Valid HTML 4.0! Valid CSS!
%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.47",
%%%     date            = "20 February 2021",
%%%     time            = "17:48:55 MST",
%%%     filename        = "visible-language.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "38902 55397 259243 2560801",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
%%%     codetable       = "ISO/ASCII",
%%%     keywords        = "bibliography; BibTeX; Journal of Typographic
%%%                        Research; Visible Language",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "yes",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE bibliography of the
%%%                        open-access journal, The Journal of
%%%                        Typographic Research (CODEN none, ISSN
%%%                        0449-329X), (1967--1970), and an extensive,
%%%                        but incomplete, bibliography of its successor
%%%                        from 1971, Visible Language (CODEN VSLGAO,
%%%                        ISSN 0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529
%%%                        (electronic)), published by The Case Western
%%%                        University Press, Cleveland, OH, USA, then by
%%%                        MIT Press, then by the Rhode Island School of
%%%                        Design, and now by the School of Design at
%%%                        the University of Cincinnati, OH, USA.
%%%
%%%                        Publication began with volume 1, number 1, in
%%%                        January 1967, and there were four issues per
%%%                        annual volume from volumes 1 to 29 (1995).
%%%                        Volumes 30 (1996) to date have three issues
%%%                        per year.  Issues are sometimes combined in
%%%                        print, and in one case, consecutive issues
%%%                        from two volumes appeared in one binding
%%%                        (volume 51 number 3 and volume 52 number 1).
%%%
%%%                        Issues are sometimes assigned months,
%%%                        sometimes seasons, and sometimes have no
%%%                        apparent month or season, unless that was
%%%                        indicated on the journal covers.
%%%                        Regrettably, except for some PDF files from
%%%                        2014 on, there are no cover images.  Although
%%%                        some issues state a publication plan for
%%%                        specific months of the year, that schedule is
%%%                        often not adhered to.
%%%
%%%                        Entry Wrolstad:1976:EN reports the printing
%%%                        technologies used to produce the journals.
%%%                        There are a few colophons recorded here that
%%%                        may provide font and production information.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has a Web site at
%%%
%%%                            http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/
%%%
%%%                        Issues from the last year are available only
%%%                        to subscribers, and earlier issues are
%%%                        nominally freely accessible, but there are
%%%                        several problems recorded later in this
%%%                        section.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.47, the year coverage looked
%%%                        like this:
%%%
%%%                             1967 (  39)    1985 (  55)    2003 (  23)
%%%                             1968 (  50)    1986 (  49)    2004 (  17)
%%%                             1969 (  40)    1987 (  36)    2005 (  26)
%%%                             1970 (  52)    1988 (  27)    2006 (  22)
%%%                             1971 (  41)    1989 (  29)    2007 (  26)
%%%                             1972 (  46)    1990 (  28)    2008 (  37)
%%%                             1973 (  48)    1991 (  30)    2009 (  18)
%%%                             1974 (  40)    1992 (  22)    2010 (  25)
%%%                             1975 (  45)    1993 (  29)    2011 (  19)
%%%                             1976 (  46)    1994 (  34)    2012 (  24)
%%%                             1977 (  57)    1995 (  26)    2013 (  21)
%%%                             1978 (  40)    1996 (  30)    2014 (  27)
%%%                             1979 (  60)    1997 (  36)    2015 (  22)
%%%                             1980 (  52)    1998 (  29)    2016 (  31)
%%%                             1981 (  37)    1999 (  33)    2017 (  23)
%%%                             1982 (  51)    2000 (  24)    2018 (  13)
%%%                             1983 (  41)    2001 (  38)    2019 (  13)
%%%                             1984 (  42)    2002 (  31)    2020 (   7)
%%%
%%%                             Article:       1807
%%%
%%%                             Total entries: 1807
%%%
%%%                        Unfortunately, the Web data for issue
%%%                        contents sometimes disagree with the
%%%                        articles, abbreviate or reorder author names,
%%%                        and fail to include links to smaller
%%%                        contributions near the start and end of each
%%%                        issue.  Thus, the BibTeX entries in this file
%%%                        are certain to represent only a large subset
%%%                        of the publications in the two journals.
%%%                        Those deficiencies have been repaired in the
%%%                        complete coverage of the four volumes of The
%%%                        Journal of Typographic Research, but much
%%%                        work remains for the succeeding 50+ volumes
%%%                        of Visible Language.
%%%
%%%                        In addition, single PDF files for complete
%%%                        issues are available at URLs of the form
%%%
%%%                            https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf
%%%
%%%                        At least 38, however, are missing, or have
%%%                        file protections that make them unreadable:
%%%
%%%                            V12N3_1978_E.pdf V22N23_1988_E.pdf
%%%                            V22N2_1988_E.pdf V22N3_1988_E.pdf
%%%                            V23N1_1989_E.pdf V23N23_1989_E.pdf
%%%                            V24N34_1990_E.pdf V25N23_1991_E.pdf
%%%                            V26N12_1992_E.pdf V26N34_1992_E.pdf
%%%                            V27N12_1993_E.pdf V29N34_1995_E.pdf
%%%                            V38N1_2004_E.pdf V43N23_2009_E.pdf
%%%                            V43N2_2009_E.pdf V43N3_2009_E.pdf
%%%                            V45N12_2010_E.pdf V45N1_2011_E.pdf
%%%                            V45N2_2011_E.pdf V46N12_2012_E.pdf
%%%                            V46N1_2012_E.pdf V46N2_2012_E.pdf
%%%                            V49N12_2015_E.pdf V49N1_2015_E.pdf
%%%                            V49N2_2015_E.pdf V50N2_2016_E.pdf
%%%                            V51N2_2017_E.pdf V51N3521_2017_E.pdf
%%%                            V52N1_2018_E.pdf V52N2_2018_E.pdf
%%%                            V52N3_2018_E.pdf V53N1_2019_E.pdf
%%%                            V53N2_2019_E.pdf V53N3_2019_E.pdf
%%%                            V54N12_2020_E.pdf V54N1_2020_E.pdf
%%%                            V54N2_2020_E.pdf V54N3_2020_E.pdf
%%%
%%%                        Their containing directories are
%%%                        read-protected, so it is impossible to list
%%%                        directory contents, in the hope of finding
%%%                        minor variations in file naming.
%%%
%%%                        In addition, V8N1_1974_E.pdf has pages that
%%%                        are seriously disordered, and many other PDF
%%%                        files have jumbled, missing, repeated, or
%%%                        reversed pages.  Comments preceding BibTeX
%%%                        entries for problem issues identify most of
%%%                        them.
%%%
%%%                        The two journals are not in the JSTOR
%%%                        archive, so there are no freely accessible
%%%                        alternate sources of bibliographic data or
%%%                        article contents.  I found mention of
%%%                        archives of the two journals in two
%%%                        commercial databases, but in the past, I have
%%%                        found the quality of those databases, and
%%%                        their search and retrieval capabilities, too
%%%                        poor to be reliable sources of bibliographic
%%%                        metadata.
%%%
%%%                        Examination of several of the issue PDF files
%%%                        show flaws, including out-of-order pages, and
%%%                        missing pages.  This problem is aggravated by
%%%                        the `design' of the journals that omits page
%%%                        numbers on many pages, fails to include year
%%%                        and month data in running footers in
%%%                        articles, and for some article PDF files,
%%%                        supplies them only in an awkward two-up
%%%                        format.
%%%
%%%                        In the view of this bibliographer, the Web
%%%                        site design is an abject failure. In an
%%%                        attempt to sprinkle text around the screen
%%%                        like pages of an art magazine, the Web pages
%%%                        use Javascript, and have unpredictable names,
%%%                        making it impossible to fetch them
%%%                        automatically: each one has to be viewed in a
%%%                        Web browser and saved from there to HTML
%%%                        files.  The Web pages feature popups that
%%%                        obscure the view of issue contents, and have
%%%                        scroll bars for issue selection that
%%%                        frequently fail to scroll.
%%%
%%%                        No Web pages are available at the publisher
%%%                        Web site for volume 1 number 1, or for volume
%%%                        1 number 2.  However, based on URLs for
%%%                        full-text PDF files of later issues, I found
%%%                        that I could retrieve PDF files for the two
%%%                        missing issues, and then manually reconstruct
%%%                        BibTeX entries for their articles.
%%%
%%%                        No DOI values are available for articles in
%%%                        these journals, and page ranges are mostly
%%%                        not recorded at the publisher Web site,
%%%                        although all articles are paginated.  Thus,
%%%                        page ranges are missing in many of the
%%%                        entries in this file until a reliable
%%%                        secondary source of publication data can be
%%%                        located.
%%%
%%%                        The page numbers given in entries for the
%%%                        four volumes of The Journal of Typographic
%%%                        Research have been supplied manually from
%%%                        visual inspection of the issue PDF files, and
%%%                        further validated by software than checks for
%%%                        page gaps and invalid page ranges.  When
%%%                        article citations have been found, or PDF
%%%                        files of articles have been viewed, page
%%%                        ranges have been included in the BibTeX
%%%                        entries.
%%%
%%%                        Yet more problems afflict assignment of
%%%                        correct page numbers to articles in these
%%%                        journal.  Artwork, sometimes devoid of text,
%%%                        may surround articles, and it is then unclear
%%%                        whether it is merely a decorative page
%%%                        filler, or is intended to be part of the
%%%                        article.
%%%
%%%                        Article order, author order, page numbers,
%%%                        and page ranges in the Web site files, and
%%%                        the journal issue table of contents, are
%%%                        often in disagreement with the actual
%%%                        articles.  The bibliographer has tried hard
%%%                        to repair such errors, but it is likely that
%%%                        a few such discrepancies remain.
%%%
%%%                        Numerous errors in the sources noted above
%%%                        have been corrected.   Spelling has been
%%%                        verified with the UNIX spell and GNU ispell
%%%                        programs using the exception dictionary
%%%                        stored in the companion file with extension
%%%                        .sok.
%%%
%%%                        BibTeX citation tags are uniformly chosen
%%%                        as name:year:abbrev, where name is the
%%%                        family name of the first author or editor,
%%%                        year is a 4-digit number, and abbrev is a
%%%                        3-letter condensation of important title
%%%                        words. Citation tags were automatically
%%%                        generated by software developed for the
%%%                        BibNet Project.
%%%
%%%                        In this bibliography, entries are stored in
%%%                        publication order within each journal.
%%%
%%%                        The checksum field above contains a CRC-16
%%%                        checksum as the first value, followed by the
%%%                        equivalent of the standard UNIX wc (word
%%%                        count) utility output of lines, words, and
%%%                        characters.  This is produced by Robert
%%%                        Solovay's checksum utility.",
%%%  }
%%% ====================================================================
@Preamble{
    "\ifx \undefined \bioname      \def \bioname#1{{{\em #1\/}}} \fi" #
    "\ifx \undefined \booktitle    \def \booktitle #1{{{\em #1}}} \fi"
}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:
@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
                    University of Utah,
                    Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
                    155 S 1400 E RM 233,
                    Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
                    Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
                    FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
                    e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
                            \path|beebe@acm.org|,
                            \path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
                    URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:
@String{j-J-TYPOGR-RES          = "The Journal of Typographic Research"}

@String{j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE      = "Visible Language"}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries, sorted in publication order:
%%% NB: Contents of volume 1, number 1, have been recovered from
%%% https://www.abebooks.com/servlet/BookDetailsPL?bi=30710505738
%%% and cross-checked against a table-of-contents page image at
%%% https://fontsinuse.com/uses/11591/the-journal-of-typographic-research
%%% and full issue contents at
%%% https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf
%%%
%%% Here is a summary of the bibliography coverage:
%%%
%%%    Count   Year      Volume  Number   Month/Season
%%%
%%%      11    1967           I       1      jan
%%%      12    1967           I       2      apr
%%%      10    1967           I       3      jul
%%%       6    1967           I       4      oct
%%%
%%%       9    1968          II       1      jan
%%%      12    1968          II       2      apr
%%%      15    1968          II       3      jul
%%%      14    1968          II       4      oct
%%%
%%%       8    1969         III       1      jan
%%%      10    1969         III       2      apr
%%%      11    1969         III       3      jul
%%%      11    1969         III       4      oct
%%%
%%%      14    1970          IV       1      Winter
%%%      13    1970          IV       2      Spring
%%%      10    1970          IV       3      Summer
%%%      15    1970          IV       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      11    1971           V       1      Winter
%%%       7    1971           V       2      Spring
%%%      10    1971           V       3      Summer
%%%      13    1971           V       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      10    1972          VI       1      Winter
%%%      14    1972          VI       2      Spring
%%%      10    1972          VI       3      Summer
%%%      12    1972          VI       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%       9    1973         VII       1      Winter
%%%      13    1973         VII       2      Spring
%%%      13    1973         VII       3      Summer
%%%      13    1973         VII       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%       8    1974        VIII       1      Winter
%%%      12    1974        VIII       2      Spring
%%%      11    1974        VIII       3      Summer
%%%       9    1974        VIII       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      15    1975          IX       1      Winter
%%%      10    1975          IX       2      Spring
%%%      10    1975          IX       3      Summer
%%%      10    1975          IX       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%       9    1976           X       1      Winter
%%%      13    1976           X       2      Spring
%%%      13    1976           X       3      Summer
%%%      11    1976           X       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      13    1977          XI       1      Winter
%%%      19    1977          XI       2      Spring
%%%      13    1977          XI       3      Summer
%%%      12    1977          XI       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      10    1978         XII       1      Winter
%%%      12    1978         XII       2      Spring
%%%       8    1978         XII       3      Summer
%%%      10    1978         XII       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      11    1979        XIII       1      Winter
%%%       9    1979        XIII       2      Spring
%%%      14    1979        XIII       3      Summer
%%%      26    1979        XIII       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      15    1980         XIV       1      Winter
%%%      10    1980         XIV       2      Spring
%%%      12    1980         XIV       3      Summer
%%%      15    1980         XIV       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      14    1981          XV       1      Winter
%%%       8    1981          XV       2      Spring
%%%       6    1981          XV       3      Summer
%%%       9    1981          XV       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      11    1982         XVI       1      Winter
%%%      16    1982         XVI       2      Spring
%%%      13    1982         XVI       3      Summer
%%%      11    1982         XVI       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%       2    1983        XVII       1      Winter
%%%       9    1983        XVII       2      Spring
%%%      13    1983        XVII       3      Summer
%%%      17    1983        XVII       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%       9    1984       XVIII       1      Winter
%%%      11    1984       XVIII       2      Spring
%%%       9    1984       XVIII       3      Summer
%%%      13    1984       XVIII       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      22    1985         XIX       1      Winter
%%%      13    1985         XIX       2      Spring
%%%       8    1985         XIX       3      Summer
%%%      12    1985         XIX       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      13    1986          XX       1      Winter
%%%      12    1986          XX       2      Spring
%%%      13    1986          XX       3      Summer
%%%      11    1986          XX       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      13    1987         XXI       1      Winter
%%%       8    1987         XXI       2      Spring
%%%      15    1987         XXI    3--4      ????
%%%
%%%       9    1988        XXII       1      Winter
%%%       7    1988        XXII    2--3      ????
