evaluation; Programming environments; Transputers;
                 Virtual machines",
}

@InProceedings{Feeley:1990:PVM,
  author =       "Marc Feeley and James S. Miller",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the 1990 ACM Conference on LISP and
                 Functional Programming, Nice",
  title =        "A parallel virtual machine for efficient {Scheme}
                 compilation",
  crossref =     "ACM:1990:PAC",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "119--130",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 04:51:56 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/lfp/lfp1990.html#FeeleyM90;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/lfp/91556/p119-feeley/",
  abstract =     "Programs compiled by Gambit, our Scheme compiler,
                 achieve performance as much as twice that of the
                 fastest available Scheme compilers. Gambit is easily
                 ported, while retaining its high performance, through
                 the use of a simple virtual machine (PVM). PVM allows a
                 wide variety of machine-independent optimizations and
                 it supports parallel computation based on the future
                 construct. PVM conveys high-level information
                 bidirectionally between the machine-independent front
                 end of the compiler and the machine-dependent back end,
                 making it easy to implement a number of common back end
                 optimizations that are difficult to achieve for other
                 virtual machines. PVM is similar to many real computer
                 architectures and has an option to efficiently gather
                 dynamic measurements of virtual machine usage. These
                 measurements can be used in performance prediction for
                 ports to other architectures as well as design
                 decisions related to proposed optimizations and object
                 representations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA, USA",
  bookpages =    "????",
  classification = "C6150C (Compilers, interpreters and other
                 processors)",
  conflocation = "Nice, France; 27--29 June 1990",
  corpsource =   "Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA, USA",
  keywords =     "Gambit; Lisp; machine-independent; Machine-independent
                 front end; machine-independent front end;
                 Machine-independent optimizations; object; Object
                 representations; optimizations; parallel processing;
                 Parallel virtual machine; parallel virtual machine;
                 portability; program compilers; PVM portability;
                 representations; Scheme compiler; simple virtual
                 machine; Simple virtual machine; software; virtual
                 machines",
  oldlabel =     "FeeleyM90",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  thesaurus =    "Parallel processing; Program compilers; Software
                 portability; Virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/lfp/FeeleyM90",
}

@InProceedings{Hu:1990:RTC,
  author =       "W. Hu",
  title =        "Reducing Timing Channels with Fuzzy Time",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1990:PIC",
  pages =        "8--20",
  year =         "1990",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "This paper describes fuzzy time. This is a collection
                 of techniques that reduces the bandwidths of covert
                 timing channels by making all clocks available to a
                 process noisy. Developed in response to the problems
                 posed by high-speed hardware timing channels, fuzzy
                 time has been implemented in the VAX security kernel.
                 The VAX security kernel is a virtual-machine monitor
                 security kernel for the VAX architecture designed to
                 meet the requirements of the A1 rating from the
                 National Computer Security Center.",
}

@InProceedings{Karger:1990:VSK,
  author =       "P. A. Karger and M. E. Zurko and D. W. Bonin and A. H.
                 Mason and C. E. Kahn",
  title =        "A {VMM} Security Kernel for the {VAX} Architecture",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1990:PIC",
  pages =        "2--19",
  year =         "1990",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "This paper describes the development of a
                 virtual-machine monitor (VMM) security kernel for the
                 VAX architecture. The paper particularly focuses on how
                 the systems hardware, microcode, and software are aimed
                 at meeting A1-level security requirements while
                 maintaining the standard interfaces and applications of
                 the VMS and ULTRIX-32 operating systems. The VAX
                 security kernel supports multiple concurrent virtual
                 machines on a single VAX system, providing isolation
                 and controlled sharing of sensitive data. Rigorous
                 engineering standards were applied during development
                 to comply with the assurance requirements for
                 verification and configuration management. The VAX
                 security kernel has been developed with a heavy
                 emphasis on performance and on system management tools.
                 The kernel performs sufficiently well that all of its
                 development is now carried out in virtual machines
                 running on the kernel itself, rather than in a
                 conventional time-sharing system.",
}

@TechReport{Kratzer:1990:MPS,
  author =       "Steven G. Kratzer",
  title =        "Massively parallel sparse-matrix computations",
  type =         "Technical report",
  number =       "SRC-TR-90-008",
  institution =  inst-SRC-IDA,
  address =      inst-SRC-IDA:adr,
  pages =        "14",
  day =          "1",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "Fri Aug 30 08:01:51 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper shows that QR factorization of large,
                 sparse matrices can be performed efficiently on
                 massively-parallel SIMD (Single Instruction stream,
                 Multiple Data stream) computers such as the Connection
                 Machine CM-2. The problem is cast as a dataflow graph,
                 using existing techniques for symbolic manipulation of
                 the structure of the matrix. Then the nodes in the
                 graph, which represent units of computational work, are
                 mapped to a `virtual dataflow machine' in such a way
                 that only nearest-neighbor communication is required.
                 This virtual machine is implemented by programming the
                 CM-2 processors to support the static dataflow
                 protocol. Execution results for standard test matrices
                 show that good performance is obtained even for
                 `unstructured' sparsity patterns that are not amenable
                 to nested dissection techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Connection machines; Matrices; Parallel processing
                 (Electronic computers)",
}

@InProceedings{Ozgur:1990:SON,
  author =       "A. Ozgur and O. Kaynak",
  booktitle =    "INNC 90 Paris. International Neural Network
                 Conference",
  title =        "A self organizing neural network for pattern
                 recognition",
  volume =       "1",
  institution =  "Atakoy 5 Kisim B-1/17, Istanbul, Turkey",
  publisher =    pub-KLUWER,
  address =      pub-KLUWER:adr,
  pages =        "107",
  year =         "1990",
  ISBN =         "0-7923-0831-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7923-0831-7",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Summary form only given, as follows. The authors
                 simulate and test a neural network which can recognize
                 patterns and which possesses abilities such as
                 selective attention, segmentation, and associative
                 recall. The network consists of several types of
                 neurons of which some can learn and extract features,
                 and others generate gain or threshold control signals.
                 The backward propagation channels are responsible for
                 selective attention and associative recall. The neural
                 cells in the simulated network are organized in three
                 layers and they total 16630 in number. The simulation
                 program is written in C-language and run on an Apple
                 Macintosh computer. This self-organizing network is
                 able to repair a deformed pattern in a deformed manner,
                 even if, during the training period, only undeformed
                 and noise free patterns are presented to it.",
  city =         "Paris, France",
  classification = "C1250 (Pattern recognition), C5260B (Computer vision
                 and picture processing), C5320 (Digital storage), C1240
                 (Adaptive system theory), C1230 (Artificial
                 intelligence), C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  days =         "9-13 July 1990",
  file =         "nn/attention/selective",
  index =        "Layered",
  indexnumber =  "3800010 C91007802",
  keywords =     "Feature learning, Feature extraction, Deformed pattern
                 repair, Self organizing neural network, Pattern
                 recognition, Selective attention, Segmentation,
                 Associative recall, Threshold control signals, Backward
                 propagation channels, C-language, Apple Macintosh
                 computer",
  language =     "English",
  refs =         "0",
  sponsor =      "Thomson",
  thesaurus =    "Apple computers, Content-addressable storage, Neural
                 nets, Pattern recognition, Picture processing,
                 Self-organising storage, Virtual machines",
  treatment =    "Theoretical/Mathematical",
}

@Article{Plata:1990:ASP,
  author =       "O. G. Plata and J. D. Bruguera and F. F. Rivera and R.
                 Doallo and E. L. Zapata",
  title =        "{ACLE}: a Software Package for {SIMD} Computer
                 Simulation",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "194--203",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 13:51:56 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/194.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/195.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/196.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/197.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/198.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/199.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/200.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/201.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/202.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_33/Issue_03/tiff/203.tif",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Department of Electron., Univ. of Santiago de
                 Compostela, Spain",
  classcodes =   "C7430 (Computer engineering); C5440 (Multiprocessor
                 systems and techniques); C6140D (High level languages);
                 C6150C (Compilers, interpreters and other processors)",
  classification = "C5440 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques);
                 C6140D (High level languages); C6150C (Compilers,
                 interpreters and other processors); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Electron., Univ. of Santiago de
                 Compostela, Spain",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "ACLAN-to-C translator; ACLE; algorithm mapping;
                 Algorithm mapping; algorithmic solution; Algorithmic
                 solution; array; Array C Language Emulator; Array
                 processor programming; C language; computer simulation;
                 computers; hypercube; Hypercube computers;
                 machine-independent; Machine-independent programming
                 language; package; parallel algorithms; Parallel
                 algorithms; processor programming; program execution;
                 Program execution; program processors; programming
                 language; SIMD; SIMD computer simulation; simulation
                 routines library; Simulation routines library;
                 software; Software package; software packages;
                 subroutines; virtual machines",
  thesaurus =    "C language; Parallel algorithms; Program processors;
                 Software packages; Subroutines; Virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Pountain:1990:SPP,
  author =       "D. Pountain",
  title =        "Simulating a primitive parallel computer",
  journal =      j-BYTE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "13",
  pages =        "72IS/25--26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36--37",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "BYTEDJ",
  ISSN =         "0360-5280 (print), 1082-7838 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-5280",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 12 18:39:30 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  fjournal =     "BYTE Magazine",
  keywords =     "Computer simulation; Parallel architectures; Parallel
                 computers; Primitive parallel computer; Primitive
                 Parallel Computers; PriPar; Turing machine",
  thesaurus =    "Parallel machines; Virtual machines",
}

@Article{Rounce:1990:AWE,
  author =       "Peter A. Rounce and Jose Delgado",
  title =        "Architectures Within the {ESPRIT SPAN Project}",
  journal =      j-IEEE-MICRO,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "24--27, 88--97",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "IEMIDZ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/40.62727",
  ISSN =         "0272-1732 (print), 1937-4143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0272-1732",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 14 06:08:58 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Science Citation Index database (1980--2000)",
  abstract =     "To integrate symbolic and numeric computing on
                 parallel systems, project participants developed a
                 target architecture that resulted in a number of
                 significant advancements in programming languages and
                 architecture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Dept of Comput Sci, Univ Coll, London, UK",
  classcodes =   "C5220 (Computer architecture); C7310 (Mathematics)",
  classification = "722; 723",
  corpsource =   "Department of comput. Sci., Univ. Coll., London, UK",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Micro",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/index.html",
  keywords =     "Computational Models; Computer Architecture; Computer
                 Programming Languages; Computer Systems,
                 Digital--Parallel Processing; DICE; distributed memory
                 architecture; esprit span Project; ESPRIT SPAN project;
                 Kernel System architectures; parallel architectures;
                 parallel systems; parallel-; Parle high-level
                 procedural language; Research; Sprint processor
                 architecture; symbol manipulation; symbolic and numeric
                 computing; system architectures; Virtual Machine Code",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@TechReport{Schuh:1990:PRI,
  author =       "Daniel T. Schuh and Michael J. Carey and David J.
                 DeWitt",
  title =        "Persistence in {E} Revisited---Implementation
                 Experiences",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "CS-TR-1990-957",
  institution =  "University of Wisconsin, Madison",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "November 22, 1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses the design and implementation of
                 the E Persistent Virtual Machine (EPVM), an interpreter
                 that provides support for persistent data access in the
                 current version of the E programming language. Included
                 are descriptions of both the EPVM interface and the
                 major implementation tactics employed within EPVM. A
                 novel pointer swizzling scheme that has been
                 investigated in the context of E and EPVM is also
                 described. Finally, a performance analysis of the key
                 EPVM primitives is presented.",
}

@InProceedings{Seiden:1990:AFV,
  author =       "K. F. Seiden and J. P. Melanson",
  title =        "The Auditing Facility for a {VMM} Security Kernel",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1990:PIC",
  pages =        "262--277",
  year =         "1990",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "The VAX security kernel is a prototype security kernel
                 implemented as a virtual machine monitor (VMM) for the
                 VAX architecture. The VAX security kernel is capable of
                 emulating one or more virtual machines (VMs) on a
                 single physical machine allowing multiple copies of
                 virtual machine operating systems to execute
                 concurrently. The system presently supports both VMS
                 and ULTRIX as virtual machine operating systems A
                 fundamental component of any security kernel is the
                 ability to produce an audit trail of security relevant
                 events. While there are numerous examples of auditing
                 subsystems at the DoD Trusted Computer System
                 Evaluation Criteria (TCSEC) [5] C2 or B1 level, there
                 is much less experience with the requirements at the B2
                 level and above. This paper describes the design and
                 implementation of the VAX security kernel auditing
                 facility, built to satisfy the requirements at the A1
                 level.",
}

@TechReport{Smith:1990:PTL,
  author =       "Robert Smith and Aaron Sloman and John Gibson",
  title =        "{POPLOG}'s Two-level Virtual Machine Support for
                 Interactive Languages",
  type =         "Cognitive Science Research Report",
  number =       "153",
  institution =  "University-of-Sussex",
  address =      "Brighton",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1990",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "To appear (1991?) in a volume edited by D.Sleeman and
                 N.O.Bernson Price: 1.00 (Actually it appeared as
                 Research Directions in Cognitive Science Volume 5:
                 Artificial Intelligence, eds D. Sleeman and N. Bernsen,
                 Lawrence Earlbaum Associates, 1992)",
  keywords =     "Pop, Pop-11",
}

@Article{Volz:1990:VNU,
  author =       "Richard A. Volz",
  title =        "Virtual Nodes and Units of Distribution for
                 Distributed {Ada}",
  journal =      j-SIGADA-LETTERS,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "85--96",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "AALEE5",
  ISSN =         "0736-721X",
  ISSN-L =       "0736-721X",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 9 09:05:36 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6140D (High level languages); C6110 (Systems analysis
                 and programming); C6150J (Operating systems)",
  conflocation = "Framington, PA, USA; 26--29 June 1989",
  conftitle =    "Third International Workshop on Real-Time Ada Issues",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput. Sci., Texas A and M Univ.,
                 College Station, TX, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGADA Ada Letters",
  keywords =     "Ada; Ada program; additional study; architecture
                 characterizations; architecture dependence choice;
                 complex task; dependency; distributed Ada; distributed
                 processing; embedded real-time systems; memory systems;
                 processing elements; programming; real-time systems;
                 shared; system architecture; UoD; virtual machines;
                 virtual node",
  sponsororg =   "Software Eng. Inst.; U.S. Office of Naval Res.; Ada
                 UK; ACM",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Whang:1990:QOM,
  author =       "Kyu-Young Y. Whang and Ravi Krishnamurthy",
  title =        "Query Optimization in a Memory-Resident Domain
                 Relational Calculus Database System",
  journal =      j-TODS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--95",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1990",
  CODEN =        "ATDSD3",
  ISSN =         "0362-5915 (print), 1557-4644 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-5915",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 14 10:34:48 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "Database/Graefe.bib; Database/Wiederhold.bib;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/journals/tods/1990-15-1/p67-whang/p67-whang.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/journals/tods/1990-15-1/p67-whang/;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/Abstracts/tods/77646.html",
  abstract =     "We present techniques for optimizing queries in
                 memory-resident database systems. Optimization
                 techniques in memory-resident database systems differ
                 significantly from those in conventional disk-resident
                 database systems. In this paper we address the
                 following aspects of query optimization in such systems
                 and present specific solutions for them: (1) a new
                 approach to developing a CPU-intensive cost model; (2)
                 new optimization strategies for main-memory query
                 processing; (3) new insight into join algorithms and
                 access structures that take advantage of memory
                 residency of data; and (4) the effect of the operating
                 system's scheduling algorithm on the memory-residency
                 assumption. We present an interesting result that a
                 major cost of processing queries in memory-resident
                 database systems is incurred by evaluation of
                 predicates. We discuss optimization techniques using
                 the Office-by-Example (OBE) that has been under
                 development at IBM Research. We also present the
                 results of performance measurements, which prove to be
                 excellent in the current state of the art. Despite
                 recent work on memory-resident database systems, query
                 optimization aspects in these systems have not been
                 well studied. We believe this paper opens the issues of
                 query optimization in memory-resident database systems
                 and presents practical solutions to them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights,
                 NY, USA",
  annote =       "Office-by-example extends the concept of
                 query-by-example (QBE); disks are used only for
                 permanent storage of data and backup; The technique is
                 not a heuristic since it employs a systematic search,
                 but uses the branch-and-bound algorithm. Uses the
                 nested-loop join with use of indexes. An index is an
                 array of tuple identifiers. Assess uses binary search.
                 When an index entry is inserted, the upper half of the
                 index is block-copied. In a 3081 processor copying 1 MB
                 of memory takes less than 0.1 second. Queries in OBE
                 are in the canonical form, have no substructures. Pure
                 demand paging is not suitable, the system has a global
                 goal for paging activities. The set of virtual machines
                 on the dispatch list is determined.",
  fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Database Systems",
  generalterms = "Algorithms; Experimentation; Languages; Performance",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J777",
  keywords =     "experimentation; languages; Large Main Memory TODS,
                 algorithms; performance",
  subject =      "{\bf H.2.4}: Information Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT,
                 Systems, Query processing. {\bf H.2.3}: Information
                 Systems, DATABASE MANAGEMENT, Languages, Query
                 languages. {\bf H.2.2}: Information Systems, DATABASE
                 MANAGEMENT, Physical Design, Access methods.",
}

@InProceedings{Xu:1990:HMD,
  author =       "J. Xu and K. Hwang",
  title =        "Heuristic methods for dynamic load balancing in a
                 message-passing supercomputer",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1990:PSN",
  pages =        "888--897",
  year =         "1990",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 15 18:34:48 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5440 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques);
                 C6150J (Operating systems)",
  corpsource =   "IBM Corp., San Jose, CA, USA",
  keywords =     "distributed control; distributed load balancers;
                 distributed processing; dynamic load balancing; iPSC/2
                 hypercube; load imbalances; message passing
                 multicomputer; message-passing supercomputer; migration
                 overheads; parallel event drives simulator; parallel
                 processing; parallel simulator; performance evaluation;
                 process migration; PSIM; resource allocation;
                 scheduling; system utilizations; threshold update;
                 variable threshold; virtual machines",
  sponsororg =   "IEEE; ACM; Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab.; Los Alamos
                 Nat. Lab.; NASA Ames Res. Center; Nat. Center Atmos.
                 Res.; NSF; SIAM; Supercomput. Res. Center",
  treatment =    "P Practical; X Experimental",
}

@Article{Aharon:1991:VIR,
  author =       "A. Aharon and A. Bar-David and B. Dorfman and E.
                 Gofman and M. Leibowitz and V. Schwartzburd",
  title =        "Verification of the {IBM RISC System\slash 6000} by a
                 dynamic biased pseudo-random test program generator",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "527--538",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Verification of a computer that implements a new
                 architecture is especially difficult since no approved
                 functional test cases are available. The logic design
                 of the IBM RISC system/6000 was verified mainly by a
                 specially developed random test program generator
                 (RTPG), which was used from the early stages of the
                 design until its successful completion. APL was chosen
                 for the RISC System/6000 RTPG implementation after
                 considering the suitability of this programming
                 language for modeling computer architectures, the very
                 tight schedule, and the highly changeable environment
                 in which RTPG would operate.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Israel Sci. and Technol. Ltd., Haifa, Israel",
  classification = "C4240 (Programming and algorithm theory); C5470
                 (Performance evaluation and testing); C6140D (High
                 level languages); C6150G (Diagnostic, testing,
                 debugging and evaluating systems); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Computer architectures; Functional test cases; IBM
                 RISC system/6000; Logic design; Programming language;
                 Pseudo-random test program generator; RTPG
                 implementation; Specially developed random test program
                 generator; Tight schedule",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "APL; IBM computers; Performance evaluation; Program
                 verification; Virtual machines",
}

@Article{Alfonseca:1991:AAA,
  author =       "M. Alfonseca",
  title =        "Advanced applications of {APL}: logic programming,
                 neural networks, and hypertext",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "543--553",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "A review is given of the work of the author on the
                 application of the APL and APL2 programming languages
                 to logic programming, emulation of neural networks, and
                 the programming of hypertext applications.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Software Technol. Lab., Madrid, Spain",
  classification = "C5290 (Neural computing techniques); C6110L (Logic
                 programming); C6140D (High level languages); C6160Z
                 (Other DBMS); C6170 (Expert systems); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "APL2 programming languages; Hypertext applications;
                 Logic programming; Neural networks",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "APL; Hypermedia; Logic programming; Neural nets;
                 Virtual machines",
}

@InProceedings{Aral:1991:PCS,
  author =       "Ziya Aral and Ilya Gertner and Alan Langerman and Dave
                 Mitchell",
  title =        "Process Control Structures for Multiprocessor",
  crossref =     "Milutinovic:1991:PTA",
  volume =       "1",
  pages =        "49--58",
  year =         "1991",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Describes a new approach to implementing and using a
                 'process' abstraction in multiprocessors. A new
                 paradigm is described for virtual machines which are
                 built out of finer granularity units called Resource
                 Control Blocks (RCB). A collection of RCBs define a
                 virtual machine. Each RCB is independently sharable. A
                 user has the freedom to define a set of virtual
                 machines each spanning a different collection of
                 resources. Although the new paradigm offers additional
                 flexibility, it carries no additional overhead when
                 compared to previous implementations. Backwards
                 compatible processes are scheduled and created with the
                 same efficiency. New processes that carry less weight
                 are created much more efficiently. A production system
                 has been implemented and measured on Multimax, a
                 shared-memory multiprocessor.",
}

@Article{Balter:1991:AIG,
  author =       "R. Balter and J. Bernadat and D. Decouchant and A.
                 Duda and A. Freyssinet and S. Krakowiak and M.
                 Meysembourg and P. Le Dot and H. Nguyen Van and E.
                 Paire and M. Riveill and C. Roison and X. Rousset de
                 Pina and R. Scioville and G. Vand{\^o}me",
  title =        "Architecture and Implementation of Guide, an
                 Object-Oriented Distributed System",
  journal =      j-COMP-SYS,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--67",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMSYE2",
  ISSN =         "0895-6340",
  bibdate =      "Fri Sep 13 08:51:08 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming); C6150J
                 (Operating systems)",
  fjournal =     "Computing Systems",
  keywords =     "Class; Distributed object memory; Dynamic links;
                 Execution structures; Execution units; Grenoble
                 Universities integrated distributed environment; Guide;
                 Job sharing; Language; Multi-threaded virtual machines;
                 Nodes; Object model; Object-oriented distributed
                 operating system; Persistent objects storage; Single
                 inheritance; Synchronized objects; Synchronized
                 transactions; Type; UNIX",
  thesaurus =    "Distributed processing; Object-oriented programming;
                 Operating systems [computers]",
}

@InProceedings{Balzer:1991:PVM,
  author =       "Robert Balzer",
  title =        "Process Virtual Machine",
  crossref =     "Thomas:1993:PIS",
  pages =        "37--40",
  year =         "1991",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
}

@Article{Bennett:1991:SMC,
  author =       "R. B. Bennett and W. J. Bitner and M. A. Musa and M.
                 K. Ainsworth",
  title =        "Systems management for {Coordinated Resource
                 Recovery}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--106",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Coordinated Resource Recovery is a Virtual
                 Machine/Enterprise Systems Architecture (VM/ESA)
                 function for providing consistency of changes to
                 multiple resources in environments that include
                 distributed applications. It provides a uniform
                 solution for applications to the problem of resource
                 consistency. Systems management of Coordinated Resource
                 Recovery in VM/ESA (CRR) is the set of system services
                 and interfaces that support both automatic and manual
                 procedures for managing CRR installation, performance,
                 and recovery, as well as resource manager and
                 application participation. Much of systems management
                 is focused on application recovery from occasional
                 failures of the procedures for coordinating consistent
                 resource changes. The paper describes several key
                 aspects of CRR systems management, including the CRR
                 recovery log, facilities for minimizing manual
                 intervention when failures occur, performance
                 considerations, and application participation in
                 recovery.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Data Syst. Div., Endicott, NY, USA",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Application recovery; Coordinated Resource Recovery;
                 CRR recovery log; CRR systems management; Interfaces;
                 Multiple resources; Resource consistency; System
                 services; Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems
                 Architecture; VM/ESA",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "IBM computers; Operating systems [computers]; Virtual
                 machines",
}

@Article{Christodoulakis:1991:OOA,
  author =       "Stavros Christodoulakis and Natassa Ailamaki and
                 Manolis Fragonikolakis and Yorgos Kapetanakis and
                 Leonidas Koveos",
  title =        "An Object Oriented Architecture For Multimedia
                 Information Systems",
  journal =      "Data Engineering",
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "4--15",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 11 11:19:22 1991",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "we present aspects of the design and implementation of
                 a Multimedia Object Server. We first present the design
                 and implementation of the Object Virtual Machine (OVM),
                 a multimedia object manager. OVM considers environments
                 with large main memories that can comtain a large
                 number of objects. However, multimedia objects ahvae to
                 reside in secondary and tertiary storage due to their
                 size. Multimedia objects are treated as first class
                 objects, and methods and acces structures for them are
                 supported by the system. The secondary storage
                 information is modeled in three layers: logical files,
                 physical files and devices; thus allowing flexibility,
                 clustering and parallelism in the multimedia database
                 design. Next, we describe experimental and analytical
                 performance studies for a server environment for
                 multimedia data. We outline results on optimal data
                 placement on optical disks, buffering for
                 delay-sensitive multimedia data environments and
                 scheduling aspects in a server based on secondary and
                 tertiary optical storage(jukeboxes).",
  owner =        "suchen",
}

@Article{Daszczuk:1991:SSD,
  author =       "W. B. Daszczuk",
  title =        "A Structured Semantic Design of Distributed Operating
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "34",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "482--492",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 13:51:56 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/482.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/483.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/484.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/485.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/486.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/487.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/488.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/489.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/490.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/491.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_06/tiff/492.tif",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Inst. of Comput. Sci., Warsaw Univ. of Technol.,
                 Poland",
  classcodes =   "C6150N (Distributed systems); C6150J (Operating
                 systems)",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems); C6150N (Distributed
                 systems)",
  corpsource =   "Inst. of Comput. Sci., Warsaw Univ. of Technol.,
                 Poland",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "distributed; Distributed hardware environment;
                 Distributed operating systems; hardware environment;
                 multi-microprocessor systems; Multi-microprocessor
                 systems; network operating systems; operating systems;
                 structured semantic design; Structured semantic design;
                 UNIX-like systems; virtual machines; Virtual machines",
  thesaurus =    "Network operating systems; Virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Fertig:1991:FVM,
  author =       "Scott Fertig and David Gelernter",
  title =        "{FGP}: a Virtual Machine for Acquiring Knowledge from
                 Cases",
  crossref =     "Mylopoulos:1991:IPT",
  pages =        "796--802",
  year =         "1991",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jan 24 02:56:32 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/ijcai/ijcai91.html#FertigG91;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  oldlabel =     "FertigG91",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/ijcai/FertigG91",
}

@Article{Fischofer:1991:VSS,
  author =       "W. T. Fischofer",
  title =        "{VM\slash ESA}: a single system for centralized and
                 distributed computing",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4--13",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The rapid evolution of distributed and personal
                 systems in recent years has not diminished the
                 importance of centralized computing. Today, systems at
                 all levels need to operate in networked configurations
                 to allow users and applications to access and
                 manipulate data from anywhere with full integrity and
                 optimal performance. Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems
                 Architecture (VM/ESA) satisfies this requirement as a
                 single VM product that has been designed for both
                 centralized and distributed computing. The author
                 describes how VM/ESA builds on IBM's reputation for
                 virtual machine performance, function, and flexibility
                 to form an ideal solution base for the 1990s.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Endicott Programming Lab., NY, USA",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Centralized computing; Distributed computing; IBM;
                 Networked configurations; Virtual machine performance;
                 Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems Architecture;
                 VM/ESA",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "IBM computers; Network operating systems; Virtual
                 machines",
}

@Article{Fujimoto:1991:VTM,
  author =       "Richard M. Fujimoto",
  title =        "The {Virtual Time Machine}",
  journal =      j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--44",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CANED2",
  ISSN =         "0163-5964 (ACM), 0884-7495 (IEEE)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5964",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 12 09:40:33 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
}

@Article{Gdaniec:1991:VDS,
  author =       "J. M. Gdaniec and J. P. Hennessy",
  title =        "{VM} data spaces and {ESA\slash XC} facilities",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14--33",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 15 05:47:47 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Release 1.1 of the Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems
                 Architecture (VM/ESA) operating system introduces a new
                 function called VM Data Spaces, provided through a new
                 virtual-machine architecture called Enterprise Systems
                 Architecture/Extended Configuration (ESA/XC). ESA/XC is
                 the strategic VM/ESA virtual-machine environment for
                 Conversational Monitor System (CMS) users and services
                 virtual machines requiring large amounts of storage or
                 advanced data-sharing capabilities. ESA/XC includes all
                 of the facilities of System/370 Extended Architecture
                 (370-XA) that are used by CMS or server programs and is
                 therefore upward compatible for CMS or server programs
                 currently running in 370-XA virtual machines. As an
                 introduction to the VM Data Spaces function, the paper
                 describes the ESA/XC virtual-machine architecture and
                 presents an overview of the VM/ESA services provided in
                 support of the ESA/XC architecture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Data Syst. Div., Endicott, NY, USA",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Conversational Monitor System; Enterprise Systems
                 Architecture/Extended Configuration; ESA/XC; Operating
                 system; System/370 Extended Architecture; Virtual
                 Machine/Enterprise Systems Architecture;
                 Virtual-machine architecture; Virtual-machine
                 environment; VM data spaces; VM/ESA",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "IBM computers; Operating systems [computers]; Virtual
                 machines",
}

@TechReport{Greenfield:1991:PIT,
  author =       "P. G. Greenfield and R. J. Hendley",
  title =        "A proposed Intelligent Tutoring System Framework
                 Incorporating Persistent Logic Programming",
  number =       "CSR-91-1",
  institution =  "University of Birmingham, School of Computer Science",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1991",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper proposes a virtual machine architectural
                 approach to the construction of a generic Intelligent
                 System (ITS) in which the components of the system are
                 organised as a community of co-operating processes each
                 of which has a substantial portion that can be
                 specified in a declarative manner using Horn clause
                 Logic.",
}

@Article{Jolitz:1991:PUS,
  author =       "William Frederick Jolitz and Lynne Greer Jolitz",
  title =        "Porting {UNIX} to the 386: a Stripped-Down Kernel",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "16",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "32, 34--36, 38, 40, 84--88, 88, 90",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 09:11:02 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 UnCover database",
  abstract =     "386BSD's basic kernel incorporates a unique
                 ``recursive'' paging feature that leverages resources
                 and reduces complexity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6150E (General utility programs); C6150J (Operating
                 systems); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
  keywords =     "386BSD; Bootstrap procedure; Initialization;
                 Machine-dependent portions; Machine-independent
                 portions; Operating system porting; Recursive paging;
                 Stripped-down kernel; UNIX kernel; Virtual machine",
  thesaurus =    "Assembly language listings; C listings; Computer
                 bootstrapping; Microprocessor chips; Software
                 portability; Unix; Utility programs; Virtual machines",
}

@InProceedings{Kelem:1991:SMV,
  author =       "N. L. Kelem and R. J. Feiertag",
  title =        "A Separation Model for Virtual Machine Monitors",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1991:PIC",
  pages =        "78--87 (or 78--86??)",
  year =         "1991",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 23 16:47:31 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/sp/sp1991.html#KelemF91;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  annote =       "This paper presents a security policy for separation
                 Virtual Machine Monitors (SVMMs) and interprets
                 Rushby's Separation Model [RUSH81] for SVMMs. Applying
                 the technique of [RUSH81] yields a practical method for
                 demonstrating that an implementation of an SVMM adheres
                 to the abstract Isolation Axiom of the Separation
                 Model, thus providing relatively strong assurance for a
                 low level of effort. First we describe the relevant
                 characteristics of SVMMs, and note the applicable
                 formal modeling requirements. Next we present a summary
                 of the SVMM Separation Model, a modification of the
                 original model presented in [RUSH81]. The Separation
                 Model technique permits a proof of separability among
                 the operating systems under control of the kernel of an
                 SVMM. We supply an interpretation of the elements of
                 the Separation Model using concepts from SVMMs.
                 Finally, we relate this work to similar Applications of
                 the Separation Model.",
  oldlabel =     "KelemF91",
  XMLdata =      "ftp://ftp.informatik.uni-trier.de/pub/users/Ley/bib/records.tar.gz#conf/sp/KelemF91",
}

@MastersThesis{Lott:1991:DVM,
  author =       "Christopher M. Lott",
  title =        "Defining a virtual machine for executing {MVP--L}
                 project plans",
  school =       "Department of Computer Science, The University of
                 Maryland",
  address =      "College Park, MD 20742",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1991",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
}

@InProceedings{Malan:1991:MA,
  author =       "G. Malan and R. Rashid and D. Golub and R. Baron",
  title =        "{DOS} as a {Mach 3.0} application",
  crossref =     "USENIX:1991:PUM",
  pages =        "27--40",
  year =         "1991",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 28 19:47:51 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Sch. of Comput. Sci., Carnegie Mellon Univ.,
                 Pittsburgh, PA, USA",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  keywords =     "Common DOS functions; Common DOS software; DOS
                 functionality; DOS operating system; Frequently loaded
                 DOS drivers; High memory area; High-speed space combat
                 simulation system; I/O devices; I386/i486 architecture;
                 Latency demands; Mach features; Machine-dependent
                 kernel modifications; Multiple virtual DOS
                 environments; Multithreaded emulation; PC architecture;
                 Performance sensitive PC entertainment software;
                 Timing; Unix emulation; Unix Server; VGA display;
                 Virtual 8086 mode; Virtual machine environment; Wing
                 Commander",
  thesaurus =    "IBM computers; Microcomputer applications; Supervisory
                 programs; Unix; Virtual machines",
}

@InProceedings{Manas:1991:VLM,
  author =       "J. A. Manas and J. Salvachua",
  editor =       "Kenneth R. Parker and Gordon A. Rose",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of {Formal Description Techniques IV}",
  title =        "A Virtual {LOTOS} Machine",
  publisher =    pub-NORTH-HOLLAND,
  address =      pub-NORTH-HOLLAND:adr,
  pages =        "441--456",
  year =         "1991",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 24 07:35:14 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "LOTOS behaviour semantics are usually presented in a
                 declarative style that permits to evaluate which events
                 are possible at each stage, and which is the behaviour
                 after an event occurs. In order to generate code that
                 implements these operational semantics an imperative
                 model is very convenient for efficiency. A virtual
                 machine (machine for LOTOS Behaviour Machine) is
                 presented in this paper that provides such an
                 imperative point of view, but still keeps independent
                 of implementation details, effectively providing an
                 intermediate representation for either interpretation
                 or generation of code for any systems programming
                 language. An abstract model of execution is presented,
                 and then the virtual machine is presented by describing
                 its instructions, the relationship to LOTOS constructs,
                 and its dynamic semantics. C code generation is briefly
                 commented too.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Maslak:1991:CRR,
  author =       "B. A. Maslak and J. M. Showalter and T. J.
                 Szczygielski",
  title =        "{Coordinated Resource Recovery} in {VM\slash ESA}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "72--89",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 19 17:38:46 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "A system service for coordinated recovery of resources
                 is a critical function needed for distributed
                 processing environments because applications need to
                 provide for data integrity while the location of the
                 data and processes are transparent to the application.
                 VM is the first IBM operating system to provide
                 Coordinated Resource Recovery as a system service
                 rather than as a service provided by unique
                 environments running on the operating system, and the
                 VM Common Programming Interface-Communications and
                 Shared File System are the first subsystems to utilize
                 the service. The paper is an overview of why and how VM
                 provided Coordinated Resource Recovery (CRR). CRR is
                 the implementation of the Systems Application
                 Architecture (SAA) resource recovery interface within
                 Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems Architecture
                 (VM/ESA). This coordinated sync point system service
                 allows one or more applications or subsystems to update
                 multiple resources and to request that all updates be
                 committed or backed out together.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Data Syst. Div., Endicott, NY, USA",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Coordinated Resource Recovery; Data integrity;
                 Distributed processing environments; IBM operating
                 system; Resource recovery interface; Shared File
                 System; Sync point system service; System service;
                 Systems Application Architecture; Virtual
                 Machine/Enterprise Systems Architecture; VM Common
                 Programming Interface-Communications",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "IBM computers; Operating systems [computers]; Virtual
                 machines",
}

@Article{Meleshchuk:1991:IPP,
  author =       "S. B. Meleshchuk and A. N. Nedumov",
  title =        "Implementation of a protocol for parallel database
                 access with virtual machine communications facilities",
  journal =      j-PROGRAMMIROVANIE,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "35--42",
  month =        jan # "\slash " # feb,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "PCSODA",
  ISSN =         "0132-3474, 0361-7688",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 16 06:39:19 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "English translation in Programming and Computer
                 Software, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 27--32, November 1991.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  corpsource =   "Leningrad Techn. State Univ., USSR",
  fjournal =     "Programmirovanie",
  keywords =     "COMMIT protocol; concurrency control; deadlock;
                 electronic mail; interrupts; IUCV mail facility;
                 machines; parallel; parallel database access;
                 processing; protocol; protocols; virtual; virtual
                 machines",
  pubcountry =   "USSR",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Osisek:1991:EIA,
  author =       "D. L. Osisek and K. M. Jackson and P. H. Gum",
  title =        "{ESA}\slash 390 interpretive-execution architecture,
                 foundation for {VM\slash ESA}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "34--51",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 15 05:47:47 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The interpretive-execution facility of Enterprise
                 Systems Architecture/390 (ESA/390) provides an
                 instruction for the execution of virtual machines. This
                 instruction, called Start interpretive execution (SIE),
                 was initially created, for virtualizing either
                 System/370 or 370-XA architectures, and was used later
                 for virtualizing ESA/370 and ESA/390 architectures. SIE
                 has evolved to provide capabilities for a number of
                 specialized performance environments. Most recently it
                 provides for the unique requirements of Enterprise
                 Systems Architecture/Extended Configuration (ESA/XC)
                 virtual-machine architecture. This comprehensive set of
                 capabilities in the architecture serves as the platform
                 for the ability of VM/ESA to provide functions in
                 virtual machines for end users and system servers. The
                 paper describes the evolution of SIE and outlines use
                 of the various capabilities in VM/ESA.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Data Syst. Div., Endicott, NY, USA",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Enterprise Systems Architecture/390; Enterprise
                 Systems Architecture/Extended Configuration; ESA/390
                 interpretive-execution architecture; SIE; Start
                 interpretive execution; Virtual-machine architecture;
                 VM/ESA",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "IBM computers; Operating systems [computers]; Virtual
                 machines",
}

@Book{Pulman:1991:EER,
  editor =       "Stephen G. Pulman",
  title =        "{EUROTRA ET6/1}: rule formalism and virtual machine
                 design study -- final report",
  publisher =    "Commission of the European Communities",
  address =      "Luxembourg, Luxembourg",
  year =         "1991",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Contributors: H. Alshawi, D.J. Arnold, R. Backofen,
                 D.M. Carter, J. Lindop, K. Netter, S.G. Pulman, J.
                 Tsujii and H. Uszkoreit.",
}