%%%      11    1988        XXII       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%       6    1989       XXIII       1      jan
%%%       9    1989       XXIII    2--3      may
%%%      10    1989       XXIII       4      Autumn
%%%       4    1989       XXIII       4      oct
%%%
%%%      11    1990        XXIV       1      Winter
%%%      11    1990        XXIV       2      Spring
%%%       6    1990        XXIV    3--4      jul
%%%
%%%       9    1991          25       1      Winter
%%%      14    1991          25    2--3      apr
%%%       7    1991          25       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      15    1992          26    1--2      jan
%%%       7    1992          26    3--4      jul
%%%
%%%       9    1993          27    1--2      jan
%%%      10    1993          27       3      jul
%%%      10    1993          27       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%      10    1994          28       1      Winter
%%%       6    1994          28       2      Spring
%%%       9    1994          28       3      Summer
%%%       9    1994          28       4      Autumn
%%%
%%%       7    1995          29       1      Winter
%%%      12    1995          29       2      Spring
%%%       7    1995          29    3--4      sep
%%%
%%%       5    1996          30       1      jan
%%%      12    1996          30       2      may
%%%      13    1996          30       3      sep
%%%
%%%      13    1997          31       1      Winter
%%%      13    1997          31       2      may
%%%      10    1997          31       3      nov
%%%
%%%      10    1998          32       1      jan
%%%       8    1998          32       2      may
%%%      11    1998          32       3      sep
%%%
%%%      13    1999          33       1      jan
%%%      10    1999          33       2      may
%%%      10    1999          33       3      oct
%%%
%%%      10    2000          34       1      jan
%%%       6    2000          34       2      may
%%%       8    2000          34       3      sep
%%%
%%%      14    2001          35       1      jan
%%%       9    2001          35       2      may
%%%      15    2001          35       3      oct
%%%
%%%       9    2002          36       1      jan
%%%      13    2002          36       2      may
%%%       9    2002          36       3      sep
%%%
%%%       6    2003          37       1      jan
%%%       9    2003          37       2      may
%%%       8    2003          37       3      sep
%%%
%%%       2    2004          38       1      jan
%%%       9    2004          38       2      may
%%%       6    2004          38       3      sep
%%%
%%%       9    2005          39       1      jan
%%%       8    2005          39       2      may
%%%       9    2005          39       3      sep
%%%
%%%       9    2006          40       1      jan
%%%       6    2006          40       2      may
%%%       7    2006          40       3      sep
%%%
%%%      10    2007          41       1      jan
%%%       6    2007          41       2      may
%%%      10    2007          41       3      sep
%%%
%%%      16    2008          42       1      jan
%%%      14    2008          42       2      may
%%%       7    2008          42       3      sep
%%%
%%%      10    2009          43       1      jan
%%%       8    2009          43    2--3      jul
%%%
%%%       7    2010          44       1      jan
%%%      11    2010          44       2      may
%%%       7    2010          44       3      sep
%%%
%%%       7    2011          45    1--2      aug
%%%      12    2011          45       3      dec
%%%
%%%      10    2012          46    1--2      may
%%%       8    2012          46       3      dec
%%%       6    2012          46       3      sep
%%%
%%%       6    2013          47       1      jan
%%%       7    2013          47       2      may
%%%       8    2013          47       3      sep
%%%
%%%       6    2014          48       1      may
%%%      10    2014          48       2      aug
%%%      11    2014          48       3      nov
%%%
%%%      11    2015          49    1--2      apr
%%%      11    2015          49       3      dec
%%%
%%%      10    2016          50       1      apr
%%%      13    2016          50       2      aug
%%%       8    2016          50       3      dec
%%%
%%%       9    2017          51       1      apr
%%%       5    2017          51       2      aug
%%%       9    2017          51  3-52.1      dec
%%%
%%%       4    2018          52       2      aug
%%%       9    2018          52       3      dec
%%%
%%%       5    2019          53       1      apr
%%%       4    2019          53       2      aug
%%%       4    2019          53       3      dec
%%%
%%%       7    2020          54    1--2      apr
@Article{Wrolstad:1967:PNF,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "A Prefatory Note to the First Number",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--4",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wiggins:1967:ETT,
  author =       "Richard H. Wiggins",
  title =        "Effects of Three Typographical Variables on Speed of
                 Reading",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--18",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Fry:1967:DMS,
  author =       "Edward Fry",
  title =        "The Diacritical Marketing System and a Preliminary
                 Comparison with the Initial Teaching Alphabet",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Prince:1967:PVH,
  author =       "J. H. Prince",
  title =        "Printing for the Visually Handicapped",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--47",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1444-0938.1967.tb03635.x",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "Reprinted with permission in The Australian Journal of
                 Optometry, 50(6) 164--177, June 1967.",
  xxpages =      "31--48",
}

@Article{Duncan:1967:LSS,
  author =       "C. J. Duncan",
  title =        "Line Scan Standards for Characters and Symbols: a
                 Practical Study",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--62",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Nadler:1967:PPO,
  author =       "M. Nadler",
  title =        "The Perspectives for Practical Optical Character
                 Recognition",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "63--68",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Holland:1967:TEC,
  author =       "F. C. Holland",
  title =        "Typographical Effects by Cathode Ray Tube Typesetting
                 Systems",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "69--79",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Cowan:1967:LVC,
  author =       "C. I. Cowan",
  title =        "On-Line Visual Correction and Make-up Systems --- {I}:
                 Hardware",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "80--89",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Fabrizio:1967:RFS,
  author =       "Ralph Fabrizio and Ira Kaplan and Gilbert Teal",
  title =        "Readability as a Function of the Straightness of
                 Right-hand Margins",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--95",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Malkiel:1967:SULa,
  author =       "Yakov Malkiel",
  title =        "Secondary Uses of Letters in Language. [{Part I}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "96--110",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Reprinted from \booktitle{Romance Philology}, {\bf 19}
                 (1965).",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "Reprinted from \booktitle{Romance Philology}, XIX,
                 1--27, by permission of The Regents of the University
                 of California.",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1967:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "111--113",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N1_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Harrison:1967:CTT,
  author =       "Randall Harrison and Clyde D. J. Morris",
  title =        "Communication Theory and Typographic Research",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "115--124",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Payne:1967:RTM,
  author =       "Donald R. Payne",
  title =        "Readability of Typewritten Material; Proportional
                 Versus Standard Spacing",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "125--136",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Frutiger:1967:OBS,
  author =       "Adrian Frutiger",
  title =        "{OCR-B}: a Standardized Character for Optical
                 Recognition",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "137--146",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wheelock:1967:IVD,
  author =       "Warren H. Wheelock and Nicholas J. Silvaroli",
  title =        "An investigation of visual discrimination training for
                 beginning readers.",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "147--156",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Tanselle:1967:TRB,
  author =       "G. Thomas Tanselle",
  title =        "Typographic Research and Bibliography",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "157--163",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wakefield:1967:PLD,
  author =       "R. J. Wakefield",
  title =        "Print Layout and Design with a Computer {CRT} System",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "165--168",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Malkiel:1967:SULb,
  author =       "Yakov Malkiel",
  title =        "Secondary Uses of Letters in Language. [{Part II}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "169--190",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "Reprinted from \booktitle{Romance Philology}, XIX,
                 1--27, by permission of The Regents of the University
                 of California.",
}

@Article{Downing:1967:CMP,
  author =       "John Downing",
  title =        "Commentary: Methodological Problems in Research on
                 Simplified Alphabets and Regularized Writing-Systems",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "191--201",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "With a reply by Edward Fry.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1967:C,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "202--203",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1967:BR,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Book Reviews",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "204--209",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1967:AJAa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Abstracts of Journal Articles in {French} and
                 {German}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "210--213",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1967:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "214--215",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N2_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Pierce:1967:PIA,
  author =       "James Smith Pierce",
  title =        "Pictographs, Ideograms, and Alphabets in the Work of
                 {Paul Klee}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "219--244",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Paul Klee (1879--1940), the Swiss artist who taught at
                 the German Bauhaus, used ancient and modern pictographs
                 and alphabets in many of his painting and drawings. The
                 discrete characters of the various systems of writing
                 were well adapted to Klee's unusual additive technique
                 by which he retained the expressive purity of the
                 formal elements. In the 1910's and 1920's, Klee used
                 roman letters to construct abstract formal patterns,
                 but in the 1930's he reanimated the conventional
                 symbols of the alphabet, turning them into active
                 representational figures suggestive of their
                 pictographic origins. His most revolutionary
                 achievement was the invention of bold ideograms,
                 combining different pictographic schemata in a set of
                 double images which enrich a basic idea through chains
                 of associated ideas, thus altering the notion of a
                 picture as representing a scene fixed in time and
                 space.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Huss:1967:CLT,
  author =       "Richard E. Huss",
  title =        "A Chronological List of Typesetting Machines and
                 Ancillary Equipment, 1822--1925",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "245--274",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Hutt:1968:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The history of the development (1822--1925) of the
                 mechanical control of printers' type is outlined in
                 this chronological list of type-setting machines. Early
                 emphasis is on the single-type devices which
                 manipulated individual pieces of type; gradually matrix
                 machines were perfected. Also included are machines
                 used to supplement the typesetting process:
                 typecasters, direct printers, transfer or impression
                 devices, and material makers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hailstone:1967:SED,
  author =       "M. Hailstone and Jeremy J. Foster",
  title =        "Studies of the Efficiency of Drug Labeling",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "275--284",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Two experiments on the effectiveness of drug-labeling
                 are reported. The first compared typewritten with
                 hand-written labels, and the second compared printed
                 drug-labels varying in type size, form of type and
                 layout (centered or ranged left). A discrimination-test
                 procedure was employed, the subjects having to select
                 specified labels from a display. The results of the
                 experiments showed (1) that typewritten labels were
                 discriminated more readily than handwritten ones, (2)
                 that labels printed with 10-point type were
                 discriminated more speedily than labels printed with
                 6-point type, (3) that for labels printed with 6-point
                 type, upper-case letterform was more easily
                 discriminated than lower-case letterform, (4) the
                 layout of the label design had no effect on
                 discrimination.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Frutiger:1967:TIS,
  author =       "Adrian Frutiger",
  title =        "Typography with the {IBM Selectric Composer}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "285--292",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Schmoller:1968:E,Gurtler:1968:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The place of the IBM Selectric Composer in the
                 evolution of bookmaking processes is outlined: it
                 provides a return to directness and simplicity,
                 combined with the speed of mechanization. Some
                 restrictions and problems which the new machine poses
                 for the type designer are described. The article was
                 originally presented as a lecture at Gallery 303 in New
                 York City. It has been composed on the IBM Selectric
                 Composer in the Univers face which the author adapted
                 to the machine.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Weaver:1967:CP,
  author =       "Mike Weaver",
  title =        "Concrete Poetry",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "293--326",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The origins of the Concrete movement in poetry are
                 briefly traced, with early manifestoes included as
                 appendices. Three perceptual approaches, classified as
                 optic, kinetic, and phonetic, are distinguished by
                 means of twenty-one illustrations. The emphasis falls
                 on the development of a new fixed form consonant with
                 our age.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wendt:1967:RPR,
  author =       "Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "Research in Progress: Research on Readability and
                 Congeniality of Print",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "327--327",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Middleton:1967:ER,
  author =       "R. Hunter Middleton",
  title =        "Exhibition Review",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "328--330",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1967:BRR,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Book Review: {R. C. Alston, \booktitle{A Bibliography
                 of the English Language from the Invention of Printing
                 to the Year 1800, Volume VIII: Treatises on
                 Short-Hand}. Printed for the author by E. J. Arnold \&
                 Son Limited, Leeds, England; 1966. xiii + 152 pp.
                 \pounds 5. 1Os}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "331--335",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1967:AJAb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Abstracts of Journal Articles in {French} and
                 {German}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "336--338",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1967:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "339--339",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N3_1967_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Mathews:1967:TFC,
  author =       "M. V. Mathews and Carol Lochbaum and Judith A. Moss",
  title =        "Three Fonts of Computer-drawn Letters",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N4_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Detailed descriptions are given for three fonts of
                 letters. Letter shapes are entirely described by
                 numbers. The basic vectors are in a general form so the
                 fonts may be easily drawn on a variety of computers and
                 cathode ray tubes. The fonts include both upper- and
                 lower-case Roman letters, mathematical signs, and
                 upper- and lower-case Greek letters. Digital type
                 design is described. However, the principal
                 contribution is the fonts themselves.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bass:1967:DCN,
  author =       "Rudi Bass",
  title =        "The Development of {CBS News 36}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "357--372",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N4_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Production of legible typography on the television
                 screen is affected by technological variables unknown
                 to the printed media. Specific problems of type
                 distortion and decay in television transmission are
                 described. To counteract these problems the Graphic
                 Arts Department of CBS News experimented with various
                 typefaces and developed CBS News 36; research results
                 are illustrated and discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1967:TER,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin",
  title =        "Typography: Evolution and Revolution",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "373--386",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See commentary \cite{Foster:1968:CPR,Baudin:1968:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N4_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Typography is considered as a technical phase in the
                 evolution of handwriting. The latter in an intellectual
                 and rational operation and not only a skill that is
                 purely manual or mechanical. That is why ideas about
                 the legibility and intelligibility of text should be
                 extended to include the entire format which supports
                 the written matter, book or document. The technological
                 revolution in progress in the reproduction and
                 multiplication of printed matter provokes a social
                 revolution in the actual production of writing, and
                 calls for a parallel renewal of teaching --- at a
                 higher level --- of handwriting. Illustrations and
                 commentary.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wright:1967:VGE,
  author =       "Edward Wright and J. Collins",
  title =        "Vertical Group Exercises in Graphic Design",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N4_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Graphic designers traditionally have limited
                 experience with the direct relationship between meaning
                 and form in the language they use. In this experimental
                 project graphic design students were encouraged to
                 gradually refine their own individual handwritten texts
                 from random, personal jottings into a formal graphic
                 mode. Several students' work is illustrated and
                 commented on.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Tomohiko:1967:JC,
  author =       "Horie Tomohiko",
  title =        "{Japanese} Calligraphy",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N4_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "More than any other area of the world, Japan and China
                 have refined the practical act of writing into a highly
                 expressive art form. With their roots in earlier
                 Chinese symbols, Japanese calligraphers have ---
                 through a 1300-year history --- developed a variety of
                 unique styles of their own. Two main classifications
                 are discussed: ``classical'' in which form and emotion
                 are closely integrated, and ``subjective'' in which
                 feeling takes precedence over form.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Tansell:1967:ITB,
  author =       "G. Thomas Tansell",
  title =        "Identification of Typefaces in Bibliographical
                 Description",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "I",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1967",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V1N4_1967_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Two suggestions may be helpful to descriptive
                 bibliographers in working out a method for describing
                 the typography of a book: bibliographers should base
                 their measurements of type on its appearance on the
                 printed page rather than to infer the size of the type
                 body; and their system of classification of type
                 designs should be graduated so that different degrees
                 of detail can be presented under differing
                 circumstances and for the several periods of book
                 production.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wendt:1968:SDT,
  author =       "Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "Semantic Differentials of Typefaces as a Method of
                 Congeniality Research",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--25",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N1_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The semantic differential, a technique of standardized
                 descriptions for various kinds of objects in order to
                 obtain quantitative measures of similarity, can be
                 applied successfully to discriminate between typefaces
                 and to locate them in a semantic space. Two different
                 semantic differentials --- a more general and a more
                 specific one --- yielded semantic spaces of three and
                 four dimensions, respectively, on independent aspects.
                 Results are interpreted briefly and with some caution.
                 The main point is the demonstration of the
                 applicability of this technique to typographic
                 problems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gurtler:1968:DE,
  author =       "Andr{\'e} G{\"u}rtler",
  title =        "The Design of {Egyptian 505}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--42",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N1_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In 1965 the Visual Graphics Corporation organized an
                 international competition for new typeface designs. The
                 author directed his typography class at the
                 Kungstgewerbeschule, Basel, Switzerland, in designing a
                 class-project entry: Egyptian 505. The students'
                 training for type design is described together with the
                 specific development of Egyptian 505 for
                 photocomposition. Art school education for script and
                 type design is discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hinds:1968:WCT,
  author =       "Lillian R. Hinds and William G. Dodds",
  title =        "Words in Color: Two Experimental Studies",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "43--52",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N1_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Development of the use of color as an initial added
                 dimension in beginning level reading is discussed,
                 including the exploratory studies of the Gattegno Words
                 in Color approach. Two experimental studies tested
                 Words in Color: the Dodds study with primary-school
                 children describes significantly superior scores in
                 vocabulary and spelling; the Hinds study reports
                 superior vocabulary and comprehension gains with
                 inner-city illiterate adults.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Jones:1968:RRC,
  author =       "F. Kenneth Jones",
  title =        "A Research Report on Colour Story Reading",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--58",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N1_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "While use of color in the various visual media has
                 increased enormously, typography remains essentially
                 black and white. Colour Story Reading was developed to
                 make use of color in helping children learn to read.
                 The theory and practice of Colour Story Reading is
                 discussed, including two studies testing this approach:
                 one showing children's preference and better
                 performance, and another showing superior reading
                 attainment in black and white after initial reading
                 with color.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Evers:1968:AUC,
  author =       "C. H. Evers",
  title =        "Adjustments to Unjustified Composition on the
                 {{\booktitle{Rotterdamsch Nieuwsblad}}}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--74",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N1_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "On February 6, 1967, Rotterdamsch Nieuwsblad
                 introduced unjustified composition throughout the
                 newspaper. The advantages and disadvantages of
                 unjustified newspaper composition are discussed. The
                 history of its innovation in Rotterdam is described and
                 illustrated --- including the problems, benefits, and
                 reception by readers. This article has been adapted
                 from a report to a conference on the International
                 Federation of Newspaper Publishers in Paris last
                 fall.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:AGJ,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Author's Guide to {{\booktitle{The Journal of
                 Typographic Research}}}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "75--100",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N1_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1968:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "101--103",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N1_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Schmoller:1968:E,
  author =       "Hans Schmoller",
  title =        "To the editor",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "103--103",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Critical comment on \cite{Frutiger:1967:TIS}. See
                 comments \cite{Gurtler:1968:C,Zapf:1970:C}",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N1_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "104--104",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N1_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Smith:1968:TRM,
  author =       "Glendon C. Smith",
  title =        "Type Reading Machines for the Blind",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "107--125",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The most advanced personal type reading machine
                 described provides the blind user with an aural
                 ``spelled speech'' equivalent for each upper- and
                 lower-case letter or ligature scanned by a hand-held
                 optical probe. This character recognition machine
                 recognizes the most popular type fonts with moderate
                 accuracy and speed (80-90 words-per-minute). The
                 development of the hand-held probe for this machine has
                 resulted in a family of aural and tactile ``direct
                 translation'' reading aids which are pocket-sized and
                 battery-operated and may be used independently for
                 low-speed reading.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Enstrom:1968:RHR,
  author =       "E. A. Enstrom",
  title =        "Reading--handwriting Research",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "126--126",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpted with kind permission from \booktitle{The
                 Reading Teacher}, Volume 21, Number 6 (March 1968);
                 1968 by International Reading Association, Newark,
                 Delaware 19711.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Click:1968:RRN,
  author =       "J. W. Click and Guido H. {Stempel III}",
  title =        "Reader Response to Newspaper Front-page Format",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "127--142",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A study of responses to newspaper pages indicated that
                 persons may make judgments about the entire newspaper
                 on the basis of typography. Respondents were shown
                 front pages from six newspapers they had not seen
                 before and were asked to rate the newspapers on 20
                 semantic differential scales. There were significant
                 differences between ratings of newspapers on 12 of the
                 20 scales. Respondents seemed to prefer horizontal
                 pages and disliked symmetry.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Horowitz:1968:WFA,
  author =       "Leonard M. Horowitz and Margaret A. White and Douglas
                 W. Atwood",
  title =        "Words Fragments as Aids to Recall: the Organization of
                 a Word",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "143--156",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This paper discusses the organization of a single
                 word. It shows that the beginning of a word is the best
                 cue for eliciting that word; the middle is the poorest
                 cue. Subject was shown a list of words one by one on a
                 memory drum. (Some lists had six-letter words and some
                 had nine-letter words.) Then subject saw a fragment of
                 the word, and he had to recall the entire word. A
                 beginning fragment elicited the correst response most
                 readily and with the shortest latency. The middle
                 elicited the correst response least readily and with
                 the longest latency. These results are also related to
                 the issue of associative symmetry.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Turnbull:1968:RAA,
  author =       "A. T. Turnbull and David E. Carter",
  title =        "Readership of Advertisements with All-display
                 Typography",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "157--169",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Experts differ in their opinions regarding the effect
                 on readership of composing an entire advertisement in
                 all-display typography. A sampling in Life and Ladies
                 Home Journal magazines from 1954 through 1965 has
                 revealed an upward trend in the use of such ads. To
                 measure the effect, correlative studies were made
                 relating the numbers of words to Daniel Starch
                 readership records. Negative correlations were found
                 for ``Read Most'' and ``Seen Associated'' ratings. With
                 inherent reader interest in the advertised product held
                 constant, correlations for both ratings were low. It
                 was concluded that all-display typography may not be
                 restrictive in dampening readership. However, rank
                 correlations of all-display product categories with
                 category rankings from Starch findings were so high as
                 to lead to the conclusion that the effect on readership
                 beyond the reader-interest level was not likely.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:JEE,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Journal Editor for Experimental Design",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "170--170",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Pieter Brattinga h as been named Editor for
                 Experimental Design for \booktitle{The Journal of
                 Typographic Research}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Shera:1968:DM,
  author =       "Jesse H. Shera and Conrad H. Rawski",
  title =        "The Diagram Is the Message",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "171--188",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The diagram is a special case of picture-making. It
                 involves the same representational condition: the
                 mapping of a content in shapes which themselves possess
                 --- and transmit --- a characteristic content. It is
                 necessary to distinguish between the paradigmatic
                 intent and the emblematic form of a diagram. In the
                 postscript the error potential implicit in the
                 interplay of these properties is demonstrated by
                 examples which include the book arts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Coleman:1968:BRS,
  author =       "Carroll Coleman",
  title =        "Book Review: {{\booktitle{The Spiral Press through
                 Four Decades}}, An Exhibition of Books and Ephemera,
                 with a Commentary by Joseph Blumenthal. New York:
                 Pierpont Morgan Library, 1966. 100 pages. Clothbound
                 edition out of print; paperbound edition, \$2.85}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "189--193",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Taks:1968:E,
  author =       "J. J. Taks",
  title =        "To the {Editor}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "194--194",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1968:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "195--197",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "197--198",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:PA,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{{\booktitle{The Penrose Annual 1968}}}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "199--199",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N2_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bonsiepe:1968:MQO,
  author =       "Gui Bonsiepe",
  title =        "A Method of Quantifying Order in Typographic Design",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "203--220",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A description is given of a method to compare in
                 quantitative terms the degree of order of two
                 typographically designed pages. A distinction is made
                 between two kinds of order: the order of a system
                 (systemic order) and the order of arrangement. The
                 Shannon formula was used for measuring the degree of
                 order of the two designs --- an old version and its
                 redesign. It shows that a judgment based on optical
                 evidence can be supported by a mathematical-empirical
                 judgment. Possible consequences for an aesthetics based
                 on information theory are drawn. A design heuristic is
                 sketched, and the possibilities as well as limits of an
                 algorithmization of design decisions are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  xxtitle =      "Quantifying Order in Typographic Design",
}

@Article{Mountford:1968:WA,
  author =       "John Mountford",
  title =        "`{Writing}' and `Alphabet'",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "221--232",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The two English words ``writing'' and ``alphabet'' are
                 both linked to language. The notion of language is
                 built into ``writing,'' and the notion of writing is
                 built into ``alphabet.'' Different disciplines which
                 use these words and technical terms, use them
                 differently; and everyday usage is often imprecise.
                 Linguistics, as the science of language, can contribute
                 towards sorting these meanings out. A start is made in
                 this direction, in the belief that related disciplines
                 ought not to be ``divided by a common terminology.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Telingater:1968:SAG,
  author =       "Solomon B. Telingater",
  title =        "The Standardization of Alphabetic Graphemes",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "233--240",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "During the historic development of our national
                 alphabets the direct relationship between the sound of
                 the language and its visual symbols has become
                 obscured. The need for a stronger, direct relationship
                 between sound and symbol is discussed; a suggested
                 rearrangement of graphemes within our alphabet is
                 illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Slothouber:1968:TA,
  author =       "Jan Slothouber and William Graatsma",
  title =        "Typographic Anamorphosis",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "241--244",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Anamorphosis, an optical phenomenon meaning ``return
                 of form,'' consists in the perception of a deformed
                 figure as a normal figure. An example of
                 letter-anamorphosis recently created in Holland is
                 discussed an illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Brown:1968:TSM,
  author =       "Dwight D. Brown",
  title =        "Towards a Standard for Measuring the Accuracy of Any
                 Computer-hyphenation Program",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "245--258",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "No standard of measurement yet exists to measure
                 computer hyphenation accuracy. The author discusses the
                 need for such a standard; among considerations
                 discussed are: word frequency, hyphenation probability,
                 inter-word spacing, and line expansion factors. Very
                 high hyphenation accuracy can be obtained if the
                 computer program can select the words it chooses to
                 hyphenate without being ``chastised'' for failing to
                 hyphenate where hyphenation is possible. The author
                 presents a series of formulas for arriving at
                 hyphenation accuracy ratings in hyphenation errors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{vanderMarck:1968:PRP,
  author =       "Jan van der Marck",
  title =        "Pictures to be Read\slash Poetry to be Seen",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "259--270",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Language and pictoral representations are increasingly
                 being fused in contemporary visual arts. This trend
                 toward a visual language --- poetic rather than
                 communicative --- reflects a breakdown of tradition in
                 all the arts. It is discussed and illustrated in terms
                 of the work of specific artists brought together in an
                 exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art,
                 Chicago.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Zachrisson:1968:TLR,
  author =       "Bror Zachrisson",
  title =        "The {A.Typ.I.} Legibility Research Committee",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "271--276",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:LM,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "List of Members",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "277--277",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:TXC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{A.TYP.I XIth Congress; ICOGRADA 1968 Congress}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "278--278",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Foster:1968:CPR,
  author =       "Jeremy J. Foster",
  title =        "Commentary: Psychological Research into Legibility",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "279--282",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Baudin:1967:TER,Baudin:1968:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Welsh:1968:BRC,
  author =       "George S. Welsh",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {I. Coppersmith, Stanley (ed.).
                 \booktitle{Frontiers of Psychological Research:
                 Readings from Scientific American}. San Francisco:
                 Freeman and Co., 1966. 322 pages. \$10.00 (\$4.95 in
                 paper). 2. Gregory, R. L., \booktitle{Eye and Brain:
                 The Psychology of Seeing}. New York: McGraw-Hill, J
                 966. 254 pages. \$2.45 (paper). 3. Vernon, M. D. (ed.).
                 \booktitle{Experiments in Visual Perception: Selected
                 Readings}. Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1966. 443 pages.
                 \$1.95 (paper)}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "283--286",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:BR,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Books Received",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "287--291",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hutt:1968:C,
  author =       "G. Allen Hutt",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "292--292",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Huss:1967:CLT}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1968:RAAc,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "293--295",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "296--296",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N3_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Mergler:1968:OAC,
  author =       "H. W. Mergler and P. M. Vargo",
  title =        "One Approach to Computer Assisted Letter Design",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "299--322",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "ITSYLF is an interactive synthesizer of letterforms,
                 which can be used in the design and study of alphabets.
                 It is a computer assisted, operator oriented
                 programming system which allows a typographic designer
                 to enter numeric values through a keyboard and
                 manipulate the characteristics of the letterforms
                 quickly and easily. The alphabet was divided into
                 classes, based on geometric properties of the letters.
                 A set of parameters was derived that allows the
                 construction and manipulation of the letter shapes
                 based on mathematical models of the letters. A set of
                 programs was generated that produces a drawing of the
                 letter which corresponds to the current parameter
                 values. Examples of the effects on the letter shapes of
                 various sets of parameter values are presented for E,
                 A, D, C as well as examples of computer generated
                 serifs and three sets of consistant letterforms that
                 could be used as the basis for several new alphabets.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Moorsel:1968:TL,
  author =       "L. Leering-van Moorsel",
  title =        "The Typography of {El Lissitzky}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "323--340",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Around 1920 there was ferment in all of the arts.
                 Lissitzky (1890--1941) developed his art during this
                 period and was influenced by such men as Malevich
                 (supermatism) and Tatlin (constructivism). His
                 typographic innovations are individualistic and connot
                 be classified with any single ``movement.'' Lissitzky's
                 work and ideas on typography --- of a pre-eminently
                 pictoral quality --- are summarized and illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Seybold:1968:EVC,
  author =       "John W. Seybold",
  title =        "Esthetic Values in Computerized Photocomposition",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "341--350",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Can the computer achieve the same quality composition
                 as a skilled typesetter? The author identifies some
                 factors which contribute to successful esthetic
                 solutions and discusses the compromises that must be
                 considered, for example, in hyphenation and
                 justification. ``Feedback'' of information and ideas
                 from typographer to computer programmer is
                 encouraged.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Zapf:1968:CLD,
  author =       "Hermann Zapf",
  title =        "Changes in Letterforms Due to Technical Developments",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "351--368",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A brief historical survey traces the major
                 technological influences on typography, beginning when
                 Gutenberg transferred the handwritten letters of the
                 medieval scribes into typographic forms, down through
                 the development of machine composition, both in hot
                 metal and photocomposition. Today new problems arise in
                 connenction with automated optical reading machines.
                 Not only must the technial requirements of computerized
                 composition be mastered, but we also have to consider
                 the demand for new alphabet designs as an expression of
                 our time, departing from historicizing elements of past
                 styles.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Emans:1968:CCA,
  author =       "Robert Emans",
  title =        "Context Clues as an Aid to the Reader",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "369--373",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Context clues have been referred to as the most
                 important single aid to word perception. The author
                 proposes a simplified schema to organize context clues
                 according to three categories for pereception of
                 printed words --- meaning clues, language clues, and
                 organization clues--and within each of the categories,
                 describes a number of types of context clues and gives
                 examples.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Flarsheim:1968:RP,
  author =       "Carl Flarsheim and Warren Infield and Alan Levine and
                 Adrienne C. McCoy",
  title =        "Research in Progress",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "374--378",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hoch:1968:CLW,
  author =       "Ernest Hoch",
  title =        "Commentary: Linguistics, ``Writing,'' and Typography",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "379--382",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Meyer:1968:BRS,
  author =       "Peter Meyer and Henry Hawley",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {I. Stephen Bann (Ed.).
                 \booktitle{Concrete Poetry. An international
                 anthology}. London: London Magazine Editions No. 13,
                 1967. 199 pages. 30s. 2. Eugene Wildman (ed.).
                 \booktitle{The Chicago Review Anthology of Concretism}.
                 Chicago: Swallow Press, 1967. 15 7 pages. \$2.00. 3.
                 Emmett William (Ed.). \booktitle{An Anthology of
                 Concrete Poetry}. New York: Something Else Press, 196
                 7. X + 342 pages. \$10.00 (cloth), \$3.00 (paper). John
                 Russell Taylor. \booktitle{The Art Nouveau Book in
                 Britain}. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press, 1966, 175 pp.
                 \$12.95}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "383--391",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See letters \cite{HamiltonFinlay:1969:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% Check: Page 391 in the issue PDF file is followed by 5 unnumbered
%%% pages with drawings, then by p. 397.  There may be a missing article
%%% title, given the gap of one page.
@Article{Baudin:1968:C,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "397--397",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Baudin:1967:TER,Foster:1968:CPR}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gurtler:1968:C,
  author =       "Andr{\'e} G{\"u}rtler",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "397--398",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Schmoller:1968:E}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Spear:1968:C,
  author =       "Frank Spear and Jack Stauffacher and Daniel Ford and
                 John Willett and Howard Paine",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "398--401",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "Negative and positive comments on the journal cover
                 design, with its overlapping letters.",
}

@Article{Baudin:1968:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "402--404",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:IVI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume II}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "405--407",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1968:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "II",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "408--408",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1968",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V2N4_1968_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Meiss:1969:FAT,
  author =       "Millard Meiss",
  title =        "The First Alphabetical Treatises in the
                 {Renaissance}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--30",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N1_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Treatises on the design of the alphabet were an
                 innovation of the early Renaissance and reflect that
                 period's conception of a world ordered by numerical
                 proportion and geometric shape. The interrelationship
                 of the various men and their theories is discussed and
                 illustrated. Although Felice Feliciano inaugurated
                 these alphabetical treatises, Andrea Mantegna is shown
                 to have had an important place (if not key role) in the
                 revival of the roman letter.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Munson:1969:CRH,
  author =       "John H. Munson",
  title =        "Computer Recognition of Hand-printed Text",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "31--61",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N1_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This paper describes the procedures and results of a
                 project aimed at the computer recognition of relatively
                 unconstrained hand-printed texts. Scanning,
                 feature-extraction, and character classification
                 techniques are described. Novel approaches investigated
                 include a feature-extracting preprocessor consisting
                 entirely of local edge detectors, the use of
                 multiple-valued confidence indicators both before and
                 after classification, the combining of independent
                 preprocessor-classifier systems in parallel to achieve
                 improved character-recognition accuracy, and the use of
                 application-oriented context analysis. Two large files
                 of hand-printed data are described, and results
                 concerning their legibility are given. An extensive
                 bibliography in hand-printed character recognition is
                 included.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Crosby:1969:RMP,
  author =       "R. M. N. Crosby",
  title =        "Recognizing the Marks on Paper",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "63--78",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N1_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Relatively little is known about how a child learns to
                 read --- i.e., what processes go on in his mind. In
                 dealing with how the beginning reader learns to
                 differentiate graphic symbols, this article considers
                 several related problems: How does preschool experience
                 hamper the child in his initial discrimination of
                 letter-like forms? How does a child learn to
                 differentiate between letters? And between words? What
                 is the correlation between reading and writing? Several
                 reading research programs are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Shurtleff:1969:RLL,
  author =       "Donald Shurtleff",
  title =        "Relative Legibility of {Leroy and Lincoln\slash MITRE}
                 Fonts on Television",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--90",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N1_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The legibility of standard Leroy alphanumeric symbols
                 was compared with that of a new font, the
                 Lincoln/MITRE, on a television monitor at resolutions
                 of 8, 10, 12 and 14 lines per symbol height. The new
                 font was not superior in legibility to the Leroy font
                 at any of the values of resolutions tested. While the
                 findings for the new font were negative, insights were
                 gained about how to improve symbol design for more
                 legible television displays. It was recommended that
                 these new design techniques be evaluated in future work
                 on television displays.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  xxauthor =     "David Shurtleff",
}

@Article{Lindley:1969:TEE,
  author =       "William R. Lindley",
  title =        "Typographic Education. {England}: {The Working Party
                 on Typographic Teaching}. {USA}: Typography in
                 Journalism School Curricula",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "91--106",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N1_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1969:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "107--109",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N1_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "110--110",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N1_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:BNJ,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Back Numbers of the {{\booktitle{Journal}}}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "111--112",
  month =        jan,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N1_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1969:LRN,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "Letterform Research Needs Definition and Direction: A
                 Report from the {Editor}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "115--126",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "With this its tenth issue, the total number of pages
                 published in The Journal or Typographic Research passes
                 1,000. This milestone would seem to provide the
                 opportunity for a report on the Journal and on current
                 letterform research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bartz:1969:TVP,
  author =       "Barbara S. Bartz",
  title =        "Type Variation and the Problem of Cartographic Type
                 Legibility --- {Part One}: Cartographic Typography as a
                 Medium for Communication; The Cartographic View of
                 Legibility",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "127--144",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See correspondence \cite{Zapf:1970:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "An analysis of the varied functions of lettering on
                 the map suggests that typographic appearance and
                 arrangement on the map may be viewed with respect to a
                 symbolic-analogic continuum. Type is considered to be:
                 1. Symbolic; 2. Analogic --- a. Locative analogy, b.
                 Quality analogy and c. Quantity analogy (or value
                 analogy). A review of the cartographic literature
                 having to do with the conception and treatment of
                 ``legibility'' reveals that its content is derived
                 primarily from typographic research done in
                 non-cartographic context. Since it can be shown that
                 type on maps is unique in several ways, the
                 applicability of that research is questioned.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% Check: pages 145--146 are misplaced in the issue PDF file, V3N2_1969_E.pdf;
%%% They are found after page 158.