@Article{Rosing:1991:DPP,
  author =       "Matthew Rosing and Robert B. Schnabel and Robert P.
                 Weaver",
  title =        "The {DINO} parallel programming language",
  journal =      j-J-PAR-DIST-COMP,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "30--42",
  day =          "1",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "JPDCER",
  ISSN =         "0743-7315 (print), 1096-0848 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0743-7315",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 12 19:06:31 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Colorado",
  affiliationaddress = "Boulder, CO, USA",
  classification = "721; 722; 723; C6140D (High level languages)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput. Sci., Colorado Univ., Boulder,
                 CO, USA",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
  journalabr =   "J Parallel Distrib Comput",
  keywords =     "compiler; Computer Operating Systems; Computer
                 Programming Languages--C; Computer
                 Programming--Algorithms; Computer Systems, Digital;
                 constructs; data; DINO parallel programming language;
                 distributed data; Distributed memory multiprocessors;
                 distributed memory multiprocessors; distributed
                 numerically; high-level parallel; MIMD; oriented
                 language; Parallel algorithms; parallel algorithms;
                 parallel languages; Parallel Processing; Parallel
                 programs; semantics; Software package DINO; standard C;
                 structures; syntax; virtual machine; virtual parallel
                 computer",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@PhdThesis{Shen:1991:VTD,
  author =       "Shioupyn Shen",
  title =        "The virtual-time data-parallel machine",
  type =         "Thesis ({Ph.D.})",
  school =       "Department of Computer Science, University of
                 California, Los Angeles",
  address =      "Los Angeles, CA, USA",
  pages =        "xi + 115",
  year =         "1991",
  LCCN =         "LD791.9.C6 S548 1991",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 11:00:44 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Stone:1991:VCS,
  author =       "R. L. Stone and T. S. Nettleship and J. Curtiss",
  title =        "{VM\slash ESA CMS Shared File System}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52--71",
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Sun Sep 15 05:47:47 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Discussed is work toward satisfying requirements on
                 the Conversational Monitor System (CMS) in the areas of
                 data sharing and physical DASD space sharing. This work
                 advances the present CMS file system design. Described
                 is the CMS Shared File System (SFS), which was designed
                 to satisfy the data sharing and physical DASD space
                 sharing requirements by providing a pool of DASD space
                 that is shared among multiple users. DASD space
                 assigned to the pool is easily extended, and read/write
                 sharing of individual files is allowed. Also discussed
                 is SFS security, usage of Virtual Machine/Enterprise
                 Systems Architecture (VM/ESA) data spaces for single
                 system performance, and coordinated resource recovery
                 to provide file data integrity in the distributed
                 environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Data Syst. Div., Endicott, NY, USA",
  classification = "C6120 (File organisation); C6150J (Operating
                 systems)",
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Conversational Monitor System; Data sharing; Data
                 spaces; File data integrity; Multiple users; Physical
                 DASD space sharing; Resource recovery; SFS security;
                 Virtual Machine/Enterprise Systems Architecture; VM/ESA
                 CMS Shared File System",
  language =     "English",
  pubcountry =   "USA",
  thesaurus =    "File organisation; IBM computers; Operating systems
                 [computers]; Virtual machines",
}

@Article{Tollenaere:1991:SMN,
  author =       "T. Tollenaere and G. A. Orban",
  title =        "Simulating modular neural networks on message-passing
                 multiprocessors",
  journal =      j-PARALLEL-COMPUTING,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "4--5",
  pages =        "361--379",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "PACOEJ",
  ISSN =         "0167-8191 (print), 1872-7336 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-8191",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 14 11:08:33 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C1230 (Artificial intelligence); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Lab. for Neuro- and Psychophysiol., Katholieke Univ.,
                 Leuven, Belgium",
  fjournal =     "Parallel Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01678191",
  keywords =     "compiler; data structure; decomposition;
                 entropy-driven artificial neural network; Hopfield
                 network; image restoration; independent simulation
                 environment; machine-; mapping; message-passing
                 multiprocessors; modular neural networks; neural nets;
                 parallel machines; parallel processing; simulation
                 programs; simulator program; splitter program;
                 transputer system; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical; T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@Article{Wejchert:1991:VPN,
  author =       "J. Wejchert and G. Tesauro",
  title =        "Visualizing processes in neural networks",
  journal =      j-IBM-JRD,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "1/2",
  pages =        "244--253",
  month =        jan # "\slash " # mar,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "IBMJAE",
  ISSN =         "0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-8646",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 14:26:59 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "A real-time visualization toolkit has been designed to
                 study processes in neural network learning. To date,
                 relatively little attention has been given to
                 visualizing these complex, nonlinear systems. Two new
                 visualization methods are introduced and then applied.
                 One represents synaptic weight data as `bonds' of
                 varying length embedded in the geometrical structure of
                 a network. The other maps the temporal trajectory of
                 the system in a multidimensional configuration space as
                 a two-dimensional diagram. Two-dimensional graphics
                 were found to be sufficient for representing dynamic
                 neural processes. As an application, the visualization
                 tools are linked to simulations of networks learning
                 various Boolean functions. A multiwindow environment
                 allows different aspects of the simulation to be viewed
                 simultaneously using real-time animations. The
                 visualization toolkit can be used in a number of ways:
                 to see how solutions to a particular problem are
                 obtained; to observe how different parameters affect
                 learning dynamics; and to identify the decision stages
                 of learning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Sci. Centre, Winchester, UK",
  classcodes =   "C7430 (Computer engineering); C1230D (Neural nets);
                 C6130B (Graphics techniques); C1240 (Adaptive system
                 theory)",
  classification = "C1230D (Neural nets); C1240 (Adaptive system
                 theory); C6130B (Graphics techniques); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "IBM Sci. Centre, Winchester, UK",
  fjournal =     "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
  keywords =     "2D diagram; Boolean; Boolean functions; configuration
                 space; Dynamic neural processes; dynamic neural
                 processes; engineering graphics; functions; learning
                 systems; multidimensional; Multidimensional
                 configuration space; Multiwindow environment;
                 multiwindow environment; neural nets; Neural network
                 learning; neural network learning; Neural networks;
                 neural networks; Nonlinear systems; nonlinear systems;
                 real-; Real-time animations; real-time animations;
                 real-time visualization; Real-time visualization
                 toolkit; Synaptic weight data; synaptic weight data;
                 Temporal trajectory; temporal trajectory; time systems;
                 toolkit; virtual machines",
  thesaurus =    "Engineering graphics; Learning systems; Neural nets;
                 Real-time systems; Virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Wu:1991:NNS,
  author =       "J.-. L. Wu and S.-T. Cheng",
  title =        "A neural network simulating system",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "34",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "92--93",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1991",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 13:51:56 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_01/",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_01/tiff/92.tif;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/hdb/Volume_34/Issue_01/tiff/93.tif",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Department of Comput. Sci. and Inf. Eng., Nat. Taiwan
                 Univ., Taipei, Taiwan",
  classcodes =   "C7430 (Computer engineering); C6140D (High level
                 languages); C6110B (Software engineering techniques);
                 C1230 (Artificial intelligence)",
  classification = "C1230 (Artificial intelligence); C6110B (Software
                 engineering techniques); C6140D (High level languages);
                 C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput. Sci. and Inf. Eng., Nat. Taiwan
                 Univ., Taipei, Taiwan",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "experimental neural network description language;
                 Experimental neural network description language;
                 models; network simulation system; neural; neural nets;
                 neural network; Neural network models; Neural network
                 simulation system; specification languages; unifying
                 way; Unifying way; virtual machines",
  thesaurus =    "Neural nets; Specification languages; Virtual
                 machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical; T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@Article{Ackerman:1992:SIE,
  author =       "D. F. Ackerman and M. H. Decker and J. J. Gosselin and
                 K. M. Lasko and M. P. Mullen and R. E. Rosa and E. V.
                 Valera and B. Wile",
  title =        "Simulation of {IBM Enterprise System\slash 9000}
                 models 820 and 900",
  journal =      j-IBM-JRD,
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "751--764",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "IBMJAE",
  ISSN =         "0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-8646",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 14:26:59 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The discovery and removal of logic design errors early
                 in the development cycle is critical to timely
                 availability of market-driven processor products. The
                 paper describes the part played by simulation in the
                 verification of the high-end models of the IBM
                 Enterprise System/9000 (ES/9000) processor family, and
                 how that effort advanced the state of the art of logic
                 design simulation. The increased complexity of the
                 ES/9000 design over that of the IBM Enterprise
                 System/3090 (ES/3090) necessitated a larger simulation
                 effort. New tools and methods were developed. Two
                 simulation missions were established. Element
                 simulation addressed ES/9000 functional elements (e.g.
                 the storage controller) individually using the Compiled
                 Enhanced Functional Simulator (CEFS), a software tool.
                 System simulation tested two or more functional
                 elements together using the Engineering Verification
                 Engine (EVE), a special-purpose hardware parallel
                 processor, and an attached IBM 3092 Processor
                 Controller (PCE). The results achieved by simulation
                 are discussed, together with the methods used and the
                 impact these results had on the overall verification of
                 the ES/9000 Models 820 and 900.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "IBM Enterprise Syst., Poughkeepsie, NY, USA",
  classcodes =   "C5470 (Performance evaluation and testing); C7430
                 (Computer engineering); C5210 (Logic design methods);
                 C5420 (Mainframes and minicomputers)",
  classification = "C5210 (Logic design methods); C5420 (Mainframes and
                 minicomputers); C5470 (Performance evaluation and
                 testing); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "IBM Enterprise Syst., Poughkeepsie, NY, USA",
  fjournal =     "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
  keywords =     "Compiled Enhanced Functional Simulator; computer
                 testing; development cycle; Development cycle;
                 Engineering Verification Engine; formal verification;
                 high-end models; High-end models; IBM computers; logic;
                 logic design errors; Logic design errors; logic design
                 simulation; Logic design simulation; mainframes;
                 simulation; Simulation; software tool; Software tool;
                 storage controller; Storage controller; testing;
                 verification; Verification; virtual machines",
  thesaurus =    "Computer testing; Formal verification; IBM computers;
                 Logic testing; Mainframes; Virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Darcy:1992:USD,
  author =       "George A. {Darcy III} and Ronald F. Brender and
                 Stephen J. Morris and Michael V. Iles",
  title =        "Using Simulation to Develop and Port Software",
  journal =      j-DEC-TECH-J,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "181--192",
  month =        "Fall",
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "DTJOEL",
  ISSN =         "0898-901X",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 20 18:15:43 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/Digital/info/DTJ/v4n4/Using_Simulation_to_Develop_an_01apr1993DTJ812P8.ps;
                 http://www.digital.com:80/info/DTJ812/DTJ812SC.TXT",
  abstract =     "Among the tools developed to support Digital's Alpha
                 AXP program were four software simulators. The
                 Mannequin and ISP instruction set simulators were used
                 to port the OpenVMS and OSF/1 operating systems to the
                 Alpha AXP platform. The Alpha User-mode Debugging
                 Environment (AUD) allowed Alpha AXP user-mode code to
                 be debugged with support from the OpenVMS VAX run-time
                 environment on VAX hardware. AUD was built from a
                 combination of new and existing Digital software
                 components. The Alpha User-mode Debugging Environment
                 for Translated Images (AUDI) allowed translated images
                 to be debugged on a simulator running on a VAX
                 computer. With these debugging environments, user-mode
                 applications and code components could be tested before
                 Alpha AXP hardware and operating system software were
                 available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C7430 (Computer engineering); C6150J (Operating
                 systems); C5440 (Multiprocessor systems and
                 techniques); C6150G (Diagnostic, testing, debugging and
                 evaluating systems)",
  classification = "C5440 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques);
                 C6150G (Diagnostic, testing, debugging and evaluating
                 systems); C6150J (Operating systems); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  fjournal =     "Digital Technical Journal",
  keywords =     "(computers); Alpha; Alpha AXP platform; Alpha AXP
                 program; Alpha AXP user-mode code; Alpha User-Mode
                 Debugging Environment; AUDI; AXP platform; AXP
                 user-mode code; Code components; code components;
                 computer; debugged; Debugged; debugging environments;
                 Debugging environments; DEC computers; environment;
                 instruction set simulators; ISP; ISP instruction set
                 simulators; Mannequin; multiprocessing systems; OpenVMS
                 VAX run-time; OpenVMS VAX run-time environment;
                 operating systems; OSF/1 operating systems; program
                 debugging; software portability; Software simulators;
                 software simulators; translated images; Translated
                 images; VAX; VAX computer; VAX hardware; virtual
                 machines",
  thesaurus =    "DEC computers; Multiprocessing systems; Operating
                 systems [computers]; Program debugging; Software
                 portability; Virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Garzon:1992:DTG,
  author =       "Max H. Garzon and Stanley P. Franklin and William
                 Baggett and William S. {Boyd, Jr.} and Dinah
                 Dickerson",
  title =        "Design and Testing of a General-Purpose
                 Neurocomputer",
  journal =      j-J-PAR-DIST-COMP,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "203--220",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "JPDCER",
  ISSN =         "0743-7315 (print), 1096-0848 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0743-7315",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 12 19:06:31 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Memphis State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Memphis, TN, USA",
  classification = "721; 722; 723; C5220P (Parallel architecture); C5290
                 (Neural computing techniques); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Inst. of Intelligent Syst., Memphis State Univ., TN,
                 USA",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
  journalabr =   "J Parallel Distrib Comput",
  keywords =     "AMNIAC; amniac Neurocomputer; Computer Systems,
                 Digital --- Parallel Processing; Computers --- General
                 Purpose Application; Design; Logic Design --- Testing;
                 Logical Design; massively parallel; Massively Parallel
                 Simulations; MIMD; neural nets; Neural Networks; Neural
                 Networks --- Stability; neurocomputer; parallel
                 architectures; Programmable Neural Network;
                 programmable neural network; SIMD; Software Serial;
                 Stability Problem for Networks; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Hamilton:1992:SHU,
  author =       "Jeffrey W. Hamilton and Eileen M. Ornsby",
  title =        "Simulating Hypercubes In {Unix}. Part {I}",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "72, 74, 76, 108--110, 112--113",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 03 09:15:37 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 UnCover database",
  abstract =     "In this two-part article, our authors describe how you
                 can simulate the execution of a hypercube program on a
                 standard UNIX system. This month, they focus on
                 partitions, the basic building blocks of a hypercube
                 system. Next month, they present the source code for
                 the simulator and discuss how to use the system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5220P (Parallel architecture); C6110P (Parallel
                 programming); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
  keywords =     "Hypercube program; Intel iPSC/2 hypercube; UNIX
                 system",
  thesaurus =    "C listings; Hypercube networks; Parallel programming;
                 Unix; Virtual machines",
}

@Article{Hirschsohn:1992:PSS,
  author =       "Ian Hirschsohn",
  title =        "Personal Supercomputing: Seamless Portability",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "40, 42--44, 46, 48",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 10:06:23 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110B (Software engineering techniques); C6115
                 (Programming support); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
  keywords =     "386SX; Code transfer; Hardware independent virtual
                 computer; Personal supercomputing; PORT software
                 environment; RISC; Seamless portability",
  thesaurus =    "Programming environments; Reduced instruction set
                 computing; Software portability; Virtual machines",
}

@Article{Jim-Min:1992:IES,
  author =       "Lin Jim-Min and Rong Tsai Shang and Tseng Li-Ming",
  title =        "Integrating Existing Software Packages Using the
                 Virtual Machine Technique",
  journal =      j-J-SYST-SOFTW,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "207--??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "JSSODM",
  ISSN =         "0164-1212 (print), 1873-1228 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0164-1212",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 16 08:24:49 MST 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "incomplete",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of systems and software",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01641212",
}

@Article{Kutter:1992:STE,
  author =       "Michael Kutter",
  title =        "Simulation And Testboard For Embedded-System Design",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "62, 66--68",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 03 09:15:37 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 UnCover database",
  abstract =     "With software simulation and hardware testboards, you
                 can debug and test code in parallel with hardware
                 development. Michael explains how these techniques were
                 applied to the software-development cycle of an
                 embedded controller.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Advanced NMR Systems Inc., Wilmington, MA, USA",
  classification = "C6110B (Software engineering techniques); C7430
                 (Computer engineering)",
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
  keywords =     "Advanced NMR Systems; Embedded controller; Embedded
                 system design; Hardware-testboard techniques; Software
                 simulation; Software-development cycle",
  thesaurus =    "Development systems; Real-time systems; Software
                 engineering; Virtual machines",
}

@Article{Lin:1992:IES,
  author =       "Jim-Min Lin and Shang Rong Tsai and Li-Ming Tseng",
  title =        "Integrating Existing Software Packages Using the
                 Virtual Machine Technique",
  journal =      j-J-SYST-SOFTW,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "207--218",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "JSSODM",
  ISSN =         "0164-1212 (print), 1873-1228 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0164-1212",
  bibdate =      "Wed Sep 8 09:22:28 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jsystsoftw.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01641212",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "The Journal of systems and software",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01641212",
}

@TechReport{Loyot:1992:VVM,
  author =       "Edmond C. {Loyot, Jr.}",
  title =        "{VMPP}: a Virtual Machine for Parallel Processing",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "CS-92-30",
  institution =  "University of Virginia",
  month =        sep # " 29,",
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "August 28, 1995",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.cs.virginia.edu/pub/techreports/CS-92-30.ps.Z",
}

@Article{Majumdar:1992:PPC,
  author =       "A. Majumdar and W. R. Martin",
  title =        "Parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm
                 applied to neutron diffusion problem",
  journal =      j-TRANS-AM-NUCL-SOC,
  volume =       "65",
  pages =        "209--210",
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "TANSAO",
  ISSN =         "0003-018X",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 22 10:17:16 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA",
  classification = "A0260 (Numerical approximation and analysis); A2820H
                 (Neutron diffusion); A2841C (Computer codes); C4130
                 (Interpolation and function approximation); C4240P
                 (Parallel programming and algorithm theory); C7470
                 (Nuclear engineering)",
  fjournal =     "Transactions of the American Nuclear Society",
  keywords =     "BBN TC2000; Distributed workstation; IBM RS6000;
                 Iterative method; Linear system; Neutron diffusion;
                 Parallel PCG algorithm; Parallel virtual machine;
                 Parallelization software; Preconditioned conjugate
                 gradient; Shared memory machine",
  thesaurus =    "Iterative methods; Neutron diffusion; Nuclear
                 engineering computing; Parallel algorithms",
}

@Article{Mebane:1992:EFD,
  author =       "Alfred Holt {Mebane, IV} and James R. Schmedake and
                 Iue-Shuenn Chen and Anne P. Kadonaga",
  title =        "Electronic and firmware design of the {HP DesignJet}
                 drafting plotter",
  journal =      j-HEWLETT-PACKARD-J,
  volume =       "43",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "16--23",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "HPJOAX",
  ISSN =         "0018-1153",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 25 14:12:15 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "High-performance vector-to-raster conversion and print
                 engine control are provided by a RISC processor, two
                 single-chip processors, and three custom integrated
                 circuits. Development of the electronics and firmware
                 made extensive use of emulation and simulation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Hewlett Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA, USA",
  classcodes =   "C5550 (Printers, plotters and other hard-copy output
                 devices)C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  classification = "C5550 (Printers, plotters and other hard-copy output
                 devices); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Hewlett Packard Co., Palo Alto, CA, USA",
  fjournal =     "Hewlett-Packard Journal: technical information from
                 the laboratories of Hewlett-Packard Company",
  keywords =     "application specific integrated circuits; computing;
                 Custom integrated circuits; custom integrated circuits;
                 Emulation; emulation; firmware; Firmware design;
                 firmware design; Hewlett; HP DesignJet drafting
                 plotter; Packard computers; plotters; Print engine
                 control; print engine control; raster conversion;
                 reduced instruction set; RISC processor; Simulation;
                 simulation; Single-chip processors; single-chip
                 processors; vector-to-; Vector-to-raster conversion;
                 virtual machines",
  thesaurus =    "Application specific integrated circuits; Firmware;
                 Hewlett Packard computers; Plotters; Reduced
                 instruction set computing; Virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Muller:1992:ASP,
  author =       "Urs A. Muller and Bernhard Baumle and Peter Kohler and
                 Anton Gunzinger and Walter Guggenbuhl",
  title =        "Achieving Supercomputer Performance for Neural Net
                 Simulation with an Array of Digital Signal Processors",
  journal =      j-IEEE-MICRO,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "55--65",
  day =          "1",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "IEMIDZ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/40.166714",
  ISSN =         "0272-1732 (print), 1937-4143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0272-1732",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 14 06:08:58 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Science Citation Index database (1980--2000); UnCover
                 library database",
  abstract =     "High-power computing for neural network simulation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C5440 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques); C5220P
                 (Parallel architecture); C7430 (Computer engineering);
                 C6110P (Parallel programming); C5290 (Neural computing
                 techniques); C5135 (Digital signal processing chips)",
  corpsource =   "Electron. Lab., Swiss Federal Inst. of Technol.,
                 Zurich, Switzerland",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Micro",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/index.html",
  keywords =     "2.7 GFLOPS; architecture; architectures;
                 backpropagation; digital signal processing chips;
                 digital signal processors array; interconnection
                 networks; multiprocessor; Music; neural net simulation;
                 neural nets; parallel; parallel distributed-memory;
                 parallel programming; programming; supercomputer
                 performance; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Nakanishi:1992:SSP,
  author =       "H. Nakanishi and V. Rego and V. Sunderam",
  title =        "Superconcurrent simulation of polymer chains on
                 heterogeneous networks",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1992:PSM",
  pages =        "561--569",
  year =         "1992",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 15 15:37:20 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "A6140K (Polymers, elastomers, and plastics); C1140Z
                 (Other and miscellaneous); C7320 (Physics and
                 Chemistry); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Phys. and CS, Purdue Univ., West
                 Lafayette, IN, USA",
  keywords =     "EcliPSe toolkit; heterogeneous computing nodes;
                 heterogeneous networks; massively parallel stochastic
                 simulation; physics computing; polymer chains; polymer
                 structure; price-performance ratios; scale-invariant
                 phenomena; stochastic processes; superconcurrent
                 simulation; toolkit-based parallelization; tree-
                 structure; tree-structured virtual machine; virtual
                 machines",
  sponsororg =   "IEEE; ACM",
  treatment =    "A Application; P Practical",
}

@Article{Nourse:1992:MWN,
  author =       "Andrew W. Nourse",
  title =        "{Microsoft Windows} Network Virtual Device Drivers in
                 {PATHWORKS} for {DOS}",
  journal =      j-DEC-TECH-J,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "47--55 (or 47--56??)",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "DTJOEL",
  ISSN =         "0898-901X",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 20 18:15:43 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/Digital/info/DTJ/v4n1/Microsoft_Windows_Network_Virt_01oct1992DTJ506P8.ps;
                 http://www.digital.com:80/info/DTJ506/DTJ506SC.TXT",
  abstract =     "Digital's PATHWORKS for DOS version 4.1 personal
                 computer integration software includes two network
                 virtual device drivers for the Microsoft Windows
                 environment. These drivers allow Windows applications
                 operating in a protected processor mode and standard
                 DOS applications in a virtual machine to concurrently
                 access services designed to run in real mode under the
                 DOS operating system. The network virtual device
                 drivers, available only in Microsoft Windows enhanced
                 mode, manage DECnet and NetBIOS operations and permit
                 the full use of these interfaces.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6150N (Distributed systems)",
  classification = "C6150N (Distributed systems)",
  fjournal =     "Digital Technical Journal",
  keywords =     "DECnet; device drivers; graphical user interfaces;
                 Microsoft Windows; NetBIOS; network operating systems;
                 network virtual; Network virtual device drivers;
                 personal computer integration software; Personal
                 computer integration software",
  thesaurus =    "Graphical user interfaces; Network operating systems",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Saeed:1992:ICM,
  author =       "Faisel Saeed and K. M. George and M. H. Samadzadeh",
  title =        "Implementation of classical mutual exclusion
                 algorithms in {Ada}",
  journal =      j-SIGADA-LETTERS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--84",
  month =        jan # "\slash " # feb,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "AALEE5",
  ISSN =         "0736-721X",
  ISSN-L =       "0736-721X",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 9 09:05:44 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database; http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents a scheme for defining a simulation
                 environment for n-process mutual exclusion algorithms
                 based on an Ada virtual machine. Several algorithms
                 have been implemented and tested in this simulation
                 environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Oklahoma State Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "Stillwater, OK, USA",
  classcodes =   "C6110P (Parallel programming); C6150J (Operating
                 systems); C6140D (High level languages); C7430
                 (Computer engineering); C6185 (Simulation techniques)",
  classification = "723",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput. Sci., Oklahoma State Univ.,
                 Stillwater, OK, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGADA Ada Letters",
  journalabr =   "Ada Lett",
  keywords =     "Ada; Ada listings; Ada Virtual Machine; Ada virtual
                 machine; classical mutual; Computer Programming ---
                 Algorithms; Computer Programming Languages --- Ada;
                 Computer Simulation; concurrency control; DELAY
                 statements; digital simulation; exclusion algorithms;
                 implementation template; Mutual Exclusion Algorithms;
                 n-process mutual exclusion algorithms; parallel
                 programming; Simulation Environment; simulation
                 environment; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Salter:1992:EHW,
  author =       "Brett Salter",
  title =        "An exception handler for {Windows} 3",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "9",
  pages =        "32, 34, 36, 102, 104--107",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 10:06:23 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 UnCover database",
  abstract =     "When writing Periscope/32 for Windows, a system-level
                 debugger for Windows 3, Brett needed to debug the
                 debugger so he developed WINX.386. This Windows
                 exception handler is implemented as an Enhanced Mode
                 Windows virtual device driver that oversees what's
                 happening with other VxDs, normal Windows applications
                 and drivers, and the DOS box --- including TSRs and DOS
                 device drivers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "The Periscope Co., Atlanta, GA, USA",
  classification = "C6150G (Diagnostic, testing, debugging and
                 evaluating systems); C6150N (Distributed systems);
                 C6180G (Graphical user interfaces)",
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
  keywords =     "DOS device drivers; Enhanced mode Windows virtual
                 device driver; Exception handler; Periscope/32;
                 System-level debugger; Windows 3; WINX.386",
  thesaurus =    "Assembly language listings; Error handling; Graphical
                 user interfaces; Input-output programs;
                 Multiprogramming; Program debugging; Virtual machines",
}

@TechReport{Simpkins:1992:AVP,
  author =       "N. K. Simpkins",
  title =        "{ALEP-0 Version 2.2: Prototype Virtual Machine}",
  institution =  "CEC",
  publisher =    "Commission of the European Communities",
  address =      "Luxembourg, Luxembourg",
  year =         "1992",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "(User guide for the Advanced Language Engineering
                 Platform). BIM",
}

@Article{Sterrett:1992:PMA,
  author =       "Anthony Sterrett and Marvin Minei",
  title =        "Performance measures of the {Ada Rendezvous}",
  journal =      j-SIGADA-LETTERS,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "97--101",
  month =        mar # "\slash " # apr,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "AALEE5",
  ISSN =         "0736-721X",
  ISSN-L =       "0736-721X",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 9 09:05:44 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database; http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "A discussion is presented of the average rendezvous
                 response time (RRT) for a transaction-based
                 two-processor system. RRT is discussed from the point
                 of view of a sensitivity study. Generalized performance
                 curves for the rendezvous are shown, along with
                 commentary on their performance elbows (bottlenecks).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Naval Ocean Systems Cent",
  affiliationaddress = "San Diego, CA, USA",
  classcodes =   "C6150N (Distributed systems); C6140D (High level
                 languages)",
  classification = "723",
  corpsource =   "Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, CA, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGADA Ada Letters",
  journalabr =   "Ada Lett",
  keywords =     "Ada; Ada rendezvous; asynchronous tasks;
                 communication; Computer Programming Languages; computer
                 simulations; Computer Systems, Digital ---
                 Multiprocessing; Computer Systems, Digital ---
                 Performance; curves; multiprocessing programs;
                 performance; performance behavior; performance
                 evaluation; Rendezvous Response Time; rendezvous
                 response time; sensitivity studies; synchronized;
                 two-processor system; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Tollenaere:1992:PIC,
  author =       "Tom Tollenaere and Marc M. {Van Hulle} and Guy A.
                 Orban",
  title =        "Parallel Implementation and Capabilities of
                 Entropy-Driven Artificial Neural Networks",
  journal =      j-J-PAR-DIST-COMP,
  volume =       "14",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "286--305",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "JPDCER",
  ISSN =         "0743-7315 (print), 1096-0848 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0743-7315",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 12 19:06:31 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Katholieke Universiteit te Leuven",
  affiliationaddress = "Leuven, Belgium",
  classification = "723; 741; C5290 (Neural computing techniques)",
  corpsource =   "Katholieke Univ., Leuven, Belgium",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
  journalabr =   "J Parallel Distrib Comput",
  keywords =     "Applications; EDANN; Entropy Driven Artificial Neural
                 Networks (EDANN); entropy-driven artificial neural
                 networks; Local Line Detection Operators; Network
                 Topology; neural nets; Neural Networks; parallel;
                 parallel simulator; Parallel Transputer Array; Retinal
                 Image; simulation environment; transputer array;
                 virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Turega:1992:CAS,
  author =       "M. Turega",
  title =        "A Computer Architecture to Support Neural Net
                 Simulation",
  journal =      j-COMP-J,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "353--360",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1992",
  CODEN =        "CMPJA6",
  ISSN =         "0010-4620 (print), 1460-2067 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0010-4620",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 21 09:53:36 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/Volume_35/Issue_04/Vol35_04.index.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.oup.co.uk/computer_journal/Volume_35/Issue_04/Vol35_04.body.html#AbstractTurega",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Department of Comput., Univ. of Manchester Inst. of
                 Sci. Technol., UK",
  author-1-adr = "Department of Computation, University of Manchester
                 Institute Of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 88,
                 Manchester M60 IQD",
  classcodes =   "C7430 (Computer engineering); C5220P (Parallel
                 architecture); C5290 (Neural computing techniques);
                 C1230D (Neural nets)",
  classification = "C1230D (Neural nets); C5220P (Parallel
                 architecture); C5290 (Neural computing techniques);
                 C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput., Univ. of Manchester Inst. of
                 Sci. Technol., UK",
  fjournal =     "The Computer Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://comjnl.oxfordjournals.org/",
  keywords =     "architecture; back propagation model; Back propagation
                 model; computer; Computer architecture; input response;
                 Input response; memory nodes; Memory nodes; neural net
                 simulation; Neural net simulation; neural nets;
                 parallel architectures; processor nodes; Processor
                 nodes; real-world problems; Real-world problems;
                 virtual machines; weight adjustment; Weight
                 adjustment",
  thesaurus =    "Neural nets; Parallel architectures; Virtual
                 machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical; T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@TechReport{Cahill:1993:ICV,
  author =       "Vinny Cahill and Paul Taylor and Gradimir Starovic and
                 Brendan Tangney and Darragh O'Grady and Rodger Lea and
                 Christian Jacquemot and Peter Strarup Jensen and Paulo
                 Amaral and Adam Mirowski and James Loveluck and Youcef
                 Laribi and Xavier Rousset de Pina and Pedro Sousa",
  title =        "Implementing the {Comandos} Virtual Machine",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "TCD-CS-93-32",
  institution =  "Trinity College; Chorus Systemes; OSF Grenoble
                 Research Institute; Unite mixte BULL-IMAG; INESC",
  address =      "Dublin, Ireland; Grenoble, France",
  pages =        "50",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 08:38:58 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Also in Chapter 10 of The Comandos Distributed
                 Application Platform.Cahill, {V}., Balter, {R}.,
                 Harris, {N}., and Rousset dePina, {X}.
                 (Ed.s),Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1993.",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.cs.tcd.ie/pub/tcd/tech-reports/reports.93/TCD-CS-93-32.ps.gz;
                 ftp://ftp.dsg.cs.tcd.ie/pub/doc/TCD-CS-93-32.ps.gz",
  abstract =     "This report describes the different implementations of
                 the Comandos platform. This report is published as
                 Chapter 10 of The Comandos Distributed Application
                 Platform Cahill, V., Balter, R., Harris, N., and
                 Rousset de Pina, X. (Eds.), Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
                 1993",
  contact-1 =    "<Vinny.Cahill@cs.tcd.ie>",
  contact-2 =    "<ptaylor@iona.com>",
  contact-3 =    "<Gradimir.Starovic@cs.tcd.ie>",
  contact-4 =    "<tangney@cs.tcd.ie>",
  contact-5 =    "<pms@inesc.pt>",
  copyright =    "1993 TCD DSG",
  dsgref =       "comandos",
  retrieval =    "Hard copy available by writing to: Rachel Noctor,
                 Librarian, Department of Computer Science, Trinity
                 College, Dublin 2, Ireland",
  source =       "~publications/published/DeptTechReports/ComandosBookTRs/C10-vm_impl/",
  xxnote =       "Check last author: Sousa or Souza??",
}

@MastersThesis{Cavender:1993:APV,
  author =       "Mark Edward Cavender",
  title =        "Asynchronous parallel virtual machine",
  type =         "M.S. thesis",
  school =       "University of Texas at San Antonio. Division of
                 Mathematics and Computer Science and Statistics",
  address =      "San Antonio, TX, USA",
  pages =        "vi + 228",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 15 18:16:25 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Parallel processing (Electronic computers); Virtual
                 computer systems.",
}

@TechReport{Crowl:1993:CLI,
  author =       "Lawrence A. Crowl",
  title =        "A Common Library Interface to Shared-Memory
                 Multiprocessors",
  number =       "93-80-08",
  institution =  "Department of Computer Science, Oregon State
                 University",
  year =         "1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Fri, 15 Dec 1995 03:17:47 GMT",
  URL =          "http://www.cs.orst.edu/techpub/reports/1993/1993R-ORSTCS-93-80-08/",
  abstract =     "Programmers using a wide variety of shared-memory
                 multiprocessors cannot yet rely on the availability of
                 programming tools other than K\&R C and Fortran 77. To
                 overcome the sequential nature of these languages,
                 vendors usually provide parallel programming primitives
                 via user-callable libraries. Unfortunately, the
                 vendor-provided libraries often differ substantially.
                 In addition to providing differing mechanisms to create
                 and synchronize processes; libraries often have
                 different models of how the processes share and
                 allocate memory within their address space. This paper
                 describes a common library interface to seven different
                 shared-memory multiprocessors. Surprisingly, this
                 library needs only two pages of implementation on each
                 of the multiprocessors. However, the effect on the
                 programming model is significant. Programmers must use
                 the library's virtual machine model to obtain efficient
                 programs on all the different physical machines.",
  keywords =     "multiprocessor shared-memory programming parallel
                 portable system operating multiprocessor",
}

@Article{Culler:1993:LTR,
  author =       "David E. Culler and Richard M. Karp and David A.
                 Patterson and Abhijit Sahay and Klaus E. Schauser and
                 Eunice Santos and Ramesh Subramonian and Thorsten von
                 Eicken",
  title =        "{LogP}: towards a realistic model of parallel
                 computation",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "1--12",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:16:39 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Div. of Comput. Sci., California Univ., Berkeley, CA,
                 USA",
  classification = "C5440 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques);
                 C6110P (Parallel programming); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  confdate =     "19-22 May 1993",
  conflocation = "San Diego, CA, USA",
  confsponsor =  "ACM",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "CM-5; Communication bandwidth; Communication delay;
                 Computing bandwidth; LogP; Machine configuration;
                 Machine designers; Parallel computers; Parallel machine
                 model; Portable parallel algorithms",
  thesaurus =    "Parallel algorithms; Parallel machines; Parallel
                 programming; Virtual machines",
}

@InProceedings{Despons:1993:CCP,
  author =       "R. Despons and T. Muntean",
  title =        "Constructing correct protocols for a diffusion virtual
                 machine in message passing parallel architectures",
  crossref =     "Grebe:1993:TAS",
  pages =        "465--480",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 16 06:39:19 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5220P (Parallel architecture); C5440
                 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques); C5640
                 (Protocols); C6150N (Distributed systems); C7430
                 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "IMAG-LGI Lab., Grenoble Univ., France",
  keywords =     "architectures; communication protocols; diffusion
                 protocols; diffusion virtual machine; machines;
                 massively parallel architectures; message passing;
                 parallel; parallel algorithms; parallel applications;
                 parallel architectures; parallel machines; programming
                 environments; protocols; virtual machines",
  pubcountry =   "Netherlands",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Drapeau:1993:SLT,
  author =       "Ann L. Drapeau and Randy H. Katz",
  title =        "Striping in Large Tape Libraries",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1993:PSP",
  pages =        "378--387",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 15 12:04:03 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of California",
  affiliationaddress = "Berkeley, CA, USA",
  classification = "723; C5320C (Storage on moving magnetic media);
                 C5470 (Performance evaluation and testing); C7430
                 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Comput. Sci. Div., California Univ., Berkeley, CA,
                 USA",
  keywords =     "data striping concepts; Database systems; discrete
                 event simulation; event-driven simulator; Event-driven
                 simulator; EXB120 tape robot; large tape libraries;
                 Large tape libraries; magnetic tape storage; Massive
                 tertiary storage systems; multimedia databases;
                 Non-striping system; online libraries; performance
                 evaluation; random workload; randomly distributed
                 access; records management; robot arms; Scientific data
                 collection; software libraries; Storage allocation
                 (computer); Striping concepts; tertiary storage
                 databases; virtual machines",
  sponsororg =   "IEEE; ACM SIGARCH",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Golub:1993:MER,
  author =       "D. B. Golub and R. Manikundalam and F. L. Rawson",
  title =        "{MVM}---an environment for running multiple {DOS},
                 {Windows} and {DPMI} programs on the microkernel",
  crossref =     "USENIX:1993:PUM",
  pages =        "173--190",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Sat Sep 28 18:52:45 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Sch. of Comput. Sci., Carnegie Mellon Univ.,
                 Pittsburgh, PA, USA",
  classification = "C5440 (Multiprocessor systems and techniques);
                 C6150J (Operating systems); C6150N (Distributed
                 systems)",
  keywords =     "Access sharing; Client/server emulation cradle; DOS
                 Protected Mode Interface; DPMI programs; Industry
                 standard; Legacy software; Mach based systems;
                 Microkernel; Multiple applications; Multiple DOS
                 programs; Multiple Virtual Machines; MVM; PC DOS
                 system; Personal computer; Protected mode DOS
                 extenders; Virtual machine environment; Windows",
  thesaurus =    "IBM computers; Input-output programs; Microcomputer
                 applications; Multiprocessing programs; Operating
                 systems [computers]; Virtual machines",
}