@Article{Kolers:1969:CLR,
  author =       "Paul A. Kolers",
  title =        "Clues to a Letter's Recognition: Implications for the
                 Design of Characters",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "145--168",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Several experiments are reviewed in which orientation
                 of letters and direction of reading were manipulated.
                 The results imply that skilled reader recognize letters
                 by selecting clues to their identity and with these
                 clues construct a subjective representation of the
                 letters. The clue-seeking seems to be directed toward
                 the right-hand side of letters. This finding suggests
                 that typefaces might be redesigned to avoid bold
                 strokes weighted on their left or heavy strokes that
                 are all of equal weight. Some indications of where a
                 character begins and a sharpening of the useful detail
                 on the characters' right could facilitate the sampling
                 that yields recognition. A second implication is that
                 character-transmitting devices need not examine or
                 transmit all of a character. Reconstruction, if needed,
                 could be performed by the received instrument from the
                 clues provided by a representation of the character's
                 linear extent and its right-hand markings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{DiMeo:1969:VMS,
  author =       "Katherine P. DiMeo",
  title =        "Visual-motor Skills: Response Characteristics and
                 Prereading Behavior",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "169--182",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Assumed facets of kindergarten subjects' visual-motor
                 skill were studied by an analysis of the
                 interrelationships in response characteristics to a set
                 of geometric forms. Implications for initial response
                 to letterforms (reading readiness) is discussed. Two
                 measures of intersensory equivalence were used with the
                 stimulus perceived through the sense of active touch
                 (haptics). Stimulus characteristics --- contour,
                 closure, size, rotation and embeddedness --- were
                 varied in five visual-discrimination subtexts.
                 Kindergarten subjects' V-M skill is significantly
                 related to achievement in intersensory equivalences and
                 in visual discrimination of geometric forms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Rice:1969:SCT,
  author =       "Stanley Rice",
  title =        "A Standard Code for Typographic Character
                 Identification",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "183--192",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "An industry-wide standard code to identify typographic
                 characters and their uses for electronic character
                 generation is proposed. The code would facilitate both
                 traditional and automatic analyses of character sets
                 and provide a mutually intelligible communication
                 channel for author, editor, designer and compositor.
                 Reactions to the code are solicited.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Roth:1969:ETM,
  author =       "Joel A. Roth",
  title =        "Excerpt: Typography That Makes the Reader Work",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "193--196",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Book typography today basically follows the same
                 configurations on the page that it has since books have
                 been printed with movable type. Except for relatively
                 minor alterations, the reader of today's book is
                 confronted with page after unrelieved page of blocks of
                 type. But that may be changing. As McLuhan notes, the
                 works of artists are often far in advance of what later
                 becomes common usage. If this is so, then the work of
                 several novelists and designers today may presage a new
                 use for typography on the book page in the future. This
                 new use for typography is based on erratic type
                 arrangement which pulls the reader in as an active
                 participant, and makes reading a creative act rather
                 than passive absorption of information.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1969:BRH,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Colin Banks and Ruari McLean",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {H. D. L. Vervliet,
                 \booktitle{Sixteenth-century Printing Types of the Low
                 Countries}. Jan Tschichold, \booktitle{Asymmetric
                 Typography}. David Diringer, \booktitle{The
                 Alphabet}}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "197--208",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{HamiltonFinlay:1969:C,
  author =       "Ian {Hamilton Finlay} and Peter Mayer",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "209--212",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Meyer:1968:BRS}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1969:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "213--215",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "216--216",
  month =        apr,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N2_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bruns:1969:MTL,
  author =       "Gerald L. Bruns",
  title =        "{Mallarm{\'e}}: The Transcendence of Language and the
                 Aesthetics of the Book",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "219--240",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Mallarm{\'e}'s dream of a book in which all existence
                 is to be contained is predicted upon the isolation of
                 poetic language between the world of things and the
                 universe of meaning. Ordinary speech is structured in
                 order to mediate between these two worlds, but
                 Mallarm{\'e} seeks to liberate poetic language from
                 this mediating function, and to establish it as a
                 reality in a world of its own, by substituting the
                 syntax of music for the syntax of speech. Moreover, the
                 syntax of music is to be realized typographically: the
                 words of the poem are to be arranged within the spatial
                 field of the white page in a way that describes a
                 musical structure. Thus the world will find expression
                 in a book --- not, however, as a structure of meanings,
                 but in abstract form as a system of pure relations.
                 Mallarm{\'e} gestures toward his ideal book in Un Coup
                 de d{\'e}s, in which a simple narrative is organized,
                 not temporally as a sequence of episodes, but spatially
                 and typographically as a concurrence of themes that are
                 distinguished chiefly by different point sizes of type.
                 Thus typography becomes a principle of composition and
                 the book itself a part of the poetic universe.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wendt:1969:X,
  author =       "Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "{O} or 0?",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "241--248",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See discussion \cite{Nesbitt:1971:C,Nadler:1972:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "There is a need for a universal and aesthetic solution
                 to the current problem of distinguishing between the
                 capital letter oh and the numeral zero on electronic
                 data processing equipment. Practices leading to the
                 present lack of understanding and differentiation are
                 discussed and illustrated. A new proposal for
                 distinguishing between the oh and the zero is
                 advanced.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Vartabedian:1969:PFG,
  author =       "Allen G. Vartabedian",
  title =        "A Proposed Fontstyle for the Graphic Representation of
                 the Oh and Zero",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "249--258",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See correspondence
                 \cite{Zapf:1970:C,Nesbitt:1971:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A new fontstyle is proposed for the machine rendering
                 of the graphic representation of the letter oh and the
                 number zero. It prescribes placing a loop on the oh and
                 drawing the zero as an oval. The new convention is
                 intended for use in communication environments where
                 the discriminability of graphic symbols is critical.
                 These environments include use of devices such as
                 teleprinters, computer line printers, keypunch machines
                 and cathode ray tube displays. The proposed new
                 fontstyle does not draw upon previous conventions for
                 distinguishing between these symbols and consequently
                 avoids a current conflict in slashing either the oh or
                 zero. A design criterion is also presented for
                 distinguishing between the numbers and letters of a
                 given font.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Tanselle:1969:UTD,
  author =       "G. Thomas Tanselle",
  title =        "The Use of Type Damage as Evidence in Bibliographical
                 Description",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "259--276",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Accidental variations in the typography of books can
                 furnish important clues about the regular processes of
                 printing --- both in compositorial analysis and the
                 classification and ordering of successive printings,
                 issue and states. The article considers the question:
                 what degree of physical detail should be recorded in a
                 descriptive bibliography? Examples of type-damage
                 discovered in a collation of Herman Melville's works
                 are illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Burns:1969:RGA,
  author =       "J. R. Burns",
  title =        "A Report Generator Approach to Automated Page
                 Composition",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "277--286",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Because of restrictions in the practical production of
                 multiple copies of computer output by a line printed, a
                 high-speed photocomposition system --- the Master
                 Typography System --- was developed to work in
                 conjunction with the Linotron 1010 at the US Government
                 Printing Office. The system composes pages of
                 repetitive, computer-based information using the report
                 generator approach dedicated to a limited area of
                 concern. The system is described and some typical
                 output is illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:LA,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Letterforms in the Arts",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "287--292",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 09 15:07:12 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Reynolds:1969:CMM,
  author =       "Lloyd Reynolds and R. J. Wakefield",
  title =        "Comment: {Marshall McLuhan} and Italic Handwriting;
                 Comment: Publishing by Computer",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "293--300",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 09 15:07:12 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:ER,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Exhibition Review",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "301--305",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 09 15:07:12 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Banks:1969:BRE,
  author =       "Colin Banks",
  title =        "Book Review: {Erik Dal, \booktitle{Scandinavian
                 Bookmaking in the Twentieth Century}. Copenhagen:
                 Christian Ejlers Forlag (also published Urbana: The
                 University of Illinois Press), 1968. 128pp. \$5.50}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "306--308",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 09 15:07:12 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1969:RAAc,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "309--311",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 09 15:07:12 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "312--312",
  month =        jul,
  year =         "1969",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 09 15:07:12 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N3_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kaldor:1969:GRG,
  author =       "Ivan L. Kaldor",
  title =        "The Genesis of {Russian} {{\em Grazhdanskii Shrift\/}}
                 or Civil Type --- {Part I}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "315--344",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See also Part II \cite{Kaldor:1970:GRG}",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The development and adoption of grazhdanskii shrift or
                 civil type by Peter I (1689--1725) is considered as a
                 step with social and cultural implications for the late
                 seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century Russia that
                 go far beyond the impact of any innovation recorded in
                 the general history of printing --- save the
                 introduction of printing with movable type. The paper
                 offers a documented history of the creation of
                 grazhdanskii shrift. In an attempt to identify possible
                 models used by the designer of the new type
                 contemporaneous engraved texts with characters of
                 potential prefigurations are examined. Transitional
                 types used by Western typographers in the Tsar's
                 service are identified and analyzed with the same
                 purpose. Finally, the actual creation of the new type
                 --- the first modern typeface used in Russia --- is
                 traced starting with the search for an episode that may
                 have triggered the idea in Peter I at the turn of the
                 century to the imperial ukaz enforcing the use of
                 grazhdanskii shrift in all lay works of printing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Turbayne:1969:VLV,
  author =       "Colin Murray Turbayne",
  title =        "Visual Language from the Verbal Model",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "345--370",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Hypothesis: the visible world is a script, presented
                 in alphabetical forms, which we have to learn to read.
                 In looking at the ancient problem of how we see, we
                 must first consider the conflict of common sense vs.
                 illusion in our interpretation of what we see. Man
                 learns to decode a complex code of vision, which
                 includes bridging the gulf between a written language
                 and a spoken language (both called, for example,
                 ``English'') as well as between visuals and tactuals.
                 Seeing is modeled upon reading; painting, sculpture and
                 photography are modeled on writing --- and are forms of
                 writing in visual language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ovink:1969:FTD,
  author =       "G. W. Ovink",
  title =        "Fashion in Type Design",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "371--377",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "While ``fashion'' tends to have unfavorable
                 connotations, ``style'' is interpreted as a favorable
                 unity of the principles of form of a certain epoch.
                 Questions of fashion in type design today are
                 conditioned on different situations than before World
                 War II, mostly due to the rise of photocomposition and
                 easy reproduction of drawn lettering. Careful execution
                 and self-discipline are no longer required;
                 typographers prefer neutral types, creating their own
                 expression through typographic design. We have today a
                 dominance of the classicist tendency in typography:
                 type is meant to be read. However, in printing types
                 purely utilitarian forms hardly exist; type design has
                 other subjective, emotional purposes. Type designers
                 should be encouraged to create free forms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:CJS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Changes in Journal Subscription Policy",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "378--378",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Brattinga:1969:HSN,
  author =       "Pieter Brattinga",
  title =        "The House-style of {The Netherlands PTT}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "379--386",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "``House-style'' is defined as the aesthetic ordering
                 of all facets of a corporation's business, both public
                 and private. The origins and history of The Netherlands
                 PTT house-style is briefly traced from the pioneer work
                 of Jean Francois van Royen (circa 1910) through Dr.
                 Hein van Haaren's direction today. Examples of stamp
                 and booklet design through this period are
                 illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bartz:1969:SAC,
  author =       "Barbara S. Bartz",
  title =        "Search: an Approach to Cartographic Type Legibility
                 Measurement",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "387--398",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "A summary of this research is contained in Barbara S.
                 Ba rtz, \booktitle{Type Variation and the Problem of
                 Cartographic Type Legibility} (Madison: Ph.D.
                 Dissertation, University of Wisconsin, 1969). See
                 correspondence \cite{Zapf:1970:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "It is proposed that a new task be selected for
                 measuring the effect of type variation in cartographic
                 context, and that since every name on a map must be
                 found before it can be processed further, ``search''
                 would be such a meaningful task. From this, a
                 definition of cartographic legibility would be held to
                 include the notion, ``the speed with which the map can
                 be searched.'' Some literature is cited to show the
                 utility of the search task in general, and various
                 considerations which would restrict its use in map
                 research context are also outlined.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:RS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Response Sheet",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "399--399",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:PAV,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{{\booktitle{The Penrose Annual 1969}, Volume 62}}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "400--400",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1969:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "401--403",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "404--404",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1969:IVI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume III}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "III",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "405--407",
  month =        oct,
  year =         "1969",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V3N4_1969_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:GIa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--6",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "\booktitle{The Journal of Typographic Research} is
                 devoted to critical investigation and experimentation
                 that contribute to a better understanding of the role
                 letterforms play in the communication process.
                 ``Typography'' is interpreted in the broadest possible
                 sense, encompassing any use or reproduction of
                 letterforms and related symbols within our own and
                 other language systems --- and including their origins,
                 historic development and special applications. It is
                 the journal's purpose, first to identify and encourage
                 letterform research internationally, and second to
                 pursue the natural association of experimental work in
                 all research areas concerned with our visible
                 language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Lees:1970:IDP,
  author =       "John Lees and Melvin Farman",
  title =        "An Investigation of the Design and Performance of
                 Traffic Control Devices",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7--38",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This paper reports on a study (performed for the
                 United States Bureau of Public Roads) involving a
                 comparative analysis of the design elements of the
                 major highway sign symbols of the world. Shape, color,
                 symbols, pictographs and verbal messages were studied
                 through design exercises, laboratory investigations and
                 road tests. The study --- carried out by a
                 multi-disciplinary team of psychologists, engineers and
                 graphic designers --- also included extensive reviews
                 of existing research on highway signs, traffic control
                 devices and the design of signs. The introduction
                 examines the history of highway sign development and
                 regulation as well as a discussion of an automobile
                 driver's processing of information.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Scorsone:1970:LDC,
  author =       "Joesph S. Scorsone",
  title =        "Ligature Design for Contemporary Technology",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "39--50",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Computer-aided composition has eliminated restrictions
                 on the number of characters that can be stored
                 practically in a font of printing type. A system of 27
                 ligatures was designed as an addition to both
                 sans-serif and roman fonts. The development of the
                 ligatures in News Gothic and Century Schoolbook
                 typefaces is discussed and illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Crouwel:1970:TDC,
  author =       "Wim Crouwel",
  title =        "Type Design for the Computer Age",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--59",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Although typography has always reflected the cultural
                 pattern of its period, today's typefaces and
                 typographic designers are a reflection of the past, not
                 of contemporary society. We must think in terms of our
                 electronic media and contemporary forms of expression.
                 A suggested approach for designing today's typography
                 --- based on a cell or unit system --- is discussed and
                 illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Becker:1970:RPT,
  author =       "D. Becker and J. Heinrich and R. von Sichowsky and
                 Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "Reader Preferences for Typeface and Leading",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "61--66",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This paper investigates the influence of typeface and
                 leading on perceived appealingness of a printed page.
                 Eighty subjects judged the attractiveness of 48
                 typographic designs, varying in typeface (Garamond,
                 Bodoni Antiqua, Bodoni Kursiv, Akzidenz Grotesk), in
                 justified vs. unjustified composition, and in leading
                 (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 points). Judgments were made by
                 rank ordering subsets of six specimens. A scaling
                 procedure (comparative judgment) was applied to the
                 data and gave scale values for each design. There was
                 no significant difference between mean and scale values
                 for justified and unjustified composition, but
                 different typefaces required different amounts of
                 leading to allow most appealing composition.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Montague:1970:DIT,
  author =       "Arleigh Montague",
  title =        "Designing the Initial Teaching Alphabet in Five
                 Typefaces",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--72",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Although use of i.t.a. (Initial Teaching Alphabet) in
                 schools is growing, its use in printed materials is
                 handicapped by inadequate adaptation to typeface
                 design. This study involved designing the i.t.a.
                 alphabet for five well-known typefaces: Century
                 Schoolbook, Baskerville, Melior, Helvetica and Optima.
                 The process is briefly described and the new alphabets
                 are illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Brown:1970:SRM,
  author =       "W. S. Brown",
  title =        "Speed-reading Made Easy",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--75",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This paper advocates and illustrates an unusual
                 typography, which promises to make speed reading
                 easier, faster and more reliable. It is suggested that
                 computers be used to prepare text in this form.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:LRA,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Legibility Research Abstracts",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "76--76",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ong:1970:CVP,
  author =       "Walter J. Ong",
  title =        "Comment: Voice, Print, and Culture",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "77--83",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Parker:1970:WI,
  author =       "Brant Parker and Johnny Hart",
  title =        "The {Wizard of Id}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "84--84",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brant_Parker;
                 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnny_Hart;
                 https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "Cartoon commentary on typesetter employment.",
}

@Article{Noordzij:1970:RJD,
  author =       "Gerrit Noordzij",
  title =        "Reading the Journal: a discussion of starting points
                 in the issue of {April 1969}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "85--90",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1970:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "91--93",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:BA,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "[{Book}] Announcements",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "94--94",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "96--96",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:GIb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--102",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N1_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "\booktitle{The Journal of Typographic Research} is
                 devoted to critical investigation and experimentation
                 that contribute to a better understanding of the role
                 letterforms play in the communication process.
                 ``Typography'' is interpreted in the broadest possible
                 sense, encompassing any use or reproduction of
                 letterforms and related symbols within our own and
                 other language systems --- and including their origins,
                 historic development and special applications. It is
                 the journal's purpose, first to identify and encourage
                 letterform research internationally, and second to
                 pursue the natural association of experimental work in
                 all research areas concerned with our visible
                 language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Goodman:1970:PUR,
  author =       "Kenneth S. Goodman",
  title =        "Psycholinguistic Universals in the Reading Process",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "103--110",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Literate speakers in any language have two alternative
                 surface language forms which are realizations of the
                 same deep structure and which represent alternate
                 encodings of the same meaning. For the proficient
                 reader, written language becomes parallel to speech and
                 not a secondary representation of it. Listening and
                 reading are processes in which the language user may
                 sample, select and predict from the available signal.
                 Readers are users of language who process graphic,
                 syntactic and semantic information simultaneously.
                 Readers develop strategies for the efficient sampling
                 of the graphic signal in relation to the syntax of
                 their language and the concept and experiences with
                 which the passage is concerned. The essential
                 characteristics of the reading process are universal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kaldor:1970:GRG,
  author =       "Ivan L. Kaldor",
  title =        "The Genesis of the {Russian} {{\em Grazhdanskii
                 Shrift}} or Civil Type --- {Part II}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "111--138",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See also Part I \cite{Kaldor:1969:GRG}",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Part II of the Kaldor paper is based on the assumption
                 that the first Russian modern type (i.e., Peter I's
                 grazhdanskii shrift) was patterned after three basic
                 models: (a) the late seventeenth- and early
                 eighteenth-century Russian civil hands, (b) the
                 outmoded poluustav type, and (c) the contemporaneous
                 Western roman types. The impact of Western roman types
                 appears to be the most significant. In his search for a
                 particular work that might have served as a source, the
                 author proposes the hypothesis that the roman type used
                 in Matthias D{\"o}gen's Architectura militaris moderna
                 and, to some extent, in Peter's favorite Symbola et
                 emblemata were the models applied by the designer. A
                 type-by-type analysis of the original three versions of
                 grazhdanskii shrift is used to support the basic
                 theory.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Foster:1970:DCF,
  author =       "Jeremy J. Foster",
  title =        "Directional Consistency in Form Identification",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "139--145",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "An experiment is reported, the results of which are
                 taken to support Kolers' theory of directional
                 consistency in letter identification. The connection
                 between this effect and a number of studies on the
                 identification of tachistoscopically presented patterns
                 is commented upon. The connection between the effect
                 and the results of experiments on visual search is also
                 noted.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Burnhill:1970:CSW,
  author =       "Peter Burnhill",
  title =        "The Case for a Standard Word Space",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "146--146",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bartz:1970:EUS,
  author =       "Barbara S. Bartz",
  title =        "Experimental Use of the Search Task in an Analysis of
                 Type Legibility in Cartography",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "147--167",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Search was used as an experimental task to investigate
                 one aspect of legibility in cartographic typography.
                 Subjects searched a variety of maps under several
                 different conditions. There are four major conclusions
                 from this research. For random search of the maps
                 containing only one typeface, the typographic variation
                 from map to map did not produce a significant effect on
                 average search time. On mixed-type maps, search is
                 slowed if the user has no correct expectation of the
                 appearance of the type in which the target name will
                 appear. On these same maps, search is greatly speeded
                 if the user has a correct expectation of the target
                 name appearance. Search time in a one-name task is less
                 a function of typography than it is of many other
                 factors.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:GBC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{Goudy, Baskerville, Caslon, Bodoni}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "168--168",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Cartoon from \booktitle{The New Yorker Magazine},
                 1964.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Pulos:1970:CDE,
  author =       "Arthur J. Pulos",
  title =        "Comment: Design Education",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "169--172",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kindersley:1970:BRJ,
  author =       "David Kindersley",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {Jan Tschichold, \booktitle{Treasury of
                 Alphabets and Lettering}. New York: Reinhold Publishing
                 Corporation, 1966. (Originally published in Germany,
                 \booktitle{Meisterbuch der Schriff}. Ravensburg: Otto
                 Maier Verlag.) 234 pages (175 pages of illustration).
                 \$16.50. Tom Gourdie, \booktitle{A Guide to Better
                 Handwriting}. New York: The Viking Press, 1967 (London:
                 Studio Vista, 1967). 96 pages. \$1.95. Dana Atchley,
                 \booktitle{ABC Design}. New York: George Wittenborn,
                 1965. 30 pages of illustration, some hand-written text.
                 \$9.00. L'Harl Copeland, \booktitle{Design of the Roman
                 Letters}. New York: Philosophical Library, 1966. ix +
                 66 pages, illustrated. \$3.75. Eric Lindegren,
                 \booktitle{ABC of Lettering and Printing Types}. New
                 York: Museum Books. Produced by Eric Lindegren Gratisk
                 Studio, Askim, Sweden. \booktitle{Volume A}: 150 pages
                 of illustrations, 4 pages of text, 1964. \$12.50.
                 \booktitle{Volume B}: 293 pages of illustrations, 30
                 pages of text, 1965. \$15.00. \booktitle{Volume C}: 133
                 pages of illustrations with text, 1965. \$15.00}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "173--176",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1970:BRH,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {Herbert Spencer, \booktitle{The Visible
                 Word}. London: Lund Humphries in association with the
                 Royal College of Art, 1969. 107pp. 50s (New York:
                 Hastings House, \$7.95). Ruari McLean,
                 \booktitle{Magazine Design}. London: Oxford University
                 Press, 1969. 354 pp. \pounds 5.5.0}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "176--178",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Zapf:1970:C,
  author =       "Hermann Zapf and Allen G. Vartabedian and Adrian
                 Frutiger and J. A. M. Haddon and G. W. Ovink",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "179--188",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "See
                 \cite{Vartabedian:1969:PFG,Schmoller:1968:E,Bartz:1969:TVP,Bartz:1969:SAC,Nesbitt:1971:C}.",
}

@Article{Baudin:1970:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "189--191",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--192",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N2_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:GIc,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--198",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "\booktitle{The Journal of Typographic Research} is
                 devoted to critical investigation and experimentation
                 that contribute to a better understanding of the role
                 letterforms play in the communication process.
                 ``Typography'' is interpreted in the broadest possible
                 sense, encompassing any use or reproduction of
                 letterforms and related symbols within our own and
                 other language systems --- and including their origins,
                 historic development and special applications. It is
                 the journal's purpose, first to identify and encourage
                 letterform research internationally, and second to
                 pursue the natural association of experimental work in
                 all research areas concerned with our visible
                 language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Arnheim:1970:WTP,
  author =       "Rudolf Arnheim",
  title =        "Words in Their Place",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "199--212",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Although language helps thinking, it is not
                 indispensable to thought and its structure or
                 perceptual dimensions as a medium of thought are
                 severely limited. What makes language valuable for
                 thinking is our use of words to refer to other though
                 media, such as visual imagery. Not being restricted as
                 language is to linearity, the visual medium offers
                 structural equivalences to all characteristics of
                 objects, events, relationships --- in two and three
                 dimensions. A literary image grows through accretion by
                 amendment; a pictorial image presents itself whole, in
                 simultaneity",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Noordzij:1970:BSC,
  author =       "Gerrit Noordzij",
  title =        "Broken Scripts and the Classification of Typefaces",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "213--240",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See follow-up work \cite{Tracy:1971:TDC} and comments
                 \cite{Nesbitt:1971:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Current systems of typeface classification are
                 fundamentally useless as they isolate type from other
                 renderings of handwriting. Typeface design can only be
                 understood in its relation to handwriting. The German
                 classification system (DIN 16 518) is analyzed, and a
                 binary classification system is suggested --- not of
                 type only, but of writing generally. Broken type is not
                 more German than other derivatives of the roman
                 alphabet; its isolation has done much damage to German
                 type design and typography.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Patteson:1970:SIA,
  author =       "Roy K. {Patteson, Jr.}",
  title =        "The {Siloam Inscription} and Alphabetic Origins",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "241--257",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The Siloam Inscription is one of the most important
                 monuments to alphabetic writing. It is, however, almost
                 unknown to people in Western civilization. This article
                 relates the story of its discovery and points to some
                 of the evidence for the development of writing
                 contained within that inscription. The acrophonic
                 principle, upon which the inscription is based, seems
                 to have been the invention of a domestic situation
                 within Palestine. Theories about the origin of the
                 alphabet are discussed, with a tenative conclusion that
                 Palestine was the alphabet's place of origin.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Senator:1970:S,
  author =       "Cassiodorus Senator",
  title =        "On Scribes",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "258--258",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Reprinted from \booktitle{An Introduction to Divine
                 and Human Readings}, Chapter XXX; translated with an
                 introduction and notes by Leslie Webber Jones (New
                 York: Columbia University Press, 1946).",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  author-dates = "480--575 CE",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hunt:1970:TRR,
  author =       "Allen Hunt",
  title =        "{Times Roman}: a Re-assessment",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "259--270",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In its original concept, Times Roman was an
                 ``oldstyle'' typeface, and essentially a restyling of
                 Monotype Plantin. It was designed for a newspaper
                 produced under high production standards which no
                 longer exist. Its usefulness as a newspaper text face
                 is waning, but it has continued wide acceptance for
                 periodicals and books, particularly in the United
                 States. The various modifications of Times Roman ---
                 e.g., Times Bold, Times Titling --- are discussed and
                 illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:PAN,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Proposed {American National Standard}: {Presentation}
                 of Alphameric Characters for Information Processing",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "271--280",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Brattinga:1970:BRH,
  author =       "Pieter Brattinga and Lawrence W. Wallis",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {Herbert Spencer. \booktitle{Pioneers of
                 Modern Typography}. London: Lund Humphries, 1969, 162
                 pp. 84/-. Arthur H. Phillips. \booktitle{Computer
                 Peripherals and Typesetting}. London: Her Majesty's
                 Stationery Office, 1968, 665 pp. 160/- (Cloth)}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "281--284",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1970:RAAc,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "285--287",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "288--288",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N3_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:GId,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "291--294",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "\booktitle{The Journal of Typographic Research} is
                 devoted to critical investigation and experimentation
                 that contribute to a better understanding of the role
                 letterforms play in the communication process.
                 ``Typography'' is interpreted in the broadest possible
                 sense, encompassing any use or reproduction of
                 letterforms and related symbols within our own and
                 other language systems --- and including their origins,
                 historic development and special applications. It is
                 the journal's purpose, first to identify and encourage
                 letterform research internationally, and second to
                 pursue the natural association of experimental work in
                 all research areas concerned with our visible
                 language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Mountford:1970:SPC,
  author =       "John Mountford",
  title =        "Some Psycholinguistic Components of Initial Standard
                 Literacy",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "295--306",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Literacy is a linguistic term predicated of
                 individuals. It means ability to use language in the
                 medium of writing. Standard literacy is the particular
                 kind of literacy required by educational systems, viz.
                 literacy in a standard language. Initial standard
                 literacy is a more adequate term for what is commonly
                 called the teaching of reading. Five psycholinguistic
                 components are suggested: knowledge of a standard
                 language; knowledge of its standard orthography
                 (distinguished from other kinds of writing systems);
                 technical concept' of literacy; `habitudes' of
                 literacy; basic skills of literacy (reading and
                 writing). Literacy is also predicated of societies. The
                 study of it, both as a psycholinguistic phenomenon and
                 as a sociolinguistic phenomenon has been neglected in
                 linguistics generally, just as the concept of literacy
                 has been neglected in educational theory.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Boyle:1970:EGH,
  author =       "Leonard E. Boyle",
  title =        "The Emergence of {Gothic} Handwriting",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "307--316",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See letter \cite{Gilman:1972:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "During the mid-eleventh century Caroline script began
                 to undergo significant changes. The growing market for
                 writings, both academic and popular, demanded a small,
                 clear and highly abbreviated style. The new Gothic
                 script originated out of this need for compression;
                 e.g., the fusing of opposite curves of letters where
                 they were found back to back and the judicious use of
                 abbreviations. The translational styles of writing are
                 illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Marck:1970:STU,
  author =       "Louis Marck",
  title =        "Some Thoughts of the Use and Disuse of Diacritics",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "317--326",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Champney:1971:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The diacritics discussed here are symbols that are a
                 part of the official spelling of various languages such
                 as
                 \texttt{\char`{\'\char}`{\`\char}`{\^\char}`{\"\char}`{\~}},
                 etc. The uncertainties and vagaries of their use or
                 non-use in current American practice are illustrated
                 with examples from reference works, style books and
                 current periodical literature. Particular criticism is
                 leveled at the inability of the printed media correctly
                 to reproduce names from such languages as German, Czech
                 and Polish, leaving even the cognoscenti in the dark as
                 to proper pronunciation. Problems of information
                 storage and retrieval as well as typewriter design are
                 touched upon. A plea is finally made for better
                 knowledge and international acceptance of diacritics,
                 the alternative being a concerted international effort
                 for their progressive abandonment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Frutiger:1970:LPT,
  author =       "Adrian Frutiger",
  title =        "Letterforms in Photo-typography",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "327--335",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The accelerated flow of information in today's world
                 demands that our typography be of maximum utility and
                 comfort to the reader. There is a trend toward
                 universal usage of fewer text faces and toward larger
                 sizes of reader typefaces. Differentiation must be made
                 between material designed for sustained and for
                 reference reading. The two basic photo-composition
                 generation systems --- projective exposure and CRT
                 generated --- are compared.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wormald:1970:RMM,
  author =       "Francis Wormald",
  title =        "Reading in the Medieval Monastery",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "336--336",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpted from the author's \booktitle{The Monastic
                 Library} in \booktitle{The Year 1200: A Background
                 Survey}, II (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art,
                 1970), 170.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Molyneux:1970:IQH,
  author =       "Lindsay Molyneux",
  title =        "An Index of the Quality of a Hyphenation Algorithm",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "337--341",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "During the development of hyphenation algorithms some
                 measure of performance is needed. A single parameter
                 index is proposed and it is suggested that it might be
                 used to assess hyphenation algorithms in general.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kindersley:1970:LA,
  author =       "David Kindersley",
  title =        "Letterforms in the Arts",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "342--352",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Burnhill:1970:TEH,
  author =       "Peter Burnhill",
  title =        "Typographic Education: Headings in Text",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "353--365",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A class in typography was presented with the problem
                 of designing a system for the allocation of intervals
                 of space on the vertical axis of the page which would
                 determine the grouping of a given set of textual
                 elements. A binary progression of space units was
                 evolved. The resulting system for paragraphs
                 interspersed with headings of first, second and third
                 order rank is discussed and illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:SE,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{Shaw} Enough",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "366--367",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Commentary on George Bernard Shaw's proposed spelling
                 reform of English, and on his Shavian phonetic alphabet
                 for English. Reprinted from \booktitle{The Sunday
                 Times} (London), 8 March 1970.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Beyer:1970:C,
  author =       "Ralph Beyer and Peter Burnhill and Nicolete Gray and
                 James Mosley and Michael Twyman and Berthold Wolpe and
                 {The Governors of the St.Bride Foundation} and David
                 Ford",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "367--368",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  keywords =     "Working Party on Typographic Teaching",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:BR,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Books Received",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "369--376",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1970:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "377--379",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "380--380",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1970:IVI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume IV}",
  journal =      j-J-TYPOGR-RES,
  volume =       "IV",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "381--384",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1970",
  ISSN =         "0449-329X",
  ISSN-L =       "0449-329X",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V4N4_1970_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "J. Typogr. Res.",
  fjournal =     "The Journal of Typographic Research",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal renamed to Visible Language with volume V, number 1, in
%%% 1971, but volume number continues from its predecessor.  Volume
%%% numbers for volumes 1--24 are roman numerals; arabic numbers are
%%% used for volumes 25 onward.
@Article{Wrolstad:1971:VLJ,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "{{\booktitle{Visible Language}}}: The Journal for
                 Research on the Visual Media of Language Expression. A
                 Report from the {Editor}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--12",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Why would a magazine with a great name like The
                 \booktitle{Journal of Typographic Research} decide to
                 change it? For one thing, having to add a footnote
                 every time the name is mentioned in order to explain
                 its actual range of interests finally got to us. As a
                 subscriber you will have to admit that no matter how
                 broadly we attempt to define ``typographic research,''
                 it no longer adequately describes the research efforts
                 in the field or the major concerns of this Journal.