@Article{Grimshaw:1993:DOP,
  author =       "Andrew S. Grimshaw and W. Timothy Strayer and P.
                 Narayan",
  title =        "Dynamic, object-oriented parallel processing",
  journal =      j-IEEE-PAR-DIST-TECH,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "33--47",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "IPDTEX",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/88.218174",
  ISSN =         "1063-6552 (print), 1558-1861 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1063-6552",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 11 07:24:28 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Virginia",
  classification = "721.1; 722.4; 723.1; C5440 (Multiprocessor systems
                 and techniques); C6110B (Software engineering
                 techniques); C6110J (Object-oriented programming);
                 C6115 (Programming support)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput. Sci., Virginia Univ.,
                 Charlottesville, VA, USA",
  fjournal =     "IEEE parallel and distributed technology: systems and
                 applications",
  journalabr =   "IEEE Parallel Distrib Technol",
  keywords =     "32-node Intel iPSC/2; based distributed-memory
                 systems; comparison; compiler-; Computer programming;
                 Concurrent programs; Distributed computer systems; DNA;
                 dynamic parallel processing; easy; Gaussian
                 elimination; hand-coded implementations; high
                 performance; hypercube; image convolution; medium-grain
                 parallel; Mentat; Multiprocessing systems; Object
                 oriented programming; object-; object-oriented
                 programming; oriented parallel processing; Parallel
                 processing; parallel processing; Parallel processing
                 systems; Parallel programming; parallelism; partial;
                 performance evaluation; pivoting; portable software;
                 protein sequence; software; software portability;
                 software tools; sparse matrix-vector multiplication;
                 Sun IPC Sparcstations; virtual-machine model",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@TechReport{Herbordt:1993:EEA,
  author =       "Martin C. Herbordt and Charles C. Weems",
  title =        "An Environment for Evaluating Architectures for
                 Spatially Mapped Computatio: System Architecture and
                 Preliminary Results",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  number =       "UM-CS-1993-070",
  institution =  "University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Computer
                 Science",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 11:35:35 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.cs.umass.edu/pub/techrept/1993/UM-CS-1993-070.ps",
  abstract =     "An environment which addresses several problems in
                 evaluating massively parallel array architectures is
                 described. A realistic workload including a series of
                 applications currently being used as building blocks in
                 vision research has been constructed. Both flexibility
                 in architectural parameter selection and simulation
                 efficiency are maintained by combining virtual machine
                 emulation with trace driven simulation. The trade-off
                 between fairness to diverse target architectures and
                 programmability of the test programs is addressed
                 through the use of operator and application libraries.
                 Initial results are presented indicating the
                 appropriate balance between register file and cache to
                 optimize performance under varying levels of processor
                 element virtualization.",
  keywords =     "ENPASSANT; machine emulation; massively parallel array
                 architectures; trace driven simulation; virtual",
  language =     "English",
  notes =        "93-70 {"}An Environment for Evaluating Architectures
                 for Spatially Mapped Computation: System Architecture
                 and Preliminary Results{"} Martic C. Herbordt, Charles
                 C. Weems Computer Science Department Box 34610 Lederle
                 Graduate Research Center University of Massachusetts
                 Amherst, MA 01003-4610 September 1993",
  revision =     "April 3, 1996",
}

@Article{Inouchi:1993:PTI,
  author =       "H. Inouchi and N. McLoughlin",
  editor =       "H. Sorensen",
  title =        "Parallel techniques for image processing and
                 artificial neural network simulation",
  journal =      "Ai and Cognitive Science '91",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "177--89",
  year =         "1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The emergence of systems composed of multiple
                 processing elements and memory units, and their
                 associated models of computation promise to alleviate
                 many of the limitations of conventional Von Neumann
                 architectures. The implication of this to the field of
                 artificial intelligence is twofold, parallel systems
                 offer both a significant increase in computing
                 power/speed available, and a more natural physical
                 architecture for implementing parallel solutions to AI
                 problems. We discuss general parallel programming
                 techniques, their real applications to image processing
                 and neural network simulation, parallel implementation
                 of neural network models, and finally we finish with
                 our conclusions derived from this work.",
  keywords =     "AI problems; artificial intelligence; artificial
                 neural network simulation; computation models; image
                 processing; memory units; multiple processing elements;
                 NEURAL NETS; neural network models IMAGE PROCESSING;
                 PARALLEL ALGORITHMS; parallel programming; PARALLEL
                 PROGRAMMING; parallel systems; parallel techniques;
                 VIRTUAL MACHINES; Von Neumann architectures",
}

@PhdThesis{Knaggs:1993:PTA,
  author =       "Peter J. Knaggs",
  title =        "Practical and Theoretical Aspects of {Forth} Software
                 Development",
  school =       "School of Computing and Mathematics",
  address =      "University of Teesside, Middlesbrough, Cleveland. UK",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "ftp://cis.paisley.ac.uk/forth/thesis",
  abstract =     "This is an investigation into the use of the Forth
                 programming environment. The main areas of enquiry
                 were: interfacing Forth to other languages; interfacing
                 Forth and local area networks; and the use of RISC
                 processors with stack based architecture such as the
                 NC4000 and Harris RTX series.\par

                 We describe how to interface Forth and C. We also
                 provide a system with a multi-tasking interrupt driven
                 interface to the IBM NetBIOS networking software and a
                 simple, generic, method of task activation through
                 message passing.\par

                 Many aspects of the investigation proved to be
                 dependent on a more thorough theoretical underpinning
                 for the Forth language. The use of a typeless parameter
                 stack means that a programmer must concern himself with
                 the intellectual burden of managing the parameter
                 stack. The mismatching of stack elements can be the
                 cause of subtle logic errors. We therefore investigated
                 the possibility of developing a ``type algebra'' that
                 would allow us to develop a typed version of Forth.
                 This thesis includes a theory for a ``type signature
                 algebra'' for the stack based argument passing method
                 used by Forth.\par

                 To support the use of multi-tasking we provide a
                 simple, but formal, theory of concurrent tasks based on
                 state machines that synchronise on events. This has a
                 graphical notation for people who are not familiar with
                 formal notations.\par

                 We also looked at how formalisms might be used to
                 define a semantic model for the Forth language and how
                 formalisms can help to define the relationship between
                 Forth's stack based virtual machine and register based
                 target processors.",
}

@Article{Kumar:1993:FHS,
  author =       "Sanjaya Kumar and James H. Aylor and Barry W. Johnson
                 and Wm. A. Wulf",
  title =        "A Framework for Hardware\slash Software Codesign",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "39--45",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 3 07:28:57 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This article presents several codesign concepts,
                 including a. model for evaluating hardware/software
                 alternatives and an integrated hardware/software model
                 that supports representations at different levels of
                 detail.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA, USA",
  classification = "722; 723; C5210 (Logic design methods); C6110B
                 (Software engineering techniques); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
  journalabr =   "Computer",
  keywords =     "Codesign exploration; Codesign methodology; Common
                 simulation environment; Computer hardware; Computer
                 software; Computers; Design; Hardware design; Hardware
                 software codesign; Hardware/software codesign;
                 Hardware/software tradeoffs; Interface modification;
                 Model continuity; Software design",
  thesaurus =    "Discrete event simulation; Logic design; Software
                 engineering; Virtual machines",
}

@InProceedings{Loyot:1993:VVM,
  author =       "E. C. {Loyot, Jr.} and A. S. Grimshaw",
  title =        "{VMPP}: a virtual machine for parallel processing",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1993:PSI",
  pages =        "735--740",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 16 06:39:19 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110P (Parallel programming); C6150C (Compilers,
                 interpreters and other processors); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput. Sci., Virginia Univ.,
                 Charlottesville, VA, USA",
  keywords =     "front-end translators; parallel languages; parallel
                 processing; parallel source languages; portability;
                 program interpreters; software; virtual machine;
                 virtual machines; VMPP",
  sponsororg =   "IEEE Comput. Soc.; ACM Sigarch",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Manning:1993:AAE,
  author =       "Serge M. Manning and David G. Meyer",
  title =        "Analysis of Asynchronous Execution Streams with
                 {I}-Caching in Massively Parallel Systems",
  journal =      j-J-PAR-DIST-COMP,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "279--291",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "JPDCER",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jpdc.1993.1112",
  ISSN =         "0743-7315 (print), 1096-0848 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0743-7315",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 9 09:18:53 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.idealibrary.com/servlet/useragent?func=showAllIssues&curIssueID=jpdc;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.idealibrary.com/links/doi/10.1006/jpdc.1993.1112/production;
                 http://www.idealibrary.com/links/doi/10.1006/jpdc.1993.1112/production/pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5220P (Parallel architecture); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Sch. of Electr. Eng., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette,
                 IN, USA",
  fjournal =     "Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
  keywords =     "asynchronous execution streams; buffer storage;
                 I-caching; instruction caching system; massively; mode;
                 multiprocessor simulation; parallel architectures;
                 parallel program execution; parallel systems; SIMD;
                 SPMD; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical; T Theoretical or Mathematical",
}

@TechReport{McHugh:1993:ILC,
  author =       "C. (Colm) McHugh and V. (Vinny) Cahill",
  title =        "Interfacing a language to the Commandos [ie. Comandos]
                 virtual machine",
  volume =       "TCD-CS-93-33",
  type =         "External technical reports",
  institution =  "Department of Computer Science, Trinity College",
  address =      "Dublin, Ireland",
  pages =        "23",
  year =         "1993",
  LCCN =         "95.B02502",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:15 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.ox.ac.uk:210/ADVANCE",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Eiffel (Computer program language); Electronic data
                 processing; Distributed processing; Object-oriented
                 programming (Computer science)",
}

@InProceedings{Mzaik:1993:SPA,
  author =       "T. Mzaik and J. Jagadeesh",
  booktitle =    "National Aerospace and Electronics Conference. NAECON
                 1993",
  title =        "Simulation of pyramid architecture on the connection
                 machine and implementation of algorithms",
  publisher =    pub-IEEE,
  address =      pub-IEEE:adr,
  pages =        "838--44",
  year =         "1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Many parallel architectures have been proposed to meet
                 the high computational requirement of image processing
                 and computer vision . SIMD pyramid architectures have
                 been proposed to efficiently implement several classes
                 of vision tasks such as multiresolution and
                 top-down/bottom up algorithms. In this paper, a pyramid
                 simulation environment implemented on the Connection
                 Machine (CM) is presented. Discussion of the mapping
                 scheme and the basic features of the simulator along
                 with implementation of several pyramid algorithms using
                 the simulator is presented.",
  keywords =     "computer vision; connection machine; Gaussian pyramid;
                 image processing; IMAGE SEGMENTATION; Laplacian
                 pyramid; mapping; multiresolution algorithm; NEURAL
                 NETS; PARALLEL ALGORITHMS; parallel architectures;
                 PARALLEL ARCHITECTURES; PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS;
                 pyramid algorithms; pyramid architecture; pyramid
                 search; pyramid simulation environment; segmentation
                 COMPUTER VISION; SIMD; subband pyramid; top-down/bottom
                 up algorithms; VIRTUAL MACHINES",
}

@InProceedings{Poulsen:1993:ETP,
  author =       "David K. Poulsen and Pen-Chung Yew",
  title =        "Execution-Driven Tools for Parallel Simulation of
                 Parallel Architectures and Applications",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1993:PSP",
  pages =        "860--869",
  year =         "1993",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 15 12:04:03 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Univ of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign",
  affiliationaddress = "Urbana, IL, USA",
  classification = "723; 921.5; C5220P (Parallel architecture); C6150C
                 (Compilers, interpreters and other processors); C6150G
                 (Diagnostic, testing, debugging and evaluating
                 systems); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Center for Supercomput. Res. and Dev., Illinois Univ.,
                 Urbana, IL, USA",
  keywords =     "Critical path simulation (CPS); EPG-sim;
                 execution-driven critical path simulation;
                 execution-driven simulations; Execution-driven tools;
                 intelligent source-level instrumentation; Intelligent
                 source-level instrumentation; optimistically
                 parallelized codes; Optimization; parallel application
                 codes; parallel applications; parallel architectures;
                 Parallel processing systems; parallelising compilers;
                 Parallelizing compilers; parallelizing compilers;
                 Program compilers; program compilers; software tools;
                 Source-level instrumentation; source-level
                 instrumentation; trace generation; virtual machines",
  sponsororg =   "IEEE; ACM SIGARCH",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@TechReport{Ramsdell:1993:RVP,
  author =       "John D. Ramsdell",
  title =        "The Revised {VLISP} PreScheme Front End",
  institution =  "MITRE",
  pages =        "91",
  year =         "1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "ftp://cs.indiana.edu/pub/scheme-repository/txt/vlisp/preschemerevised.dvi.Z",
  abstract =     "Verified programming Languaeg Implementation Project
                 developed a formally verified implementation of the
                 Scheme programming language. It used a systems
                 programming dialect of Scheme, called VLISP PreScheme
                 to program the VLISP Virtual Machine, a byte-code
                 interpreter. The original compiler only accepted
                 programs that specify iterative processes. This
                 document describes a revision of the language and its
                 compiler. The most important change is the compiler
                 provides a stack to save control information for
                 procedure calls so programs that specify recursive
                 processes are accepted. the revision expands the
                 systems programming tasks for which VLISP PreScheme can
                 be used and simplifies the task of matching an
                 algorithm with its code.",
  checked =      "19940101",
  email =        "ramsdell@mitre.org",
  source =       "URL",
}

@Article{Rong:1993:LMM,
  author =       "Tsai Shang Rong and Lian-Jou Tsai",
  title =        "A Logical Machine Monitor Supporting an Environment
                 for Development and Execution of Operating Systems",
  journal =      j-J-SYST-SOFTW,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--39",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "JSSODM",
  ISSN =         "0164-1212 (print), 1873-1228 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0164-1212",
  bibdate =      "Wed Dec 16 08:24:49 MST 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The logical machine is an approach for designing and
                 developing operating systems. It partitions
                 conventional operating systems into two parts, the
                 logical machine operating system and the logical
                 machine monitor, which are responsible for user
                 services and system resource management, respectively.
                 The logical machine monitor provides a logical machine
                 interface for the logical machine operating system to
                 get the resources it needs. A logical machine monitor,
                 LMM386, has been successfully implemented to provide an
                 environment for the development and execution of a
                 logical machine operating systems (LMOS). Also, the
                 LMM386 introduces a tool for developing LMM386 itself
                 and the LMOS. This article discusses how to develop a
                 logical machine system on 80386 machines. An LMOS
                 derived from MINIX, executed in this environment, was
                 built to demonstrate the feasibility and merits of the
                 logical machine concept. By this approach, one can
                 easily monitor the behaviour of the LMOS. Furthermore,
                 by applying the concept in a distributed environment,
                 one can enhance the system capabilities, such as remote
                 disk mapping, disk replication and fault tolerance,
                 without changing the internal logic of the LMOS.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Department of Electr. Eng., Nat. Cheng-Kung Univ.,
                 Tainan, Taiwan",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of systems and software",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01641212",
  keywords =     "80386 Machines; Disk replication; Distributed
                 environment; Fault tolerance; LMM386; Logical machine
                 monitor; Logical machine operating system; MINIX;
                 Remote disk mapping; System development; System
                 resource management; User services; Virtual machine",
  thesaurus =    "Operating systems [computers]; Virtual machines",
  xxauthor =     "Shang Rong Tsai and Lian-Jou Tsai",
}

@InProceedings{Sebes:1993:MAL,
  author =       "E. J. Sebes and T. C. Vickers-Benzel",
  title =        "Modularity of Assembly-Language Implementations of
                 Trusted Systems",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1993:NCS",
  pages =        "173--184",
  year =         "1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper presents an approach to assessing the
                 modularity of trusted systems that are implemented in
                 low-level languages. The approach presented is based on
                 experience gained from in-depth analyses of the
                 security features of such systems. The methods
                 described here are centered around defining analogs of
                 high-level language (HLL) constructs in low-level
                 language (LLL) implementations, so that similar
                 modularity interpretations can be applied. This paper
                 can serve to extend the findings of the NSA System
                 Architecture Working Group (SAWG) to the critical class
                 of complex trusted systems which require the use of
                 lower level implementation languages. Such LLL
                 modularity interpretations are essential to the
                 application of evaluation criteria to a broad range of
                 systems, including trusted systems for use in embedded
                 or real-time military applications, and mainframe
                 trusted system products such as OSs or Virtual Machine
                 Monitors. Many such systems must use a carefully
                 balanced approach to meeting requirements such as
                 reconfigurability, fault tolerance, and isolation-based
                 access control, while still satisfying modularity
                 requirements.",
  keywords =     "Trusted Systems, Evaluation Criteria, Modularity,
                 Assembly-Language, Software Analysis Techniques,
                 Software Development Techniques",
}

@TechReport{Simpkins:1993:AVM,
  author =       "N. K. Simpkins and G. Cruickshank and {P. E.
                 International}",
  title =        "{ALEP-0 Virtual Machine extensions}",
  institution =  "CEC",
  year =         "1993",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
}

@Article{Tsai:1993:LMM,
  author =       "Shang Rong Tsai and Lian-Jou Tsai",
  title =        "A logical machine monitor supporting an environment
                 for development and execution of operating systems",
  journal =      j-J-SYST-SOFTW,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--39",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1993",
  CODEN =        "JSSODM",
  ISSN =         "0164-1212 (print), 1873-1228 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0164-1212",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 30 17:00:16 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The logical machine is an approach for designing and
                 developing operating systems. It partitions
                 conventional operating systems into two parts, the
                 logical machine operating system and the logical
                 machine monitor, which are responsible for user
                 services and system resource management, respectively.
                 The logical machine monitor provides a logical machine
                 interface for the logical machine operating system to
                 get the resources it needs. A logical machine monitor,
                 LMM386, has been successfully implemented to provide an
                 environment for the development and execution of a
                 logical machine operating systems (LMOS). Also, the
                 LMM386 introduces a tool for developing LMM386 itself
                 and the LMOS. This article discusses how to develop a
                 logical machine system on 80386 machines. An LMOS
                 derived from MINIX, executed in this environment, was
                 built to demonstrate the feasibility and merits of the
                 logical machine concept. By this approach, one can
                 easily monitor the behaviour of the LMOS. Furthermore,
                 by applying the concept in a distributed environment,
                 one can enhance the system capabilities, such as remote
                 disk mapping, disk replication and fault tolerance,
                 without changing the internal logic of the LMOS.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Department of Electr. Eng., Nat. Cheng-Kung Univ.,
                 Tainan, Taiwan",
  classification = "C6150J (Operating systems); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of systems and software",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01641212",
  keywords =     "80386 Machines; Disk replication; Distributed
                 environment; Fault tolerance; LMM386; Logical machine
                 monitor; Logical machine operating system; MINIX;
                 Remote disk mapping; System development; System
                 resource management; User services; Virtual machine",
  thesaurus =    "Operating systems [computers]; Virtual machines",
}

@TechReport{Anonymous:1994:SAS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Software architecture standard for simulation virtual
                 machine: version 2.0",
  number =       "NASA CR-188291",
  institution =  "National Aeronautics and Space Administration",
  address =      "Washington, DC, USA",
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "1994",
  LCCN =         "NAS 1.26:188291",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:28 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 melvyl.cdlib.org:210/CDL90",
  series =       "NASA contractor report",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "Shipping list number 94-0856-M.",
  subject =      "ADA (programming language).; Computer programming.;
                 Computerized simulation.; Maintenance.; Real time
                 operation.; Software engineering.; Standards",
}

@Article{Argade:1994:TMR,
  author =       "Pramod V. Argade and David K. Charles and Craig
                 Taylor",
  title =        "A technique for monitoring run-time dynamics of an
                 operating system and a microprocessor executing user
                 applications",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "122--131",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:16:57 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/; http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/proceedings/asplos/195473/p122-argade/",
  abstract =     "In this paper, we present a non-invasive and efficient
                 technique for simulating applications complete with
                 their operating system interaction. The technique
                 involves booting and initiating an application on a
                 hardware development system, capturing the entire state
                 of the application and the microprocessor at a well
                 defined point in execution and then simulating the
                 application on microprocessor simulators. Extensive
                 statistics generated from the simulators on run-time
                 dynamics of the application, the operating system as
                 well as the microprocessor enabled us to tune the
                 operating system and the microprocessor architecture
                 and implementation. The results also enabled us to
                 optimize system level design choices by
                 anticipating/predicting the performance of the target
                 system. Lastly, the results were used to adjust and
                 refocus the evolution of the architecture of both the
                 operating system and the microprocessor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5430 (Microcomputers); C5470 (Performance
                 evaluation and testing); C6150G (Diagnostic, testing,
                 debugging and evaluating systems); C6150J (Operating
                 systems)",
  conflocation = "San Jose, CA, USA; 4--7 Oct. 1994",
  conftitle =    "Sixth International Conference on Architectural
                 Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems
                 (ASPLOS-VI)",
  corpsource =   "AT and T Bell Labs., Allentown, PA, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "application simulation; computer architecture; design;
                 hardware development system; measurement;
                 microcomputers; microprocessor; microprocessor
                 architecture; microprocessor simulators; operating
                 system; operating system interaction; operating systems
                 (computers); performance; performance evaluation;
                 reliability; run-time dynamics; run-time dynamics
                 monitoring; statistics; system level design; system
                 monitoring; theory; user applications; virtual machines
                 virtual machines",
  sponsororg =   "ACM; IEEE Comput. Soc",
  subject =      "{\bf D.4.8} Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS, Performance,
                 Monitors. {\bf D.4.8} Software, OPERATING SYSTEMS,
                 Performance, Modeling and prediction. {\bf C.0}
                 Computer Systems Organization, GENERAL, Instruction set
                 design. {\bf C.4} Computer Systems Organization,
                 PERFORMANCE OF SYSTEMS.",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Averbuch:1994:PES,
  author =       "A. Averbuch and E. Gabber and S. Itzikowitz and B.
                 Shoham",
  title =        "On the parallel elliptic single\slash multigrid
                 solutions about aligned and nonaligned bodies using the
                 {Virtual Machine for Multiprocessors}",
  journal =      j-SCI-PROG,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13--32",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SCIPEV",
  ISSN =         "1058-9244 (print), 1875-919X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1058-9244",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 28 12:27:27 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Parallel/mgnet.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Parallel/pvm.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/pvm.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sciprogram.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C4170 (Differential equations); C5440
                 (Multiprocessing systems); C6110B (Software engineering
                 techniques); C6110P (Parallel programming); C6150N
                 (Distributed systems software)",
  corpsource =   "Sch. of Math. Sci., Tel Aviv Univ., Israel",
  fjournal =     "Scientific Programming",
  journal-URL =  "http://iospress.metapress.com/content/1058-9244",
  keywords =     "algorithm; aligned bodies; alignment overhead;
                 architectures; coherent services; distributed memory
                 multiprocessor; efficient programming; elliptic
                 equations; explicitly parallel application programs;
                 for Multi-Processors software package; grid points;
                 memory multiprocessors; memory systems; message
                 passing; MIMD; MOS; multi-user shared memory
                 multiprocessors; multiprocessors; nonaligned bodies;
                 parallel architectures; parallel elliptic; parallel
                 elliptic multigrid solutions; parallel program writing;
                 parallel programming; partial differential equations;
                 performance; portable programming; Sequent Symmetry;
                 shared; single grid solution; single-user shared;
                 software packages; software portability; transputer
                 network; transputer systems; Virtual Machine",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Beletsky:1994:OPV,
  author =       "V. Beletsky and T. Popova and A. Chemeris",
  title =        "Organization of a parallel virtual machine",
  crossref =     "Horiguchi:1994:ISP",
  pages =        "421--426",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Wed Apr 16 06:39:19 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5220P (Parallel architecture); C5440
                 (Multiprocessing systems); C6150N (Distributed systems
                 software); C7430 (Computer engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Lab. of Parallel Comput., Acad. of Sci., Kiev,
                 Ukraine",
  keywords =     "compilers; dependence graph building; loop
                 parallelization; parallel architectures; parallel
                 machines; parallel virtual machine organization;
                 processor; program compilers; scheduling; scheduling
                 job programs; simulating programs; simulation; virtual
                 machines",
  sponsororg =   "Japan Advanced Inst. Sci. and Technol.; IEEE Comput.
                 Soc.; IEEE Comput. Soc. Tech. Committee on Comput.
                 Archit.; IEEE Comput. Soc. Tech. Committee on Parallel
                 Process.; IPSJ Tech. Committee on Algorithms; IPSJ
                 Tech. Committee on Comput. Archit.; IEICE Tech.
                 Committee on Comput. Syst",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Bershad:1994:ACM,
  author =       "Brian N. Bershad and Dennis Lee and Theodore H. Romer
                 and J. Bradley Chen",
  title =        "Avoiding conflict misses dynamically in large
                 direct-mapped caches",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "158--170",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:16:57 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/; http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/proceedings/asplos/195473/p158-bershad/",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a method for improving the
                 performance of a large direct-mapped cache by reducing
                 the number of conflict misses. Our solution consists of
                 two components: an inexpensive hardware device called a
                 Cache Miss Lookaside (CML) buffer that detects
                 conflicts by recording and summarizing a history of
                 cache misses, and a software policy within the
                 operating system's virtual memory system that removes
                 conflicts by dynamically remapping pages whenever large
                 numbers of conflict misses are detected. Using
                 trace-driven simulation of applications and the
                 operating system, we show that a CML buffer enables a
                 large direct-mapped cache to perform nearly as well as
                 a two-way set associative cache of equivalent size and
                 speed, although with lower hardware cost and
                 complexity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5320G (Semiconductor storage); C5470 (Performance
                 evaluation and testing); C6120 (File organisation);
                 C6150J (Operating systems)",
  conflocation = "San Jose, CA, USA; 4--7 Oct. 1994",
  conftitle =    "Sixth International Conference on Architectural
                 Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems
                 (ASPLOS-VI)",
  corpsource =   "Department of Comput. Sci. and Eng., Washington Univ.,
                 Seattle, WA, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "associative cache; Cache Miss Lookaside buffer; cache
                 performance; cache storage; CML buffer; complexity;
                 conflict detection; conflict misses; design; hardware
                 cost; hardware device; large direct-mapped cache; large
                 direct-mapped caches; measurement; operating system;
                 operating systems (computers); performance; performance
                 evaluation; software policy; theory; trace-driven
                 simulation; virtual machines; virtual memory system;
                 virtual storage",
  sponsororg =   "ACM; IEEE Comput. Soc",
  subject =      "{\bf B.3.2} Hardware, MEMORY STRUCTURES, Design
                 Styles, Cache memories. {\bf D.4.2} Software, OPERATING
                 SYSTEMS, Storage Management. {\bf D.4.4} Software,
                 OPERATING SYSTEMS, Communications Management,
                 Buffering.",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@MastersThesis{Biradar:1994:ADL,
  author =       "Umesh V. Biradar",
  title =        "Adaptive distributed load balancing model for parallel
                 virtual machine",
  type =         "Master of Science in Computer Science",
  school =       "Department of Computer Science, College of
                 Engineering, Lamar University",
  address =      "Beaumont, TX, USA",
  pages =        "viii + 44",
  year =         "1994",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 15 18:16:39 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Distributed operating systems (Computers); Electronic
                 data processing --- Distributed processing.;
                 Multiprocessors; Parallel processing (Electronic
                 computers)",
}

@Article{Butt:1994:RDS,
  author =       "Farooq Butt",
  title =        "Rapid development of a source-level debugger for
                 {PowerPC} microprocessors",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "73--77",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:16:58 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5130 (Microprocessor chips); C6115 (Programming
                 support); C6140B (Machine-oriented languages); C6150C
                 (Compilers, interpreters and other processors); C6150G
                 (Diagnostic, testing, debugging and evaluating
                 systems)",
  corpsource =   "Compiler and Tools Group, RISC Software Group, Austin,
                 TX, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "compile-edit-debug environment; design cycle times;
                 emergent microprocessors; gdb; instruction sets;
                 microprocessor chips; Motorola PowerPC 601
                 microprocessor; Motorola PowerPC 603 microprocessor;
                 PowerPC instruction set; PowerPC microprocessors;
                 program compilers; program debugging; rapid
                 development; software microprocessor simulator;
                 software tools; software-development environment;
                 source-level debugger; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Damodaran-Kamal:1994:TRP,
  author =       "S. K. Damodaran-Kamal and J. M. Francioni",
  title =        "Testing races in parallel programs with an {OtOt}
                 strategy",
  crossref =     "Ostrand:1994:PIS",
  journal =      j-ACM-SIGSOFT,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SFENDP",
  ISSN =         "0163-5948",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5948",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 22 10:18:08 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Department of Comput. Sci., Southwestern Louisiana
                 Univ., Lafayette, LA, USA",
  classification = "C4240P (Parallel programming and algorithm theory);
                 C6110P (Parallel programming); C6150G (Diagnostic,
                 testing, debugging and evaluating systems); C7430
                 (Computer engineering)",
  fjournal =     "ACM Sigsoft",
  issue =        "spec. issue. p. 216-27",
  keywords =     "Concurrent programs; Controlled execution; Debugging
                 tool; Exponential complexity; General-purpose run-time
                 testing technique; Mdb; Nondeterminism;
                 One-thread-at-one-time strategy; OtOt strategy;
                 Parallel Virtual Machine; Polynomial time complexity;
                 Race conditions specification; Race detection; Race
                 expressions; Race testing; Unrestricted message passing
                 parallel programs",
  thesaurus =    "Computational complexity; Hazards and race conditions;
                 Message passing; Parallel programming; Program
                 debugging; Program testing; Virtual machines",
}

@Article{Dean:1994:CPV,
  author =       "C. E. Dean and R. C. Denny and P. C. Stephenson and G.
                 J. Milne and E. Pantos",
  title =        "Computing with parallel virtual machines",
  journal =      j-J-PHYS-IV-COLLOQUE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "C9",
  pages =        "C9/445--448",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "JPICEI",
  ISSN =         "1155-4339",
  ISSN-L =       "1155-4339",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 22 10:20:45 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "SERC Daresbury Lab., Warrington, UK",
  classification = "C4240P (Parallel programming and algorithm theory);
                 C6110P (Parallel programming); C7320 (Physics and
                 chemistry computing)",
  fjournal =     "Journal de physique. IV, Colloque",
  keywords =     "64-Node Intel iPSC/860 hypercube; Computing elements;
                 CPU performance; DALAI; LSQINT; Parallel execution;
                 Parallel virtual machines; PATTERN; Processing time;
                 PROJECT; Single program multiple data; Synchrotron
                 radiation",
  thesaurus =    "Parallel programming; Physics computing; Synchrotron
                 radiation",
}

@Article{Erenyi:1994:IPA,
  author =       "I. Erenyi and Z. Fazekas",
  title =        "Image processing applications and their parallel
                 aspects",
  journal =      j-COMP-CONTROL-ENG-J,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "71--4",
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "CCEJEL",
  ISSN =         "0956-3385 (print), 1741-0460 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0956-3385",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Image processing activities at KFKI Research Institute
                 for Measurement and Computing Techniques are
                 summarised. First, KFKI's contribution to the VEGA
                 project is described. Then two HW/SW platforms are
                 mentioned (together with applications in intelligent
                 microscopy, industrial quality control). Finally, the
                 analysis/simulation of promising parallel
                 architectures-to achieve considerable speed-up for
                 image processing primitives-is outlined. This
                 inevitably involves the modification/parallelisation of
                 algorithms to exploit parallel capabilities of the
                 architectures.",
  fjournal =     "Computing and Control Engineering Journal",
  keywords =     "analysis/simulation; HW/SW platforms; image processing
                 applications; industrial quality control; intelligent
                 microscopy; PARALLEL ALGORITHMS; PARALLEL
                 ARCHITECTURES; parallel architectures IMAGE PROCESSING;
                 parallel aspects; RESEARCH INITIATIVES; VEGA project;
                 VIRTUAL MACHINES",
}

@Manual{IBM:1994:CGN,
  author =       "{IBM}",
  title =        "Conversion guide and notebook for {VM\slash XA SP} and
                 {VM\slash ESA}, release 2.2: virtual machine",
  organization = "International Business Machines Corporation",
  address =      "1701 North St., Endicott 13760-5553 NY, USA",
  edition =      "Fifth",
  pages =        "1061",
  year =         "1994",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.C68 C67 1994",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:48 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  note =         "Publication number SC24-5525-04.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Computer system conversion; Virtual computer systems;
                 Computer architecture",
}

@Article{Kelsey:1994:TSI,
  author =       "Richard A. Kelsey and Jonathan A. Rees",
  title =        "A Tractable {Scheme} Implementation",
  journal =      j-LISP-SYMB-COMPUT,
  volume =       "7",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "315--335",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "LSCOEX",
  ISSN =         "0892-4635 (print), 1573-0557 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0892-4635",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 08:11:22 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "NEC Research Inst",
  classification = "721.1; 723.1; 723.1.1",
  fjournal =     "Lisp and Symbolic Computation",
  journalabr =   "LISP Symb Comput",
  keywords =     "Byte code interpreters; Codes (symbols); Computational
                 complexity; Computer programming; Layered design; lisp
                 (programming language); Modularity; Partial evaluation;
                 Program compilers; Program interpreters; Scheme
                 programming language; Virtual machines; Virtual
                 reality",
}

@Article{Lopez:1994:ICI,
  author =       "Gus Lopez and Bjorn Freeman-Benson and Alan Borning",
  title =        "Implementing Constraint Imperative Programming
                 Languages: The {Kaleidoscope} '93 Virtual Machine",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "259--271",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:16:55 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110 (Systems analysis and programming); C6110J
                 (Object-oriented programming); C6110L (Logic
                 programming); C6140D (High level languages)",
  conflocation = "Portland, OR, USA; 23-27 Oct. 1994",
  conftitle =    "Ninth Annual Conference on Object-Oriented Programming
                 Systems, Languages, and Applications. OOPSLA '94",
  corpsource =   "Dept. of Comput. Sci. and Eng., Washington Univ.,
                 Seattle, WA, USA",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "CIP languages; constraint handling; constraint
                 imperative programming; constraint imperative
                 programming languages; constraint languages;
                 constraint-based data store; declarative constraints;
                 destructive assignment; high level languages;
                 imperative machine; imperative programming; imperative
                 state; incremental constraint solver; K-machine;
                 Kaleidoscope'93 virtual machine; logic programming
                 languages; object-oriented languages; pointers;
                 programming; user-defined constraints; virtual
                 machines",
  sponsororg =   "ACM",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@InProceedings{Muntean:1994:PGM,
  author =       "T. Muntean and A. Melo",
  title =        "{PAROS}: a Generic Multi Virtual Machines Parallel
                 Operating System",
  crossref =     "Joubert:1994:PCT",
  pages =        "319--328",
  year =         "1994",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
}

@Article{Schulman:1994:IWV,
  author =       "Andrew Schulman",
  title =        "Undocumented Corner: Introduction to {`The Windows 3.1
                 Virtual Machine Control Block Part 2' (K. Zytaruk)}",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "107--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 2 09:09:39 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 UnCover database",
  abstract =     "In Part 2 of his article on the Windows 3.1 Virtual
                 Machine Manager, Kelly Zytanuk presents his Windows VM
                 Explorer application.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
}

@Article{Schulman:1994:UCI,
  author =       "Andrew Schulman",
  title =        "Undocumented Corner: Introduction to `{The Windows 3.1
                 Virtual Machine Control Block Part 1}' ({K. Zytaruk})",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "115--??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 2 09:09:39 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 UnCover database",
  abstract =     "Much of the preemptive multitasking for Microsoft's
                 Chicago operating system already exists in the form of
                 the Windows 3.1 Virtual Machine Manager. This month,
                 Kelly Zytanuk examines the overall structure of the
                 virtual-memory control block. Next month, he presents a
                 Windows VM Explorer application.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
}

@Article{Welch:1994:PVM,
  author =       "L. R. Welch",
  title =        "A Parallel Virtual Machine for Programs Composed of
                 Abstract Data Types",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
  volume =       "43",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "1249--1261",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "ITCOB4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/12.324558",
  ISSN =         "0018-9340 (print), 1557-9956 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9340",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jul 7 07:13:58 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.computer.org/tc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranscomput1990.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=324558",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C6110J (Object-oriented programming); C6110P
                 (Parallel programming); C6120 (File organisation);
                 C6150N (Distributed systems)",
  corpsource =   "Dept. of Comput. and Inf. Sci., New Jersey Inst. of
                 Technol., Newark, NJ, USA",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
  keywords =     "abstract data types; ADTs; ARC; Asynchronous Remote
                 Procedure Call; automatic parameter restoration; data
                 structures; data synchronization; database management;
                 dynamic load balancing; languages; machines;
                 modularity; multiprocessing programs; parallel
                 programming; parallel virtual machine; programming;
                 remote procedure calls; reuse; software reusability;
                 system development; systems; virtual",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Zytaruk:1994:WVMa,
  author =       "Kelly Zytaruk",
  title =        "The {Windows} 3.1 Virtual Machine Control Block.
                 {Part} 1",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "115--??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 2 09:09:39 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
}

@Article{Zytaruk:1994:WVMb,
  author =       "Kelly Zytaruk",
  title =        "The {Windows} 3.1 Virtual Machine Control Block.
                 {Part} 2",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "107--??",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1994",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 2 09:09:39 MDT 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/index/author/index.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
}

@Manual{Sun:1995:JVMa,
  title =        "The {Java} Virtual Machine Specification",
  organization = "Sun Microsystems",
  edition =      "1.0 Beta",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "1995",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://java.sun.com/doc/vmspec/VMSpec.ps",
  added-by =     "sti",
  annote =       "a virtual machine similar to UCSD p-code or smalltalk.
                 stack-machine. dynamic loading. direct support for
                 object orientation (e.g. virtual method calls)",
  keywords =     "java, virtual machine, bytecode",
}

@Manual{Sun:1995:JVMb,
  author =       "{Sun Microsystems}",
  key =          "JVMPI",
  title =        "{Java Virtual Machine Profiling Interface (JVMPI)}",
  organization = "Sun Microsystems",
  year =         "1995",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/guide/jvmpi/",
  URL =          "http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/guide/jvmpi/",
  comment =      "Profiling interface for {J}ava",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1996:TWJb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Towards {Web}\slash {Java-based} high performance
                 distributed computing --- an evolving virtual machine",
  journal =      j-IEEE-INT-SYMP-HIGH-PERF-DIST-COMP-PROC,
  pages =        "308--317",
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "PIDCFB",
  ISSN =         "1082-8907",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 12 06:31:53 MST 1996",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "IEEE catalog number 96TB100069.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  affiliation =  "Syracuse Univ",
  affiliationaddress = "NY, USA",
  classification = "722.1; 722.4; 723.1; 723.5; 921.6",
  conference =   "Proceedings of the 1996 5th IEEE International
                 Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing",
  fjournal =     "IEEE International Symposium on High Performance
                 Distributed Computing, Proceedings",
  keywords =     "Computer programming; Computer vision; Distributed
                 computer systems; Information technology; Internet;
                 Mathematical models; Performance; Software prototyping;
                 Virtual storage; World wide virtual machine",
  meetingaddress = "Syracuse, NY, USA",
  meetingdate =  "Aug 6--9 1996",
  meetingdate2 = "08/06--09/96",
  sponsor =      "IEEE",
}