                 ``Typographic research'' has become a label that has to
                 be stretched; ``visible language'' is a concept that
                 remains to be fulfilled.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Osley:1971:CAC,
  author =       "A. S. Osley",
  title =        "Calligraphy --- An Aid to Cartography?",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13--32",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Calligraphic analysis goes beyond general styles of
                 writing and kind of writing materials used; it attempts
                 to isolate the characteristic features of a script and
                 the scribe's personal performance. Specimens from
                 various periods of Gerard Mercator's cartographic work
                 are examined and compared, including a map recently
                 discovered that, after calligraphic analysis, can be
                 identified as almost certainly by Mercator. The
                 importance of calligraphic analysis for determining
                 cartographic attributions is discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bass:1971:DV,
  author =       "Rudi Bass",
  title =        "The Development of {Vidifont}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "33--48",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Television news broadcasting requires alphanumeric
                 composition processes that do not depend on handsetting
                 or photographic preparation. Vidifont, a synthetic
                 video version of the CBS News 36 alphabet, was
                 especially designed for television requirements: (1)
                 proportional-width and proportionally spaced
                 letterforms for legibility and maximum character count,
                 and (2) a unique grid structure to reproduce ovoid
                 letter curves and angle strokes. The development of the
                 Vidifont is outlined and illustrated; esthetic values
                 in electronic letterform design are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Crofts:1971:CMO,
  author =       "Marjorie Crofts",
  title =        "Creating a {Munduruk{\'u}} Orthography",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--58",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Munduruk{\'u}, a Tupi language of an Amazon Basin
                 Indian people, has had no written form. This article
                 describes the practical problems of establishing an
                 alphabet to match the spoken language as well as relate
                 to Portuguese, the language of Brazil; e.g., whether or
                 not to represent all phonemes, and basic questions on
                 what constitutes a word, or a sentence. Printed
                 materials in Munduruk{\'u} are illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Tracy:1971:TDC,
  author =       "Walter Tracy",
  title =        "Type Design Classification",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--66",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See also previous work \cite{Noordzij:1970:BSC}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "To follow the article by Gerrit Noodzij (The Journal
                 of Typographic Research, IV [Summer 1970], 213--240)
                 which analyzed the German classification, an account is
                 given of the French and German classifications. It is
                 shown that all three schemes have the same structure
                 though the nomenclature is different. Hope is expressed
                 that the British classification will be acceptable in
                 the United States.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Carpenter:1971:CSB,
  author =       "Edmund Carpenter",
  title =        "Comment: Not Since {Babel}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--74",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "We know almost nothing about the origin of language.
                 Anthropologists don't always admit this to
                 undergraduates, but among themselves (when they're not
                 trying to impress anyone) they acknowledge that we
                 don't know whether language dates from a million years
                 ago, or half a million, or fifty thousand. There are
                 lots of theories, but few facts-and the facts fit lots
                 of theories.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Lotz:1971:CRS,
  author =       "John Lotz",
  title =        "Comment: The Role of Script in Describing the
                 Languages of the World",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "75--81",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Nesbitt:1971:C,
  author =       "Alexander Nesbitt and Gerrit Noordzij and John A.
                 Schappler",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "82--89",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Discussion of \cite{Noordzij:1970:BSC} and
                 \cite{Wendt:1969:X,Vartabedian:1969:PFG,Zapf:1970:C,Nadler:1972:C}",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1971:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--90",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1971:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "92--92",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1971:BNJ,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Back Numbers of {{\booktitle{The Journal of
                 Typographic Research}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93--96",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N1_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Cyrus:1971:LFS,
  author =       "Virginia J. Cyrus",
  title =        "Linguistic Features of Scribal Spacing",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--110",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N2_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In contrast to the regularity of the letterforms in
                 hand-produced Old English manuscripts, the scribal
                 spacings show great variation in both size and
                 positioning. Examination of the spacings in the
                 Tollemache manuscript of Alfred's Orosius reveals
                 extensive patterning which can be shown to correspond
                 with such linguistic features of the text as syntactic
                 structures as they are identified by immediate
                 constituent analysis. Thus, the manuscript provides
                 graphic evidence of non-segmental features of the
                 language which before were only indirectly inferable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{OHara:1971:UHI,
  author =       "F. M. {O'Hara, Jr.}",
  title =        "Use of the Hyphen to Indicate Divided Words",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "111--124",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Tanselle:1972:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N2_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The unsystematic employment of hyphenation by early
                 printers led to the author's inspection of incunabula
                 and reproductions of manuscripts and incunabular
                 printing. These observations showed a gradual
                 standardization of the typographic form of the hyphen,
                 an evolution of the phonetic division of words from
                 arbitrary academic rules, and a slow development of the
                 universal employment of the hyphen to indicate divided
                 words. These trends in the history of printing suffered
                 a reversal during the sixteenth century, and it was not
                 until the late seventeenth century that hyphenating
                 practices as they are observed today were generally
                 established.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Troxel:1971:ARP,
  author =       "Donald E. Troxel",
  title =        "Automated Reading of the Printed Page",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "125--144",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N2_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This paper is primarily concerned with the automated
                 reading of the printed page resulting in a sequence of
                 character codes which can be further processed to make
                 the information available to a blind person in the form
                 of Grade II Braille, spelled speech, or synthesized
                 speech. Heuristics are described for automatic
                 threshold determination, font-size determination, line
                 and character acquisition, contour tracing, and the
                 recognition of punctuation and characters. As the
                 output of the reading machine for the blind is to be
                 absorbed directly by a human, the specifications for a
                 page reader were that the speed should be approximately
                 equal to normal speaking rates and that the reader
                 should make somewhat fewer mistakes than a human reader
                 would make. The actual speed achieved was approximately
                 75 words per minute, which does not quite meet the
                 speed requirement. However, the error rate
                 specification has been met with a measured error rate
                 of 0.07 per cent.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Cleland:1971:VSR,
  author =       "Donald L. Cleland",
  title =        "Vocalism in Silent Reading",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "145--157",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N2_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A continuing controversy has been going on as to
                 whether vocalism in silent reading should be inhibited,
                 encouraged, or just tolerated as part of the reading
                 process. Past experimentation is discussed. Reported
                 here is an investigation to determine the incidence of
                 vocalism during silent reading by two groups of
                 intermediate grade children: reading achievers and
                 reading retardates. A general conclusion is that
                 vocalism is a natural adjunct of the reading process
                 and that at approximate times all of us use it as a
                 secondary sensory reinforcement.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Pollak:1971:DFC,
  author =       "Michael Pollak",
  title =        "Durability of {Fifteenth-century} Type",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "159--188",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N2_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "From a review of references to early typecasting
                 practices, the author computes the amount of labor
                 required to handcast 1,000 pieces of type in the
                 fifteenth century, and reaches a figure of fourteen
                 man-hours. As a means of determining the ability of the
                 type to withstand succeeding blows of the platen and
                 the other wear brought about by setting, cleaning, and
                 distributing the type, he applies this labor cost to
                 the publication of a fifteenth-century book, the works
                 of Flavius Josephus printed at Venice in 1486,
                 postulating different sizes of editions. Working on the
                 assumption that excessive labor costs per copy would
                 have made this book and others like it uneconomical to
                 produce, he concluded that incunable type was able to
                 withstand at least 10,000 to 20,000 blows of the platen
                 but suggests that its life expectancy was actually much
                 higher. He supplements his cost analysis by citing
                 other evidence to show than incunable type was fairly
                 durable.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1971:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "189--191",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N2_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1971:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--192",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N2_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1971:GIc,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--196",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Marcus:1971:PCP,
  author =       "Aaron Marcus",
  title =        "A Prototype Computerized Page-design System",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "197--220",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The graphic designer has need for an interactive
                 computerized design system to enable him to match the
                 capabilities of available computerized type-editing and
                 typesetting systems. This article describes a prototype
                 system devised to investigate both the problems and
                 capabilities of using computers for page design. The
                 two aspects of the investigation are the appropriate
                 representation of graphic material on a low resolution
                 television-like display and the development of
                 interactive features. The ability to add, delete, and
                 move blocks of symbolized type and illustration on the
                 display has the advantage that the computerized form of
                 the final design is immediately compatible with
                 computerized typesetting systems.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gordon:1971:LNL,
  author =       "Arthur E. Gordon",
  title =        "Letter Names of the {Latin} Alphabet",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "221--228",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Contemporary and earlier studies of the Latin language
                 have failed to present and discuss adequately letter
                 names of the Latin alphabet --- in contrast, for
                 example, with the Greek alpha, beta, gamma, etc.
                 Several theories, and their derivation, about the
                 letter names are presented. The ancient evidence ---
                 from the third/second century B.C. to the seventh
                 century A.D. --- is rather scant and not always clear.
                 While the names of the vowels and of all the consonants
                 except the continuants (F, L, M, N, R, S, X) seem
                 certain, the names of these continuants seem to have
                 undergone changes in the course of history and to be
                 clear only toward the end of antiquity (from the fourth
                 century A.D. on).",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Yasuhara:1971:STH,
  author =       "Makoto Yasuhara",
  title =        "Steps toward Handwriting Analysis and Recognition",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "229--248",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In order to introduce to the field of human
                 handwriting recognition formal concepts which
                 correspond to those of the analysis by synthesis method
                 in speech analysis, a dynamic model of handwriting
                 process is proposed. Discussion to support the proposed
                 scheme is presented both from the theoretical and from
                 the experimental points of view.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Fontein:1971:CCZ,
  author =       "Jan Fontein and Money L. Hickman",
  title =        "Calligraphy of {Ch'an} and {Zen} Monks",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "249--264",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Although a dependence on words and letters was avoided
                 in the concepts of their sect, the Ch'an and Zen monks
                 produced a prodigious amount of written material, in
                 book form and in handwritten documents. Believed to
                 express the total personality of the writer, the
                 calligraphy (bokuseki) acquired a kind of mystique. The
                 highly personal calligraphy was not as strong an
                 influence in China as in Japan, where it established
                 the standard for excellence and was extensively
                 emulated in secular society. Representative examples
                 are shown and discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hartley:1971:EUT,
  author =       "James Hartley and Peter Burnhill",
  title =        "Experiments with Unjustified Text",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "265--278",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Three separate experiments are described in which
                 various settings of unjustified text are compared: (1)
                 passages with line endings determined by syntactic
                 considerations were compared with passages set in a
                 standard unjustified form; (2) passages with
                 approximately one-third of the lines ending with
                 hyphenated formats were compared with the same
                 standards; (3) unjustified double-column formats of
                 different widths were compared with each other. No
                 significant differences in reading speed were found in
                 any of the three experiments, although a significant
                 sex difference was found in Experiment 3 when a
                 scanning method was used. No significant differences
                 were found in comprehension scores. Attitudes expressed
                 by students in Experiments 1 and 3 tended to favor the
                 shorter lines with more uneven endings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Banks:1971:BRN,
  author =       "Colin Banks",
  title =        "Book Review: {E. Nicolette Gray, \booktitle{Lettering
                 as Drawing: The Moving Line} [volume 1] and
                 \booktitle{Contour and Silhouette} [volume 2]. London:
                 Oxford University Press, 1970. 96 pages each with many
                 black and white illustrations. 75 new pence.
                 Paperbacks}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "279--281",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Champney:1971:C,
  author =       "Freeman Champney and Louis Marck",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "282--283",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Marck:1970:STU}. Louis Marck also comments
                 on the too-similar appearance of `b` and `h' in
                 Monotype Garamond (Series 156 Italic).",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1971:RAAc,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "285--287",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1971:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "288--288",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N3_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1971:GId,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "291--292",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Coe:1971:AMW,
  author =       "Michael D. Coe",
  title =        "Ancient {Maya} Writing and Calligraphy",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "293--307",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Maya hieroglyphic writing was carved on stone
                 monuments, written in bark-paper codices, and painted
                 upon funerary pottery. The stone inscriptions, formerly
                 thought to record only calendrical information, have
                 been found to contain dynastic histories. The codices
                 treat exclusively of ritual matters, while the texts
                 and pictures on the pottery are concerned with the
                 perilous voyage of the soul to the underworld. The
                 script evolved from a highly pictographic system into
                 one that had a strong phonetic-syllabic component. As
                 calligraphy, Maya writing was a basically painterly
                 art.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{GT:1971:DNJ,
  author =       "{Group Typo}",
  title =        "Design of a New {Japanese} Typeface: {Typos}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "309--317",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The Japanese language is a formidable one for those
                 who are concerned with the design and the use of the
                 printed word. Because the Japanese language employs the
                 kanji, the hiragana, and the katakana for writing, the
                 task of designing a new typeface involves the design of
                 over 1,000 characters so that they will blend together
                 when used interchangeably in an almost unlimited number
                 of combinations. The theory and construction method
                 used to create Typo, a new Japanese typeface, are
                 discussed and illustrated in comparison with existing
                 characters.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Basu:1971:LMA,
  author =       "Hella Basu",
  title =        "Letterforms as a Medium for Artistic Expression",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "319--330",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Although the major function of writing is transmitting
                 verbal communication, the variety and beauty of man's
                 letterforms indicate several important non-verbal
                 considerations. Pattern-forming properties of
                 letterforms can be explored as artistic expression
                 independent of verbal meaning, but optical elements
                 must be related to verbal ones. The author's
                 development of calligraphic ``visual aids'' for
                 classroom use is discussed, and a selection of these is
                 illustrated.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anderson:1971:CHC,
  author =       "Donald M. Anderson",
  title =        "{Cresci} and His Capital Alphabet",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "331--352",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Renaissance art was marked by a vigorous adaptation of
                 classical themes, and in restyling roman capital
                 letters no one approached the excellence of Giovan
                 Francesco Cresci. In Il perfetto scrittore, parte
                 seconda, published in 1570, Cresci mastered the
                 combinations of classical elements with his own refined
                 style. In contrast to those who were obsessed with
                 divina propotione and who sought to interpret the roman
                 letters through compass and rule, Cresci's alphabets
                 were derived from ancient sources such as the
                 inscription of Trajan's column. The drift in Cresci's
                 thinking toward a closer allegiance to the classical
                 letters is shown through his selection of proportion;
                 his serifs show modification to forms closer to
                 calligraphy.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Robinson:1971:WSI,
  author =       "David Owen Robinson and Michael Abbamonte and Selby H.
                 Evans",
  title =        "Why Serifs are Important: the Perception of Small
                 Print",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "353--359",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The use of serif type styles has continued to dominate
                 printing since the introduction of sans-serif type a
                 century and a half ago. Several theories are considered
                 to account for the continued popularity of the older
                 typefaces. It is suggested that the neurological
                 structure of the human visual system benefits from
                 serifs in the preservation of the main features of
                 letters during neural processing. A computer simulation
                 of visual processing supports this theory, and
                 suggestions are made concerning the function of serifs
                 in letters of different sizes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bauries:1971:RBG,
  author =       "Fred Bauries",
  title =        "Research in Brief: Graphic Trends in Consumer Magazine
                 Advertising, 1938--1968",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "360--364",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Smith:1971:RBG,
  author =       "John M. Smith and Maxwell E. McCombs",
  title =        "Research in Brief: The Graphics of Prose",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "365--369",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Banks:1971:BRE,
  author =       "Colin Banks",
  title =        "Book Review: {Edward Johnstone, \booktitle{Formal
                 Penmanship}. London: Lund Humphries, 1971. 160 pages of
                 text, 20 pages of plates. \pounds 5.80}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "370--372",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Gilman:1972:C}: Johnstone should be
                 Johnston.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{vanKrimpen:1971:C,
  author =       "Huib van Krimpen and {The Educational Committee of A.
                 Typ. I.} and {Peter Burnhill}",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "373--376",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Comments on the financial and copyright relations
                 between type designers and typefounders, on the
                 teaching of writing and lettering, and disapproval of
                 the journal name change.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1971:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "377--379",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1971:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "380--380",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1971:IVV,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume V}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "V",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "381--384",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1971",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V5N4_1971_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:GIa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--4",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Powell:1972:OSS,
  author =       "Marvin A. {Powell, Jr.}",
  title =        "The Origin of the Sexagesimal System: Interaction of
                 Language and Writing",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--18",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The origin of the sexagesimal system has been much
                 debated, but all past theories have neglected the
                 linguistic evidence of the ancient cuneiform lexica.
                 The problem or origin is twofold: (1) the origin of
                 counting with sixty as a base and (2) the origin of
                 sexagesimal place notation. The first problem is
                 linguistic and anthropological in nature and must be
                 studied through the ancient lexica. The second can be
                 elucidated by a combined analysis of the Sumerian
                 number words and the symbols used to represent them.