@Article{Burnet:1996:PCP,
  author =       "Maxwell M. Burnet and Robert M. Supnik",
  title =        "Preserving computing's past: restoration and
                 simulation",
  journal =      j-DEC-TECH-J,
  volume =       "8",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "23--38",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "DTJOEL",
  ISSN =         "0898-901X",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jul 16 18:53:33 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.digital.com/pub/Digital/info/DTJ/v8n3/Preserving_Computings_Past_R_07jan1997DTJN02P8.ps;
                 http://artematrix.org/archive/computer/restoration.simulation.htm;
                 http://simh.trailing-edge.com/docs/dtjn02pf.pdf;
                 http://www.digital.com:80/info/DTJN02/DTJN02AH.HTM;
                 http://www.digital.com:80/info/DTJN02/DTJN02HM.HTM;
                 http://www.digital.com:80/info/DTJN02/DTJN02P8.PS;
                 http://www.digital.com:80/info/DTJN02/DTJN02PF.PDF;
                 http://www.digital.com:80/info/DTJN02/DTJN02SC.TXT",
  abstract =     "Restoration and simulation are two techniques for
                 preserving computing systems of historical interest. In
                 computer restoration, historical systems are returned
                 to working condition through repair of broken
                 electrical and mechanical subsystems, if necessary
                 substituting current parts for the original ones. In
                 computer simulation, historical systems are re-created
                 as software programs on current computer systems. In
                 each case, the operating environment of the original
                 system is presented to a modern user for inspection or
                 analysis. This differs with computer conservation,
                 which preserves historical systems in their current
                 state, usually one of disrepair. The authors argue that
                 an understanding of computing's past is vital to
                 understanding its future, and thus that restoration,
                 rather than just conservation, of historic systems is
                 an important activity for computer technologists.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C0200 (General computer topics); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  fjournal =     "Digital Technical Journal",
  keywords =     "computer restoration; computer simulation; computing's
                 past; digital computers; historical interest; history;
                 machines; maintenance engineering; SIMH (virtual
                 machine); virtual; working condition",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Misc{Campbell-Kelly:1996:ES,
  author =       "Martin Campbell-Kelly",
  title =        "The {EDSAC} Simulator",
  howpublished = "Web site",
  year =         "1996",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 07:57:27 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Downloadable simulator software available for
                 Microsoft Windows and GNU/Linux x86.",
  URL =          "http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~edsac/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Dincer:1996:BWW,
  author =       "Kivanc Dincer and Geoffrey C. Fox",
  title =        "Building a World-Wide Virtual Machine Based on {Web}
                 and {HPCC} Technologies",
  crossref =     "ACM:1996:SCP",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "1996",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 23 12:31:18 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.supercomp.org/sc96/proceedings/SC96PROC/DINCER/INDEX.HTM",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Ford:1996:MMR,
  author =       "Bryan Ford and Mike Hibler and Jay Lepreau and Patrick
                 Tullmann and Godmar Back and Stephen Clawson",
  title =        "Microkernels meet recursive virtual machines",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "SI",
  pages =        "137--151",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 26 08:55:58 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
}

@InProceedings{Fox:1996:TWJ,
  author =       "G. Fox and W. Furmanski",
  title =        "Towards {Web\slash Java-based} high performance
                 distributed computing-an evolving virtual machine",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1996:PFIa",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "1996",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 15 08:49:09 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C7430 (Computer engineering); C6150N (Distributed
                 systems software)",
  conflocation = "Syracuse, NY, USA; 6--9 Aug. 1996",
  conftitle =    "Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Symposium on
                 High Performance Distributed Computing",
  corpsource =   "Northeast Parallel Archit. Center, Syracuse Univ., NY,
                 USA",
  keywords =     "3D; authoring languages; Bridge-based Collaboratory;
                 CareWeb; distributed interpretative virtual machine
                 architecture; distributed processing; evolutionary
                 path; Information Infrastructure; Internet; Java-based
                 high-performance distributed computing; National;
                 Northeast; object-oriented languages; Parallel
                 Architectures Center; virtual machines; Visible Human;
                 Web technology prototypes; WebFlow; WebVM; World Wide
                 Web-based distributed environments",
  sponsororg =   "IEEE Comput. Soc. Tech. Committee on Distributed
                 Process.; Northeast Parallel Architectures Center; New
                 York State Center for Adv. Technol. Comput.
                 Applications and Software Eng. (CASE Center) at
                 Syracuse Univ.; Rome Lab",
  treatment =    "A Application; G General Review",
}

@Manual{IBM:1996:CAM,
  author =       "{IBM}",
  title =        "{CMS} application multitasking, version 2, release
                 2.0: virtual machine",
  organization = "International Business Machines Corporation",
  address =      "1701 North St., Enicott 13760-5553, NY, USA",
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "xiv + 380",
  year =         "1996",
  LCCN =         "QA76.58 .C59 1996",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:48 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  note =         "Publication number SC24-5766-01.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Parallel processing (Electronic computers);
                 Multitasking (Computer science); CMS (Computer file)",
}

@Article{Tamm:1996:LBV,
  author =       "Boris Tamm and Kuldar Taveter",
  title =        "A List-based Virtual Machine for {COBOL}",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "1347--1371",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jul 29 15:11:09 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract?ID=16778",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software --- Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
}

@InProceedings{Tremblay:1996:PHI,
  author =       "Marc Tremblay and Michael O'Connor",
  title =        "{PicoJava}: a hardware Implementation of the {Java
                 Virtual Machine}",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1996:HCV",
  pages =        "131--144",
  year =         "1996",
  bibdate =      "Sat Jan 6 19:21:13 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "ftp://www.hotchips.org/pub/hotc7to11cd/hc96/hc8_pdf/4.3.pdf;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 OCLC Proceedings database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Venners:1996:UHL,
  author =       "Bill Venners",
  title =        "Under the Hood: The lean, mean, virtual machine",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 08:48:26 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-06-1996/jw-06-vm.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Waddington:1996:JVM,
  author =       "Simon Waddington and Stephen Li",
  title =        "{Java}: Virtual Machine for Virtually Any Platform",
  journal =      j-EMBED-SYS-PROG,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "26--28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42",
  day =          "1",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1996",
  CODEN =        "EYPRE4",
  ISSN =         "1040-3272",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 15 08:49:09 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 UnCover library database",
  abstract =     "There's no doubt about it, Java has become a hot topic
                 in recent months. But should embedded developers care?
                 This overview describes Java's applicability in
                 embedded systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C6140D (High level languages); C6110J (Object-oriented
                 programming); C6150N (Distributed systems software);
                 C7210 (Information services and centres)",
  corpsource =   "Wind River Syst. Inc., USA",
  fjournal =     "Embedded Systems Programming",
  keywords =     "embedded systems; interactive environment; Internet;
                 Java; language; object oriented; object-oriented;
                 object-oriented languages; portable; programming;
                 real-time systems; system security; virtual machine;
                 virtual machines; Web pages; World Wide Web",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1997:IJV,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Inside the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-UNIX-REVIEW,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31, 32, 34--36, 38--39",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "UNRED5",
  ISSN =         "0742-3136",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 03 11:25:02 1996",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Adapted, with permission, from
                 \cite{Lindholm:1997:JVM}.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "UNIX review",
}

@Book{Anonymous:1997:JVM,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{Java Virtual Machine} unleashed",
  publisher =    pub-SAMS,
  address =      pub-SAMS:adr,
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "1997",
  ISBN =         "1-57521-247-1 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-57521-247-0 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "9710 BOOK NOT YET IN LC",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:48 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@MastersThesis{Cladingboel:1997:RJV,
  author =       "Christopher Cladingboel",
  title =        "Real {Java Virtual Machines}: Hardware Compilation and
                 the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  type =         "Thesis ({M.Sc.})",
  school =       "Board of the Faculty of Mathematical Sciences, Oxford
                 University",
  address =      "Oxford, UK",
  pages =        "107",
  year =         "1997",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 11:07:23 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Cohen:1997:DJV,
  author =       "R. Cohen",
  title =        "The Defensive {Java Virtual Machine} Specification",
  type =         "Technical Report",
  institution =  "Computational Logic Inc.",
  address =      "Austin, TX, USA",
  year =         "1997",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 01 07:17:25 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Comar:1997:TGJ,
  author =       "C. Comar and G. Dismukes and F. Gasperoni",
  title =        "Targeting {GNAT} to the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  crossref =     "ACM:1997:PTA",
  pages =        "149--164",
  year =         "1997",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 20 13:43:51 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigada.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Dallmeier:1997:JVM,
  author =       "Matthias K. Dallmeier",
  title =        "{Java Virtual Machine, Sprache, Konzept,
                 Architektur}",
  publisher =    pub-ORA,
  address =      pub-ORA:adr,
  pages =        "209",
  year =         "1997",
  ISBN =         "3-930673-73-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-930673-73-5",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 02 19:18:51 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://lightyear.ncsa.uiuc.edu/~srp/java/german.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Includes CD-ROM.",
  price =        "25 DM",
  URL =          "http://www.ora.de/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
}

@Article{Kalin:1997:NMP,
  author =       "Sari Kalin",
  title =        "News: {Microsoft} plans {Java} virtual machine for
                 {Unix}, {WinCE} by 1998",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 14:52:26 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-05-1997/jw-05-infoworld.microsoftvm.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Lindholm:1997:IJV,
  author =       "Tim Lindholm and Frank Yellin",
  title =        "Inside the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-UNIX-REVIEW,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31, 32, 34--36, 38, 39",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "UNRED5",
  ISSN =         "0742-3136",
  bibdate =      "Sat Mar 15 08:49:09 MST 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classcodes =   "C7430 (Computer engineering); C6110J (Object-oriented
                 programming); C6140D (High level languages); C6140B
                 (Machine-oriented languages); C6150C (Compilers,
                 interpreters and other processors); C6120 (File
                 organisation)",
  fjournal =     "UNIX review",
  keywords =     "abstract data types; bytecode files; instruction sets;
                 interpreter; interpreters; Java bytecodes; Java
                 programs; Java Virtual Machine; JVM; languages; object
                 oriented language; object-oriented; object-oriented
                 programming; program; program execution; run time
                 module; verifier; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Book{Lindholm:1997:JVM,
  author =       "Tim Lindholm and Frank Yellin",
  title =        "The {Java} Virtual Machine Specification",
  publisher =    pub-AW,
  address =      pub-AW:adr,
  pages =        "xvi + 475",
  year =         "1997",
  ISBN =         "0-201-63452-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-201-63452-5",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.J38L56 1997",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 04 15:04:45 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  price =        "US\$36.53",
  series =       "The Java Series",
  URL =          "http://www.aw.com/cp/javaseries.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Internet (Computer network); Java (Computer program
                 language); Java (computer program language);
                 programming languages (electronic computers); systems;
                 virtual computer; Virtual computer systems",
  lccnalt =      "96-015897",
  tableofcontents = "1. Introduction\\
                 2. Java Concepts\\
                 3. Structure of the Java Virtual Machine\\
                 4. The class File Format\\
                 5. Constant Pool Resolution\\
                 6. Java Virtual Machine Instruction Set\\
                 7. Compiling for the Java Virtual Machine\\
                 8. Threads and Locks\\
                 9. An Optimization \\
                 10. Opcode Mnemonics by Opcode",
}

@Manual{Lucent:1997:LPL,
  title =        "The {Limbo} Programming Language",
  organization = "Lucent Technologies Inc",
  year =         "1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://inferno.lucent.com/inferno/",
  abstract =     "Limbo is a programming language intended for
                 applications running distributed systems on small
                 computers. It supports modular programming, strong type
                 checking at compile- and run-time, interprocess
                 communication over typed channels, automatic garbage
                 collection, and simple abstract data types. It is
                 designed for safe execution even on small machines
                 without hardware memory protection. In its initial
                 implementation for the Inferno operating system, object
                 programs generated by the Limbo compiler run using an
                 interpreter for a fixed virtual machine. Inferno and
                 its accompanying virtual machine run either stand-alone
                 on bare hardware or as an application under
                 conventional operating systems like Unix, Windows 95,
                 Windows NT, and Plan 9. For several architectures,
                 including Intel x86 and MIPS, Limbo object programs are
                 transformed on-the-fly into instructions for the
                 underlying hardware.",
}

@Book{Meyer:1997:JVM,
  author =       "Jon Meyer and Troy Downing",
  title =        "{Java} Virtual Machine",
  publisher =    pub-ORA,
  address =      pub-ORA:adr,
  pages =        "xxiv + 426",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "1997",
  ISBN =         "1-56592-194-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-56592-194-8",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.J38 M49 1997",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 18 14:52:22 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  price =        "US\$32.95",
  series =       "The Java series",
  URL =          "http://www.ora.com/www/item/javavm.html;
                 http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/javavm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "computer systems; Java (computer program language);
                 technology -- computers and computer technology;
                 virtual",
  subject =      "Java (Computer program language); Java virtual
                 machine",
}

@Article{Montague:1997:JEJ,
  author =       "Bruce R. Montague",
  title =        "{JN}: {OS} for an Embedded {Java Network Computer} ---
                 Supporting {Java}'s {Virtual Machine} on a single-chip
                 embedded {PC} attached to the {Internet}",
  journal =      j-IEEE-MICRO,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "54--60",
  month =        may # "\slash " # jun,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "IEMIDZ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/40.591656",
  ISSN =         "0272-1732 (print), 1937-4143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0272-1732",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 14 06:08:58 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeemicro.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Science Citation Index database (1980--2000)",
  URL =          "http://pascal.computer.org/mi/books/mi1997/pdf/m3054.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Micro",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/index.html",
}

@Article{OConnor:1997:PJV,
  author =       "J. Michael O'Connor and Marc Tremblay",
  title =        "{Picojava-I} --- The {Java Virtual Machine} in
                 Hardware",
  journal =      j-IEEE-MICRO,
  volume =       "17",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "45--53",
  month =        mar # "\slash " # apr,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "IEMIDZ",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/40.592314",
  ISSN =         "0272-1732 (print), 1937-4143 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0272-1732",
  bibdate =      "Thu Dec 14 06:08:58 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeemicro.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/microchip.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Science Citation Index database (1980--2000)",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "C5220 (Computer architecture); C6150C (Compilers,
                 interpreters and other processors); C7430 (Computer
                 engineering)",
  corpsource =   "Sun Microsyst., Mountain View, CA, USA",
  fjournal =     "IEEE Micro",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/mi/index.html",
  keywords =     "byte codes; computer architecture; dynamic
                 distribution; Java virtual machine; microarchitecture;
                 microarchitecture trade-offs; performance; picoJava-I;
                 program compilers; virtual machines",
  treatment =    "P Practical",
}

@Article{Smith:1997:JNV,
  author =       "Gregory S. Smith",
  title =        "{Java}'s new virtual machine",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 14:52:26 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-05-1997/jw-05-jo-vm.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Stankovic:1997:VRR,
  author =       "John A. Stankovic",
  title =        "Virtual Roundtable: Real-Time Global Virtual
                 Machines",
  journal =      j-IEEE-CONCURR,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "26--27",
  month =        jul # "\slash " # sep,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "IECMFX",
  ISSN =         "1092-3063 (print), 1558-0849 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1092-3063",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jun 7 07:52:29 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.computer.org/concurrency/pd1997/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeeconcurrency.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://dlib.computer.org/pd/books/pd1997/pdf/p3026.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Concurrency",
}

@Manual{Sun:1997:JCL,
  title =        "{Java Card 2.0} Language Subset and Virtual Machine
                 Specification",
  organization = "{SUN} Microsystems, Inc.",
  address =      "Palo Alto/CA",
  edition =      "Revision 1.0 Final",
  day =          "13",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.javasoft.com/docs/javacard/JC20-Language.pdf",
  added-at =     "Mon Oct 12 17:29:42 1998",
  added-by =     "gka",
}

@Book{Venners:1997:IJV,
  author =       "Bill Venners",
  title =        "Inside the {Java} Virtual Machine",
  publisher =    pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
  address =      pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
  pages =        "384",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1997",
  ISBN =         "0-07-913248-0",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-07-913248-2",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.J38 V46 1998",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 17 22:05:06 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/books/jw-books-alphabytitle.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.mcgraw-hill.com/",
  price =        "US\$39.95",
  URL =          "http://mcgraw-hill.inforonics.com/cgi/getarec?mgh31406%comp",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Venners:1997:UHH,
  author =       "Bill Venners",
  title =        "Under the Hood: How the {Java} virtual machine
                 performs thread synchronization",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 14:52:27 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/multithreading.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-07-1997/jw-07-hood.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Venners:1997:UHHa,
  author =       "Bill Venners",
  title =        "Under the Hood: How the {Java} virtual machine handles
                 exceptions",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 10:32:58 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-01-1997/jw-01-hood.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Venners:1997:UHHb,
  author =       "Bill Venners",
  title =        "Under the Hood: How the {Java} virtual machine handles
                 method invocation and return",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 14:52:27 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-06-1997/jw-06-hood.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Venners:1997:UHHc,
  author =       "Bill Venners",
  title =        "Under the Hood: How the {Java} virtual machine
                 performs thread synchronization",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 14:52:27 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-07-1997/jw-07-hood.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Villadeamigo:1997:EES,
  author =       "Jos{\'e} M. P{\'e}rez Villadeamigo and Santiago
                 Rodr{\'\i}guez de la Fuente and Rafael M{\'e}ndez
                 Cavanillas and M. Isabel Garc{\'\i}a Clemente",
  title =        "The em88110: emulating a superscalar processor",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "45--50",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/271125.271153",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 18:57:42 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1990.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Assembly programming is a very important topic to
                 teach computer architecture. Current computers include
                 special techniques to improve performance such as
                 pipeline and multiple instruction issue per cycle. But
                 these kinds of computers are difficult to use in
                 laboratory works because of the great amount of details
                 of the target computer architecture that are not
                 relevant to beginners. Hence, we decided to build a
                 configurable emulator of a superscalar processor to
                 create a wide set of laboratory works, from the
                 simplest one that uses the computer as a serial
                 processor to the most complex that uses the full set of
                 performance improvements of a superscalar computer.
                 Most of the computer parameters can be established by
                 the student or the teacher providing a virtual machine
                 that is easier to use. Students can do their laboratory
                 work without taking into account the additional
                 problems generated by a real computer.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@InProceedings{Winterbottom:1997:DIV,
  author =       "Phil Winterbottom and Rob Pike",
  title =        "The Design of the {Inferno} Virtual Machine",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1997:HCI",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "1997",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 08 16:33:30 2001",
  bibsource =    "ftp://www.hotchips.org/pub/hotc7to11cd/hc97/pdf_images/hc97_4a_winterbottom_2up.txt;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Wong:1997:MHJ,
  author =       "Wylie Wong",
  title =        "{Microsoft} hones {Java} strategy: Virtual machine,
                 class libraries are on top",
  journal =      j-COMPUTERWORLD,
  volume =       "31",
  number =       "14",
  pages =        "113--113",
  day =          "7",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1997",
  CODEN =        "CMPWAB",
  ISSN =         "0010-4841",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 22 07:48:54 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ComputerWorld",
}

@Article{Agesen:1998:GCL,
  author =       "Ole Agesen and David Detlefs and J. Eliot B. Moss",
  title =        "Garbage Collection and Local Variable Type-Precision
                 and Liveness in {Java Virtual Machines}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "269--279",
  month =        may,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISBN =         "0-89791-987-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-89791-987-6",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:17:47 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/pldi/277650/index.html;
                 http://www.cs.virginia.edu/pldi98/program.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/proceedings/pldi/277650/p269-agesen/;
                 http://www.cs.virginia.edu/pldi98/program.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  annote =       "Published as part of the Proceedings of PLDI'98.",
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "experimentation; measurement; performance;
                 verification",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.4} Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES,
                 Processors, Memory management (garbage collection).
                 {\bf D.3.2} Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Java. {\bf F.3.3} Theory of
                 Computation, LOGICS AND MEANINGS OF PROGRAMS, Studies
                 of Program Constructs, Type structure.",
}

@Article{Armstrong:1998:CSH,
  author =       "Eric Armstrong",
  title =        "Cover Story: {HotSpot}: a new breed of virtual
                 machine",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 10:33:03 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-03-1998/jw-03-hotspot.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{AzanonEsteire:1998:JST,
  author =       "Oscar {Aza{\~n}{\'o}n Esteire} and Juan Manual {Cueva
                 Lovelle}",
  title =        "{J} --- Set of Tools for Native Code Generation for
                 the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "73--79",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 30 08:30:23 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Bak:1998:NCJ,
  author =       "Lars Bak and John Duimovich and Jesse Fang and Scott
                 Meyer and David Ungar",
  title =        "The new crop of {Java} virtual machines (panel)",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "179--182",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:17:52 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Brier:1998:NIA,
  author =       "Steven E. Brier",
  title =        "News: {IBM} augments {OS/2} with new {Java} virtual
                 machine",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 10:33:04 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-03-1998/jw-03-infoworld.ibm.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Crawford:1998:BSJ,
  author =       "Ronald {Crawford, II}",
  title =        "Behind the Scenes of the {Java 1.1 Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-JAVA-REPORT,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "??",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "JREPFI",
  ISSN =         "1086-4660",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 26 13:52:53 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://archive.javareport.com/9811/html/from_pages/index.shtml;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://archive.javareport.com/9811/html/from_pages/ftp_feature.shtml",
  abstract =     "Ronald explores the mechanism responsible for allowing
                 the Java technology to run compiled Java code on any
                 operating system, network computer, or hardware device
                 that supports Java.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Esteire:1998:STN,
  author =       "Oscar Aza{\~n}{\'o}n Esteire and Juan Manuel Cueva
                 Lovelle",
  title =        "Set of tools for native code generation for the {Java}
                 virtual machines",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "73--79",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:17:45 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Franz:1998:JVM,
  author =       "Michael Franz",
  title =        "The {Java Virtual Machine}: a Passing Fad?",
  journal =      j-IEEE-SOFTWARE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "26--29",
  month =        nov # "\slash " # dec,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "IESOEG",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/52.730834",
  ISSN =         "0740-7459 (print), 0740-7459 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0740-7459",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 4 07:38:57 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://computer.org/software/so1998/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeesoft.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://computer.org/software/so1998/s6026abs.htm;
                 http://dlib.computer.org/so/books/so1998/pdf/s6026.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Software",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/magazines/software",
}

@Article{Hagiya:1998:NMD,
  author =       "M. Hagiya and A. Tozawa",
  title =        "On a New Method for Dataflow Analysis of {Java Virtual
                 Machine} Subroutines",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1503",
  pages =        "17--32",
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 5 08:21:58 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Leung:1998:DGD,
  author =       "Kwong-Sak Leung and Kin-Hong Lee and Yuk-Yin Wong",
  title =        "{DJM}: a Global Distributed Virtual Machine on the
                 {Internet}",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "1269--1297",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jul 29 15:12:01 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract?ID=1763;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=1763&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software --- Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
}

@Article{Liang:1998:DCL,
  author =       "Sheng Liang and Gilad Bracha",
  title =        "Dynamic Class Loading in the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "36--44",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:17:52 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{McGhan:1998:CPP,
  author =       "Harlan McGhan and Mike O'Connor",
  title =        "Computing Practices: {PicoJava}: a Direct Execution
                 Engine For {Java} Bytecode",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "31",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "22--30",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 6 18:50:08 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://dlib.computer.org/co/books/co1998/pdf/rx022.pdf;
                 http://www.computer.org/computer/co1998/rx022abs.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@Article{Migliardi:1998:DRV,
  author =       "M. Migliardi and J. Dongarra and A. Geist and V.
                 Sunderam",
  title =        "Dynamic Reconfiguration and Virtual Machine Management
                 in the {Harness} Metacomputing System",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1505",
  pages =        "127--134",
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 5 08:21:58 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/d/dongarra-jack-j.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.netlib.org/utk/people/JackDongarra/PAPERS/harness1.ps",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Book{Miller:1998:VMB,
  author =       "Gregory R. Miller and Stephen C. Cooper",
  title =        "Visual mechanics: beams and stress states",
  publisher =    "PWS Publishing Company",
  address =      "Boston, MA, USA",
  pages =        "x + 149",
  year =         "1998",
  ISBN =         "0-534-95587-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-534-95587-8",
  LCCN =         "TA660.B4 M55 1998",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:48 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Girders; Mathematical models; Data processing;
                 Structural analysis (Engineering); Strains and
                 stresses; Java virtual machine",
}

@Article{Millet:1998:PGT,
  author =       "Laurent Millet and Ted Baker",
  title =        "Porting the {GNAT} Tasking Runtime System to the {Java
                 Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1411",
  pages =        "19--??",
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 5 11:52:10 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t1411.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/1411/14110019.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/1411/14110019.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@TechReport{Taivalsaari:1998:IJV,
  author =       "Antero Taivalsaari",
  title =        "Implementing a {Java Virtual Machine} in the {Java}
                 programming language",
  volume =       "98-64",
  institution =  "Sun Microsystems",
  address =      "Palo Alto, CA, USA",
  pages =        "23",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1998",
  LCCN =         "QA76.8.S86.S65",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:19 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  series =       "SMLI TR",
  abstract =     "JavaInJava is a Java virtual machine written in the
                 Java programming language. The system was built at Sun
                 Microsystems Laboratories in order to examine the
                 feasibility of constructing high-quality virtual
                 machines using the Java programming language and to
                 experiment with new virtual machine implementation
                 techniques. In this paper we describe the overall
                 architecture of JavaInJava and summarize a number of
                 interesting technical issues that were encountered
                 during its implementation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Java (Computer program language); Virtual computer
                 systems",
}

@TechReport{Tolksdorf:1998:PLJ,
  author =       "Robert Tolksdorf",
  title =        "Programming Languages for the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  institution =  "Technische Universit{\"a}t Berlin, Fachbereich 13,
                 Informatik, Formale Methoden, Logik und Programmierung
                 (FLP), Sekr. FR 6-10",
  address =      "Franklinstra{\ss}e 28/29, D-10587 Berlin, Germany",
  year =         "1998",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 09 05:47:54 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "World-Wide Web document with pointers to more than 60
                 compilers and translators between various programming
                 languages and Java.",
  URL =          "http://grunge.cs.tu-berlin.de/~tolk/vmlanguages.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Ungar:1998:PNC,
  author =       "David Ungar and Lars Bak and Jesse Fang and John
                 Duimovich and Scott Meyer",
  title =        "Panel 2: The New Crop of {Java Virtual Machines}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "179--182",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 5 06:59:51 MST 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Vanhelsuwe:1998:BRJb,
  author =       "Laurence Vanhelsuw{\'e}",
  title =        "Book review: {Java} virtual machine books --- a
                 comparative review",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "3",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 13 10:33:04 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jw-03-1998/jw-03-bookreview.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Westley:1998:WJA,
  author =       "Terry J. Westley",
  title =        "Writing {Java} applets in {Ada}: a beginner's guide",
  journal =      j-ADA-USER-J,
  volume =       "19",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "57--82",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "AUJOET",
  ISSN =         "0268-652X",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 10 15:17:00 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "Compendex database;
                 http://www.adauk.org.uk/pubs/jvol19_1.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  classification = "722.4; 723.1; 723.1.1; 723.5",
  fjournal =     "Ada User Journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.ada-europe.org/auj/archive",
  journalabr =   "Ada User J",
  keywords =     "Ada (programming language); C (programming language);
                 Computer simulation; Computer systems programming; Java
                 virtual machine (jvm); Object oriented programming;
                 Response time (computer systems)",
}

@InProceedings{Yalamanchilli:1998:CPJa,
  author =       "Narendar Yalamanchilli and William Cohen",
  title =        "Communication Performance of {Java} based {Parallel
                 Virtual Machines}",
  crossref =     "ACM:1998:AWJ",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "1998",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 27 10:43:08 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/conferences/java98/papers/passing.pdf;
                 http://www.cs.ucsb.edu/conferences/java98/papers/passing.ps",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Yalamanchilli:1998:CPJb,
  author =       "Narendar Yalamanchilli and William Cohen",
  title =        "Communication performance of {Java}-based parallel
                 virtual machines",
  journal =      j-CPE,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "11--13",
  pages =        "1189--1196",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "1998",
  CODEN =        "CPEXEI",
  ISSN =         "1040-3108",
  ISSN-L =       "1040-3108",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 7 06:06:44 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1040-3108/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cpe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  note =         "Special Issue: Java for High-performance Network
                 Computing.",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract?ID=10050407;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=10050407&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Concurrency, practice and experience",
}

@Article{Aagren:1999:TCC,
  author =       "Ola {\AA}gren",
  title =        "Teaching computer concepts using virtual machines",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "31",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "84--85",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/571535.571578",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:56:38 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse1990.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "A set of virtual assemblers and a virtual machine are
                 used as a teaching tool in order to teach students
                 differences and similarities between architectural
                 styles of computer processors. Programs written by the
                 students in the virtual assemblers are compiled using
                 the corresponding virtual assembler. They are then
                 executed on the virtual machine so that students can
                 follow the execution of the programs step by step or at
                 full speed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Barbosa:1999:ADM,
  author =       "J. Barbosa and A. Padilha",
  title =        "Algorithm-Dependent Method to Determine the Optimal
                 Number of Computers in Parallel Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1573",
  pages =        "508--521",
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 14 06:09:05 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
  keywords =     "parallel processing; VECPAR; vector processing",
}

@Article{Beck:1999:HNG,
  author =       "Micah Beck and Jack J. Dongarra and Graham E. Fagg and
                 G. Al Geist and Paul Gray and James Kohl and Mauro
                 Migliardi and Keith Moore and Terry Moore and Philip
                 Papadopoulous and Stephen L. Scott and Vaidy Sunderam",
  title =        "{HARNESS}: a Next Generation Distributed Virtual
                 Machine",
  journal =      j-FUT-GEN-COMP-SYS,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "5--6",
  pages =        "571--582",
  day =          "1",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "FGSEVI",
  ISSN =         "0167-739X (print), 1872-7115 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-739X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 05 17:45:35 2002",
  bibsource =    "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/d/dongarra-jack-j.bib;
                 http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/0167739X;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/d/dongarra-jack-j.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/futgencompsys.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.elsevier.com/gej-ng/10/19/19/30/21/20/abstract.html;
                 http://www.netlib.org/utk/people/JackDongarra/PAPERS/harness2.ps",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Future Generation Computer Systems",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0167739X",
}

@MastersThesis{Coffing:1999:XPM,
  author =       "Charles L. Coffing",
  title =        "An x86 protected mode virtual machine monitor for the
                 {MIT} exokernel",
  type =         "Thesis ({S.B. and M.Eng.})",
  school =       "Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer
                 Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology",
  address =      "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  pages =        "109",
  year =         "1999",
  LCCN =         "Thesis",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:19 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  note =         "Supervised by M. Frans Kaashoek.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Engel:1999:PJV,
  author =       "Joshua Engel",
  title =        "Programming for the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  publisher =    pub-AW,
  address =      pub-AW:adr,
  pages =        "xix + 488",
  year =         "1999",
  ISBN =         "0-201-30972-6 , 0-201-61654-8 (CD-ROM)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-201-30972-0, 978-0-201-61654-5 (CD-ROM)",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.J38E543 1999",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 11 08:13:32 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  price =        "US\$39.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Java (Computer program language); Java Virtual
                 Machine",
}

@Article{Geist:1999:HAV,
  author =       "G. A. Geist and Ii and James Arthur Kohl and Stephen
                 Scott and Philip M. Papadopoulos",
  title =        "{Harness}: Adaptable Virtual Machine Environment for
                 Heterogeneous Cluster",
  journal =      j-PARALLEL-PROCESS-LETT,
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "253--??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "PPLTEE",
  ISSN =         "0129-6264 (print), 1793-642X (electronic)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 6 12:02:35 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://ejournals.wspc.com.sg/ppl/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/parallelprocesslett.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Parallel Processing Letters",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.worldscientific.com/loi/ppl",
}

@Article{Kernighan:1999:REL,
  author =       "Brian W. Kernighan and Rob Pike",
  title =        "Regular Expressions: Languages, Algorithms, Software",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "24",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "19--22",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Mar 3 06:30:11 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/dr-dobbs-1990.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/plan9.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "See also
                 \cite{Thompson:1968:PTR,Cox:2007:REM,Cox:2009:REM,Cox:2010:REM,Cox:2012:REM}",
  URL =          "http://www.ddj.com/ftp/1999/1999_04/regexp.txt;
                 http://www.ddj.com/ftp/1999/1999_04/regexp.zip",
  abstract =     "Regular expressions, one of the most broadly
                 applicable of programmer's tools, provide a compact and
                 expressive notation for describing patterns of text.
                 They are also algorithmically interesting, easy to
                 implement, and highly useful. Additional resources
                 include regexp.txt (listings) and regexp.zip (source
                 code).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
}

@TechReport{Lewis:1999:EBP,
  author =       "Brian T. Lewis and Bernd Mathiske",
  title =        "Efficient barriers for persistent object caching in a
                 high-performance {Java} virtual machine",
  volume =       "99-81",
  institution =  "Sun Microsystems",
  address =      "Palo Alto, CA, USA",
  pages =        "9",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1999",
  LCCN =         "QA76.8.S86.S65",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:19 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  series =       "SMLI TR",
  abstract =     "We implemented orthogonal persistence for the Java
                 platform by adding persistent object caching to a
                 high-performance virtual machine that uses exact
                 garbage collection, the Sun Microsystems Laboratories
                 Virtual Machine for Research (`ResearchVM'). This paper
                 gives an overview of our design for the read and write
                 barriers needed to support persistence. The key design
                 decision we made was the choice of a pointer swizzling
                 strategy. Pointer swizzling speeds up programs by
                 translating persistent addresses (references to
                 persistent objects on disk) into normal virtual memory
                 addresses in the object cache. The swizzling technique
                 we chose is simple (requires few source changes to the
                 ResearchVM) and performs well (adds acceptably low CPU
                 overhead to the ResearchVM). Our integration of the new
                 barriers was considerably simplified by an internal
                 memory interface that the ResearchVM consistently uses,
                 except in its Just-In-Time (JIT) compiler, to access
                 program runtime values. Our new persistent version of
                 the ResearchVM, the PEVM, requires just 30\% of the
                 changes necessary in our previous persistent virtual
                 machine implementations. It executes programs with only
                 modest runtime overhead (typically 10--20\%) compared
                 to an unchanged ResearchVM.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Java (Computer program language); Virtual computer
                 systems; Object-oriented databases",
}

@InProceedings{Liang:1999:CPS,
  author =       "Sheng Liang and Deepa Viswanathan",
  title =        "Comprehensive Profiling Support in the {Java Virtual
                 Machine}",
  crossref =     "USENIX:1999:PFU",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "1999",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 18 07:14:18 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/coots99/liang.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Lindholm:1999:JVM,
  author =       "Tim Lindholm and Frank Yellin",
  title =        "The {Java Virtual Machine} Specification",
  publisher =    pub-AW,
  address =      pub-AW:adr,
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "xv + 473",
  year =         "1999",
  ISBN =         "0-201-43294-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-201-43294-7",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.J38L56 1999",
  bibdate =      "Tue May 11 07:30:11 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  price =        "US\$42.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Qian:1999:FSJ,
  author =       "Z. Qian",
  title =        "A Formal Specification of {Java[TM]} Virtual Machine
                 Instructions for Objects, Methods and Subroutines",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1523",
  pages =        "271--??",
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Mon Sep 13 16:57:02 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/lncs1999a.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@InProceedings{Rosenblum:1999:VVP,
  author =       "Mendel Rosenblum",
  title =        "{VMware}'s {Virtual Platform}: a Virtual Machine
                 Monitor for Commodity {PCs}",
  crossref =     "IEEE:1999:HCS",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "1999",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 08 17:44:03 2001",
  bibsource =    "ftp://www.hotchips.org//pub/hotc7to11cd/hc99/hc11_pdf/hc99.s6.1.Rosenblum.txt;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Sirer:1999:DID,
  author =       "Emin G{\"u}n Sirer and Robert Grimm and Arthur J.
                 Gregory and Brian N. Bershad",
  title =        "Design and implementation of a distributed virtual
                 machine for networked computers",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "202--216",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 26 08:55:55 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
}

@Manual{Sun:1999:JCV,
  key =          "JCVM",
  title =        "{Java Card} 2.1 Virtual Machine Specification",
  organization = "{SUN} Microsystems, Inc.",
  day =          "3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Final Revision 1.0",
  added-at =     "Fri Jan 15 10:34:37 1999",
  added-by =     "gka",
}

@Manual{Sun:1999:JPD,
  author =       "{Sun Microsystems}",
  key =          "JPDA",
  title =        "{Java Platform Debugger Architecture (JPDA)}",
  organization = "Sun Microsystems",
  address =      "Mountain View, CA, USA",
  year =         "1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.3/docs/guide/jpda/",
  comment =      "Debugger architecture for {J}ava. Includes: Java
                 Virtual Machine Debugger Interface (JVMDI) which
                 defines the services a VM must provide for debugging;
                 Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) which defines the
                 format of information and requests transferred between
                 the process being debugged and the debugger front end
                 that implements the Java Debug Interface (JDI) which
                 defines information and requests at the user code
                 level",
}

@Book{Venners:1999:IJV,
  author =       "Bill Venners",
  title =        "Inside the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  publisher =    pub-MCGRAW-HILL,
  address =      pub-MCGRAW-HILL:adr,
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "xxxi + 703",
  year =         "1999",
  ISBN =         "0-07-135093-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-07-135093-8",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.J38 V46 1999",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 23 07:01:27 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  URL =          "http://www.loc.gov/catdir/description/mh024/00269375.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Java (Computer program language); Java Virtual
                 Machine",
}

@Article{Venners:1999:SJV,
  author =       "Bill Venners",
  title =        "The state of the {Java} virtual machine ({JVM})",
  journal =      j-JAVAWORLD,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1091-8906",
  bibdate =      "Mon Jan 4 06:11:43 MST 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/jbe/jw-jbe-jvm.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Waldron:1999:AVM,
  author =       "John Waldron and Owen Harrison",
  title =        "Analysis of Virtual Machine Stack Frame Usage by
                 {Java} Methods",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:1999:PII",
  pages =        "271--274",
  year =         "1999",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 24 10:29:21 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Walters:1999:VVP,
  author =       "Brian Walters",
  title =        "{VMware} Virtual Platform",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "63",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1999",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Thu Sep 21 07:44:10 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://noframes.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue63/index.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://noframes.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/3458.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
}

@TechReport{Wolczko:1999:UTJ,
  author =       "M. Wolczko",
  title =        "Using a {Tracing Java Virtual Machine} to gather data
                 on the behavior of {Java} programs",
  institution =  "Sun Microsystems, Inc.",
  address =      "Menlo Park, CA, USA",
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "1999",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 24 10:30:38 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://research.sun.com/people/mario/tracing-jvm/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Yelland:1999:CAJ,
  author =       "Phillip M. Yelland",
  title =        "A compositional account of the {Java} virtual
                 machine",
  crossref =     "ACM:1999:PPA",
  pages =        "57--69",
  year =         "1999",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 3 12:58:58 MDT 1999",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toc/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org:80/pubs/citations/proceedings/plan/292540/p57-yelland/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "measurement; verification",
  subject =      "{\bf D.3.2} Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language
                 Classifications, Java. {\bf H.5.1} Information Systems,
                 INFORMATION INTERFACES AND PRESENTATION, Multimedia
                 Information Systems, Artificial, augmented, and virtual
                 realities. {\bf D.3.2} Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES,
                 Language Classifications, Haskell. {\bf D.3.3}
                 Software, PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES, Language Constructs
                 and Features, Polymorphism.",
}

@Book{Dalheimer:19xx:JVM,
  author =       "Matthias K. Dalheimer",
  title =        "{Java Virtual Machine, Sprache, Konzept\ldots{}}",
  publisher =    pub-ORA,
  address =      pub-ORA:adr,
  year =         "19xx",
  ISBN =         "3-930673-73-8 (??invalid ISBN??)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-930673-73-5 (??invalid ISBN??)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 17 22:05:06 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/books/jw-books-alphabytitle.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.ora.de/",
  price =        "29 DM",
  URL =          "http://www.oreilly.de/german/essential/javavm/index.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
}

@Book{Lindholm:19xx:JVMa,
  author =       "Tim Lindholm and Frank Yellin",
  title =        "The {Java} Virtual Machine",
  publisher =    pub-GOTOP-INFORMATION,
  address =      pub-GOTOP-INFORMATION:adr,
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "19xx",
  ISBN =         "????",
  ISBN-13 =      "????",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 18 07:55:47 MDT 1997",
  bibsource =    "http://lightyear.ncsa.uiuc.edu/~srp/java/chinese.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Chinese translation by Thi Shiang Workshop.",
  URL =          "http://www.gotop.com.tw",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "Chinese",
}

@Book{Lindholm:19xx:JVMb,
  author =       "Tim Lindholm and Frank Yellin",
  title =        "The {Java} Virtual Machine",
  publisher =    pub-GOTOP-INFORMATION,
  address =      pub-GOTOP-INFORMATION:adr,
  year =         "19xx",
  ISBN =         "????",
  ISBN-13 =      "????",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 17 22:05:06 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.gotop.com.tw;
                 http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/books/jw-books-alphabytitle.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Chinese translation by Thi Shiang Workshop.",
  price =        "????",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "Chinese",
}

@Book{Meyer:19xx:JVMb,
  author =       "Jon Meyer and Troy Downing",
  title =        "The {Java} Virtual Machine",
  publisher =    pub-ORA,
  address =      pub-ORA:adr,
  year =         "19xx",
  ISBN =         "4-900900-63-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-4-900900-63-9",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 17 22:05:06 MDT 1998",
  bibsource =    "http://www.javaworld.com/javaworld/books/jw-books-alphabytitle.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.oreilly.co.jp/",
  note =         "Japanese translation.",
  price =        "4,500 yen",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "Japanese",
}

@Article{Alpern:2000:JAV,
  author =       "B. Alpern and C. R. Attanasio and J. J. Barton and M.
                 G. Burke and P. Cheng and J.-D. Choi and A. Cocchi and
                 S. J. Fink and D. Grove and M. Hind and S. F. Hummel
                 and D. Lieber and V. Litvinov and M. F. Mergen and T.
                 Ngo and J. R. Russell and V. Sarkar and M. J. Serrano
                 and J. C. Shepherd and S. E. Smith and V. C. Sreedhar
                 and H. Srinivasan and J. Whaley",
  title =        "The {Jalape{\~n}o} virtual machine",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "39",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "211--238",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 24 15:43:02 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/391/alpern.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  keywords =     "Java",
  ordernumber =  "G321-0137",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2000:AJV,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Announcement: {{\em Java Virtual Machine Research and
                 Technology Symposium (JVM '01)}}",
  journal =      j-LOGIN,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "LOGNEM",
  ISSN =         "1044-6397",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 11 06:42:33 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.usenix.org/publications/login/2000-6/index.html",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/events/jvm01",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     ";login: the USENIX Association newsletter",
}

@Article{Azevedo:2000:AAJ,
  author =       "Ana Azevedo and Alex Nicolau and Joe Hummel",
  title =        "An annotation-aware {Java} virtual machine
                 implementation",
  journal =      j-CPE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "423--444",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "CPEXEI",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1096-9128(200005)12:6<423::AID-CPE483>3.0.CO;2-L",
  ISSN =         "1040-3108",
  ISSN-L =       "1040-3108",
  bibdate =      "Sun Oct 29 16:57:06 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1040-3108;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cpe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/72515731/START;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=72515731&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Concurrency, practice and experience",
}

@MastersThesis{Caamano:2000:PJS,
  author =       "Paul Caamano",
  title =        "Porting a {Java Virtual Machine} to an embedded
                 system",
  type =         "Thesis (M.S.)",
  school =       "Department of Computer Science, University of
                 California, Santa Cruz",
  address =      "Santa Cruz, CA, USA",
  pages =        "viii + 56",
  year =         "2000",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.J38 C33 2000",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 11:18:00 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 melvyl.cdlib.org:210/CDL90",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Java (Computer program language); Virtual computer
                 systems; Embedded computer systems",
}

@Article{Chelius:2000:ING,
  author =       "Guillaume Chelius and {\'E}ric Fleury",
  title =        "An {IP} Next Generation Compliant {Java\TM} Virtual
                 Machine",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1800",
  pages =        "528--??",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 1 09:16:18 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t1800.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/1800/18000528.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/1800/18000528.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Book{Compton:2000:VLB,
  author =       "Jason Compton",
  title =        "{VMware 2} for {Linux}: [a better way to run multiple
                 operating systems on {Linux}]",
  publisher =    "Prima Tech",
  address =      "Rocklin, CA, USA",
  pages =        "xxii + 406",
  year =         "2000",
  ISBN =         "0-7615-2764-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7615-2764-0",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 C656 2000",
  bibdate =      "Sun Apr 9 15:43:22 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Linux; Operating systems (Computers); Virtual computer
                 systems",
}

@TechReport{Crookston:2000:VCM,
  author =       "Newell W. Crookston and Brian Whipple and William J.
                 Grenney",
  title =        "Virtual {C} machine and integrated development
                 environment for {ATMS} controllers",
  number =       "00-109",
  institution =  "Utah Department of Transportation",
  address =      "Salt Lake City, UT, USA",
  pages =        "23",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2000",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 .C76 2000",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:28 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 melvyl.cdlib.org:210/CDL90",
  series =       "MPC report",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "Performed for the Mountain Plains Consortium..
                 Sponsored by U.S. Department of Transportation
                 University Transportation Centers Program",
  subject =      "Virtual computer systems; Utah; Digital control
                 systems; Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems; Traffic
                 engineering; advanced traffic management systems",
}

@Article{Czajkowski:2000:AIJ,
  author =       "Grzegorz Czajkowski",
  title =        "Application isolation in the {Java$^{TM}$} {Virtual}
                 {Machine}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "354--366",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Nov 7 16:57:37 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/oopsla/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/oops/353171/p354-czajkowski/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Dillenberger:2000:BJV,
  author =       "D. Dillenberger and R. Bordawekar and C. W. Clark and
                 D. Durand and D. Emmes and O. Gohda and S. Howard and
                 M. F. Oliver and F. Samuel and R. W. St. John",
  title =        "Building a {Java} virtual machine for server
                 applications: The {Jvm} on {OS/390}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "39",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "194--210",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 24 15:43:02 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/391/dillenberger.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  ordernumber =  "G321-0137",
}

@Article{Farkas:2000:QEC,
  author =       "Keith I. Farkas and Jason Flinn and Godmar Back and
                 Dirk Grunwald and Jennifer M. Anderson",
  title =        "Quantifying the energy consumption of a pocket
                 computer and a {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
  volume =       "28",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "252--263",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/345063.339421",
  ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5999",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 26 11:31:11 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "In this paper, we examine the energy consumption of a
                 state-of-the-art pocket computer. Using a data
                 acquisition system, we measure the energy consumption
                 of the Itsy Pocket Computer, developed by Compaq
                 Computer Corporation's Palo Alto Research Labs. We
                 begin by showing that the energy usage characteristics
                 of the Itsy differ markedly from that of a notebook
                 computer. Then, since we expect that flexible software
                 environments will become increasingly prevalent on
                 pocket computers, we consider applications running in a
                 Java environment. In particular, we explain some of the
                 Java design tradeoffs applicable to pocket computers,
                 and quantify their energy costs. For the design options
                 we considered and the three workloads we studied, we
                 find a maximum change in energy use of 25\%.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
}

@Article{Gu:2000:EHP,
  author =       "W. Gu and N. A. Burns and M. T. Collins and W. Y. P.
                 Wong",
  title =        "The evolution of a high-performing {Java} virtual
                 machine",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "39",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "135--150",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 24 15:43:02 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/391/gu.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  ordernumber =  "G321-0137",
}

@Book{Klappheck:2000:BLE,
  author =       "G{\"u}nther Klappheck and Peter Glinsky and Frank
                 Gehrke",
  title =        "{Das Buch --- LINUX Edition 2000: [jetzt zur S.u.S.E.
                 6.4, Installation und Bedienung von LINUX und seinen
                 Werkzeugen, LINUX im Netzwerk und Internet, LINUX und
                 ISDN, der Desktop KDE 1.x, VMware unter LINUX]}",
  publisher =    "Sybex",
  address =      "D{\"u}sseldorf, Germany",
  pages =        "xxviii + 906",
  year =         "2000",
  ISBN =         "3-8155-0175-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-8155-0175-7",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 17:21:53 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.gbv.de:20011/gvk",
  price =        "DM 69.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  remark =       "CD 1 enth.: S.u.S.E. 6.4 Evaluation version; CD 2
                 enth.: Linux-Tools. $ 5 G B V.. N e b e n t. : L i n u
                 x - D a s B u c h, E d i t i o n 2000 $5 GBV.",
  subject =      "SuSE LINUX 6.4",
}

@InProceedings{Lawton:2000:PVM,
  author =       "Kevin P. Lawton",
  title =        "{Plex86}: An {180x86} Virtual Machine",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2000:PAL",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2000",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 16 05:17:16 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/als2000/lawton.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Lewis:2000:APH,
  author =       "Brian T. Lewis and Bernd Mathiske and Neal M. Gafter",
  title =        "Architecture of the {PEVM}: a high-performance
                 orthogonally persistent {Java Virtual Machine}",
  number =       "2000-93",
  institution =  "Sun Microsystems",
  address =      "Palo Alto, CA, USA",
  pages =        "19",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2000",
  LCCN =         "QA76.8.S86.S65",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:19 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  series =       "SMLI TR",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the design and implementation of
                 the PEVM, a new scalable, high-performance
                 implementation of orthogonal persistence for the Java
                 platform (OPJ). The PEVM is based on the Sun
                 Microsystems Laboratories Virtual Machine for Research
                 (ResearchVM), which features an optimizing Just-In-Time
                 compiler, exact generational garbage collection, and
                 fast thread synchronization. It also uses a new,
                 scalable persistent object store designed to manage
                 more than 80GB of objects. The PEVM is approximately
                 ten times faster than previous OPJ implementations and
                 can run significantly larger programs. It is faster
                 than or comparable in performance to several commercial
                 persistence solutions for the Java platform. Despite
                 the PEVM's speed and scalability, its implementation is
                 simpler than our previous OPJ implementation (e.g.,
                 just 43\% of the VM source patches needed by our
                 previous OPJ implementation). Its speed and simplicity
                 are largely due to our pointer swizzling strategy, the
                 ResearchVM's exact memory management, and a few simple
                 but effective mechanisms. For example, we implement
                 some key data structures in the Java programming
                 language since this automatically makes them
                 persistent.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Operating systems (Computers); Java (Computer program
                 language); Computer architecture",
}

@InProceedings{Li:2000:UCS,
  author =       "Tao Li and Lizy Kurian John and Vijaykrishnan
                 Narayanan and Anand Sivasubramaniam and Jyotsna
                 Sabarinathan and Anupama Murthy",
  title =        "Using complete system simulation to characterize
                 {SPECjvm98} benchmarks",
  crossref =     "ACM:2000:CPI",
  pages =        "22--33",
  year =         "2000",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/335231.335234",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 24 10:02:36 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Complete system simulation to understand the influence
                 of architecture and operating systems on application
                 execution has been identified to be crucial for systems
                 design. While there have been previous attempts at
                 understanding the architectural impact of Java
                 programs, there has been no prior work investigating
                 the operating system (kernel) activity during their
                 executions. This problem is particularly interesting in
                 the context of Java since it is not only the
                 application that can invoke kernel services, but so
                 does the underlying Java Virtual Machine (JVM)
                 implementation which runs these programs. Further, the
                 JVM style (JIT compiler or interpreter) and the manner
                 in which the different JVM components (such as the
                 garbage collector and class loader) are exercised, can
                 have a significant impact on the kernel activities.To
                 investigate these issues, this research uses complete
                 system simulation of the SPECjvm98 benchmarks on the
                 SimOS simulation platform. The execution of these
                 benchmarks on both JIT compilers and interpreters is
                 profiled in detail, to identify and quantify where time
                 is spent in each component. The kernel activity of
                 SPECjvm98 applications constitutes up to 17\% of the
                 execution time in the large dataset and up to 31\% in
                 the small dataset. The average kernel activity in the
                 large dataset is approximately 10\%, in comparison to
                 around 2\% in four SPECInt benchmarks studied. Of the
                 kernel services, TLB miss handling is the most dominant
                 in all applications. The TLB miss rates in the JIT
                 compiler, dynamic class loader and garbage collector
                 portions of the JVM are individually analyzed. In
                 addition to such execution profiles, the ILP in the
                 user and kernel mode are also quantified. The Java code
                 is seen to limit exploitable parallelism and aggressive
                 instruction issue is seen to be less efficient for
                 SPECjvm98 benchmarks in comparison to SPEC95 programs.
                 Also, the kernel mode of execution does not exhibit as
                 much ILP as the user mode.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@TechReport{Mathiske:2000:APM,
  author =       "Bernd Mathiske and Daniel Schneider",
  title =        "Automatic persistent memory management for the
                 {Spotless} virtual machine on the {Palm} connected
                 organizer",
  type =         "SMLI TR",
  number =       "2000-89",
  institution =  "Sun Microsystems",
  address =      "Palo Alto, CA, USA",
  pages =        "18",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2000",
  LCCN =         "QA76.8.S86.S65",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:19 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  abstract =     "Palm organizers are widely used in a multi-tasking
                 fashion. Users switch from one application to another
                 without losing the context established in either of
                 them. Despite its obvious usefulness, there is no
                 automatic support for this convenience in the
                 organizer's operating system, PalmOS. Programmers must
                 implement event callbacks that have to operate on a
                 PalmOS database API to save and reload specific
                 application state. In this report, we describe how this
                 burden can be eliminated. We enhanced the Spotless Java
                 virtual machine for the Palm organizer with transparent
                 multi-tasking support that automates persistence. As a
                 consequence, running Java programs can be beamed
                 between the infra-red links of two Palm organizers. A
                 beamed program will resume on the receiving organizer
                 in the exact same state as on the sending device. A
                 HotSync operation effectively establishes a checkpoint
                 for each involved Java program. The original Spotless
                 JVM's address range for running programs is limited to
                 a few tens of KB in the dynamic RAM area. By directly
                 addressing the much larger static RAM area, our
                 modified VM supports address ranges of several MB. We
                 provide an easy-to-use protocol that leverages
                 persistent threads for automatic life cycle control of
                 external resources (e.g., windows, forms and
                 databases). When applied at the library level, this
                 protocol maintains complete persistence transparency
                 for the application programmer.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Palm (Computer); Multitasking (Computer science)",
}

@Article{Nieh:2000:EV,
  author =       "Jason Nieh and Ozgur Can Leonard",
  title =        "Examining {VMware}",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "25",
  number =       "8",
  pages =        "70, 72--74, 76",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Thu Nov 9 08:25:16 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ddj.com/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "VMware is a virtual machine platform that provides an
                 abstraction of x86 PC hardware so that multiple
                 operating systems can run unmodified at the same time
                 on a standard PC. Among other things, this means you
                 can run Windows applications with Linux.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
}

@InProceedings{Provos:2000:EVM,
  author =       "Niels Provos",
  title =        "Encrypting Virtual Machine",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2000:PNU",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2000",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 16 05:17:16 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/sec2000/provos.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Robin:2000:AIP,
  author =       "John Scott Robin and Cynthia E. Irvine",
  title =        "Analysis of the {Intel Pentium}'s Ability to Support a
                 Secure Virtual Machine Monitor",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2000:PNU",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2000",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 16 05:17:16 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/sec2000/robin.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Sirer:2000:DID,
  author =       "Emin G{\"u}n Sirer and Robert Grimm and Arthur J.
                 Gregory and Brian N. Bershad",
  title =        "Design and implementation of a distributed virtual
                 machine for networked computers",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "34",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "23--23",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 26 08:55:42 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
}

@InProceedings{vanDoorn:2000:SJV,
  author =       "Leendert van Doorn",
  title =        "A Secure {Java{\TM} Virtual Machine}",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2000:PNU",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2000",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 16 05:17:16 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/sec2000/vandoorn.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Viswanathan:2000:JVM,
  author =       "D. Viswanathan and S. Liang",
  title =        "{Java Virtual Machine Profiler Interface}",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "39",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "82--95",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 24 15:43:02 MDT 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/391/viswanathan.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
  ordernumber =  "G321-0137",
}

@Article{Yutaka:2000:EJV,
  author =       "Oiwa Yutaka and Kenjiro Taura and Akinori Yonezawa",
  title =        "Extending {Java} virtual machine with
                 integer-reference conversion",
  journal =      j-CPE,
  volume =       "12",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "407--422",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2000",
  CODEN =        "CPEXEI",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1096-9128(200005)12:6<407::AID-CPE482>3.0.CO;2-E",
  ISSN =         "1040-3108",
  ISSN-L =       "1040-3108",
  bibdate =      "Sun Oct 29 16:57:06 MST 2000",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1040-3108;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cpe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/72515729/START;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=72515729&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Concurrency, practice and experience",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2001:CRJ,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Conference Report: {{\em 1st Java VM Virtual Machine
                 Research and Technology Symposium (JVM '01)}}",
  journal =      j-LOGIN,
  volume =       "26",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "LOGNEM",
  ISSN =         "1044-6397",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 11 06:42:33 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.usenix.org/publications/login/2001-08/index.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     ";login: the USENIX Association newsletter",
}

@InProceedings{Aoki:2001:SVM,
  author =       "Takashi Aoki and Takeshi Eto",
  title =        "On the Software Virtual Machine for the Real Hardware
                 Stack Machine",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2001:PJV",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 17:45:19 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/jvm01/aoki.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Aridor:2001:DIV,
  author =       "Yariv Aridor and Michael Factor and Avi Teperman",
  title =        "A distributed implementation of a virtual machine for
                 {Java}",
  journal =      j-CCPE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "221--244",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "CCPEBO",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpe.565",
  ISSN =         "1532-0626 (print), 1532-0634 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1532-0626",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 25 10:55:46 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ccpe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/78003113/START;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=78003113&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Concurrency and Computation: Prac\-tice and
                 Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626",
}

@Book{Born:2001:VWP,
  author =       "G{\"u}nter Born",
  title =        "{VMware Workstation Praxisf{\"u}hrer: Installation,
                 Konfiguration, Anwendung unter Windows und Linux}",
  publisher =    "SuSE-PRESS",
  address =      "N{\"u}rnberg, Germany",
  pages =        "xxii + 372",
  year =         "2001",
  ISBN =         "3-934678-81-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-934678-81-1",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 17:21:53 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.gbv.de:20011/gvk",
  price =        "DM 79.00, EUR 40.00",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "VMware Workstation",
}

@Article{Braught:2001:KSC,
  author =       "Grant Braught and David Reed",
  title =        "The knob \& switch computer: a computer architecture
                 simulator for introductory computer science",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "31--45",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@Article{Bredlau:2001:ALT,
  author =       "Carl Bredlau and Dorothy Deremer",
  title =        "Assembly language through the {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "194--198",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/366413.364583",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:56:46 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Student understanding of choices and design decisions
                 about instruction formats, addressing, instruction
                 types, and flow of control is developed through the
                 assembly level. We propose the Java Virtual Machine
                 (JVM) as the architecture for teaching assembly
                 language. The paper describes how to use the JVM as a
                 teaching tool for a sophomore level Assembly Language
                 and Computer Architecture course.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@InProceedings{Breg:2001:JVM,
  author =       "Fabian Breg and Constantine Polychronopoulos",
  title =        "{Java Virtual Machine} Support for Object
                 Serialization",
  crossref =     "ACM:2001:PAJ",
  pages =        "173--180",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 06 09:31:01 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.philippsen.com/JGI2001/camerareadyabstracts/12.html;
                 http://www.philippsen.com/JGI2001/finalpapers/18500173.ps",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Java",
}

@Article{Czajkowski:2001:MCV,
  author =       "Grzegorz Czajkowski and Laurent Dayn{\'e}s",
  title =        "Multitasking without compromise: a virtual machine
                 evolution",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "125--138",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 9 14:44:52 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 2001 ACM SIGPLAN Conference on
                 Object Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages and
                 Applications (OOPSLA'01).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@InProceedings{Daly:2001:PID,
  author =       "Charles Daly and Jane Horgan and James Power and John
                 Waldron",
  title =        "Platform Independent Dynamic {Java Virtual Machine
                 Analysis}: the {Java Grande Forum} Benchmark Suite",
  crossref =     "ACM:2001:PAJ",
  pages =        "106--115",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 06 09:31:01 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.philippsen.com/JGI2001/camerareadyabstracts/16.html;
                 http://www.philippsen.com/JGI2001/finalpapers/18500106.ps",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Java",
}

@Article{Decker:2001:PMS,
  author =       "Rick Decker and Stuart Hirshfield",
  title =        "The {PIPPIN} machine: simulations of language
                 processing",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "4--17",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@Article{Denning:2001:OVM,
  author =       "Peter J. Denning",
  title =        "Origin of Virtual Machines and Other Virtualities",
  journal =      j-IEEE-ANN-HIST-COMPUT,
  volume =       "23",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "73--73",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "IAHCEX",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/85.948908",
  ISSN =         "1058-6180 (print), 1934-1547 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1058-6180",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 22 12:42:03 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.computer.org/annals/an2001/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://computer.org/annals/an2001/a3073abs.htm;
                 http://dlib.computer.org/an/books/an2001/pdf/a3073.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Annals of the History of Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=85",
}

@InProceedings{Dutchyn:2001:MDJ,
  author =       "Christopher Dutchyn and Paul Lu and Duane Szafron and
                 Steven Bromling and Wade Holst",
  title =        "Multi-Dispatch in the {Java Virtual Machine}: Design
                 and Implementation",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2001:PUC",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 18:09:43 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/coots01/dutchyn.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{ECMA-335-1,
  author =       "{ECMA}",
  title =        "{ECMA-335}: {Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)}",
  publisher =    pub-ECMA,
  address =      pub-ECMA:adr,
  pages =        "xiii + 479",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Sat May 08 07:36:41 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Standard.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.ecma.ch/ecma1/STAND/ecma-335.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ECMAnumber =   "ECMA-335",
  remark =       "Also ISO/IEC 23271.",
}

@Article{Ertl:2001:BEV,
  author =       "M. Anton Ertl and David Gregg",
  title =        "The Behavior of Efficient Virtual Machine Interpreters
                 on Modern Architectures",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2150",
  pages =        "403--??",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 13:05:53 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2150.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2150/21500403.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2150/21500403.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Fischer:2001:SAN,
  author =       "Markus Fischer",
  title =        "System Area Network Extensions to the Parallel Virtual
                 Machine",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2131",
  pages =        "98--??",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 1 08:13:55 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2131.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2131/21310098.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2131/21310098.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@InProceedings{Gannon:2001:JCC,
  author =       "Dennis Gannon and others",
  title =        "Panel Discussion: {Java}, {C++}, {C\#}, and Virtual
                 Machines for high performance",
  crossref =     "ACM:2001:PAJ",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 06 09:31:01 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/csharp.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Java",
}

@Article{Gonzalez-Castano:2001:JCV,
  author =       "F. J. Gonz{\'a}lez-Casta{\~n}o and L. Anido-Rif{\'o}n
                 and J. M. Pousada-Carballo and P. S.
                 Rodr{\'\i}guez-Hern{\'a}ndez and R.
                 L{\'o}pez-G{\'o}mez",
  title =        "A {Java\slash CORBA} virtual machine architecture for
                 remote execution of optimization solvers in
                 heterogeneous networks",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "31",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--16",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-024X(200101)31:1<1::AID-SPE354>3.0.CO;2-C",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Tue Mar 13 06:25:28 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X;
                 http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0038-0644;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/76502341/START;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=76502341&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software --- Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
}

@Article{Guzdial:2001:UST,
  author =       "Mark Guzdial",
  title =        "Using squeak for teaching user interface software",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "219--223",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/366413.364588",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:56:46 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Squeak is a new programming language that is
                 particularly appropriate for learning computer science.
                 It offers an excellent infrastructure for interesting
                 projects (e.g., multimedia, Web browsing and serving),
                 and all source code is included (and written in Squeak)
                 from the virtual machine, windowing, on up. Squeak is
                 being used in a course on Objects and Design (focusing
                 on the development of user interfaces), both to enhance
                 the infrastructure for a course on, and to change how
                 user interfaces are taught. Rather than teach a
                 toolkit, the focus is now on teaching students how to
                 build toolkits. This paper presents a pilot study
                 suggesting benefits of our new approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Hartel:2001:FSJ,
  author =       "Pieter H. Hartel and Luc Moreau",
  title =        "Formalizing the safety of {Java}, the {Java Virtual
                 Machine}, and {Java} card",
  journal =      j-COMP-SURV,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "517--558",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "CMSVAN",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/503112.503115",
  ISSN =         "0360-0300 (print), 1557-7341 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0360-0300",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jun 19 10:17:06 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/surveys/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/compsurv.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "We review the existing literature on Java safety,
                 emphasizing formal approaches, and the impact of Java
                 safety on small footprint devices such as smartcards.
                 The conclusion is that although a lot of good work has
                 been done, a more concerted effort is needed to build a
                 coherent set of machine-readable formal models of the
                 whole of Java and its implementation. This is a
                 formidable task but we believe it is essential to build
                 trust in Java safety, and thence to achieve ITSEC level
                 6 or Common Criteria level 7 certification for Java
                 programs.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Computing Surveys",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J204",
  keywords =     "Common criteria; programming",
}

@Book{Hsu:2001:CAS,
  author =       "John Y. Hsu",
  title =        "Computer Architecture: Software Aspects, Coding,
                 Hardware",
  publisher =    pub-CRC,
  address =      pub-CRC:adr,
  pages =        "427",
  year =         "2001",
  ISBN =         "0-8493-1026-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-8493-1026-3",
  LCCN =         "A76.9.A73 H758 2001",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jan 19 15:47:59 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  price =        "US\$89.95, UK\pounds 59.99",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Compaq/DEC Alpha; floating-point arithmetic; Intel
                 x86; Java Virtual Machine; multimedia instructions;
                 Pentium",
  libnote =      "Not yet in my library.",
}

@Article{Lewis:2001:APH,
  author =       "Brian Lewis and Bernd Mathiske and Neal Gafter",
  title =        "Architecture of the {PEVM}: a High-Performance
                 Orthogonally {Persistent Java{\TM} Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2135",
  pages =        "18--??",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 13:05:37 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2135.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2135/21350018.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2135/21350018.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@InProceedings{Maessen:2001:PAS,
  author =       "Jan-Willem Maessen and Vivek Sarkar and David Grove",
  title =        "Program analysis for safety guarantees in a {Java}
                 virtual machine written in {Java}",
  crossref =     "ACM:2001:ASS",
  pages =        "62--65",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 30 08:01:24 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/proceedings/series/paste/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.acm.org/pubs/articles/proceedings/soft/379605/p62-maessen/p62-maessen.pdf;
                 http://www.acm.org/pubs/citations/proceedings/soft/379605/p62-maessen/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Menczer:2001:OTR,
  author =       "Filippo Menczer and Alberto Maria Segre",
  title =        "{OAMulator}: a teaching resource to introduce computer
                 architecture concepts",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "18--30",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@InProceedings{Moore:2001:EFJ,
  author =       "J. Strother Moore and George M. Porter",
  title =        "An Executable Formal {Java Virtual Machine} Thread
                 Model",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2001:PJV",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 17:45:19 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/jvm01/moore.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Ng:2001:VEWa,
  author =       "Choong Ng",
  title =        "{VMware Express 2.0} and {Win4Lin 2.0}: a Comparison
                 Review",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "85",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 23 15:20:33 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://noframes.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue85/index.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Not in journal issue: {Web} only.",
  URL =          "http://www.linuxjournal.com/articles/linux_review/0036.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
}

@Article{Ng:2001:VEWb,
  author =       "Choong Ng",
  title =        "{VMware} Express 2.0 and Win4Lin 2.0: a Comparison
                 Review",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "86",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 23 15:20:33 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://noframes.linuxjournal.com/lj-issues/issue86/index.html;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Not in journal issue: {Web} only.",
  URL =          "http://www.linuxjournal.com/articles/linux_review/0036.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
}

@Article{Osborne:2001:PC,
  author =       "Hugh Osborne",
  title =        "The {Postroom Computer}",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "81--110",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@Article{Radhakrishnan:2001:JRS,
  author =       "R. Radhakrishnan and N. Vijaykrishnan and L. K. John
                 and A. Sivasubramaniam and J. Rubio and J.
                 Sabarinathan",
  title =        "{Java} runtime systems: characterization and
                 architectural implications",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-COMPUT,
  volume =       "50",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "131--146",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "ITCOB4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/12.908989",
  ISSN =         "0018-9340 (print), 1557-9956 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 24 10:08:12 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is the cornerstone of
                 Java technology and its efficiency in executing the
                 portable Java bytecodes is crucial for the success of
                 this technology. Interpretation, Just-in-Time (JIT)
                 compilation, and hardware realization are well-known
                 solutions for a JVM and previous research has proposed
                 optimizations for each of these techniques. However,
                 each technique has its pros and cons and may not be
                 uniformly attractive for all hardware platforms.
                 Instead, an understanding of the architectural
                 implications of JVM implementations with real
                 applications can be crucial to the development of
                 enabling technologies for efficient Java runtime system
                 development on a wide range of platforms. Toward this
                 goal, this paper examines architectural issues from
                 both the hardware and JVM implementation perspectives.
                 The paper starts by identifying the important execution
                 characteristics of Java applications from a bytecode
                 perspective. It then explores the potential of a smart
                 JIT compiler strategy that can dynamically interpret or
                 compile based on associated costs and investigates the
                 CPU and cache architectural support that would benefit
                 JVM implementations. We also study the available
                 parallelism during the different execution modes using
                 applications from the SPECjvm98 benchmarks. At the
                 bytecode level, it is observed that less than 5 out of
                 the 256 bytecodes constitute 90 percent of the dynamic
                 bytecode stream. Method sizes fall into a trinodal
                 distribution with peak of 1, 9, and 26 bytecodes across
                 all benchmarks. The architectural issues explored in
                 this study show that, when Java applications are
                 executed with a JIT compiler, selective translation
                 using good heuristics can improve performance, but the
                 saving is only 10-15 percent at best. The instruction
                 and data cache performance of Java applications are
                 seen to be better than that of C/C++ applications
                 except in the case of data cache performance in the JIT
                 mode. Write misses resulting from installation of JIT
                 compiler output dominate the misses and deteriorate the
                 data cache performance in JIT mode. A study on the
                 available parallelism shows that Java programs executed
                 using JIT compilers have parallelism comparable to
                 C/C++ programs for small window sizes, but falls behind
                 when the window size is increased. Java programs
                 executed using the interpreter have very little
                 parallelism due to the stack nature of the SVM
                 instruction set, which is dominant in the interpreted
                 execution mode. In addition, this work gives revealing
                 insights and architectural proposals for designing an
                 efficient Java runtime system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Computers",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=12",
}

@Article{Riehle:2001:AUV,
  author =       "Dirk Riehle and Steven Fraleigh and Dirk Bucka-Lassen
                 and Nosa Omorogbe",
  title =        "The architecture of a {UML} virtual machine",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "327--341",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 9 14:44:52 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Proceedings of the 2001 ACM SIGPLAN Conference on
                 Object Oriented Programming, Systems, Languages and
                 Applications (OOPSLA'01).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@InProceedings{Russell:2001:HSA,
  author =       "Kenneth Russell and Lars Bak",
  title =        "The {HotSpot{\TM}} Serviceability Agent: An
                 Out-of-Process High-Level Debugger for a {Java{\TM}
                 Virtual Machine}",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2001:PJV",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 17:45:19 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/jvm01/russell.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Sarkar:2001:HPS,
  author =       "Vivek Sarkar and Julian Dolby",
  title =        "High-Performance Scalable {Java} Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2228",
  pages =        "151--??",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 13:07:14 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2228.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2228/22280151.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2228/22280151.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@InProceedings{Schneider:2001:APM,
  author =       "Daniel Schneider and Bernd Mathiske and Matthias Ernst
                 and Matthew Seidl",
  title =        "Automatic Persistent Memory Management for the
                 {Spotless Java{\TM} Virtual Machine} on the {Palm
                 Connected Organizer}",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2001:PJV",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 17:45:19 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/jvm01/schneider.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Shudo:2001:AME,
  author =       "Kazuyuki Shudo and Yoichi Muraoka",
  title =        "Asynchronous migration of execution context in {Java
                 Virtual Machines}",
  journal =      j-FUT-GEN-COMP-SYS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "225--233",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "FGSEVI",
  ISSN =         "0167-739X (print), 1872-7115 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-739X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 27 12:41:22 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/0167739X;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/futgencompsys.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.elsevier.com/gej-ng/10/19/19/60/31/30/abstract.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Future Generation Computer Systems",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0167739X",
}

@Article{Skrien:2001:CST,
  author =       "Dale Skrien",
  title =        "{CPU Sim 3.1}: a tool for simulating computer
                 architectures for computer organization classes",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "46--59",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.cs.colby.edu/djskrien/CPUSim/",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
  lastaccessed = "17 November 2012",
}

@Book{Stark:2001:JJV,
  author =       "Robert F. St{\"a}rk and Joachim Schmid and Egon
                 B{\"o}rger",
  title =        "{Java} and the {Java Virtual Machine}: definition,
                 verification, validation",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "x + 381",
  year =         "2001",
  ISBN =         "3-540-42088-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-540-42088-0",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.J38 S785 2001",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 6 06:26:30 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Includes CD-ROM with the entire text of the book and
                 numerous examples and exercises.",
  price =        "US\$49.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Java (computer program language); virtual computer
                 systems",
}

@InProceedings{Sugerman:2001:VDV,
  author =       "Jeremy Sugerman and Ganesh Venkitachalam and Beng-Hong
                 Lim",
  title =        "Virtualizing {I/O} Devices on {VMware Workstation}'s
                 Hosted Virtual Machine Monitor",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2001:PUA",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 17:19:08 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/usenix01/sugerman.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Suri:2001:SCR,
  author =       "Niranjan Suri",
  title =        "State Capture and Resource Control for {Java}: The
                 Design and Implementation of the {Aroma Virtual
                 Machine}",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2001:PJV",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 17:45:19 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/jvm01/JVM_wips/S15.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{vonLaszewski:2001:GBA,
  author =       "Gregor von Laszewski and Kazuyuki Shudo and Yoichi
                 Muraoka",
  title =        "Grid-Based Asynchronous Migration of Execution Context
                 in {Java} Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "1900",
  pages =        "22--??",
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 13:02:44 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t1900.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/1900/19000022.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/1900/19000022.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Wainer:2001:UAS,
  author =       "Gabriel A. Wainer and Sergio Daicz and Luis F. De
                 Simoni and Demian Wassermann",
  title =        "Using the {Alfa-1} simulated processor for educational
                 purposes",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "111--151",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@InProceedings{Welsh:2001:VCH,
  author =       "M. Welsh and D. Culler",
  title =        "Virtualization Considered Harmful: {OS} Design
                 Directions for Well-Conditioned Services",
  crossref =     "IEEE:2001:EIW",
  pages =        "139--146",
  year =         "2001",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 22 11:41:03 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 OCLC Proceedings database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Wilson:2001:UVD,
  author =       "Brian Wilson",
  title =        "Using {VMWare} as a Development Tool",
  journal =      j-SYS-ADMIN,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "57--59",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "SYADE7",
  ISSN =         "1061-2688",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 14 09:44:56 MST 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.samag.com/",
  abstract =     "Columns.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Sys admin: the journal for UNIX system
                 administrators",
}

@Article{Yehezkel:2001:TST,
  author =       "Cecile Yehezkel and William Yurcik and Murray Pearson
                 and Dean Armstrong",
  title =        "Three simulator tools for teaching computer
                 architecture: {Little Man} computer, and {RTLSim}",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "1",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "60--80",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@Article{Zhang:2001:HJA,
  author =       "Xiaolan Zhang and Margo Seltzer",
  title =        "{HBench:Java}: {An} application-specific benchmarking
                 framework for {Java Virtual Machines}",
  journal =      j-CCPE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "8--9",
  pages =        "775--792",
  month =        jul # "\slash " # aug,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "CCPEBO",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpe.578",
  ISSN =         "1532-0626 (print), 1532-0634 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1532-0626",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 25 10:55:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ccpe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/84503219/START;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=84503219&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Concurrency and Computation: Prac\-tice and
                 Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626",
}

@Article{Zhang:2001:HJAb,
  author =       "Xiaolan Zhang and Margo Seltzer",
  title =        "{HBench:Java}: an application-specific benchmarking
                 framework for {Java Virtual Machines}",
  journal =      j-CCPE,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "8--9",
  pages =        "775--792",
  month =        jul # "\slash " # aug,
  year =         "2001",
  CODEN =        "CCPEBO",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpe.578",
  ISSN =         "1532-0626 (print), 1532-0634 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1532-0626",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 25 10:55:47 MDT 2001",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/84503219/START;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=84503219&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Concurrency and Computation: Prac\-tice and
                 Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2002:CRJ,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Conference Report: {{\em 2nd Java Virtual Machine
                 Research and Technology Symposium}}",
  journal =      j-LOGIN,
  volume =       "27",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LOGNEM",
  ISSN =         "1044-6397",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 11 10:52:12 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.usenix.org/publications/login/2002-10/index.html",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/javavm02/JavaVM2002.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     ";login: the USENIX Association newsletter",
}

@MastersThesis{Arvizo:2002:VMT,
  author =       "Teodoro Arvizo",
  title =        "A virtual machine for a type-$ \omega $ denotational
                 proof language",
  type =         "Thesis ({M.Eng.} and {S.B.})",
  school =       "Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer
                 Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology",
  address =      "Cambridge, MA, USA",
  pages =        "123",
  year =         "2002",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 11:22:36 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  note =         "Supervised by Howard E. Shrobe.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Barthe:2002:FCB,
  author =       "Gilles Barthe and Guillaume Dufay and Line Jakubiec
                 and Sim{\~a}o Melo de Sousa",
  title =        "A Formal Correspondence between Offensive and
                 Defensive {JavaCard} Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2294",
  pages =        "32--??",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 19:09:17 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2294.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2294/22940032.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2294/22940032.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Book{Blunden:2002:VMD,
  author =       "Bill Blunden",
  title =        "Virtual machine design and implementation in {C/C++}",
  publisher =    "Wordware Publishing",
  address =      "Plano, TX, USA",
  pages =        "xvii + 668",
  year =         "2002",
  ISBN =         "1-55622-903-8 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-55622-903-9 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 B59 2002",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jul 14 12:01:14 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  libnote =      "Not in my library.",
  subject =      "Virtual computer systems; C++ (Computer program
                 language)",
}