                 Such an analysis indicated that sexagesimal place
                 notation arose from an interaction between the
                 numerational framework of the Sumerian language and the
                 symbols used to write those numbers, but the sudden
                 appearance of place notation about 2050 B.C. indicates
                 that the final step toward the creation of place
                 notation was an act of conscious invention.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Seaman:1972:DVP,
  author =       "David W. Seaman",
  title =        "The Development of Visual Poetry in {France}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--44",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Poems which contain visual elements in their
                 construction --- e.g., pattern poems and acrostics ---
                 are often considered isolated aberrations. By examining
                 literature in Europe and especially in France, one can
                 discern a fairly continuous tradition of visual poetry.
                 Beginning in antiquity and recurring in every period of
                 western civilization, visual stimuli in writing and
                 typography are applied to the composition of poetry.
                 Although at first they are usually incidental or
                 decorative, by the nineteenth century they are
                 considered valid attributes of serious poetry.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Furby:1972:DWP,
  author =       "Lita Furby",
  title =        "Development of Word Perception and Problem Solving
                 Strategies",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "45--58",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This study examines the nature of children's word
                 perception, focusing on both the developmental changes
                 in the perceptual process itself (in terms of the
                 ability to decenter) and the role these changes play in
                 determining choice of strategy in a problem solving
                 situation (anagrams). It also demonstrates the
                 importance of individual differences (in spatial
                 ability) as a source of information about developmental
                 processes and changes in perception and cognition.
                 Eight, eleven, and fourteen year-olds solve anagrams of
                 various types and took several aptitude tests. The
                 results give support to Piaget's formulation of
                 perceptual development and demonstrate the role of both
                 perceptual development and individual aptitude
                 differences in children's problem solving strategies.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wells:1972:WBR,
  author =       "James Wells",
  title =        "The Work of {Bruce Rogers}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "59--78",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "No designer has played a more influential role in the
                 revival of the typographic arts in America than Bruce
                 Rogers (1870--1957). His work spanned half a century;
                 its significant contributions is based on his
                 adaptation of historic styles to machine production
                 while maintaining the highest possible design and
                 technical standards. Rogers' approach was that of an
                 artist (rather than that of a scholar or a practicing
                 printer), while he demonstrated with remarkable
                 versatility --- from the playful limited editions to
                 the majesty of the Oxford Bible.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Lotz:1972:SBS,
  author =       "John Lotz",
  title =        "A Select Bibliography on Script and Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--80",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Stauffacher:1972:HAT,
  author =       "Jack W. Stauffacher",
  title =        "Homage to {Alberto Tallone}, 1898--1960",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "81--89",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Alberto Tallone was a printer/publisher/book
                 typographer/type designer with a keen eye for excellent
                 literature (a friend of Pablo Neruda) and fine
                 typography.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Tanselle:1972:C,
  author =       "G. Thomas Tanselle",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--91",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{OHara:1971:UHI,Gilman:1972:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1972:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Tony {\'E}vora",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "92--95",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "96--96",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N1_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1972:ER,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Report",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--108",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Haugen:1973:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Solt:1972:TVC,
  author =       "Mary Ellen Solt",
  title =        "Typography and the Visual Concrete Poem",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "109--122",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The visual concrete poet is concerned with the
                 relationship of typography to meaning. Constructive
                 poetry uses the lower-case, sans-serif letter almost
                 exclusively. Increasingly poets are finding this
                 practice too restrictive and are following the example
                 of Mallarm{\'e}, who used typography expressively. The
                 early manifestoes of concrete poetry emphasized
                 Mallarm{\'e}'s influence in the direction of spatial
                 syntax and ideogrammic construction. It needs to be
                 recognized that visual concrete poetry relates to all
                 the stages of ideogrammic development and that the kind
                 of ideogram the poet is presenting will influence his
                 typographical choices. If concrete poetry is to remain
                 a viable new genre, its visual potential must be
                 liberated rather than restricted.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{David:1972:PDL,
  author =       "Robert E. David",
  title =        "Proposal for a Diagrammatic Language for Design",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "123--137",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Environmental design as a process is a communication
                 activity wherein the designer continuously formulates,
                 records, and presents developing ideas using his
                 vernacular, sketches, working drawings, and models. The
                 success of the design solution depends to a certain
                 extent on the sophistication of the communication tools
                 used; there is a significant lack of sophistication in
                 the tools used in the transition of ideas between the
                 initial verbal phases and the final visual phases. This
                 paper proposes a notational language of diagrammatic
                 elements to provide the designer with a communication
                 tool that permits him to visualize basic design ideas
                 at a high level of abstraction. The primitive elements
                 of this language represent a set of ideas that, in
                 various combinations, recurrently make up the basic
                 entities of various problems in environmental design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Lamaitre:1972:ACM,
  author =       "?. Lama{\^\i}tre",
  title =        "{Albert Camus} and the Men of the Stone",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "138--138",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "From the article: ``He [Camus] really impressed us on
                 his wedding day. I was touched by the way he got
                 married --- so simple, with three or four typographers
                 as the wedding procession.'' \ldots{} ``Camus spent
                 more time at the composing room than in the editorial
                 offices\ldots{}''",
  xxnote =       "Check; the author name is printed Lama{\^\i}tre, but
                 the gender is wrong: the name should likely be
                 Lema{\^\i}tre.",
}

@Article{Stern:1972:OPE,
  author =       "Henry R. Stern",
  title =        "The Orthographic Practices of {Elias Molee}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "139--149",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See letter \cite{Haugen:1973:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In proposing an artificial language for international
                 consideration, one must first have devised an efficient
                 orthographic system. After a brief introduction to the
                 concept of international languages and to Molee's
                 background and motivation, this paper describes the
                 orthographic techniques he employed in a series of
                 works over a period of 25 years. Upon examination,
                 these works show an unmistakable trend. The initial
                 efforts are characterized by innovation and
                 experimentation. In attempting to create an acceptable
                 phonetic alphabet, he first employed phonetic symbols,
                 variations of standard letters, and even letters he
                 designed himself. Later efforts, however, remain within
                 the framework of conventional symbols. This can be
                 explained by the necessity of gaining the favor and
                 support of printers. That Molee's efforts were in the
                 long run unsuccessful is due not to any inherent
                 weakness in his orthographic system but rather to the
                 general failure of artificial languages themselves.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Scott:1972:GPC,
  author =       "Myrtle Scott",
  title =        "Grapheme--Phoneme Correspondence in Beginning Reading
                 of Disadvantaged Five-Year-Olds",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "151--165",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments and corrections \cite{Downing:1973:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This study was designed to investigate the effect of
                 grapheme-phoneme correspondence on word acquisition in
                 beginning readers. Two groups of disadvantaged children
                 were taught word acquisition skills, one group using a
                 non-controlled grapheme-phoneme correspondence
                 orthography, standard English, while the other group
                 used a controlled grapheme-phoneme correspondence
                 orthography, the Initial Teaching Alphabet. No
                 differences were found between groups as a function of
                 orthography used. Significant differences did appear as
                 a function of level of word familiarity with familiar
                 words being identified more easily than unfamiliar
                 ones. Irregular words were identified significantly
                 more easily than regular ones, which was contrary to
                 the prediction, and was explained in terms of a model
                 of stages of development of word recognition skills.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:IYB,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "[1972 --- International Year of the Book]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "166--166",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wendt:1972:EIU,
  author =       "Dirk Wendt and Hans Weckerle",
  title =        "On Effects of Indentation and Underlining in Reference
                 Work",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "167--171",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "An experimental study with 252 10- to 12-year-old
                 pupils as subjects investigated the effects of
                 indentation and underlining of keywords in reference
                 work. It was assumed that indentation and underlining
                 would make it easier to recognize word shapes, and that
                 this effect would be stronger with the familiar shapes
                 of meaningful words than with nonsense words. Results
                 showed that only indentation made recognition faster,
                 but not underlining; and that this effect was equally
                 strong with meaningful and nonsense words. In total,
                 nonsense words were recognized 17\% slower than
                 meaningful material.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Coleman:1972:BBC,
  author =       "A. D. Coleman",
  title =        "{Bonnie Baldwin Collier}'s delightful
                 {{\booktitle{Thesis Box}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "172--172",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/v6n2_1972_e.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{vanKrimpen:1972:BRA,
  author =       "Huib van Krimpen and Fernand Baudin",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {Albert Kapr. \booktitle{Schriftkunst.
                 Geschichte, Anatomie und Sch{\o}nheit der lateinischen
                 Buchstaben}. Dresden: VEB Verlag der Kunst, 1971. 11
                 3/4 $ \times $ 8 1/2 inches, 468 pages, 465
                 illustrations, 321 type specimens. Price 70 MDN
                 (approx. \$18.00). W. P. Jaspert, W. T. Berry, A F.
                 Johnson, \booktitle{The Encyclopaedia of Typefaces},
                 4th ed. (London: Blandford Press, 1970)}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "173--181",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:INI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{{\booktitle{ICOGRAPHIC: A New International Design
                 Quarterly}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "181--181",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Nadler:1972:C,
  author =       "Morton Nadler and Dirk Wendt and Trilokesh
                 Mukherjee",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "182--187",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Wendt:1969:X,Nesbitt:1971:C,vanKrimpen:1971:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1972:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Tony {\'E}vora",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "188--191",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--192",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N2_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:GIc,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--196",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Steiner:1972:AB,
  author =       "George Steiner",
  title =        "After the Book?",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "197--210",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See replies \cite{Brain:1972:FRG}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The book as we know it has been a significant
                 phenomenon for only a relatively short span of history
                 --- about a century and a half --- only in certain
                 areas and in certain cultures. Today, the enveloping
                 matrix of our intellectual and emotional lives is not a
                 reader's climate. The status of the book is changing,
                 as is the make-up of the ``language-world'' we inhabit.
                 The written word has become a caption for the visual
                 and the musical image. Our verbal inheritance is caught
                 between the semi-literacy of the mass market and the
                 minutia of the specialist. The written word persists,
                 but new forms for its circulation will bring
                 alterations of our sensibilities and modification in
                 our habits of discovery.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Brain:1972:FRG,
  author =       "John V. Brain and Norman S. Fiering and John Freeman
                 and Leland E. Warren",
  title =        "Four Replies to {George Steiner}'s Address to the
                 {Ferguson Seminar in Publishing}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "211--228",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Steiner:1972:AB}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Responses to George Steiner with regard to the
                 following. The book as we know it has been a
                 significant phenomenon for only a relatively short span
                 of history --- about a century and a half --- only in
                 certain areas and in certain cultures. Today, the
                 enveloping matrix of our intellectual and emotional
                 lives is not a reader's climate. The status of the book
                 is changing, as is the make-up of the
                 ``language-world'' we inhabit. The written word has
                 become a caption for the visual and the musical image.
                 Our verbal inheritance is caught between the
                 semi-literacy of the mass market and the minutia of the
                 specialist. The written word persists, but new forms
                 for its circulation will bring alterations of our
                 sensibilities and modification in our habits of
                 discovery.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Greene:1972:MMO,
  author =       "Gordon K. Greene",
  title =        "From Mistress to Master: The Origins of Polyphonic
                 Music and as a Visible Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "229--253",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Music is affected by the notation in which it is
                 recorded. The system of notation devised between 900
                 and 1200 A.D. in the West allowed composers to be
                 analytical about simultaneous sounds; subsequent
                 development of vocal and instrumental art music is a
                 direct outgrowth of that medieval interest in harmony
                 and the notation that allowed its studious
                 investigation. That notation employs principles
                 familiar today. A system for specifying rhythmic values
                 was introduces in the twelfth century, with the result
                 that separate voice parts could be distributed on an
                 expensive parchment page more economically. Score
                 arrangement returned with the mass production of paper.
                 A vast increase in the number of rhythmic signs around
                 1325 led composers to explore the limits of their
                 notation, with the result that much of the late
                 fourteeth-century repertory was written in an extremely
                 complex manner; composers became interested in the
                 visual appearance of a composition and designed staff
                 lines in the shape of a harp, a heart, a circle, etc.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ohlgren:1972:VLO,
  author =       "Thomas H. Ohlgren",
  title =        "Visual Language in the {Old English
                 \booktitle{Cadmonian Genesis}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "253--276",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Although considerable scholarly attention has been
                 focused on the narrative as a literary form in medieval
                 literature, literary scholars have generally ignored
                 the extensive cycles of illuminations, or pictorial
                 narratives, which accompany some of these texts. This
                 paper considers the ways in which the artist of one
                 biblical narrative, the Old English Caefmonian Genesis
                 (Bodleian Library, MS Junius II), successfully created
                 a consecutive series of visual episodes which
                 correspond to the narrative sequence of the poetic
                 text. The artist and the poet formulated a progressive
                 chain of incidents, organized to tell a story. The
                 illustration, furthermore, reveal the artist's
                 awareness of the poem's content, theme, and style. The
                 drawings not only approximate visually the iconography
                 of the poem and highlight the poem's theme, but they
                 stimulate in a visual language the rhetorical structure
                 and stylistic features of the poem itself. Emphasis
                 will be placed on the artist's creation of visual
                 type-scenes and a symbolic color code. The paper begins
                 with a consideration of three types of literary
                 criticism through art.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:CRC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "On the Cover: A Rubbing of a {Claudian} Bronze
                 Tablet",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "277--278",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:EDP,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Experimental Design Pages",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "280--280",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gilman:1972:C,
  author =       "E. W. Gilman and Alf K. Ebsen and Peter Burnhill and
                 Roy Brewer and Colin Banks and Mark {Ash II} and Harry
                 Duncan",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "281--284",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Tanselle:1972:C,Banks:1971:BRE,Boyle:1970:EGH}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1972:RAAc,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Tony {\'E}vora",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "285--287",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "288--288",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N3_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gough:1972:OSR,
  author =       "Philip B. Gough",
  title =        "One Second of Reading",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "291--320",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Two general topics are discussed: (1) the sequence of
                 events that transpire in one second of reading, to
                 suggest the nature of the processes that link them; and
                 (2) the relation of this description to the acquisition
                 of reading. Reading involves a rapid succession of
                 intricate events --- formation of visual icon,
                 letter-by-letter identification, and association with
                 meaning through transposition into abstract phonemic
                 representation --- carried out with amazing rapidity
                 and coordination in our complex information processing
                 system. When first approaching reading, the child lacks
                 the character recognition device (the scanner) and the
                 device to convert the characters, once recognized, into
                 systematic phonemic representations (the decoder).
                 Specification of the mechanism by which letters are
                 mapped onto entries in our mental lexicon is the
                 fundamental problem of reading research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Marcus:1972:TEC,
  author =       "Susan Marcus",
  title =        "The Typographic Element in Cubism, 1911--1915: Its
                 Formal and Semantic Implications",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "321--340",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Between 1911 and 1915 Braque and Picasso experimented
                 with formal considerations of the typographic element.