@Article{Bosilca:2002:OOE,
  author =       "George Bosilca and Gilles Fedak and Franck Cappello",
  title =        "{OVM}: {Out}-of-order execution parallel virtual
                 machine",
  journal =      j-FUT-GEN-COMP-SYS,
  volume =       "18",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "525--537",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "FGSEVI",
  ISSN =         "0167-739X (print), 1872-7115 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-739X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 27 12:41:22 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/0167739X;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/futgencompsys.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.elsevier.com/gej-ng/10/19/19/60/33/34/abstract.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Future Generation Computer Systems",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0167739X",
}

@Article{Burch:2002:LGS,
  author =       "Carl Burch",
  title =        "{Logisim}: a graphical system for logic circuit design
                 and simulation",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--16",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@Article{Czajkowski:2002:CSA,
  author =       "Grzegorz Czajkowski and Laurent Dayn{\`e}s and
                 Nathaniel Nystrom",
  title =        "Code Sharing among Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2374",
  pages =        "155--??",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 19:09:57 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2374.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2374/23740155.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2374/23740155.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Diessel:2002:THL,
  author =       "O. Diessel and U. Malik and K. So",
  title =        "Towards High-Level Specification, Synthesis, and
                 Virtualization of Programmable Logic Designs (Research
                 Note)",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2400",
  pages =        "314--??",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 19:10:14 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2400.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2400/24000314.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2400/24000314.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Dugan:2002:SIS,
  author =       "B. Dugan and J. Zahorjan",
  title =        "The {Sloop ISA} and the {SMOK} toolkit",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--71",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@Book{ECMA-335-2,
  author =       "{ECMA}",
  title =        "{ECMA-335}: {Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)}",
  publisher =    pub-ECMA,
  address =      pub-ECMA:adr,
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "iv + 99 (Part I), vii + 164 (Part II), iv + 124 (Part
                 III), i + 16 (Part IV), ii + 78 (Part V)",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2002",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 16 06:24:46 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Standard.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/Ecma-335-xml.zip;
                 http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/Ecma-335.pdf;
                 http://www.ecma.ch/ecma1/STAND/ecma-335.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ECMAnumber =   "ECMA-335",
  remark =       "Also ISO/IEC 23271.",
}

@Article{Ertl:2002:VGE,
  author =       "M. Anton Ertl and David Gregg and Andreas Krall and
                 Bernd Paysan",
  title =        "{Vmgen} --- a generator of efficient virtual machine
                 interpreters",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "32",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "265--294",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.434",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 22 12:06:59 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X;
                 http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0038-0644;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  URL =          "http://www.complang.tuwien.ac.at/anton/vmgen/;
                 http://www.complang.tuwien.ac.at/papers/ertl+02.ps.gz;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/90010508/START;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext?ID=90010508&PLACEBO=IE.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software --- Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  keywords =     "byte code; Cacao virtual machine; Forth; generator;
                 GForth virtual machine; interpreter; Java; stack
                 architecture; virtual machine",
}

@Article{Folliot:2002:BFR,
  author =       "B. Folliot and I. Piumarta and L. Seinturier and C.
                 Baillarguet and C. Khoury and A. Leger and F. Ogel",
  title =        "Beyond Flexibility and Reflection: The Virtual Virtual
                 Machine Approach",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2326",
  pages =        "16--??",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 19:09:32 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2326.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2326/23260016.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2326/23260016.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Geist:2002:PVM,
  author =       "Al Geist",
  title =        "Petascale Virtual Machine: Computing on 100,000
                 Processors",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2474",
  pages =        "6--??",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 30 20:57:35 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2474.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2474/24740006.htm;
                 http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/papers/2474/24740006.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Ha:2002:AHS,
  author =       "Yajun Ha and Radovan Hipik and Serge Vernalde and
                 Diederik Verkest and Marc Engels and Rudy Lauwereins
                 and Hugo De Man",
  title =        "Adding Hardware Support to the {HotSpot} Virtual
                 Machine for Domain Specific Applications",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2438",
  pages =        "1135--??",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 10 19:10:28 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2438.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2438/24381135.htm;
                 http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/papers/2438/24381135.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Hoganson:2002:HPC,
  author =       "Kenneth E. Hoganson",
  title =        "High-performance computer architecture and algorithm
                 simulator",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "131--148",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@InProceedings{Jacob:2002:CAP,
  author =       "Matthias Jacob and Keith Randall",
  title =        "Cross-Architectural Performance Portability of a {Java
                 Virtual Machine} Implementation",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2002:PJV",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2002",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 12:37:27 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/javavm02/jacob.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Jung:2002:DIS,
  author =       "Jun-Young Jung and Min-Soo Jung",
  title =        "Design and Implementation of Small-Sized {Java Virtual
                 Machine} on {Java} Platform {Jini}",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2343",
  pages =        "571--??",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 30 20:57:12 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2343.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2343/23430571.htm;
                 http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/papers/2343/23430571.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Kasprzyk:2002:APV,
  author =       "Leszek Kasprzyk and Ryszard Nawrowski and Andrzej
                 Tomczewski",
  title =        "Application of a Parallel Virtual Machine for the
                 Analysis of a Luminous Field",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2474",
  pages =        "122--??",
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 30 20:57:35 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://link.springer-ny.com/link/service/series/0558/tocs/t2474.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/bibs/2474/24740122.htm;
                 http://link.springer.de/link/service/series/0558/papers/2474/24740122.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Levis:2002:MTV,
  author =       "Philip Levis and David Culler",
  title =        "{Mat{\'e}}: a tiny virtual machine for sensor
                 networks",
  journal =      j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS,
  volume =       "30",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "85--95",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "CANED2",
  ISSN =         "0163-5964 (ACM), 0884-7495 (IEEE)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5964",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 12 09:41:23 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
}

@Article{Magnusson:2002:SFS,
  author =       "Peter S. Magnusson and Magnus Christensson and Jesper
                 Eskilson and Daniel Forsgren and Gustav H{\aa}llberg
                 and Johan H{\"o}gberg and Fredrik Larsson and Andreas
                 Moestedt and Bengt Werner",
  title =        "{Simics}: a Full System Simulation Platform",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "50--58",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 8 07:11:47 MST 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://dlib.computer.org/co/books/co2002/pdf/r2050.pdf;
                 http://www.computer.org/computer/co2002/r2050abs.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@InProceedings{Mikheev:2002:OEJ,
  author =       "V. Mikheev and N. Lipsky and D. Gurchenkov and P.
                 Pavlov and V. Sukharev and A. MarkovS. Kuksenko and S.
                 Fedoseev and D. Leskov and A. Yeryomin",
  editor =       "",
  booktitle =    "Proceedings of the third international workshop on
                 Software and performance: WOSP '02, July 24--26, 2002
                 Rome, Italy",
  title =        "Overview of {Excelsior JET}, a High Performance
                 Alternative to {Java Virtual Machines}",
  publisher =    pub-ACM,
  address =      pub-ACM:adr,
  pages =        "104--113",
  year =         "2002",
  ISBN =         "",
  ISBN-13 =      "",
  LCCN =         "",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 18 15:13:51 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Moure:2002:KS,
  author =       "J. C. Moure and Dolores I. Rexachs and Emilio Luque",
  title =        "The {KScalar} simulator",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--116",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@InProceedings{Rajan:2002:CPJ,
  author =       "A. S. Rajan and Shiwen Hu and J. Rubio",
  title =        "Cache performance in {Java} virtual machines: a study
                 of constituent phases",
  crossref =     "IEEE:2002:WII",
  pages =        "81--90",
  year =         "2002",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 24 10:13:38 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "This paper studies the level 1 cache performance of
                 Java programs by analyzing memory reference traces of
                 the SPECjvm98 applications executed by the Latte Java
                 virtual machine. We study in detail Java programs'
                 cache performance of different access types in three
                 JVM phases, under two execution modes, using three
                 cache configurations and two application data sets. We
                 observe that the poor data cache performance in the JIT
                 execution mode is caused by code installation, when the
                 data write miss rate in the execution engine can be as
                 high as 70\%. In addition, code installation also
                 deteriorates instruction cache performance during
                 execution of translated code. High cache miss rate in
                 garbage collection is mainly caused by large working
                 set and pointer chasing of the garbage collector. A
                 larger data cache works better on eliminating data
                 cache read misses than write misses, and is more
                 efficient on improving cache performance in the
                 execution engine than in the garbage collection. As
                 application data set increases in the JIT execution
                 mode, instruction cache and data cache write miss rates
                 of the execution engine decrease, while data cache read
                 miss rate of the execution engine increases. On the
                 other hand, impact of varying data set on cache
                 performance is not as pronounced in the interpreted
                 mode as in the JIT mode.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Raner:2002:LJV,
  author =       "Mirko Raner",
  title =        "A Lightweight {Java Virtual Machine} for a Stack-Based
                 Microprocessor",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2002:PJV",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2002",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 12:37:27 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/javavm02/raner.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Roblitz:2002:LSE,
  author =       "Thomas R{\"o}blitz and Frank Mueller and Oliver
                 B{\"u}hn",
  title =        "{LegoSim}: simulation of embedded kernels over
                 {Pthreads}",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "117--130",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@Book{Russell:2002:SCI,
  editor =       "Steve Russell and others",
  title =        "Server consolidation with the {IBM eServer xSeries
                 440} and {VMware ESX Server}",
  publisher =    "IBM, International Technical Support Organization",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "xiv + 222",
  month =        NOV,
  year =         "2002",
  ISBN =         "0-7384-2684-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7384-2684-6",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.C55 S378 2002",
  bibdate =      "Sun Apr 9 15:43:22 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  note =         "Publication number SG24-6852-00.",
  series =       "IBM redbooks",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Client/server computing; Management; Web servers; IBM
                 computers",
}

@InProceedings{S:2002:SPI,
  author =       "Venugopal K. S. and Geetha Manjunath and Venkatesh
                 Krishnan",
  title =        "{sEc}: a Portable Interpreter Optimizing Technique for
                 Embedded {Java Virtual Machine}",
  crossref =     "USENIX:2002:PJV",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2002",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 15 12:37:27 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/usenix2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/javavm02/venugopal.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Shelburne:2002:PEP,
  author =       "Brian J. Shelburne",
  title =        "A {PDP-8} emulator program",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "17--47",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/545197.545200",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Thu Aug 07 17:10:23 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The clean, simple, and elegant architecture of the
                 classic PDP-8 makes it an ideal candidate for studying
                 concepts in computer organization. The PDP-8 emulator
                 program allows a user to write, edit, assemble, debug,
                 trace, and execute PDP-8 machine code and PDP-8
                 assembler language programs. With it, the user can
                 obtain a feel for the PDP-8. The PDP-8 emulator program
                 includes a simple built-in text editor which is used to
                 write and edit PDP-8 assembler language programs, an
                 assembler to translate these programs into PDP-8
                 machine code, and a virtual PDP-8 engine upon which to
                 execute the code. PDP-8 code can be executed from a
                 debug screen display that allows the user to observe
                 the contents of registers and memory as the code
                 executes or code can be executed using an I/O interface
                 that requires user-written PDP-8 I/O routines. This
                 article provides an introduction to both the PDP-8
                 architecture and PDP-8 assembler language and discusses
                 how to use the PDP-8 emulator program. The PDP-8
                 emulator program runs under MS-DOS in a command
                 window.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
  keywords =     "virtual machine",
}

@Article{Surdeanu:2002:DPA,
  author =       "Mihai Surdeanu and Dan Moldovan",
  title =        "Design and Performance Analysis of a Distributed {Java
                 Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-IEEE-TRANS-PAR-DIST-SYS,
  volume =       "13",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "611--627",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "ITDSEO",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2002.1011415",
  ISSN =         "1045-9219 (print), 1558-2183 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1045-9219",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 23 15:36:27 MDT 2002",
  bibsource =    "http://www.computer.org/tpds/td2002/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ieeetranspardistsys.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://dlib.computer.org/td/books/td2002/pdf/l0611.pdf;
                 http://www.computer.org/tpds/td2002/l0611abs.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed
                 Systems",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.computer.org/portal/web/csdl/transactions/tpds",
}

@Article{Waldspurger:2002:MRM,
  author =       "Carl A. Waldspurger",
  title =        "Memory resource management in {VMware ESX} server",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "5S",
  pages =        "181--194",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 26 12:49:42 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/opersysrev.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review",
}

@Book{Ward:2002:BVC,
  author =       "Brian Ward",
  title =        "The book of {VMware}: the complete guide to {VMware}
                 workstation",
  publisher =    pub-NO-STARCH,
  address =      pub-NO-STARCH:adr,
  pages =        "xv + 249",
  year =         "2002",
  ISBN =         "1-886411-72-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-886411-72-2",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 W3653 2002",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 06 08:24:50 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  price =        "US\$39.95",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Wells:2002:HMA,
  author =       "Paul Damian Wells",
  title =        "The {HSSM} macro-architecture, {Virtual Machine} and
                 {H} languages",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "37",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "74--82",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Thu May 15 12:23:01 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "Hierarchical Simultaneous Set Membership (HSSM)",
}

@Article{Yurcik:2002:SIS,
  author =       "William (Bill) Yurcik",
  title =        "Special issue on {\em specialized\/} computer
                 architecture simulators that see the present and may
                 hold the future",
  journal =      j-JERIC,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "1--3",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2002",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1531-4278",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 3 18:43:37 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/jeric/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jeric.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Journal on Educational Resources in Computing
                 (JERIC)",
}

@InProceedings{Ahmad:2003:ADP,
  author =       "I. Ahmad and J. M. Anderson and A. M. Holler and R.
                 Kambo and V. Makhija",
  title =        "An analysis of disk performance in {VMware ESX Server}
                 virtual machines",
  crossref =     "IEEE:2003:IIW",
  pages =        "65--76",
  year =         "2003",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/WWC.2003.1249058",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 17:02:30 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "VMware ESX Server is a software platform that
                 efficiently multiplexes the hardware resources of a
                 server among virtual machines. This paper studies the
                 performance of a key component of the ESX Server
                 architecture: its storage subsystem. We characterize
                 the performance of native systems and virtual machines
                 using a series of disk microbenchmarks on several
                 different storage systems. We show that the virtual
                 machines perform well compared to native, and that the
                 I/O behavior of virtual machines closely matches that
                 of the native server. We then discuss how the
                 microbenchmarks can be used to estimate virtual machine
                 performance for disk-intensive applications by studying
                 two workloads: a simple file server and a commercial
                 mail server.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Anonymous:2003:PJU,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Products: {JetBrains} Upgrades {IntelliJ Java IDE};
                 {Catalyst}'s {USB} Analyzer Supports Device Emulation;
                 {VMware} Releases {Enterprise Server VM} Software;
                 {Motorola} Offers Free Soft Modem Reference Design;
                 {RealNetworks} Releases Source for {Helix DNA Server};
                 {Packeteer} Accelerates Intranet and {Internet}
                 Applications",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "80--81",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 12 19:53:55 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2003/03/r3080.htm;
                 http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2003/03/r3080.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2003:PVF,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Products: {VMware}'s Fourth-Generation Desktop
                 Virtualization Software; Automated Design Reviews with
                 {Reviewer for Rose}; {CodeWeavers} Debues {CrossOver
                 Office}; {Corel Smart Graphics Studio} Now Available;
                 {IronGrid}'s {Java} Performance Tool; {Infragistics}
                 Releases {NetAdvantage} Component Collection",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "98--99",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Fri Dec 12 19:53:41 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2003/06/r6098.htm;
                 http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2003/06/r6098.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@InProceedings{Barham:2003:VMM,
  author =       "Paul Barham and Boris Dragovic and Keir Fraser and
                 Steven Hand and Tim Harris and Alex Ho and Rolf
                 Neugebauer and Ian Pratt and Andrew Warfield",
  title =        "Virtual machine monitors: {Xen} and the art of
                 virtualization",
  crossref =     "ACM:2003:SPA",
  pages =        "164--177",
  year =         "2003",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 13:33:07 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/945445.945462",
  abstract =     "Numerous systems have been designed which use
                 virtualization to subdivide the ample resources of a
                 modern computer. Some require specialized hardware, or
                 cannot support commodity operating systems. Some target
                 100\% binary compatibility at the expense of
                 performance. Others sacrifice security or functionality
                 for speed. Few offer resource isolation or performance
                 guarantees; most provide only best-effort provisioning,
                 risking denial of service.This paper presents Xen, an
                 x86 virtual machine monitor which allows multiple
                 commodity operating systems to share conventional
                 hardware in a safe and resource managed fashion, but
                 without sacrificing either performance or
                 functionality. This is achieved by providing an
                 idealized virtual machine abstraction to which
                 operating systems such as Linux, BSD and Windows XP,
                 can be ported with minimal effort.Our design is
                 targeted at hosting up to 100 virtual machine instances
                 simultaneously on a modern server. The virtualization
                 approach taken by Xen is extremely efficient: we allow
                 operating systems such as Linux and Windows XP to be
                 hosted simultaneously for a negligible performance
                 overhead --- at most a few percent compared with the
                 unvirtualized case. We considerably outperform
                 competing commercial and freely available solutions in
                 a range of microbenchmarks and system-wide tests.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Breg:2003:JVM,
  author =       "Fabian Breg and Constantine D. Polychronopoulos",
  title =        "{Java Virtual Machine} support for object
                 serialization",
  journal =      j-CCPE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3--5",
  pages =        "263--275",
  month =        mar # "\slash " # apr,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "CCPEBO",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpe.667",
  ISSN =         "1532-0626 (print), 1532-0634 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1532-0626",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 13 09:28:08 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ccpe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Concurrency and Computation: Prac\-tice and
                 Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626",
  onlinedate =   "12 Feb 2003",
}

@Article{Cai:2003:THI,
  author =       "H. Cai and A. J. Wellings",
  title =        "Towards a High Integrity Real-Time {Java} Virtual
                 Machine",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2889",
  pages =        "319--334",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 2 18:51:43 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Chen:2003:EJV,
  author =       "D. Chen and V. Talwar",
  title =        "Extending {Java Virtual Machines} for networked
                 embedded devices",
  journal =      "Research Disclosure",
  volume =       "475",
  publisher =    "Kenneth Mason Publications",
  pages =        "475/076",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "0374-4353",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 15:22:46 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Compton:2003:VL,
  author =       "Jason Compton",
  title =        "{VMware 2} for {Linux}",
  publisher =    "Premier Press",
  address =      "Rocklin, CA, USA",
  pages =        "xxii + 406",
  year =         "2003",
  ISBN =         "0-7615-2764-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7615-2764-0",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 C656 2000",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 06 08:42:35 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  note =         "Includes CD-ROM.",
  price =        "US\$39.99",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Debbabi:2003:MCA,
  author =       "M. Debbabi and M. Erhioui and L. Ketari and N. Tawbi
                 and H. Yahyaoui and S. Zhioua",
  title =        "Method Call Acceleration in Embedded {Java} Virtual
                 Machines",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2659",
  pages =        "750--759",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jul 9 10:18:07 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Eeckhout:2003:HJP,
  author =       "Lieven Eeckhout and Andy Georges and Koen {De
                 Bosschere}",
  title =        "How {Java} programs interact with virtual machines at
                 the microarchitectural level",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "169--186",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sun Dec 14 09:18:34 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Ertl:2003:OIB,
  author =       "M. Anton Ertl and David Gregg",
  title =        "Optimizing indirect branch prediction accuracy in
                 virtual machine interpreters",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "278--288",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 11 12:45:00 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Friedman:2003:TFT,
  author =       "R. Friedman and A. Kama",
  title =        "Transparent Fault-Tolerant {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      "Proceedings of the Symposium on Reliable Distributed
                 Systems",
  volume =       "EDIT22",
  pages =        "319--328",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1060-9857",
  bibdate =      "Mon Dec 8 15:22:46 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{GomezMartin:2003:JVE,
  author =       "P. P. GomezMartin and M. A. GomezMartin and P. A.
                 GonzalezCalero",
  title =        "{Javy}: Virtual Environment for Case-Based Teaching of
                 {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2773",
  pages =        "906--913",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 21 05:29:09 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@Article{Gregg:2003:PID,
  author =       "David Gregg and James Power and John Waldron",
  title =        "Platform independent dynamic {Java} virtual machine
                 analysis: the {Java Grande Forum} benchmark suite",
  journal =      j-CCPE,
  volume =       "15",
  number =       "3--5",
  pages =        "459--484",
  month =        mar # "\slash " # apr,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "CCPEBO",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpe.666",
  ISSN =         "1532-0626 (print), 1532-0634 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1532-0626",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 13 09:28:08 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/ccpe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Concurrency and Computation: Prac\-tice and
                 Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1532-0626",
  onlinedate =   "12 Feb 2003",
}

@Article{Hu:2003:DJV,
  author =       "E. Y. S. Hu and A. J. Wellings and G. Bernat",
  title =        "Deriving {Java Virtual Machine} Timing Models for
                 Portable Worst-Case Execution Time Analysis",
  journal =      j-LECT-NOTES-COMP-SCI,
  volume =       "2889",
  pages =        "411--424",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "LNCSD9",
  ISSN =         "0302-9743 (print), 1611-3349 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0302-9743",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 2 18:51:43 MST 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Lecture Notes in Computer Science",
}

@PhdThesis{Ive:2003:TER,
  author =       "Anders Ive",
  title =        "Towards an embedded real-time {Java Virtual Machine}",
  volume =       "20",
  type =         "Thesis (fil.dr.)",
  school =       "Lund University, Department of Computer Science",
  address =      "Lund, Sweden",
  pages =        "viii + 139",
  year =         "2003",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 10:43:56 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.bibsys.no:2100/BIBSYS",
  series =       "Dissertation / Department of Computer Science, Lund
                 University",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "JVM; microsystems",
}

@InProceedings{McAuley:2003:CVC,
  author =       "Derek McAuley and Rolf Neugebauer",
  title =        "A case for virtual channel processors",
  crossref =     "ACM:2003:ATA",
  pages =        "237--242",
  year =         "2003",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/944747.944758",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 14:03:33 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Modern desktop and server computer systems use
                 multiple processors: general purpose CPU(s), graphic
                 processor (GPU), network processors (NP) on Network
                 Interface Cards (NICs), RAID controllers, and signal
                 processors on sound cards and modems. Some of these
                 processors traditionally have been special purpose
                 processors but there is a trend towards replacing some
                 of these with embedded general purpose processors. At
                 the same time main CPUs become more powerful; desktop
                 CPUs start featuring Simultaneous Multi-Threading
                 (SMT); and Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP) systems are
                 widely used in server systems. However, the structure
                 of operating systems has not really changed to reflect
                 these trends --- different types of processors evolve
                 at different time scales (largely driven by market
                 forces) requiring significant changes to operating
                 systems kernels to reflect the appropriate tradeoffs.In
                 this position paper we propose to re-vitalise the old
                 idea of channel processors by encapsulating operating
                 system I/O subsystems in Virtual Channel Processors
                 (VCPs). VCPs perform I/O operations on behalf of an OS.
                 They provide similar development, performance, and
                 fault isolation as dedicated (embedded) I/O processors
                 do while offering the flexibility to split
                 functionality between the main processor(s) and
                 dedicated processors without affecting the rest of the
                 OS. If part of a VCP is executed on the main processor,
                 we propose to make use of virtual machine technology
                 and SMT/SMP features to isolate its performance from
                 that of the rest of the system and to protect the
                 system from faults within the VCP.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Mengant:2003:NBJ,
  author =       "J. Y. Mengant",
  title =        "{A.NET} Bridge to a {Java Virtual Machine}: {Java} and
                 {.NET} interoperability, with a little help from
                 {C++}",
  journal =      j-CCCUJ,
  volume =       "21",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "28",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "CCUJEX",
  ISSN =         "1075-2838",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 7 05:32:12 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "C/C++ Users Journal",
}

@MastersThesis{Panesar-Walawege:2003:VHM,
  author =       "Rajwinder Kaur Panesar-Walawege",
  title =        "{Views}: a platform-independent {GUI} toolkit for the
                 shared-source {Common Language Infrastructure}",
  type =         "Thesis ({M. Sc.})",
  publisher =    "National Library of Canada = Biblioth\`eque nationale
                 du Canada",
  school =       "University of Victoria",
  address =      "Victoria, BC, Canada",
  year =         "2003",
  ISBN =         "0-612-85233-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-612-85233-4",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:04:07 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Canadian theses = Th\`eses canadiennes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Ragsdale:2003:CLI,
  author =       "Susann Ragsdale and David Sussman and Mark Fussell",
  title =        "The {Common Language Infrastructure} Annotated
                 Standard",
  publisher =    pub-AW,
  address =      pub-AW:adr,
  pages =        "826",
  year =         "2003",
  ISBN =         "0-321-15493-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-321-15493-4",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:04:07 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Microsoft.NET development series",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "object-oriented methods (computer science);
                 Microsoft.NET Framework",
}

@Article{Requet:2003:BME,
  author =       "Antoine Requet",
  title =        "A {B} model for ensuring soundness of a large subset
                 of the {Java Card} virtual machine",
  journal =      j-SCI-COMPUT-PROGRAM,
  volume =       "46",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "283--306",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "SCPGD4",
  ISSN =         "0167-6423 (print), 1872-7964 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-6423",
  bibdate =      "Sun Jan 11 10:42:01 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.elsevier.com/locate/issn/01676423;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/scicomputprogram.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01676423",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Science of Computer Programming",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01676423",
}

@Article{Shaylor:2003:JVM,
  author =       "Nik Shaylor and Douglas N. Simon and William R. Bush",
  title =        "A {Java} Virtual Machine Architecture for Very Small
                 Devices",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "34--41",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 11 12:45:03 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Shippy:2003:PGT,
  author =       "P. J. Shippy",
  title =        "Porting the {Gnat} Tasking Runtime System to the {Java
                 Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      "Literary Review",
  volume =       "47",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "119--120",
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "0024-4589",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 5 09:19:58 MDT 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Stefanovic:2003:OFG,
  author =       "Darko Stefanovi{\'c} and Matthew Hertz and Stephen M.
                 Blackburn and Kathryn S. McKinley and J. Eliot B.
                 Moss",
  title =        "Older-first Garbage Collection in Practice: Evaluation
                 in a {Java} Virtual Machine",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "2s",
  pages =        "25--36",
  month =        feb,
  year =         "2003",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Thu May 15 12:23:14 MDT 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Book{Stutz:2003:SSC,
  author =       "David Stutz and Ted Neward and Geoff Shilling",
  title =        "Shared Source {CLI} Essentials",
  publisher =    pub-ORA,
  address =      pub-ORA:adr,
  pages =        "xviii + 357",
  year =         "2003",
  ISBN =         "0-596-00351-X",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-596-00351-7",
  LCCN =         "QA76.625 .S76 2003",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 18 15:05:28 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/prdindex.html;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  price =        "US\$34.95",
  URL =          "http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/9780596003517;
                 http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/sscliess",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  publishersummary = "This concise and insightful guide provides a
                 roadmap for anyone trying to navigate or manipulate the
                 Shared Source CLI code (codenamed ``Rotor''). With as
                 many as 1.3 million lines of code in 14,000 files, this
                 book is absolutely necessary for anyone who wants to
                 jump into the complex nucleus of Microsoft's .NET
                 Platform. The book includes a CD-ROM that contains all
                 the source code and files.",
  subject =      "Internet programming; Microsoft .NET Framework;
                 Virtual computer systems",
}

@InProceedings{Vogels:2003:HNC,
  author =       "Werner Vogels",
  title =        "{HPC.NET} --- are {CLI}-based Virtual Machines
                 Suitable for High Performance Computing?",
  crossref =     "ACM:2003:SII",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2003",
  bibdate =      "Wed Nov 26 07:34:20 2003",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.sc-conference.org/sc2003/inter_cal/inter_cal_detail.php?eventid=10710#2;
                 http://www.sc-conference.org/sc2003/paperpdfs/pap251.pdf",
  abstract =     "The Common Language Infrastructure is a new,
                 standardized virtual machine that is likely to become
                 popular on several platforms. In this paper we review
                 whether this technology has any future in the
                 high-performance computing community, for example by
                 targeting the same application space as the Java-Grande
                 Forum. We review the technology by benchmarking three
                 implementations of the CLI and compare those with the
                 results on Java virtual machines.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Ward:2003:VWH,
  author =       "Brian Ward and Gerhard Franken",
  title =        "{VMware Workstation: [das Handbuch; Installation,
                 Konfiguration, Anwendung und Troubleshooting;
                 Gast-Systeme: Windows, Linux, BSD, Novell NetWare,
                 Solaris, FreeDOS und Oberon; virtuelle Netzwerke,
                 Netzwerkkonfiguration und -dienste]}",
  publisher =    "mitp-Verl.",
  address =      "Landsberg, Germany",
  pages =        "336",
  year =         "2003",
  ISBN =         "3-8266-0964-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-8266-0964-0",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 17:21:53 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.gbv.de:20011/gvk",
  price =        "EUR 32.00 (DE)",
  URL =          "http://www.gbv.de/du/services/agi/FCC0A57071BE8695C125704A0029797F/FLMA122525",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "VMware Workstation",
}

@Book{Adra:2004:APV,
  editor =       "Bill Adra and others",
  title =        "Advanced {POWER} virtualization on {IBM e-server p5}
                 servers. Introduction and basic configuration",
  publisher =    pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  pages =        "xviii + 268",
  year =         "2004",
  ISBN =         "0-7384-9081-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7384-9081-6",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 A378 2004",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 21 14:10:00 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "IBM redbooks",
  URL =          "http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/fy0608/2005274479.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Virtual computer systems",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2004:CRV,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Conference Report: {{\em 3rd Virtual Machine Research
                 and Technology Symposium (VM '04)}}",
  journal =      j-LOGIN,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "LOGNEM",
  ISSN =         "1044-6397",
  bibdate =      "Tue Apr 11 10:52:40 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.usenix.org/publications/login/2004-08/index.html",
  URL =          "http://www.usenix.org/publications/login/2004-08/openpdfs/vm04reports.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     ";login: the USENIX Association newsletter",
}

@Book{Bastiaansen:2004:RGU,
  author =       "Rob Bastiaansen",
  title =        "{Rob}'s Guide to Using {VMWARE}",
  publisher =    "Books4Brains",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "268 (est.)",
  year =         "2004",
  ISBN =         "90-808934-1-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-90-808934-1-2",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 17:57:33 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.comcol.nl/detail/55734.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Davoli:2004:TOS,
  author =       "Renzo Davoli",
  title =        "Teaching operating systems administration with {User
                 Mode Linux}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "112--116",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1026487.1008027",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:57:09 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "User Mode Linux is a virtual machine running on a
                 GNU-Linux operating system. It is the right choice for
                 teaching operating systems' administration, as it does
                 not need any dedicated hardware. It runs at user level
                 (no need for root, i.e., administrator, access or
                 possible security threats) and it does not have the
                 performance problems of an emulator. This paper
                 describes how to set up a laboratory for teaching
                 operating systems' administration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Doyle:2004:DIM,
  author =       "Patrick Doyle and Carlos Cavanna and Tarek S.
                 Abdelrahman",
  title =        "The design and implementation of a modular and
                 extensible {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "34",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "287--313",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.565",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 16 07:26:27 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X;
                 http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0038-0644;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software --- Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  onlinedate =   "5 Jan 2004",
}

@Book{Dufrasne:2004:IVE,
  editor =       "Bertrand Dufrasne and others",
  title =        "Implementing {VMware ESX Server} with {IBM
                 TotalStorage FAStT}",
  publisher =    "IBM, International Support Organization",
  address =      "????",
  pages =        "xvi + 246",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2004",
  ISBN =         "0-7384-9134-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7384-9134-9",
  LCCN =         "TK5105.86 I475 2004",
  bibdate =      "Sun Apr 9 15:43:22 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  note =         "Publication number SG24-6434-00.",
  series =       "IBM redbooks",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Storage area networks (Computer networks); Web
                 servers; IBM computers",
}

@InProceedings{Ho:2004:PPD,
  author =       "Alex Ho and Steven Hand and Tim Harris",
  title =        "{PDB}: Pervasive Debugging With Xen",
  crossref =     "IEEE:2004:FIA",
  pages =        "260--265",
  year =         "2004",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GRID.2004.49",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 14:20:54 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Building distributed grid applications is notoriously
                 difficult: the complex interactions between
                 concurrently running processes, middleware, operating
                 systems, underlying devices, and interconnecting
                 networks can lead to unpredictable and difficult to
                 analyze errors. Yet debugging support for such systems
                 is woefully inadequate; typically a central user
                 interface coordinates a set of conventional debuggers.
                 This structure leads to synchronization problems and is
                 limited to debugging user-mode applications. In this
                 paper we present the design and implementation of PDB,
                 a pervasive debugger which executes in a virtualization
                 layer underneath the entire distributed system. By
                 running each node of a distributed application in a
                 separate virtual environment atop the debugger, PDB can
                 exercise full control over the entire execution
                 environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Hohmuth:2004:RTS,
  author =       "Michael Hohmuth and Michael Peter and Hermann
                 H{\"a}rtig and Jonathan S. Shapiro",
  title =        "Reducing {TCB} size by using untrusted components:
                 small kernels versus virtual-machine monitors",
  crossref =     "ACM:2004:PWA",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2004",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1133572.1133615",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 14:28:03 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Secure systems are best built on top of a small
                 trusted operating system: The smaller the operating
                 system, the easier it can be assured or verified for
                 correctness.In this paper, we oppose the view that
                 virtual-machine monitors (VMMs) are the smallest
                 systems that provide secure isolation because they have
                 been specifically designed to provide little more than
                 this property. The problem with this assertion is that
                 VMMs typically do not support interprocess
                 communication, complicating the use of untrusted
                 components inside a secure systems.We propose extending
                 traditional VMMs with features for secure message
                 passing and memory sharing to enable the use of
                 untrusted components in secure systems. We argue that
                 moving system components out of the TCB into the
                 untrusted part of the system and communicating with
                 them using IPC reduces the overall size of the TCB.We
                 argue that many secure applications can make use of
                 untrusted components through trusted wrappers without
                 risking security properties such as confidentiality and
                 integrity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articlenumber = "22",
}

@Article{Hu:2004:TLI,
  author =       "Ji Hu and Christoph Meinel and Michael Schmitt",
  title =        "Tele-lab {IT} security: an architecture for
                 interactive lessons for security education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "36",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "412--416",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1028174.971440",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:57:06 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "IT security education is an important activity in
                 computer science education. The broad range of existing
                 security threats makes it necessary to teach students
                 the principles of IT security as well as to let them
                 gain hands-on experience. In order to enable students
                 to practice IT security anytime anywhere, a novel
                 tutoring system is being developed at the University of
                 Trier, Germany, which allows them to get familiar with
                 security technologies and tools via the Internet. Based
                 on virtual machine technology, users are able to
                 perform exercises on a Linux system instead of in a
                 restricted simulation environment. This paper describes
                 the user interface of the Tele-Lab IT Security, its
                 system architecture and its functional components.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Huang:2004:MDS,
  author =       "Lan Huang and Gang Peng and Tzi-cker Chiueh",
  title =        "Multi-dimensional storage virtualization",
  journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
  volume =       "32",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "14--24",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1012888.1005692",
  ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5999",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jun 27 09:21:18 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Most state-of-the-art commercial storage
                 virtualization systems focus only on one particular
                 storage attribute, capacity. This paper describes the
                 design, implementation and evaluation of a {\em
                 multi-dimensional storage virtualization\/} system
                 called Stonehenge, which is able to virtualize a
                 cluster-based physical storage system along multiple
                 dimensions, including bandwidth, capacity, and latency.
                 As a result, Stonehenge is able to multiplex multiple
                 virtual disks, each with a distinct bandwidth,
                 capacity, and latency attribute, on a single physical
                 storage system as if they are separate physical disks.
                 A key enabling technology for Stonehenge is an
                 efficiency-aware real-time disk scheduling algorithm
                 called dual-queue disk scheduling, which maximizes disk
                 utilization efficiency while providing Quality of
                 Service (QoS) guarantees. To optimize disk utilization
                 efficiency, Stonehenge exploits run-time measurements
                 extensively, for admission control, computing
                 latency-derived bandwidth requirement, and predicting
                 disk service time.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
  keywords =     "quality of service; storage virtualization",
}

@InProceedings{Krsul:2004:VPM,
  author =       "Ivan Krsul and Arijit Ganguly and Jian Zhang and Jose
                 A. B. Fortes and Renato J. Figueiredo",
  title =        "{VMPlants}: Providing and Managing Virtual Machine
                 Execution Environments for {Grid} Computing",
  crossref =     "ACM:2004:SHP",
  pages =        "7--??",
  year =         "2004",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SC.2004.67",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 14:33:45 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Virtual machines provide flexible, powerful execution
                 environments for Grid computing, offering isolation and
                 security mechanisms complementary to operating systems,
                 customization and encapsulation of entire application
                 environments, and support for legacy applications. This
                 paper describes a Grid service, VMPlant, that provides
                 for automated configuration and creation of flexible
                 VMs that, once configured to meet application needs,
                 can then subsequently be copied (``cloned'') and
                 dynamically instantiated to provide homogeneous
                 execution environments across distributed Grid
                 resources. In combination with complementary middleware
                 for user, data and resource management, the
                 functionality enabled by VMPlant allows for
                 problem-solving environments to deliver Grid
                 applications to users with unprecedented flexibility.
                 VMPlant supports a graph-based model for the definition
                 of customized VM configuration actions; partial graph
                 matching, VM state storage and ``cloning'' for
                 efficient creation. This paper presents the VMPlant
                 architecture, describes a prototype implementation of
                 the service, and presents an analysis of its
                 performance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{LeVasseur:2004:SAR,
  author =       "Joshua LeVasseur and Volkmar Uhlig",
  title =        "A sledgehammer approach to reuse of legacy device
                 drivers",
  crossref =     "ACM:2004:PWA",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2004",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1133572.1133617",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 15:41:52 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Device drivers account for the majority of an
                 operating system's code base, and reuse of the existing
                 driver infrastructure is a pragmatic requirement of any
                 new OS project. New operating systems should benefit
                 from the existing device driver code base without
                 demanding legacy support from the kernel.Instead of
                 trying to directly integrate existing device drivers we
                 propose a more radical approach. We run the unmodified
                 device driver, with its complete original OS, isolated
                 in a virtual machine. Our flexible approach, requiring
                 only minimal support infrastructure, allows us to run
                 any existing device driver, independently of the OS or
                 driver vendor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  articlenumber = "24",
}

@Article{Lowell:2004:DVM,
  author =       "David E. Lowell and Yasushi Saito and Eileen J.
                 Samberg",
  title =        "Devirtualizable virtual machines enabling general,
                 single-node, online maintenance",
  journal =      j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS,
  volume =       "32",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "211--223",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "CANED2",
  ISSN =         "0163-5964 (ACM), 0884-7495 (IEEE)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5964",
  bibdate =      "Fri May 12 09:41:24 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
}

@Book{Miller:2004:CLI,
  author =       "James S. Miller and Susann Ragsdale",
  title =        "The {Common Language Infrastructure} Annotated
                 Standard",
  publisher =    pub-AW,
  address =      pub-AW:adr,
  pages =        "xxxii + 891",
  year =         "2004",
  ISBN =         "0-321-15493-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-321-15493-4",
  LCCN =         "QA76.7 .M52 2003",
  bibdate =      "Wed Mar 15 08:58:53 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Programming languages (Electronic computers);
                 Microsoft .NET Framework",
}

@Article{Nelson:2004:CDC,
  author =       "T. Nelson",
  title =        "A Cosmology for a Different Computer Universe: Data
                 Model, Mechanisms, Virtual Machine and Visualization
                 Infrastructure",
  journal =      j-J-DIGITAL-INFO,
  volume =       "5",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1368-7506",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jul 5 18:53:03 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://jodi.ecs.soton.ac.uk/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/jdigitalinfo.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://jodi.tamu.edu/Articles/v05/i01/Nelson",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Digital Information",
}

@Article{Rosenblum:2004:RVM,
  author =       "Mendel Rosenblum",
  title =        "The Reincarnation of Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-QUEUE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "34--40",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "AQCUAE",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1016998.1017000",
  ISSN =         "1542-7730 (print), 1542-7749 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1542-7730",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 6 17:44:33 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Queue: Tomorrow's Computing Today",
}

@Article{Schmalenbach:2004:JVM,
  author =       "C. Schmalenbach and C. Hofig",
  title =        "The {Java Virtual Machine} Profiler Interface",
  journal =      j-DDJ,
  volume =       "29",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "28--33",
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "DDJOEB",
  ISSN =         "1044-789X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Sep 28 15:27:39 MDT 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Dr. Dobb's Journal of Software Tools",
}

@Article{Siveroni:2004:OSJ,
  author =       "I. A. Siveroni",
  title =        "Operational semantics of the {Java Card Virtual
                 Machine}",
  journal =      j-J-LOGIC-ALG-PROG,
  volume =       "58",
  number =       "1--2",
  pages =        "3--25",
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "????",
  ISSN =         "1567-8326",
  ISSN-L =       "1567-8326",
  bibdate =      "Tue Jan 27 06:08:07 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Logic and Algebraic Programming",
}

@Article{Supnik:2004:SVM,
  author =       "Bob Supnik",
  title =        "Simulators: Virtual Machines of the Past (and
                 Future)",
  journal =      j-QUEUE,
  volume =       "2",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "52--58",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2004",
  CODEN =        "AQCUAE",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1016998.1017002",
  ISSN =         "1542-7730 (print), 1542-7749 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1542-7730",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 6 17:44:33 MST 2004",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Queue: Tomorrow's Computing Today",
}

@Article{Adams:2005:CMC,
  author =       "Joel C. Adams and W. David Laverell",
  title =        "Configuring a multi-course lab for system-level
                 projects",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "37",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "525--529",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1047124.1047509",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:57:13 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Having students modify an actual operating system
                 kernel or network protocol stack opens their eyes to
                 what is going on ``beneath the hood'' of a computer.
                 However student modifications to a system may result in
                 an unstable computer. Because of this, giving students
                 such experience has in the past required a lab and/or
                 computers dedicated to the students in the system-level
                 course, and computer science departments without such
                 dedicated facilities have been unable to provide their
                 students with system-level experience. In this paper,
                 we present two ways of giving students system-level
                 experience in a non-dedicated lab; one using commercial
                 software (VMware), and another using open-source
                 freeware (User Mode Linux Kernel).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Article{Alpern:2005:JRV,
  author =       "B. Alpern and S. Augart and S. M. Blackburn and M.
                 Butrico and A. Cocchi and P. Cheng and J. Dolby and S.
                 Fink and D. Grove and M. Hind and K. S. McKinley and M.
                 Mergen and J. E. B. Moss and T. Ngo and V. Sarkar and
                 M. Trapp",
  title =        "The {Jikes Research Virtual Machine} project: Building
                 an open-source research community",
  journal =      j-IBM-SYS-J,
  volume =       "44",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "399--417",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "IBMSA7",
  ISSN =         "0018-8670",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 16 18:29:43 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/",
  URL =          "http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/442/alpern.html;
                 http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/442/alpern.pdf;
                 http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/sj/442/alpern.txt",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Systems Journal",
}

@InProceedings{Alpern:2005:PVE,
  author =       "Bowen Alpern and Joshua Auerbach and Vasanth Bala and
                 Thomas Frauenhofer and Todd Mummert and Michael
                 Pigott",
  title =        "{PDS}: a virtual execution environment for software
                 deployment",
  crossref =     "ACM:2005:PFA",
  pages =        "175--185",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1064979.1065004",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 16:55:50 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "The Progressive Deployment System (PDS) is a virtual
                 execution environment and infrastructure designed
                 specifically for deploying software, or ``assets'', on
                 demand while enabling management from a central
                 location. PDS intercepts a select subset of system
                 calls on the target machine to provide a partial
                 virtualization at the operating system level. This
                 enables an asset's install-time environment to be
                 reproduced virtually while otherwise not isolating the
                 asset from peer applications on the target machine.
                 Asset components, or ``shards'', are fetched as they
                 are needed (or they may be pre-fetched), enabling the
                 asset to be progressively deployed by overlapping
                 deployment with execution. Cryptographic digests are
                 used to eliminate redundant shards within and among
                 assets, which enables more efficient deployment. A
                 framework is provided for intercepting interfaces above
                 the operating system (e.g., Java class loading),
                 enabling optimizations requiring semantic awareness not
                 present at the OS level. The paper presents the design
                 of PDS, motivates its ``porous isolation model'' with
                 respect to the challenges of software deployment, and
                 presents measurements of PDS's execution
                 characteristics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Anderson:2005:OII,
  author =       "Thomas Anderson and Larry Peterson and Scott Shenker
                 and Jonathan Turner",
  title =        "Overcoming the {Internet} Impasse through
                 Virtualization",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "34--??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MC.2005.136",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 4 16:02:15 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2005/04/r4034.htm;
                 http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2005/04/r4034.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2005:NPV,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "New Products: Virtual Iron ({VFe})",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "139",
  pages =        "18--18",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 15:24:05 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
  keywords =     "Virtual Iron; Xen",
  remark =       "VFe allows up to ten operating systems to run
                 concurrently on a physical processor, a single
                 operating system to span 16 processors or any
                 combination in between, all sharing the same physical
                 resources.",
}

@Article{Armstrong:2005:AVC,
  author =       "W. J. Armstrong and R. L. Arndt and D. C. Boutcher and
                 R. G. Kovacs and D. Larson and K. A. Lucke and N. Nayar
                 and R. C. Swanberg",
  title =        "Advanced virtualization capabilities of {POWER5}
                 systems",
  journal =      j-IBM-JRD,
  volume =       "49",
  number =       "4/5",
  pages =        "523--532",
  month =        "????",
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "IBMJAE",
  ISSN =         "0018-8646 (print), 2151-8556 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-8646",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 5 07:12:31 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/",
  URL =          "http://www.research.ibm.com/journal/rd/494/armstrong.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "IBM Journal of Research and Development",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=5288520",
}

@Article{Arnold:2005:IVM,
  author =       "Matthew Arnold and Adam Welc and V. T. Rajan",
  title =        "Improving virtual machine performance using a
                 cross-run profile repository",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "40",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "297--311",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Dec 13 08:30:58 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Barr:2005:JEA,
  author =       "Rimon Barr and Zygmunt J. Haas and Robbert van
                 Renesse",
  title =        "{JiST}: an efficient approach to simulation using
                 virtual machines",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "6",
  pages =        "539--576",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.647",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 16 07:26:39 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X;
                 http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0038-0644;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software --- Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  onlinedate =   "16 Feb 2005",
}

@Article{Bauer:2005:PPF,
  author =       "Mick Bauer",
  title =        "Paranoid penguin: The future of {Linux} security",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "2005",
  number =       "136",
  pages =        "10--10",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Sat Dec 24 17:46:10 MST 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
  keywords =     "Hypervisors and Virtual Machines",
}

@Misc{Beebe:2005:VM,
  author =       "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
  title =        "Virtual Machines",
  howpublished = "World-Wide Web document.",
  day =          "1",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2005",
  bibdate =      "Tue Aug 02 19:05:33 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/bibnet/authors/b/beebe-nelson-h-f.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/vm.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Blank:2005:APV,
  editor =       "Annika Blank and others",
  title =        "Advanced {POWER} virtualization on {IBM System p5}",
  publisher =    pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "xxii + 424",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "0-7384-9404-6",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7384-9404-3",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 A38 2005",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 21 14:08:50 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "IBM redbooks",
  URL =          "http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/fy0608/2006273965.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "This edition applies to IBM AIX 5L version 5.3, HMC
                 version 5 release 1.0, Virtual IO server version 1.2
                 running on IBM system p5 and IBM eserver p5 systems.",
  subject =      "Virtual computer systems",
}

@InProceedings{Calder:2005:EVM,
  author =       "Brad Calder and Andrew A. Chien and Ju Wang and Don
                 Yang",
  title =        "The {Entropia Virtual Machine} for desktop grids",
  crossref =     "ACM:2005:PFA",
  pages =        "186--185",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1064979.1065005",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 15:31:19 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Desktop distributed computing allows companies to
                 exploit the idle cycles on pervasive desktop PC systems
                 to increase the available computing power by orders of
                 magnitude (10x--1000x). Applications are submitted,
                 distributed, and run on a grid of desktop PCs. Since
                 the applications may be malformed, or malicious, the
                 key challenges for a desktop grid are how to (1)
                 prevent the distributed computing application from
                 unwarranted access or modification of data and files on
                 the desktop PC, (2) control the distributed computing
                 application's resource usage and behavior as it runs on
                 the desktop PC, and (3) provide protection for the
                 distributed application's program and its data. In this
                 paper we describe the Entropia Virtual Machine, and the
                 solutions it embodies for each of these challenges.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Childs:2005:SCG,
  author =       "Stephen Childs and Brian Coghlan and David O'Callaghan
                 and Geoff Quigley and John Walsh",
  title =        "A Single-Computer {Grid} Gateway Using Virtual
                 Machines",
  crossref =     "Shih:2005:ICA",
  pages =        "310--315",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/AINA.2005.65",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 15:27:50 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Grid middleware is enabling resource sharing between
                 computing centres across the world and sites with
                 existing clusters are eager to connect to the Grid
                 using middleware such as that developed by the LHC
                 Computing Grid (LCG) project. However; the hardware
                 requirements for access to the Grid remain high: a
                 standard LCG Grid gateway requires four separate
                 servers. We propose the use of Virtual Machine (VM)
                 technology to run multiple OS instances, allowing a
                 full Grid gateway to be hosted on a single computer.
                 This would significantly reduce the hardware,
                 installation and management commitments required of a
                 site that wants to connect to the Grid. In this paper,
                 we outline the architecture of a single-computer Grid
                 gateway. We evaluate implementations of this
                 architecture using two popular open-source VMs: Xen and
                 User-Mode Linux (UML). Our results show that Xen
                 outperforms UML for installation tasks and standard
                 gateway operations. Configuration is similar to that of
                 sites running multi-computer gateways, making it easy
                 to keep site installation profiles Synchronised. Our VM
                 gateway architecture provides a low-cost entry path to
                 the Grid and will be of interest to many institutions
                 wishing to connect their existing facilities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Clark:2005:SVT,
  author =       "Tom Clark",
  title =        "Storage virtualization: technologies for simplifying
                 data storage and management",
  publisher =    pub-AW,
  address =      pub-AW:adr,
  pages =        "xvii + 234",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "0-321-26251-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-321-26251-6",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 C55 2005",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 21 14:10:53 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Virtual storage (Computer science); Information
                 storage and retrieval systems; Database management",
}

@Book{Craig:2005:VM,
  author =       "Iain D. Craig",
  title =        "Virtual machines",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "xv + 269",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "1-85233-969-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-85233-969-2",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9 CRA",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jul 14 12:01:15 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.ox.ac.uk:210/ADVANCE;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  libnote =      "Not in my library.",
  subject =      "Virtual computer systems; Parallel processing",
}

@Article{Davoli:2005:VSV,
  author =       "Renzo Davoli and Michael Goldweber",
  title =        "Virtual square ({$ V^2 $}) in computer science
                 education",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "37",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "301--305",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1151954.1067528",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:57:19 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "It is common to name as virtual the imaginary space
                 that can be created by software using computers and
                 networks. This space is not only a set of processing
                 and communications means and methods but it is also a
                 space where humans can ``meet,'' exchange ideas, leave
                 messages etc. Students in computer science must learn
                 how to design, implement, manage and debug the systems
                 and networks that create this virtual space.
                 Furthermore, CS students need an experimental
                 environment --a playground-- where they can develop
                 their skills at creating and supporting these virtual
                 environments. For this ``playground'' we propose a
                 virtual world made up of emulated computer systems and
                 emulated networks. This emulated world will be the
                 students' testing environment, where they can run their
                 own services, administer their own machines and set up
                 security attacks without any danger to real networks
                 and systems. It is a virtual space based on virtual
                 machines and virtual networks but it is also a meeting
                 place for computer science students, where they can
                 test the effectiveness of their ideas. This ``space''
                 therefore is a twice virtual space, which we call
                 virtual to the second power or virtual squared (V$^2$
                 ). It is a virtual environment that is a also virtual
                 location (i.e., a town square) where different real
                 computers, virtual systems and people can meet and
                 communicate.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Book{ECMA-335-3,
  author =       "{ECMA}",
  title =        "{ECMA-335}: {Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)}",
  publisher =    pub-ECMA,
  address =      pub-ECMA:adr,
  edition =      "Third",
  pages =        "viii + 104 (Part I), viii + 192 (Part II), iv + 138
                 (Part III), ii + 20 (Part IV), i + 4 (Part V), ii + 60
                 (Part VI)",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  bibdate =      "Thu Apr 20 10:08:14 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Standard.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/Ecma-335-xml.zip;
                 http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/Ecma-335.pdf;
                 http://www.ecma.ch/ecma1/STAND/ecma-335.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ECMAnumber =   "ECMA-335",
  remark =       "Also ISO/IEC 23271.",
}

@Article{Ertl:2005:AIV,
  author =       "M. Anton Ertl",
  title =        "Advances in interpreters, virtual machines and
                 emulators",
  journal =      j-SCI-COMPUT-PROGRAM,
  volume =       "57",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "251--252",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SCPGD4",
  ISSN =         "0167-6423 (print), 1872-7964 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-6423",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 1 18:38:50 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/scicomputprogram.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01676423",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Science of Computer Programming",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01676423",
}

@Article{Figueiredo:2005:GEI,
  author =       "Renato Figueiredo and Peter A. Dinda and Jos{\'e}
                 Fortes",
  title =        "{Guest Editors}' Introduction: Resource Virtualization
                 Renaissance",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "28--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 4 16:02:16 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/co/2005/05/r5028.pdf;
                 http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/co/2005/05/r5028abs.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@Article{Franz:2005:PVM,
  author =       "Michael Franz and Deepak Chandra and Andreas Gal and
                 Vivek Haldar and Christian W. Probst and Ferm{\'\i}n
                 Reig and Ning Wang",
  title =        "A portable virtual machine target for proof-carrying
                 code",
  journal =      j-SCI-COMPUT-PROGRAM,
  volume =       "57",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "275--294",
  month =        sep,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SCPGD4",
  ISSN =         "0167-6423 (print), 1872-7964 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0167-6423",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 1 18:38:50 MDT 2011",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/scicomputprogram.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01676423",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Science of Computer Programming",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01676423",
}

@MastersThesis{Fredriksen:2005:UUV,
  author =       "Kai Fredriksen",
  title =        "{UMLexe} --- {UML} virtual machine: a framework for
                 model execution",
  type =         "Masteroppgave i informatikk",
  school =       "Universitetet i Oslo",
  address =      "Oslo, Norway",
  pages =        "122",
  year =         "2005",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 11:25:42 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Gibbs:2005:APV,
  editor =       "G. Benton Gibbs and others",
  title =        "Advanced {POWER} virtualization on {IBM eserver p5}
                 servers. Architecture and performance considerations",
  publisher =    pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "xvi + 412",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "0-7384-9238-8 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7384-9238-4 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 A377 2005",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 21 14:08:33 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "IBM redbooks",
  URL =          "http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/fy0608/2006275016.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "This edition applies to IBM eserver p5 servers that
                 include the POWER5 microprocessor architecture and the
                 IBM AIX 5L version 5.3 operating system.",
  subject =      "Virtual computer systems",
}

@Article{Hansen:2005:IJP,
  author =       "Stuart A. Hansen",
  editor =       "Wanda Dann and Thomas L. Naps and Paul T. Tymann and
                 Doug Baldwin",
  title =        "Interpreting {Java} Program Runtimes",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "37",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "36--40",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1047124.1047372;
                 http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1047344.1047372",
  ISBN =         "1-58113-997-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-58113-997-6",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:57:13 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "DBLP;
                 http://dblp.uni-trier.de/db/conf/sigcse/sigcse2005.html#Hansen05;
                 http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 Ingenta database",
  URL =          "ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Compiler/java.bib;
                 ftp://ftp.math.utah.edu/pub/mirrors/ftp.ira.uka.de/bibliography/Misc/DBLP/2005.bib",
  abstract =     "Many instructors use program runtimes to illustrate
                 and reinforce algorithm complexity concepts. Hardware,
                 operating systems and compilers all influence the
                 runtimes, but generally not to the extent of making the
                 data difficult to interpret. The Java virtual machine
                 adds an additional layer of software, making it much
                 harder to see the relationship between the runtimes and
                 the underlying algorithm. This paper presents some of
                 the basic issues the author and his students have
                 encountered when analyzing Java program runtimes and
                 briefly discusses strategies to address them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@InProceedings{Ho:2005:DPD,
  author =       "Alex Ho and Steven Hand",
  title =        "On the design of a pervasive debugger",
  crossref =     "ACM:2005:APS",
  pages =        "117--122",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1085130.1085146",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 15:23:00 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Increased reuse of software components has led to a
                 software mishmash as existing packages are used as
                 building blocks for new systems. Current debuggers
                 cannot cope with the intricate interactions between
                 components written in different languages and spread
                 over multiple hosts. This paper explores the design of
                 a pervasive debugger for concurrent and distributed
                 applications. By executing the target in a virtualized
                 environment, the debugger can atomically control the
                 entire application, stopping and examining each
                 component in a consistent state. Developers can
                 simultaneously control multiple heterogeneous targets
                 located anywhere in the software hierarchy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{ISO:2005:IIIa,
  author =       "{International Organization for Standardization}",
  title =        "{ISO\slash IEC 23271:2003}: Information technology ---
                 Common Language Infrastructure",
  publisher =    pub-ISO,
  address =      pub-ISO:adr,
  pages =        "xi + 99 (Part. I), ix + 164 (Part. II), vi + 125
                 (Part. III), iii + 16 (Part. IV), iv + 79 (Part. V)",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "????",
  ISBN-13 =      "????",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 13 18:31:49 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  price =        "328 Sfr (print)",
  URL =          "http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c036769_ISO_IEC_23271_2003(E).zip;
                 http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueDetailPage.CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=36769",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{ISO:2005:IIIb,
  author =       "{International Organization for Standardization}",
  title =        "{ISO\slash IEC TR 23272}: Information technology ---
                 Common Language Infrastructure --- Profiles and
                 Libraries",
  publisher =    pub-ISO,
  address =      pub-ISO:adr,
  pages =        "6",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "????",
  ISBN-13 =      "????",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon Mar 13 18:31:49 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  price =        "328 Sfr (print)",
  URL =          "http://standards.iso.org/ittf/PubliclyAvailableStandards/c036770_ISO_IEC_TR_23272_2003(E).zip;
                 http://www.iso.org/iso/en/CatalogueDetailPage.CatalogueDetail?CSNUMBER=36770",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Jacob:2005:DOE,
  editor =       "Bart Jacob and others",
  title =        "On demand Operating Environment: managing the
                 infrastructure (virtualization engine update)",
  publisher =    pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "xxiv + 364",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "0-7384-9124-1 (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7384-9124-0 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "QA76.754 .O5 2005",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 21 14:09:26 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "IBM redbooks",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "June 2005.",
  subject =      "Computer software; Management; Business; Computer
                 programs; Electronic commerce",
}

@Article{Joshi:2005:DPP,
  author =       "Ashlesha Joshi and Samuel T. King and George W. Dunlap
                 and Peter M. Chen",
  title =        "Detecting past and present intrusions through
                 vulnerability-specific predicates",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "39",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "91--104",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1095810.1095820",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 26 08:55:58 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Most systems contain software with
                 yet-to-be-discovered security vulnerabilities. When a
                 vulnerability is disclosed, administrators face the
                 grim reality that they have been running software which
                 was open to attack. Sites that value availability may
                 be forced to continue running this vulnerable software
                 until the accompanying patch has been tested. Our goal
                 is to improve security by detecting intrusions that
                 occurred before the vulnerability was disclosed and by
                 detecting and responding to intrusions that are
                 attempted after the vulnerability is disclosed. We
                 detect when a vulnerability is triggered by executing
                 vulnerability-specific predicates as the system runs or
                 replays. This paper describes the design,
                 implementation and evaluation of a system that supports
                 the construction and execution of these
                 vulnerability-specific predicates. Our system, called
                 IntroVirt, uses virtual-machine introspection to
                 monitor the execution of application and operating
                 system software. IntroVirt executes predicates over
                 past execution periods by combining virtual-machine
                 introspection with virtual-machine replay. IntroVirt
                 eases the construction of powerful predicates by
                 allowing predicates to run existing target code in the
                 context of the target system, and it uses checkpoints
                 so that predicates can execute target code without
                 perturbing the state of the target system. IntroVirt
                 allows predicates to refresh themselves automatically
                 so they work in the presence of preemptions. We show
                 that vulnerability-specific predicates can be written
                 easily for a wide variety of real vulnerabilities, can
                 detect and respond to intrusions over both the past and
                 present time intervals, and add little overhead for
                 most vulnerabilities.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
}

@InProceedings{Kaneda:2005:VMM,
  author =       "Kenji Kaneda and Yoshihiro Oyama and Akinori
                 Yonezawa",
  title =        "A virtual machine monitor for utilizing non-dedicated
                 clusters",
  crossref =     "Vrable:2005:SPA",
  pages =        "1--11",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1095810.1118618",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 16:49:46 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "We have designed and implemented a virtual machine
                 monitor (VMM) for utilizing non-dedicated clusters. The
                 VMM virtualizes a shared-memory multi-processor machine
                 on a commodity cluster. In addition, it hides dynamic
                 changes of physical hardware configurations. The
                 experimental result demonstrates the feasibility of our
                 approach.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{LeVasseur:2005:PVU,
  author =       "Joshua LeVasseur and Volkmar Uhlig and Ben Leslie and
                 Matthew Chapman and Gernot Heiser",
  title =        "Pre-virtualization: uniting two worlds",
  crossref =     "Vrable:2005:SPA",
  pages =        "1--2",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1095810.1118604",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 14:47:51 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Virtual machines are used in an increasingly varied
                 set of application scenarios that favor different
                 trade-offs. The virtual machine (VM) is an attractive
                 solution, since it enables the use of the same
                 operating systems across the scenarios, while
                 permitting substitution of different hypervisors
                 appropriate for the trade-offs. One of these scenarios
                 is server consolidation, where a number of machines are
                 replaced by VMs running on a single physical machine,
                 increasing resource utilization. Another attractive
                 scenario is the use of a VM to add features to an OS
                 that contradict the design of the OS, such as enabling
                 secure computing platforms with strictly controlled
                 information flow. These two scenarios have dramatically
                 different performance versus security trade offs,
                 easily addressed by using different hypervisors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@PhdThesis{Liang:2005:DLM,
  author =       "Jiangang Liang",
  title =        "Development of logical models for {CNC} machine tool
                 motion control system with application to virtual
                 machine tool design",
  type =         "Dissertations (Ph.D.)",
  school =       "University of California, Davis",
  address =      "Davis, CA, USA",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  bibdate =      "Mon Apr 10 11:29:09 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 melvyl.cdlib.org:210/CDL90",
  URL =          "http://uclibs.org/PID/11984",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Lin:2005:VMB,
  author =       "Bin Lin and Peter A. Dinda",
  title =        "{VSched}: Mixing Batch And Interactive Virtual
                 Machines Using Periodic Real-time Scheduling",
  crossref =     "ACM:2005:PAI",
  pages =        "8--??",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/SC.2005.80",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 15:09:27 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "We are developing Virtuoso, a system for distributed
                 computing using virtual machines (VMs). Virtuoso must
                 be able to mix batch und interactive VMs on the same
                 physical hardware, while satisfying constraint on
                 responsiveness and compute rates for each workload.
                 VSched is the component of Virtuoso that provides this
                 capability. VSched is an entirely user-level tool that
                 interacts with the stock Linux kernel running below any
                 type-11 virtual machine monitor to schedule VMs
                 (indeed, any process) using a periodic real-time
                 scheduling model. This abstraction allows compute rate
                 and responsiveness constraints to be straightforwardly
                 described using a period und a slice within the period,
                 and it allows,for just and simple admission control.
                 This paper makes the case,for periodic real-time
                 scheduling for VM-based computing environments, and
                 then describes and evaluate.s VSched. It also applies
                 VSched to scheduling parallel workloads, showing that
                 it can help a BSP application maintain a fixed stable
                 performance despite externally caused loud imbalance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Lucchetti:2005:EDR,
  author =       "Dominic Lucchetti and Steven K. Reinhardt and Peter M.
                 Chen",
  title =        "{ExtraVirt}: detecting and recovering from transient
                 processor faults",
  crossref =     "Vrable:2005:SPA",
  pages =        "1--8",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1095810.1118621",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 15:20:04 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Reliability is becoming an increasingly important
                 issue in modern processor design. Smaller feature sizes
                 and more numerous transistors are projected to increase
                 the frequency of transient faults [4, 5]. Our project,
                 ExtraVirt, leverages the trend toward multi-core and
                 multi-processor systems to survive these transient
                 faults. Our goals are (1) to add fault tolerance
                 without modifying existing operating systems,
                 applications or hardware, (2) to minimize the time
                 spent executing software that cannot tolerate faults,
                 and (3) to minimize the time and space overhead needed
                 to detect and recover from faults. We accomplish these
                 goals by leveraging virtual-machine technology and by
                 sharing memory and I/O devices across replicas.
                 ExtraVirt extends prior work on VM-level fault
                 tolerance[2] by detecting and recovering from
                 non-fail-stop faults and by running multiple replicas
                 efficiently on a single machine.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Matthys:2005:IVE,
  author =       "Christian Matthys and Hiroshi Ito and Bill Souhrada
                 and Lynn Winkelbauer and Holger M. Wittmann and
                 others",
  title =        "{IBM} virtualization engine, version 1: planning and
                 installation guide",
  publisher =    pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  pages =        "xvi + 398",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "0-7384-9277-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7384-9277-3",
  LCCN =         "MLCM 2006/42092 (Q)",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 21 14:08:41 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "IBM redbooks",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Menon:2005:DPO,
  author =       "Aravind Menon and Jose Renato Santos and Yoshio Turner
                 and G. (John) Janakiraman and Willy Zwaenepoel",
  title =        "Diagnosing performance overheads in the {Xen} virtual
                 machine environment",
  crossref =     "ACM:2005:PFA",
  pages =        "13--23",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1064979.1064984",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 13:39:15 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Virtual Machine (VM) environments (e.g., VMware and
                 Xen) are experiencing a resurgence of interest for
                 diverse uses including server consolidation and shared
                 hosting. An application's performance in a virtual
                 machine environment can differ markedly from its
                 performance in a non-virtualized environment because of
                 interactions with the underlying virtual machine
                 monitor and other virtual machines. However, few tools
                 are currently available to help debug performance
                 problems in virtual machine environments.In this paper,
                 we present Xenoprof, a system-wide statistical
                 profiling toolkit implemented for the Xen virtual
                 machine environment. The toolkit enables coordinated
                 profiling of multiple VMs in a system to obtain the
                 distribution of hardware events such as clock cycles
                 and cache and TLB misses. The toolkit will facilitate a
                 better understanding of performance characteristics of
                 Xen's mechanisms allowing the community to optimize the
                 Xen implementation.We use our toolkit to analyze
                 performance overheads incurred by networking
                 applications running in Xen VMs. We focus on networking
                 applications since virtualizing network I/O devices is
                 relatively expensive. Our experimental results quantify
                 Xen's performance overheads for network I/O device
                 virtualization in uni- and multi-processor systems.
                 With certain Xen configurations, networking workloads
                 in the Xen environment can suffer significant
                 performance degradation. Our results identify the main
                 sources of this overhead which should be the focus of
                 Xen optimization efforts. We also show how our
                 profiling toolkit was used to uncover and resolve
                 performance bugs that we encountered in our experiments
                 which caused unexpected application behavior.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Muller:2005:VVE,
  editor =       "Al Muller and Seburn Wilson and Don Happe and Gary J.
                 Humphrey",
  title =        "Virtualization with {VMware ESX Server}",
  publisher =    pub-SYNGRESS,
  address =      pub-SYNGRESS:adr,
  pages =        "xxiii + 463",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "1-59749-019-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-59749-019-1",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 V465 2005; QA76.9.V5 V57 2005eb",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 17:21:38 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 melvyl.cdlib.org:210/CDL90",
  URL =          "http://site.ebrary.com/lib/ucsc/Doc?id=10110269",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "VMware; Virtual computer systems",
}

@Article{Nieh:2005:ETO,
  author =       "Jason Nieh and Chris Vaill",
  title =        "Experiences teaching operating systems using virtual
                 platforms and {Linux}",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "37",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "520--524",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1047124.1047508",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:57:13 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Operating system courses teach students much more when
                 they provide hands-on kernel-level project experience
                 with a real operating system. However, enabling a large
                 class of students to do kernel development can be
                 difficult. To address this problem, we created a
                 virtual kernel development environment in which
                 operating systems can be developed, debugged, and
                 rebooted in a shared computer facility without
                 affecting other users. Using virtual machines and
                 remote display technology, our virtual kernel
                 development laboratory enables even distance learning
                 students at remote locations to participate in kernel
                 development projects with on-campus students. We have
                 successfully deployed and used our virtual kernel
                 development environment together with the open-source
                 Linux kernel to provide kernel-level project
                 experiences for over nine hundred students in the
                 introductory operating system course at Columbia
                 University.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@Book{Oglesby:2005:VES,
  author =       "Ron Oglesby and Scott Herold",
  title =        "{VMware ESX Server}: Advanced Technical Design Guide",
  publisher =    "Brian Madden Publishing",
  address =      "Silver Spring, MD, USA",
  pages =        "444",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "0-9711510-6-7",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-9711510-6-2",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 O35 2005eb; **See",
  bibdate =      "Sun Apr 9 15:35:45 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 library.mit.edu:9909/mit01",
  URL =          "http://library.books24x7.com/library.asp?B&bookid=12048",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "WMware; Virtual computer systems; Web servers",
}

@Article{Oi:2005:DLV,
  author =       "Hitoshi Oi",
  title =        "On the design of the local variable cache in a
                 hardware translation-based {Java Virtual Machine}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "40",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "87--94",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Wed Oct 5 07:55:13 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
}

@Article{Parson:2005:OOD,
  author =       "Dale Parson and David J. Murray and Yu Chen",
  title =        "Object-oriented design patterns for debugging
                 heterogeneous languages and virtual machines",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "255--279",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.634",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 16 07:26:37 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X;
                 http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0038-0644;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software --- Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  onlinedate =   "3 Dec 2004",
}

@Article{Rosenblum:2005:VMM,
  author =       "Mendel Rosenblum and Tal Garfinkel",
  title =        "Virtual Machine Monitors: Current Technology and
                 Future Trends",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "39--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 4 16:02:16 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/co/2005/05/r5039abs.htm;
                 http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2005/05/r5039.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@InProceedings{Sailer:2005:BMB,
  author =       "Reiner Sailer and Trent Jaeger and Enriquillo Valdez
                 and Ramon Caceres and Ronald Perez and Stefan Berger
                 and John Linwood Griffin and Leendert van Doorn",
  title =        "Building a {MAC}-Based Security Architecture for the
                 {Xen} Open-Source Hypervisor",
  crossref =     "IEEE:2005:PAC",
  pages =        "276--285",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CSAC.2005.13",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 14:12:24 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "We present the sHype hypervisor security architecture
                 and examine in detail its mandatory access control
                 facilities. While existing hypervisor security
                 approaches aiming at high assurance have been proven
                 useful for high-security environments that prioritize
                 security over performance and code reuse, our approach
                 aims at commercial security where near-zero performance
                 overhead, non-intrusive implementation, and usability
                 are of paramount importance. sHype enforces strong
                 isolation at the granularity of a virtual machine, thus
                 providing a robust foundation on which higher software
                 layers can enact finer-grained controls. We provide the
                 rationale behind the sHype design and describe and
                 evaluate our implementation for the Xen open-source
                 hypervisor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Smith:2005:AVM,
  author =       "James E. Smith and Ravi Nair",
  title =        "The Architecture of Virtual Machines",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "32--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 4 16:02:16 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/co/2005/05/r5032abs.htm;
                 http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2005/05/r5032.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@Book{Smith:2005:VMV,
  author =       "James E. (James Edward) Smith and Ravi Nair",
  title =        "Virtual machines: versatile platforms for systems and
                 processes",
  publisher =    pub-MORGAN-KAUFMANN,
  address =      pub-MORGAN-KAUFMANN:adrsf,
  pages =        "xxii + 638",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "1-55860-910-5",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-55860-910-5",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 S54 2005",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jul 21 08:04:00 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  URL =          "http://books.elsevier.com/us/bookscat/search/details.asp?country=United+States&community=mk&imprint=Morgan+Kaufmann&isbn=1558609105",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Virtual computer systems; Computer architecture;
                 System design",
}

@TechReport{Steil:2005:MMM,
  author =       "Michael Steil",
  title =        "17 Mistakes {Microsoft} Made in the {Xbox} Security
                 System",
  type =         "Report",
  institution =  "Xbox Linux Project",
  pages =        "13",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2005",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jan 31 08:12:04 2014",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/cryptography2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://events.ccc.de/congress/2005/fahrplan/attachments/591-paper_xbox.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Microsoft; Northbridge; RC4; RC5; Southbridge; TEA;
                 virtual machine; Xbox gaming console; Xbox Linux
                 Project",
}

@Article{Treese:2005:VVE,
  author =       "Win Treese",
  title =        "Virtualization virtually everywhere",
  journal =      "{netWorker}",
  volume =       "9",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "13--15",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1065368.1065378",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 16:58:00 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "I'm writing this column in April. Like many people,
                 I'm using Intuit's TurboTax to prepare my income-tax
                 forms. But I'm using TurboTax in a somewhat unusual
                 way: running it on a virtual machine. TurboTax normally
                 runs on Microsoft Windows, but the computer I want to
                 use runs Linux. To make this all work, I'm using a
                 program called VMware that provides the illusion of an
                 entire separate computer on which Windows can run. From
                 the point of view of the Linux system, VMware is just
                 another application with just another window on the
                 screen. The Windows software sees a full computer, and
                 it can't really tell the difference between the virtual
                 environment and the real one.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Uhlig:2005:IVT,
  author =       "Rich Uhlig and Gil Neiger and Dion Rodgers and Amy L.
                 Santoni and Fernando C. M. Martins and Andrew V.
                 Anderson and Steven M. Bennett and Alain K{\"a}gi and
                 Felix H. Leung and Larry Smith",
  title =        "Intel Virtualization Technology",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "48--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 4 16:02:16 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/co/2005/05/r5048abs.htm;
                 http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2005/05/r5048.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@Book{Warren:2005:VWH,
  author =       "Steven S. Warren",
  title =        "The {VMWare Workstation 5} Handbook",
  publisher =    "Charles River Media",
  address =      "Hingham, MA, USA",
  pages =        "xvii + 334",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "1-58450-393-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-58450-393-4",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 W3665 2005",
  bibdate =      "Sun Apr 09 15:40:54 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  URL =          "http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0510/2005010053.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "VMware; operating systems (computers); virtual
                 computer systems",
}

@Article{Whitaker:2005:RDV,
  author =       "Andrew Whitaker and Richard S. Cox and Marianne Shaw
                 and Steven D. Gribble",
  title =        "Rethinking the Design of Virtual Machine Monitors",
  journal =      j-COMPUTER,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "57--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "CPTRB4",
  ISSN =         "0018-9162 (print), 1558-0814 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0018-9162",
  bibdate =      "Wed May 4 16:02:16 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/computer2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/co/2005/05/r5057abs.htm;
                 http://csdl.computer.org/dl/mags/co/2005/05/r5057.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Computer",
  journal-URL =  "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/RecentIssue.jsp?punumber=2",
}

@Book{Wolf:2005:VDE,
  author =       "Chris Wolf and Erick M. Halter",
  title =        "Virtualization: from the desktop to the enterprise",
  publisher =    pub-APRESS,
  address =      pub-APRESS:adr,
  pages =        "xxxiv + 559",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "1-59059-495-9",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-59059-495-7",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 W614 2005",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 17:21:39 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "The expert's voice in networking",
  URL =          "http://www.loc.gov/catdir/enhancements/fy0663/2006296449-d.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "Learn to deploy and manage virtual machines, clusters,
                 distributed file systems, and virtual storage in the
                 first book to cover the entire realm of virtualization.
                 Includes Windows and Linux VMware workstation
                 evaluation software.",
  subject =      "Operating systems (Computers); VMware; Computer
                 networks",
}

@Article{Yang:2005:LMJ,
  author =       "Byung-Sun Yang and Soo-Mook Moon and Kemal
                 Ebcio{\u{g}}lu",
  title =        "Lightweight monitors for the {Java} virtual machine",
  journal =      j-SPE,
  volume =       "35",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "281--299",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "SPEXBL",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/spe.635",
  ISSN =         "0038-0644 (print), 1097-024X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0038-0644",
  bibdate =      "Sat Apr 16 07:26:37 MDT 2005",
  bibsource =    "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X;
                 http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0038-0644;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spe.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journalfinder.html",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Software --- Practice and Experience",
  journal-URL =  "http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1097-024X",
  onlinedate =   "3 Dec 2004",
}

@InProceedings{Zhang:2005:FVM,
  author =       "Yuting Zhang and Azer Bestavros and Mina Guirguis and
                 Ibrahim Matta and Richard West",
  title =        "Friendly virtual machines: leveraging a
                 feedback-control model for application adaptation",
  crossref =     "ACM:2005:PFA",
  pages =        "2--12",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1064979.1064983",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 14:53:52 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "With the increased use of ``Virtual Machines'' (VMs)
                 as vehicles that isolate applications running on the
                 same host, it is necessary to devise techniques that
                 enable multiple VMs to share underlying resources both
                 fairly and efficiently. To that end, one common
                 approach is to deploy complex resource management
                 techniques in the hosting infrastructure. Alternately,
                 in this paper, we advocate the use of self-adaptation
                 in the VMs themselves based on feedback about resource
                 usage and availability. Consequently, we define
                 ``Friendly'' VM (FVM) to be a virtual machine that
                 adjusts its demand for system resources, so that they
                 are both efficiently and fairly allocated to competing
                 FVMs. Such properties are ensured using one of many
                 provably convergent control rules, such as
                 Additive-Increase/Multiplicative-Decrease (AIMD). By
                 adopting this distributed application-based approach to
                 resource management, it is not necessary to make
                 assumptions about the underlying resources nor about
                 the requirements of FVMs competing for these resources.
                 To demonstrate the elegance and simplicity of our
                 approach, we present a prototype implementation of our
                 FVM framework in User-Mode Linux (UML)---an
                 implementation that consists of less than 500 lines of
                 code changes to UML. We present an analytic,
                 control-theoretic model of FVM adaptation, which
                 establishes convergence and fairness properties. These
                 properties are also backed up with experimental results
                 using our prototype FVM implementation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Zhang:2005:ILS,
  author =       "Jianyong Zhang and Anand Sivasubramaniam and Alma
                 Riska and Qian Wang and Erik Riedel",
  title =        "An interposed 2-Level {I/O} scheduling framework for
                 performance virtualization",
  journal =      j-SIGMETRICS,
  volume =       "33",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "406--407",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2005",
  CODEN =        "????",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1064212.1064277",
  ISSN =         "0163-5999 (print), 1557-9484 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5999",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jun 27 09:21:27 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigmetrics.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/toc.cfm?id=J618",
  keywords =     "fairness; I/O scheduling; performance isolation;
                 quality of service; storage systems; virtualization",
}

@InProceedings{Zhao:2005:SSV,
  author =       "Xin Zhao and Kevin Borders and Atul Prakash",
  title =        "{SVGrid}: a secure virtual environment for untrusted
                 grid applications",
  crossref =     "ACM:2005:MPI",
  pages =        "1--6",
  year =         "2005",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1101499.1101515",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 13:51:00 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Most grid security researches focus on user
                 authentication and secure communication, the protection
                 of grid computers is left to the underlying operating
                 system. Unfortunately, most OS level protection
                 mechanisms can be turned off after an attacker manages
                 to exploit a vulnerability to gain privileged
                 access.This paper proposes SVGrid, a Secure Virtual
                 Grid computing environment, to protect grid computers'
                 filesystem and network from malicious grid
                 applications. SVGrid works by isolating grid
                 applications in one or more grid virtual machines whose
                 filesystem and network service are moved into a
                 dedicated monitor virtual machine. All file and network
                 access requests are then forced to go through the
                 monitor virtual machine, where security policies can be
                 enforced. The resource compartment guarantees that
                 appropriate security policy enforcement cannot be
                 bypassed or disabled, even if a grid virtual machine is
                 compromised. We tested SVGrid against attacks on grid
                 virtual machine using rootkit and Internet worm, SVGrid
                 was able to prevent both of them from maliciously
                 accessing filesystem and network. We also evaluated the
                 performance of SVGrid system and only found that
                 performance cost was reasonable considering the
                 security benefits of SVGrid.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Zimmer:2005:VMV,
  author =       "Dennis Zimmer",
  title =        "{VMware and Microsoft Virtual Server: virtuelle Server
                 im professionellen Einsatz; [VMware GSX, ESX und
                 Microsoft Virtual Server; Virtualisierungssoftware im
                 Vergleich; Planung, Installation und Verwaltung]}",
  publisher =    "Galileo Press",
  address =      "Bonn, Germany",
  pages =        "612",
  year =         "2005",
  ISBN =         "3-89842-701-3",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-89842-701-2",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 17:21:53 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.gbv.de:20011/gvk",
  price =        "EUR 49.90",
  series =       "Galileo Computing",
  URL =          "http://www.galileocomputing.de",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Microsoft Virtual Server; VMware GSX Server; VMware
                 ESX Server; Virtuelle Maschine; Unternehmen;
                 Virtualisierung; Softwareprodukt",
}

@Article{Abramson:2006:IVT,
  author =       "Darren Abramson and Jeff Jackson and Sridhar
                 Muthrasanallur and Gil Neiger and Greg Regnier and
                 Rajesh Sankaran and Ioannis Schoinas and Rich Uhlig and
                 Balaji Vembu and John Weigert",
  title =        "{Intel Virtualization Technology} for Directed {I/O}",
  journal =      j-INTEL-TECH-J,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "179--192",
  day =          "10",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1535/itj.1003",
  ISSN =         "1535-766X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 17 09:02:57 2006",
  bibsource =    "ftp://download.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/v10_iss03.pdf;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/2-io/1-abstract.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Adams:2006:CSH,
  author =       "Keith Adams and Ole Agesen",
  title =        "A comparison of software and hardware techniques for
                 {x86} virtualization",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "40",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "2--13",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 27 06:18:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
}

@Article{Anonymous:2006:TR,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Technical Reviewers",
  journal =      j-INTEL-TECH-J,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "vii--vii",
  day =          "10",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1535/itj.1003",
  ISSN =         "1535-766X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 17 09:02:57 2006",
  bibsource =    "ftp://download.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/volume10issue02/vol10_iss03.pdf;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Asrigo:2006:UVB,
  author =       "Kurniadi Asrigo and Lionel Litty and David Lie",
  title =        "Using {VMM}-based sensors to monitor honeypots",
  crossref =     "ACM:2006:VPS",
  pages =        "13--23",
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1134760.1134765",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 13:49:31 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Virtual Machine Monitors (VMMs) are a common tool for
                 implementing honeypots. In this paper we examine the
                 implementation of a VMM-based intrusion detection and
                 monitoring system for collecting information about
                 attacks on honeypots. We document and evaluate three
                 designs we have implemented on two open-source
                 virtualization platforms: User-Mode Linux and Xen. Our
                 results show that our designs give the monitor good
                 visibility into the system and thus, a small number of
                 monitoring sensors can detect a large number of
                 intrusions. In a three month period, we were able to
                 detect five different attacks, as well as collect and
                 try 46 more exploits on our honeypots. All attacks were
                 detected with only two monitoring sensors. We found
                 that the performance overhead for monitoring such
                 intrusions is independent of which events are being
                 monitored, but depends entirely on the number of
                 monitoring events and the underlying monitoring
                 implementation. The performance overhead can be
                 significantly improved by implementing the monitor
                 directly in the privileged code of the VMM, though at
                 the cost of increasing the size of the trusted
                 computing base of the system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Bartholomew:2006:QMM,
  author =       "Daniel Bartholomew",
  title =        "{QEMU}: a multihost, multitarget emulator",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "2006",
  number =       "145",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 06:09:27 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
}

@Book{Bastiaansen:2006:RGU,
  author =       "Rob Bastiaansen",
  title =        "{Rob}'s Guide to Using {VMWARE}",
  publisher =    "Books4Brains",
  address =      "????",
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "350 (est.)",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "90-808934-1-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-90-808934-1-2",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 17:57:33 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.comcol.nl/detail/55734.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Bauer:2006:PPSa,
  author =       "Mick Bauer",
  title =        "Paranoid penguin: security features in {SUSE 10.0}",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "2006",
  number =       "144",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Fri Apr 14 08:17:48 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
  keywords =     "virtual Machines in SUSE Linux",
}

@Article{Bauer:2006:PPSb,
  author =       "Mick Bauer",
  title =        "Paranoid penguin: security features in {Debian 3.1}",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "2006",
  number =       "145",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 06:09:27 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
  keywords =     "virtual machines in Debian",
}

@Article{Bauer:2006:VWL,
  author =       "Mick Bauer",
  title =        "{VMware Workstation 5.5} for {Linux} hosts",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "2006",
  number =       "145",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 06:09:27 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
}

@Article{Bellovin:2006:IRV,
  author =       "Steven M. Bellovin",
  title =        "Inside risks: Virtual machines, virtual security?",
  journal =      j-CACM,
  volume =       "49",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "104--104",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "CACMA2",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1164394.1164414",
  ISSN =         "0001-0782 (print), 1557-7317 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0001-0782",
  bibdate =      "Fri Sep 29 06:28:21 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/contents/journals/cacm/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Communications of the ACM",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J79",
}

@Article{Bockisch:2006:AVM,
  author =       "Christoph Bockisch and Matthew Arnold and Tom
                 Dinkelaker and Mira Mezini",
  title =        "Adapting virtual machine techniques for seamless
                 aspect support",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "109--124",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 24 06:22:42 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "virtual machine",
}

@Article{Bockisch:2006:AVMa,
  author =       "Christoph Bockisch and Matthew Arnold and Tom
                 Dinkelaker and Mira Mezini",
  title =        "Adapting virtual machine techniques for seamless
                 aspect support",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "109--124",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1167473.1167483",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 18 10:47:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Current approaches to compiling aspect-oriented
                 programs are inefficient. This inefficiency has
                 negative effects on the productivity of the development
                 process and is especially prohibitive for dynamic
                 aspect deployment. In this work, we present how
                 well-known virtual machine techniques can be used with
                 only slight modifications to support fast aspect
                 deployment while retaining runtime performance. Our
                 implementation accelerates dynamic aspect deployment by
                 several orders of magnitude relative to mainstream
                 aspect-oriented environments. We also provide a
                 detailed comparison of alternative implementations of
                 execution environments with support for dynamic aspect
                 deployment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "aspect weaving; aspect-oriented programming; dynamic
                 deployment; envelope-based weaving; virtual machine
                 support",
}

@Article{Bockisch:2006:ECF,
  author =       "Christoph Bockisch and Sebastian Kanthak and Michael
                 Haupt and Matthew Arnold and Mira Mezini",
  title =        "Efficient control flow quantification",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "125--138",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 24 06:22:42 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "virtual machine",
}

@InProceedings{Bullers:2006:VMI,
  author =       "William I. {Bullers, Jr}. and Stephen Burd and
                 Alessandro F. Seazzu",
  title =        "Virtual machines --- an idea whose time has returned:
                 application to network, security, and database
                 courses",
  crossref =     "ACM:2006:PST",
  pages =        "102--106",
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1121341.1121375",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 15:13:55 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Virtual machines provide a secure environment within
                 which students may install, configure, and experiment
                 with operating system, network, and database software.
                 This paper describes experiences teaching three
                 advanced courses in system and network administration,
                 information security and assurance, and database
                 administration using VMware workstation in a shared
                 student laboratory. The paper describes benefits and
                 challenges in course and lab configuration, security,
                 and administration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Carbone:2006:WSH,
  author =       "Janique Carbone",
  title =        "{Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V} resource kit",
  publisher =    pub-MICROSOFT,
  address =      pub-MICROSOFT:adr,
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "0-7356-2517-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7356-2517-4",
  LCCN =         "QA",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:06:20 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Article{Casazza:2006:RSP,
  author =       "Jeffrey P. Casazza and Michael Greenfield and Kan
                 Shi",
  title =        "Redefining Server Performance Characterization for
                 Virtualization Benchmarking",
  journal =      j-INTEL-TECH-J,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "243--251",
  day =          "10",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1535/itj.1003",
  ISSN =         "1535-766X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 17 09:02:57 2006",
  bibsource =    "ftp://download.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/v10_iss03.pdf;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/7-benchmarking/1-abstract.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Chen:2006:LUO,
  author =       "Haibo Chen and Rong Chen and Fengzhe Zhang and Binyu
                 Zang and Pen-Chung Yew",
  title =        "Live updating operating systems using virtualization",
  crossref =     "ACM:2006:VPS",
  pages =        "35--44",
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1134760.1134767",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 13:43:14 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Many critical IT infrastructures require
                 non-disruptive operations. However, the operating
                 systems thereon are far from perfect that patches and
                 upgrades are frequently applied, in order to close
                 vulnerabilities, add new features and enhance
                 performance. To mitigate the loss of availability, such
                 operating systems need to provide features such as live
                 update through which patches and upgrades can be
                 applied without having to stop and reboot the operating
                 system. Unfortunately, most current live updating
                 approaches cannot be easily applied to existing
                 operating systems: some are tightly bound to specific
                 design approaches (e.g. object-oriented); others can
                 only be used under particular circumstances (e.g.
                 quiescence states).In this paper, we propose using
                 virtualization to provide the live update capability.
                 The proposed approach allows a broad range of patches
                 and upgrades to be applied at any time without the
                 requirement of a quiescence state. Moreover, such
                 approach shares good portability for its
                 OS-transparency and is suitable for inclusion in
                 general virtualization systems. We present a working
                 prototype, LUCOS, which supports live update capability
                 on Linux running on Xen virtual machine monitor. To
                 demonstrate the applicability of our approach, we use
                 real-life kernel patches from Linux kernel 2.6.10 to
                 Linux kernel 2.6.11, and apply some of those kernel
                 patches on the fly. Performance measurements show that
                 our implementation incurs negligible performance
                 overhead: a less than 1\% performance degradation
                 compared to a Xen-Linux. The time to apply a patch is
                 also very minimal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:DQE,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Debian unter Qemu Einf{\"u}hrung in das
                 Betriebssystem Debian Linux in der virtuellen Umgebung
                 Qemu unter Windows}. ({German}) [Debian under {Qemu}:
                 Introduction in the {Debian Linux} operating systems in
                 the {Qemu} virtual machine under {Windows}]",
  volume =       "17",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "159",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-116-3 (book), 3-86768-716-1 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-116-2 (book), 978-3-86768-716-4 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Debian GNU/LINUX 3.1; Windows XP; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:IDQ,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Internetkommunikation in Debian unter Qemu
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem Debian Linux in
                 Qemu und Vorstellung der wichtigsten
                 Internetprogramme}. ({German}) [{Internet}
                 Communication in {Debian} under {Qemu}: Introduction in
                 the {Debian Linux} operating system in {Qemu} and
                 creation of the most important Internet programs]",
  volume =       "18",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "109",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-117-1 (book), 3-86768-717-X (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-117-9 (book), 978-3-86768-717-1 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Internet; Computerunterst{\"u}tzte Kommunikation;
                 Debian GNU/LINUX 3.1; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:IKQa,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Internetkommunikation in Kubuntu unter Qemu
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem Kubuntu und
                 Vorstellung von Internetprogrammen in der virtuellen
                 Umgebung Qemu}. ({German}) [{Internet} Communication in
                 {Kubuntu} under {Qemu}: Introduction to the {Kubuntu}
                 operating system and creation of {Internet} programs in
                 the {Qemu} virtual machine",
  volume =       "6",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "107",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-105-8 (Buch), 3-86768-705-6 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-105-6 (Buch), 978-3-86768-705-8 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Internet; Computerunterst{\"u}tzte Kommunikation;
                 Kubuntu (Program); Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:IKQb,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Internetkommunikation in Kanotix unter Qemu
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem Kanotix und
                 Vorstellung von Internetprogrammen in der virtuellen
                 Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "34",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "114",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-133-3 (book), 3-86768-733-1 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-133-9 (book), 978-3-86768-733-1 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Internet; Computerunterst{\"u}tzte Kommunikation;
                 Kanotix; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:IKQc,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Internetkommunikation in Knoppix unter Qemu
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem Knoppix und
                 Vorstellung von Internetprogrammen in der virtuellen
                 Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "50",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "121",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-149-X (book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-149-0 (book)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Internet; Computerunterst{\"u}tzte Kommunikation;
                 Knoppix; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:IOQ,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Internetkommunikation mit OpenSUSE unter Qemu:
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem OpenSUSE Linux und
                 Vorstellung von Internetprogrammen in der virtuellen
                 Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "66",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "104",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-165-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-165-0",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:IOV,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Internetkommunikation in OpenSUSE unter VMware [Qemu]
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem OpenSUSE Linux und
                 Vorstellung von Internetprogrammen in der virtuellen
                 Umgebung VMware}",
  volume =       "66",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "117",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-165-1 (book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-165-0 (book)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Internet; Computerunterst{\"u}tzte Kommunikation; SuSE
                 LINUX 10.2 OSS; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:KLQa,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Knoppix Linux unter Qemu Einf{\"u}hrung in das
                 Betriebssystem Knoppix Linux in der virtuellen Umgebung
                 Qemu unter Windows}",
  volume =       "49",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "142",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-148-1 (book), 3-86768-748-X (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-148-3 (book), 978-3-86768-748-5 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Knoppix; Windows XP; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:KLQb,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Kanotix Linux unter Qemu Einf{\"u}hrung in das
                 Betriebssystem Kanotix Linux in der virtuellen Umgebung
                 Qemu unter Windows}",
  volume =       "33",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "156",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-132-5 (book), 3-86768-732-3 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-132-2 (book), 978-3-86768-732-4 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Kanotix; Windows XP; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:KQE,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Kubuntu unter Qemu Einf{\"u}hrung in das
                 Betriebssystem Kubuntu Linux in der virtuellen Umgebung
                 Qemu}",
  volume =       "5",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "158",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-104-X (book), 3-86768-704-8 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-104-9 (book), 978-3-86768-704-1 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Kubuntu <Programm>; Windows XP; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:LDQ,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Lernprogramme in Debian unter Qemu Einf{\"u}hrung in
                 das Betriebssystem Debian und Vorstellung von
                 Lernprogrammen in der virtuellen Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "19",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "141",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-118-X (book), 3-86768-718-8 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-118-6 (book), 978-3-86768-718-8 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Lernprogramm; Debian GNU/LINUX 3.1; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:LKQa,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Lernprogramme in Knoppix unter Qemu Einf{\"u}hrung in
                 das Betriebssystem Knoppix und Vorstellung von
                 Lernprogrammen in der virtuellen Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "51",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "145",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-150-3 (book), 3-86768-750-1 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-150-6 (book), 978-3-86768-750-8 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Lernprogramm; Knoppix; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:LKQb,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Lernprogramme in Kanotix unter Qemu Einf{\"u}hrung in
                 das Betriebssystem Kanotix und Vorstellung von
                 Lernprogrammen in der virtuellen Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "35",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "151",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-134-1 (book), 3-86768-734-X (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-134-6 (book), 978-3-86768-734-8 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Lernprogramm; Kanotix; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:LKQc,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Lernprogramme in Kubuntu unter Qemu Einf{\"u}hrung in
                 das Betriebssystem Kubuntu und Vorstellung von
                 Lernprogrammen in der virtuellen Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "7",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "152",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-106-6 (book), 3-86768-706-4 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-106-3 (book), 978-3-86768-706-5 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Lernprogramm; Kubuntu <Programm>; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:LOL,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Lernprogramme mit OpenSUSE Linux unter Qemu:
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem, OpenSUSE Linux
                 und Vorstellung von Lernprogrammen in der virtuellen
                 Umgebung Quemu}",
  volume =       "63",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "147",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-166-X, 3-8676-8766-8",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-166-7, 978-3-8676-8766-9",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  remark =       "Auf dem Buchr{\"u}cken ``Lernsoftware in OpenSUSE
                 unter Qemu'' und Band 67.",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:OLQ,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{OpenSuSE Linux unter Qemu Einf{\"u}hrung in das
                 Betriebssystem OpenSUSE Linux in der virtuellen Umgebng
                 Qemu unter Windows}",
  volume =       "65",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "168",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-164-3 (book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-164-3 (book)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "SuSE LINUX 10.2 OSS; Windows XP; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:SKD,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Software f{\"u}r Kinder in Debian unter Qemu
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem Debian und
                 Vorstellung der Lern- und Spielesammlung Gcompris in
                 der virtuellen Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "20",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "113",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-119-8 (book), 3-86768-719-6 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-119-3 (book), 978-3-86768-719-5 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Kind; Lernprogramm; Debian GNU/LINUX 3.1; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:SKKa,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Software f{\"u}r Kinder in Kubuntu unter Qemu
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem Kubuntu und
                 Vorstellung der Lern- und Spielesammlung GCompris in
                 der virtuellen Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "8",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "108",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-107-4 (book), 3-86768-707-2 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-107-0 (book), 978-3-86768-707-2 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Kind; Lernprogramm; Kubuntu <Programm>; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:SKKb,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Software f{\"u}r Kinder in Kanotix unter Qemu
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem Kanotix und
                 Vorstellung der Lern- und Spielesammlung GCompris in
                 der virtuellen Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "36",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "113",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-135-X (book), 3-86768-735-8 (DVD)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-135-3 (book), 978-3-86768-735-5 (DVD)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Kind; Lernprogramm; Kanotix; Qemu",
}

@Book{Chryselius:2006:SKKc,
  author =       "Toralf Chryselius and Andrea Kuntz",
  title =        "{Software f{\"u}r Kinder in Knoppix unter Qemu
                 Einf{\"u}hrung in das Betriebssystem Knoppix und
                 Vorstellung der Lern- und Spielesammlung GCompris in
                 der virtuellen Umgebung Qemu}",
  volume =       "52",
  publisher =    "CVTD",
  address =      "Bergfelde bei Berlin, Germany",
  pages =        "120",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "3-86768-151-1 (book)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-3-86768-151-3 (book)",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:07:48 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger - Linux leicht
                 verst{\"a}ndlich; Schriftenreihe Grenzg{\"a}nger -
                 Linux leicht verst{\"a}ndlich",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  language =     "German",
  subject =      "Kind; Lernprogramm; Knoppix; Qemu",
}

@InProceedings{Chubb:2006:VUL,
  author =       "Peter Chubb",
  title =        "Virtualization and User-Level Drivers",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:2006:PGI",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2006",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 18:26:53 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.ice.gelato.org/oct06/pres_pdf/gelato_ICE06oct_vm_chubb_unsw.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Intel IA-64; Itanium",
}

@Article{Chung:2006:TTMa,
  author =       "JaeWoong Chung and Chi Cao Minh and Austen McDonald
                 and Travis Skare and Hassan Chafi and Brian D.
                 Carlstrom and Christos Kozyrakis and Kunle Olukotun",
  title =        "Tradeoffs in transactional memory virtualization",
  journal =      j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS,
  volume =       "34",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "371--381",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "CANED2",
  ISSN =         "0163-5964 (ACM), 0884-7495 (IEEE)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5964",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 27 06:18:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigarch.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
}

@Article{Chung:2006:TTMb,
  author =       "JaeWoong Chung and Chi Cao Minh and Austen McDonald
                 and Travis Skare and Hassan Chafi and Brian D.
                 Carlstrom and Christos Kozyrakis and Kunle Olukotun",
  title =        "Tradeoffs in transactional memory virtualization",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "40",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "371--381",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 27 06:18:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/opersysrev.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGOPS Operating Systems Review",
}

@Article{Chung:2006:TTMc,
  author =       "JaeWoong Chung and Chi Cao Minh and Austen McDonald
                 and Travis Skare and Hassan Chafi and Brian D.
                 Carlstrom and Christos Kozyrakis and Kunle Olukotun",
  title =        "Tradeoffs in transactional memory virtualization",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "371--381",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1168918.1168903",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Wed Jun 18 10:49:40 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "For transactional memory (TM) to achieve widespread
                 acceptance, transactions should not be limited to the
                 physical resources of any specific hardware
                 implementation. TM systems should guarantee correct
                 execution even when transactions exceed scheduling
                 quanta, overflow the capacity of hardware caches and
                 physical memory, or include more independent nesting
                 levels than what is supported in hardware. Existing
                 proposals for TM virtualization are either incomplete
                 or rely on complex hardware implementations, which are
                 an overkill if virtualization is invoked infrequently
                 in the common case. We present eXtended Transactional
                 Memory (XTM), the first TM virtualization system that
                 virtualizes all aspects of transactional execution
                 (time, space, and nesting depth). XTM is implemented in
                 software using virtual memory support. It operates at
                 page granularity, using private copies of overflowed
                 pages to buffer memory updates until the transaction
                 commits and snapshots of pages to detect interference
                 between transactions. We also describe two enhancements
                 to XTM that use limited hardware support to address key
                 performance bottlenecks. We compare XTM to
                 hardware-based virtualization using both real
                 applications and synthetic microbenchmarks. We show
                 that despite being software-based, XTM and its
                 enhancements are competitive with hardware-based
                 alternatives. Overall, we demonstrate that XTM provides
                 a complete, flexible, and low-cost mechanism for
                 practical TM virtualization.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "chip multi-processor; OS support; transactional
                 memory; virtualization",
}

@Book{Craig:2006:VM,
  author =       "Iain D. Craig",
  title =        "Virtual machines",
  publisher =    pub-SV,
  address =      pub-SV:adr,
  pages =        "xv + 269",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "1-85233-969-1",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-85233-969-2",
  LCCN =         "QA76.9.V5 C73 2006",
  bibdate =      "Thu Mar 23 07:06:45 MST 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "BCPL; JVM",
  subject =      "Virtual computer systems",
}

@Article{Crandall:2006:TSD,
  author =       "Jedidiah R. Crandall and Gary Wassermann and Daniela
                 A. S. de Oliveira and Zhendong Su and S. Felix Wu and
                 Frederic T. Chong",
  title =        "Temporal search: detecting hidden malware timebombs
                 with virtual machines",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "40",
  number =       "5",
  pages =        "25--36",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Fri Oct 27 06:18:30 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
}

@Article{Crosby:2006:VR,
  author =       "Simon Crosby and David Brown",
  title =        "The virtualization reality",
  journal =      j-QUEUE,
  volume =       "4",
  number =       "10",
  pages =        "34--41",
  month =        dec # "\slash " # jan,
  year =         "2006--2007",
  CODEN =        "AQCUAE",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1189276.1189289",
  ISSN =         "1542-7730 (print), 1542-7749 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1542-7730",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jun 20 11:14:33 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/queue.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Are hypervisors the new foundation for system
                 software?",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM Queue: Tomorrow's Computing Today",
  keywords =     "hypervisor; virtual machine",
}

@Article{DeRosa:2006:RSD,
  author =       "Peter DeRosa and Kai Shen and Christopher Stewart and
                 Jonathan Pearson",
  title =        "Realism and simplicity: disk simulation for
                 instructional {OS} performance evaluation",
  journal =      j-SIGCSE,
  volume =       "38",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "308--312",
  month =        mar,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "SIGSD3",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1124706.1121436",
  ISSN =         "0097-8418",
  ISSN-L =       "0097-8418",
  bibdate =      "Sat Nov 17 16:57:23 MST 2012",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigcse2000.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "Operating system laboratory assignments based on bare
                 hardware or detailed machine simulators can be
                 excessively challenging for many students. In the most
                 often used approach, students develop kernels on
                 virtual machines with a much simplified hardware
                 interface. Traditionally this simplification goes so
                 far as to make realistic performance measurement
                 impossible. We propose Vesper, an instructional disk
                 drive simulator with a high degree of performance
                 realism. Vesper retains simplicity while providing
                 timing statistics close to that of real disk drives.
                 The key to our approach is to provide hardware
                 abstractions that are simple but yet capable of
                 capturing device interactions with major performance
                 impacts. Vesper laboratory assignments allow students
                 to realistically explore the performance consequences
                 of various system designs without the cumbersome
                 aspects of the real hardware interface. This paper
                 describes the design and implementation of the Vesper
                 disk drive simulator. We evaluate the effectiveness of
                 Vesper-based laboratory assignments in terms of
                 operating system performance evaluation. Student
                 experience and feedback are also reported.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "SIGCSE Bulletin (ACM Special Interest Group on
                 Computer Science Education)",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J688",
}

@InProceedings{DeRose:2006:EXI,
  author =       "C{\'e}sar {De Rose}",
  title =        "Evaluating {Xen IA-64} Security and Performance",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:2006:PGI",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2006",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 18:26:53 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.ice.gelato.org/oct06/pres_pdf/gelato_ICE06oct_xeneval_derose_pucrs.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Intel IA-64; Itanium",
}

@Article{Dong:2006:EXI,
  author =       "Yaozu Dong and Shaofan Li and Asit Mallick and Jun
                 Nakajim and Kun Tian and Xuefei Xu and Fred Yang and
                 Wilfred Yu",
  title =        "Extending {Xen} with {Intel} Virtualization
                 Technology",
  journal =      j-INTEL-TECH-J,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "193--203",
  day =          "10",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1535/itj.1003",
  ISSN =         "1535-766X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 17 09:02:57 2006",
  bibsource =    "ftp://download.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/v10_iss03.pdf;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/3-xen/1-abstract.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@InProceedings{Dong:2006:XIV,
  author =       "Yaozu Dong",
  title =        "{Xen} and {Intel} Virtualization Technology for
                 {IA-64}",
  crossref =     "Anonymous:2006:PGI",
  pages =        "??--??",
  year =         "2006",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 18:26:53 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.ice.gelato.org/oct06/pres_pdf/gelato_ICE06oct_xenvt_dong_intel.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  keywords =     "Intel IA-64; Itanium",
}

@Book{ECMA-335-4,
  author =       "{ECMA}",
  title =        "{ECMA-335}: {Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)}",
  publisher =    pub-ECMA,
  address =      pub-ECMA:adr,
  edition =      "Fourth",
  pages =        "vii + 104 (Part I), viii + 191 (Part II), iv + 138
                 (Part III), ii + 20 (Part IV), i + 4 (Part V), ii + 57
                 (Part VI)",
  month =        jun,
  year =         "2006",
  bibdate =      "Sat May 08 07:44:58 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Standard.htm;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/Ecma-335.pdf;
                 http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/ECMA-335.zip;
                 http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-335.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ECMAnumber =   "ECMA-335",
  remark =       "Also ISO/IEC 23271-2006.",
}

@Article{Eugster:2006:UPJ,
  author =       "Patrick Eugster",
  title =        "Uniform proxies for {Java}",
  journal =      j-SIGPLAN,
  volume =       "41",
  number =       "12",
  pages =        "139--152",
  month =        dec,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "SINODQ",
  ISSN =         "0362-1340 (print), 1523-2867 (print), 1558-1160
                 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0362-1340",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 24 06:22:42 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGPLAN Notices",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J706",
  keywords =     "virtual machine",
}

@Article{Fabian:2006:VE,
  author =       "Patrick Fabian and Julia Palmer and Justin Richardson
                 and Mic Bowman and Paul Brett and Rob Knauerhase and
                 Jeff Sedayao and John Vicente and Cheng-Chee Koh and
                 Sanjay Rungta",
  title =        "Virtualization in the Enterprise",
  journal =      j-INTEL-TECH-J,
  volume =       "10",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "227--242",
  day =          "10",
  month =        aug,
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1535/itj.1003",
  ISSN =         "1535-766X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Oct 17 09:02:57 2006",
  bibsource =    "ftp://download.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/v10_iss03.pdf;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://developer.intel.com/technology/itj/2006/v10i3/6-enterprise/1-abstract.htm",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{Fraser:2006:PVC,
  author =       "Stephen Fraser",
  title =        "{Pro Visual C++\slash CLI} and the {.NET 2.0}
                 platform",
  publisher =    pub-APRESS,
  address =      pub-APRESS:adr,
  pages =        "xli + 917",
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4302-0109-0",
  ISBN =         "1-4302-0109-6, 1-59059-640-4",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4302-0109-0, 978-1-59059-640-1",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.C153 F73 2006eb",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:04:37 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "The expert's voice in .NET",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "Microsoft Visual C++; C (Computer program language);
                 Microsoft .NET",
}

@Article{Fu:2006:SMA,
  author =       "Song Fu and Cheng-Zhong Xu",
  title =        "Stochastic modeling and analysis of hybrid mobility in
                 reconfigurable distributed virtual machines",
  journal =      j-J-PAR-DIST-COMP,
  volume =       "66",
  number =       "11",
  pages =        "1442--1454",
  month =        nov,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "JPDCER",
  ISSN =         "0743-7315 (print), 1096-0848 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0743-7315",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 11 20:32:35 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
}

@Book{Geiselhart:2006:IZV,
  editor =       "Gregory Geiselhart and others",
  title =        "{IBM z\slash VM} and {Linux} on {IBM System z}:
                 virtualization cookbook for {Red Hat Enterprise Linux
                 4}",
  number =       "SG24-7272-00",
  publisher =    pub-IBM,
  address =      pub-IBM:adr,
  pages =        "xiv + 218",
  year =         "2006",
  ISBN =         "0-7384-9495-X (paperback)",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-0-7384-9495-1 (paperback)",
  LCCN =         "QA76.76.O63 I28 2006",
  bibdate =      "Thu Jan 21 14:11:12 MST 2010",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 z3950.loc.gov:7090/Voyager",
  series =       "IBM redbooks",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "September 2006.",
  subject =      "Linux; Operating systems (Computers); Computer
                 systems; IBM computers; Programming",
}

@Article{Gilbert:2006:IVG,
  author =       "Laura Gilbert and Jeff Tseng and Rhys Newman and Saeed
                 Iqbal and Ronald Pepper and Onur Celebioglu and Jenwei
                 Hsieh and Victor Mashayekhi and Mark Cobban",
  title =        "Implications of virtualization on {Grids} for high
                 energy physics applications",
  journal =      j-J-PAR-DIST-COMP,
  volume =       "66",
  number =       "7",
  pages =        "922--930",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "JPDCER",
  ISSN =         "0743-7315 (print), 1096-0848 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0743-7315",
  bibdate =      "Fri Jul 11 20:32:34 MDT 2008",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib;
                 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing",
  journal-URL =  "http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/07437315",
}

@Article{Habib:2006:X,
  author =       "Irfan Habib",
  title =        "{Xen}",
  journal =      j-LINUX-J,
  volume =       "2006",
  number =       "145",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        may,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "LIJOFX",
  ISSN =         "1075-3583 (print), 1938-3827 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "1075-3583",
  bibdate =      "Wed Aug 23 06:09:27 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  URL =          "http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/Research/SRG/netos/xen/documentation.html;
                 http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/xeno;
                 http://www.xensource.com/",
  abstract =     "Xen is a hypervisor virtual machine that runs multiple
                 open-source operating systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Linux journal",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=J508",
}

@Article{Heiser:2006:VMM,
  author =       "Gernot Heiser and Volkmar Uhlig and Joshua LeVasseur",
  title =        "Are virtual-machine monitors microkernels done
                 right?",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "40",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "95--99",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1113361.1113363",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 26 08:55:38 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "A paper by Hand et al. at the recent HotOS workshop
                 re-examined microkernels and contrasted them to
                 virtual-machine monitors (VMMs). It found that the two
                 kinds of systems share architectural commonalities but
                 also have a number of technical differences which the
                 paper examined. It concluded that VMMs are a special
                 case of microkernels, ``microkernels done right''. A
                 closer examination of that paper shows that it contains
                 a number of statements which are poorly justified or
                 even refuted by the literature. While we believe that
                 it is indeed timely to reexamine the merits and issues
                 of microkernels, such an examination needs to be based
                 on facts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
}

@Article{Herrod:2006:FVT,
  author =       "Steve Herrod",
  title =        "The Future of Virtualization Technology",
  journal =      j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS,
  volume =       "34",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "352--352",
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "CANED2",
  ISSN =         "0163-5964 (ACM), 0884-7495 (IEEE)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5964",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 21 15:00:05 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigarch.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
}

@Book{Hogenson:2006:CCV,
  author =       "Gordon Hogenson",
  title =        "{C++\slash CLI}: the {Visual C++} language for
                 {.NET}",
  publisher =    pub-APRESS,
  address =      pub-APRESS:adr,
  pages =        "xxxiv + 412",
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4302-0282-0",
  ISBN =         "1-4302-0282-3, 1-59059-705-2",
  ISBN-13 =      "978-1-4302-0282-0, 978-1-59059-705-7",
  LCCN =         "QA76.73.C153 H59 2006eb",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:04:37 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "The Expert's voice in .NET",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  subject =      "C++/CLI (Computer program language); Microsoft .NET",
}

@Article{Hu:2006:RST,
  author =       "Shiliang Hu and James E. Smith",
  title =        "Reducing Startup Time in Co-Designed Virtual
                 Machines",
  journal =      j-COMP-ARCH-NEWS,
  volume =       "34",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "277--288",
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "CANED2",
  ISSN =         "0163-5964 (ACM), 0884-7495 (IEEE)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5964",
  bibdate =      "Mon Aug 21 15:00:05 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/sigarch.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News",
  journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J89",
}

@Article{Huang:2006:PMA,
  author =       "Mark Huang and Andy Bavier and Larry Peterson",
  title =        "{PlanetFlow}: maintaining accountability for network
                 services",
  journal =      j-OPER-SYS-REV,
  volume =       "40",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "89--94",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "2006",
  CODEN =        "OSRED8",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1113361.1113376",
  ISSN =         "0163-5980 (print), 1943-586X (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0163-5980",
  bibdate =      "Sat Aug 26 08:55:38 MDT 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://portal.acm.org/;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "PlanetFlow is a network auditing service that
                 maintains comprehensive, permanent accountability for
                 all traffic generated by PlanetLab services, in
                 accordance with common Internet practice and the terms
                 of the PlanetLab Acceptable Use Policy. PlanetFlow
                 audits the usage of PlanetLab network resources in
                 order to facilitate the resolution of complaints, limit
                 liability, and minimize problematic behavior.The
                 current implementation of PlanetFlow consists of a low
                 overhead flow classifier, an autonomously managed
                 distributed database, and a publicly accessible Web
                 interface. PlanetFlow currently processes up to 4 TB of
                 generated traffic per day, and incurs negligible CPU
                 and storage overhead.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  fjournal =     "Operating Systems Review",
}

@InProceedings{Inoue:2006:VNP,
  author =       "Hiroaki Inoue and Akihisa Ikeno and Masaki Kondo and
                 Junji Sakai and Masato Edahiro",
  title =        "{VIRTUS}: a new processor virtualization architecture
                 for security-oriented next-generation mobile
                 terminals",
  crossref =     "ACM:2006:AAI",
  pages =        "484--489",
  year =         "2006",
  DOI =          "http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/1146909.1147038",
  bibdate =      "Sat Oct 14 14:06:32 2006",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  abstract =     "We propose a new processor virtualization
                 architecture, VIRTUS, to provide a dedicated domain for
                 pre-installed applications and virtualized domains for
                 downloaded native applications. With it,
                 security-oriented next-generation mobile terminals can
                 provide any number of domains for native applications.
                 VIRTUS features three new technologies: VMM
                 asymmetrization, dynamic inter-domain communication and
                 virtualization-assist logic, and it is first in the
                 world to virtualize an ARM-based multiprocessor.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
}

@Book{ISO:2006:III,
  author =       "{International Organization for Standardization}",
  title =        "{ISO\slash IEC 23271:2006}: Information technology:
                 {Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)} Partitions {I}
                 to {VI}",
  publisher =    pub-ISO,
  address =      pub-ISO:adr,
  edition =      "Second",
  year =         "2006",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:04:07 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/virtual-machines.bib",
  series =       "International standard",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  remark =       "This second edition cancels and replaces the first
                 edition (ISO/IEC 23271:2003).",
  subject =      "Information technology; Standards; Programming
                 languages (Electronic computers)",
}

@Book{ISO:2006:ITCa,
  author =       "{International Organization for Standardization}",
  title =        "{ISO\slash IEC TR 23272:2006}: Information technology:
                 {Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)}: technical
                 report on information derived from Partition {IV} {XML}
                 file",
  publisher =    pub-ISO,
  address =      pub-ISO:adr,
  edition =      "Second",
  pages =        "????",
  year =         "2006",
  LCCN =         "????",
  bibdate =      "Mon May 17 09:04:07 MDT 2010",
  bibsource =    "fsz3950.oclc.org:210/WorldCat;