                 The two-dimensional quality of alphabetical and
                 numerical symbols complemented the artists' attempt to
                 find a new means for depicting three-dimensional
                 objects within the format of the canvas. The
                 typographic element assisted in the evolution of
                 collage by encouraging the replacement of painted
                 symbols with actual objects pasted to the canvas. The
                 idea of a letter-word-number form as a sign
                 representing a concept to which the sign bears no
                 physical resemblance also provided semantic
                 implications that these artists explored. In working
                 with the typographic element, the cubists acknowledged
                 a common interest shared with contemporaries in
                 literature and science.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ovink:1972:CRT,
  author =       "G. W. Ovink",
  title =        "Changing Responsibilities of the Typographic
                 Designer",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "341--354",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "At our present level of audio-visual output, we are
                 faced with a sensory overload. The typographic designer
                 must help cut this ``mental pollution'' by insisting on
                 less and better-designed print. He must increase his
                 understanding of both the readers' and the clients'
                 attitudes and responses --- while maintaining his
                 unique contribution as a graphic designer. Primarily
                 through broadened education and research awareness he
                 must develop as a general ``informatician.'' The
                 typographic designer is not playing his rightful role
                 in the development of new printing technology. He must
                 assert leadership for flexible development of the new
                 processes, based on his responsibility as the reader's
                 representative and on the age-old traditions of graphic
                 communication.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bedno:1972:PDV,
  author =       "Ed Bedno",
  title =        "Program for Developing Visual Symbols",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "355--363",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A programmed procedure involving discrete visual and
                 verbal steps to stimulate the creative processes
                 involved in visual design is presented. The program was
                 used by students in a design school as a guide to the
                 design of visual symbols. The resulting level of
                 performance was generally quite high. Results tend to
                 indicate that this procedure is an accelerated and
                 efficient method for extending the student's awareness
                 of the possibility of conscious creativity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:DVS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Design a visual symbol for `visible language' --- Win
                 a ten-year subscription to {{\booktitle{Visible
                 Language}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "364--364",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bourdon:1972:CWA,
  author =       "David Bourdon",
  title =        "Cover: Words about {Ed Ruscha}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "365--368",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Foster:1972:BRF,
  author =       "Jeremy J. Foster",
  title =        "Book Reviews: {Frank Smith, \booktitle{Understanding
                 Reading: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Reading and
                 Learning to Read}, New York: Holt, Rinehart \& Winston,
                 1971. xiv + 239 pages, \$4.95 paper. John Gilliland,
                 \booktitle{Readability}. London: University of London
                 Press, 1972. 127 pages. 80p.}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "369--373",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Greenfield:1972:TEW,
  author =       "Patricia M. Greenfield and Jerome S. Bruner",
  title =        "The Training Embodied in Written Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "374--374",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpt from the authors' \booktitle{Work with the
                 Wolog}, Psychology Today (July 1971), pages 78--79.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:GId,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "375--376",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1972:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Tony {\'E}vora",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "377--379",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "380--380",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1972:IVV,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume VI}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "381--384",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1972",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Thu Feb 11 17:57:45 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V6N4_1972_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:WBM,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Have We Bitten Off More Than We Can Chew? {A}
                 Reappraisal of {{\booktitle{Visible Language}}} for Its
                 25th Issue",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--18",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Commentary on the journal by numerous letter
                 writers.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N1_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Olson:1973:GLP,
  author =       "Richard A. Olson",
  title =        "{Greek} Letterforms on the {Parthian} Drachms",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "19--40",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N1_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "One of the most unusual coinages in antiquity was the
                 coinage of the Parthian empire, largest of the later
                 Hellenistic empires. The Parthians were a non-Greek
                 people who used Greek as their first official language
                 of state and as the predominant language on their
                 coins. Their most common denomination, the silver
                 drachm, bore Greek legends for almost half a
                 millennium, and the letterforms underwent a significant
                 transformation in the process. Since the coinage
                 constitutes the largest body of primary source material
                 extant concerning ancient Parthia, that transformation
                 is of significant interest to the classification
                 historian.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Tritt:1973:LCS,
  author =       "Carleton S. Tritt",
  title =        "The Language of Capitalization in {Shakespeare}'s
                 First Folio",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "41--50",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N1_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The traditional approaches to Elizabethan
                 capitalization --- conventional noun grouping and
                 contextual emphasis --- fail to deal adequately with
                 the many inconsistencies in the age's practice of
                 capitalization. In addition they do not disclose the
                 Elizabethan use of the capital letter as a linguistic
                 indicator of the various emotional connotations of
                 words. By using a representative sample of 11 of the 36
                 plays in Shakespeare's first folio, it is possible to
                 show through patterns of capitalization frequency how
                 the compositors of the folio used the capital letter to
                 indicate connotations of emotional charge, elevation,
                 uniqueness, and poetic respectability in a variety of
                 words and word groupings.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Poggenpohl:1973:VLE,
  author =       "Sharon H. Poggenpohl",
  title =        "{Visible Language}: an Experimental Course",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "51--61",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N1_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "An experimental course, Visible Language, at the
                 Institute of Design in Chicago is discussed. The course
                 consists of five problems which are presented in terms
                 of the problem statement and intention, together with
                 examples of solutions from first-year students. The
                 problems range from spontaneous visual language
                 response to perceptual experience, through content-form
                 explorations, ending with a cooperative venture in
                 communication.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Proust:1973:ROE,
  author =       "Marcel Proust",
  title =        "``{Reading}, in its original essence\ldots{}''",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "62--62",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "From the author's \booktitle{On Reading} (translated
                 and edited by Jean Autret and William Burford). New
                 York: Macmillan, 1971; p. 31.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N1_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Timko:1973:DTT,
  author =       "Henry G. Timko",
  title =        "The Discrimination of Three Types of Graphic Stimuli",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "63--72",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N1_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Forty 4-year-olds and forty 6-year-olds were tested on
                 a matching-to-sample discrimination task to determine
                 the relationship between social class status and the
                 visual perception of graphic stimuli which were matched
                 according to critical feature transformations. English
                 letters, letter-like forms, and line-drawings of faces
                 with embedded letters were equally divided into two
                 confusability levels and three task levels. Analysis of
                 variance on error scores revealed differences between
                 age groups, stimulus types, confusability levels, and
                 task levels. Social class differences were observed on
                 highly confusable English letters among 6-year-olds but
                 not among the 4-year-olds. No significant age by social
                 class differences were found on letter-like forms or
                 faces.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hochuli:1973:BRE,
  author =       "Jost Hochuli",
  title =        "Book Review: {Edward M. Catich's \booktitle{The Origin
                 of the Serif} Davenport, Iowa: The Catfish Press, St.
                 Ambrose College, 1968. 8 1/2 $ \times $ 11 1/4 inches,
                 xii + 310 pages. \$24.00}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--91",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See letter \cite{Palladino:1974:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N1_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1973:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Tony {\'E}vora",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93--95",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N1_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "96--96",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N1_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:GIb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--100",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hewes:1973:EFR,
  author =       "Gordon W. Hewes",
  title =        "An Explicit Formulation of the Relationship Between
                 Tool-Using, Tool-Making, and Emergence of Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--127",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "If man's propositional language did not begin with
                 speech, but with a manual gesture or sign-language
                 system, a plausible model can be built in which
                 tool-making and tool-using play an important part in
                 language emergence. Even in modern speaking cultures,
                 we learn to use tools or weapons mainly by observation
                 of their use by others, and by signs and gestures ---
                 rather than through speech. The motor and neural
                 elements involved in manipulation of objects and in
                 gestural communication are very similar. The
                 fundamental visual basis of human cognition is
                 stressed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Walker:1973:QB,
  author =       "Martin Walker",
  title =        "{{\tt Qwerty birthday}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "128--128",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "A hundred years ago last week Christopher Latham
                 Sholes sold the idea of a production typewriter to
                 Remington, the American gun and sewing machine
                 worker.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Friedman:1973:VIE,
  author =       "Daniel Friedman",
  title =        "A View: Introductory Education in Typography",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "129--144",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Design schools which deal with typography are plagued
                 with inviable conventions, the phase out of typography
                 as a handcraft, and an inaccessibility to the
                 potentials of the newer, more complex, typesetting
                 systems. Typographic form is being taught in terms of
                 outdated mechanics and popular fashions; no teaching
                 methodology exists which will transcend the technical
                 and stylistic and deal only with the generically
                 perceptual or visual. The author shows examples of a
                 simple typography exercise regarding simplicity and
                 complexity, rhythmic structure, coherency, convention,
                 unpredictability, legibility and readability.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Downing:1973:LAE,
  author =       "John Downing",
  title =        "Is Literacy Acquisition Easier in Some Languages Than
                 in Others?",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "144--154",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "It is frequently asserted that the Chinese logographic
                 writing system is more difficult to learn than the
                 English alphabetic system. This view seems to be based
                 chiefly on the belief that the large number of Chinese
                 characters is a heavy burden on the student. But this
                 may be a misconception for two reasons: (1) there are
                 far more items to be learned in the English system than
                 is generally recognized; (2) the sheer number of
                 characters to be learned is not in itself an important
                 psychological factor. What is more important is the
                 extent of redundancy in the system. Numerous
                 alternatives may conceal the nature of the written code
                 from the beginner and cause confusion. This and other
                 variables in the writing system may prevent the child
                 from perceiving that writing and print are indeed
                 ``visible language.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Barber:1973:FEW,
  author =       "E. J. W. Barber",
  title =        "Formal Economy of Written Signs",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "155--166",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Those portions of a sign's shape which are
                 distinctive, yet in themselves valueless, can be viewed
                 as forming a system. Such systems have ranged
                 historically from the very loose to the very tight.
                 When the possibilities of arranging these elements are
                 also considered, the great range in economy of design
                 becomes even more apparent. Our own roman script, in
                 fact, is rather inefficient it these terms; Morse Code,
                 on the other hand, is quite efficient, though not
                 perfect. It might prove useful to develop other scripts
                 based on these principles of internal economy. But
                 economy of form is not the same as efficiency of use:
                 it is merely one possible component of efficiency, and
                 must be carefully distinguished as such.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hartley:1973:RBS,
  author =       "James Hartley and Susan J. Timson and Peter
                 Burnhill",
  title =        "Research in Brief: Subjective Preference and Retrieval
                 of Information from Reference Materials",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "167--170",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Adapted from the introduction to the author's
                 \booktitle{Archives in the Ancient World}, Cambridge,
                 Mass.: Harvard University Press.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Visual typographic access to listings of resources is
                 the subject of this research.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Posner:1973:EAA,
  author =       "Ernest Posner",
  title =        "Excerpt: Archives in the {Ancient World}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "171--178",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Focusing on archives in Greece, Rome, Egypt and
                 Meopotamia, the article compares archival criteria with
                 the present day practice and finds similarities
                 including: (1) law, (2) administrative action, (3)
                 accounting, (4) land records and ownership, (5) control
                 over people with regard to servitude and taxation and
                 (6) business transactions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Moran:1973:CFR,
  author =       "James Moran",
  title =        "Comment: The Future Role of the Printing Historical
                 Society",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "179--180",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "No abstract.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Standard:1973:BRO,
  author =       "Paul Standard",
  title =        "Book Review: {A. S. Osley: \booktitle{LUMINARIO. An
                 Introduction to the Italian Writing-Books of the 16th
                 and 17th Centuries}. xiii + 173 pp. with 116
                 illustrations; plus checklist of 105 first edns; bibl.
                 of 113 items, \& full index; clothbound sm. folio with
                 paper wrapper. Nieuwkoop\slash Netherlands: Miland
                 Publishers, 1972. Price \pounds 21.50 or \$56.50}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "181--188",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Praz:1973:SC,
  author =       "Mario Praz",
  title =        "A Secret of Calligraphy",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "189--189",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Extract from the author's \booktitle{Mnemosyne: The
                 Parallel between Literature and the Visual Arts}.
                 Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970; pp.
                 25--27.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1973:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "190--191",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--192",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Wed Feb 10 06:18:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N2_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:APP,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Announcement: MIT Press to Publish
                 {{\booktitle{Visible Language}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--195",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:GIc,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "197--198",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Harary:1973:T,
  author =       "Frank Harary",
  title =        "Typographs",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "199--208",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "This article was received for publication on January
                 11, 1970, at which time the name of this journal was as
                 in reference [2] (Journal of Typographic Research). It
                 was circulated in preprint form and inspired the
                 insightful and interesting paper: J. A. Bondy,
                 \booktitle{The ``graph theory'' of the Greek alphabet}.
                 \booktitle{Graph theory and applications} (Y. Alavi, et
                 al., eds.), Berlin: Springer, 1972. Pp. 43--54. This
                 article was prepared with the assistance of Linda
                 Bidelman.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Typographs are defined as graphs derived from letters.
                 A method for classification of letters by their
                 underlying graphical structure is illustrated. A
                 classification of the upper-case roman letters is
                 presented, and tables of typographs are compiled as
                 well for the roman numerals and the lower-case script
                 letters. The possibility of devising new alphabets is
                 mentioned.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Blesser:1973:CRB,
  author =       "B. Blesser and R. Shillman and C. Cox and T. Kuklinsky
                 and J. Ventura and M. Eden",
  title =        "Character Recognition Based on Phenomenological
                 Attributes",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "209--223",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A theoretical approach is suggested for describing
                 upper-case letters not in terms of the physical
                 attributes of their archetypes but in terms of more
                 general descriptions of their underlying
                 representations. A method is presented for finding
                 these general descriptions through the study of
                 ambiguous characters. Functional attributes are the
                 describers of the underlying representations of
                 letters. The relations between the physical attributes
                 of the input character and the functional attributes
                 that specify its identity are given in part by
                 graphical context rules which incorporate the stylistic
                 consistency within the character itself and its
                 neighbors. The implications of our theory of characters
                 to the areas of computerized character recognition and
                 type design are noted.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Golomb:1973:FBF,
  author =       "Solomon W. Golomb",
  title =        "Forth and Back and Forth",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "224--224",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpted from an article by the author in the
                 \booktitle{Harvard Bulletin}, March 1972.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Douglass:1973:RBB,
  author =       "Malcolm P. Douglass",
  title =        "Reading Between and Beyond the Lines",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "225--234",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Adapted from the author's keynote address to the
                 Fortieth Annual Claremont Reading Conference
                 (Claremont, Calif. 91711) in February 1973.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Rather than be bound by traditional assumptions about
                 reading --- e.g., that learning to read is a difficult
                 task for a child and counter to his natural learning
                 processes --- we should view reading holistically. A
                 child's earliest attempts at handling visible language
                 symbols parallel his earliest efforts to speak and to
                 listen, and these attempts emerge naturally as a part
                 of normal human development. We can teach reading only
                 indirectly. Our efforts should nurture the spontaneous
                 nature of language learning and should provide the
                 climate and opportunity for a child to write and to
                 read in the broadest possible context --- including the
                 ``reading'' of symbols, gestures, works of art, etc.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Viehmeyer:1973:GLC,
  author =       "L. Allen Viehmeyer",
  title =        "{Gothic} Letterforms and {{\booktitle{Codex
                 Vindobonensis}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "235--246",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Traditionally the Gothic bishop Wulfila (c. 311--c.
                 383) is credited with the development of Gothic
                 alphabetic letters. The Gothic documents which have
                 come down to us from the fifth and early sixth century
                 exhibit letterforms and scribal practices which have
                 led to various hypotheses about the source(s) of the
                 Gothic letterforms. Although the existence of Gothic
                 alphabets in Codex Vindobonensis has been long known,
                 the lack of an adequate appraisal of the alphabets has
                 led to their neglect. An appraisal is offered here
                 which attaches great significance to these alphabets as
                 evidence of an early phase in the development of Gothic
                 letterforms, and hence of prime importance for a
                 derivation of the Gothic alphabet.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Cushman:1973:CST,
  author =       "Donald R. Cushman",
  title =        "The Cue Summation Theory Tested with Meaningful Verbal
                 Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "247--260",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "No previous studies pertaining to Hartman's Cue
                 Summation Theory (``Redundant information
                 simultaneously presented by the audio and the visual
                 channels results in greater efficiency in learning than
                 does the same information in either channel alone.'')
                 could be found which utilized meaningful verbal
                 information as stimulus material. Students were
                 presented fitting this criterion and were tested for
                 affective responses and cognitive recall. Comparisons
                 of results were made between three separate
                 presentation procedures: audio along, visual along, and
                 combined audiovisual. Comparisons of affective
                 responses did not indicate significant differences, but
                 analyses of cognitive data showed the combined
                 audiovisual treatment resulting in half the number of
                 errors as either the audio or the visual treatments
                 alone.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Venturi:1973:ELV,
  author =       "Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown and Steven
                 Izenour",
  title =        "Excerpt: Learning from {Las Vegas}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "261--270",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpted from the authors' \booktitle{Learning from
                 Las Vegas} (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1972), xviii +
                 188 pages, \$25.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A class of postmodern thinking is excerpted with
                 particular attention to the sign value of the
                 environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Neruda:1973:OT,
  author =       "Pablo Neruda",
  title =        "Ode to Typography",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "271--275",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Translated from the Spanish by Carlos Lozano; it
                 appeared in the \booktitle{Chicago Review}, Vol. 17,
                 No. 1 (1964).",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A poem describing typographic aesthetics and
                 significance. A brief description of an organization
                 and its mandate.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Downing:1973:C,
  author =       "John Downing",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "276--277",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Scott:1972:GPC}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1973:RAAc,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "278--279",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "280--280",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N3_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:GId,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "283--284",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hoffman:1973:VSI,
  author =       "William E. Hoffman",
  title =        "Vision, Sign, and Inference",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "285--309",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In this paper I defend the thesis that perceiving ---
                 and by implication, vision --- is inferential or
                 semiotic. Whenever a person sees an object, that
                 object's stimulation of the perceiver functions as a
                 sign that is interpreted in the conscious response of
                 the perceiver; the stimulation functions as a premise
                 from which the perceiver infers a conclusion which is a
                 conscious response. The argument has two basic steps.
                 (1) Perception is a three-termed relationship between
                 the object perceived, a mediating element, and a
                 conscious response; certain facts about how we perceive
                 with the minor sense are taken into account, and cases
                 of identical stimuli resulting in different responses
                 are suggested as evidence that perception is mediated.
                 (2) This mediating element takes the form of a sign
                 which is interpreted by the conscious response, or a
                 set of premises for which the conscious response is a
                 conclusion; some of Charles Sanders Peirce's ideas
                 about perception and signs are developed --- especially
                 his concept of a percept and a perceptual judgment, and
                 his classification of signs. There is an important
                 similarity between the perceptual world taken as a
                 system of signs and the system of signs we ordinarily
                 think of as visible language. Just as we learn to read,
                 we learn to perceive.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Coleman:1973:G,
  author =       "A. Coleman",
  title =        "Graphicacy",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "310--310",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpted from the author's note in the December 1972
                 \booktitle{Cartographic Journal}, Journal of the
                 British Cartographic Society.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kindersley:1973:SC,
  author =       "David Kindersley",
  title =        "Space Craft",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "311--324",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The proper fit or spacing of letters has been next to
                 impossible using the type-bearing metal rectangular
                 forms required by typographic engineering; rather, it
                 has required the letter-by-letter attention of an
                 artist/letterer. The advent of film composition and
                 computer technology makes possible again the proper
                 coordination of spacing and design of letterforms. In
                 typography, space and letter are one. Optically
                 adjusted text spacing will require attention to the
                 subtleties of each letter's optical center and the
                 inner forces involved in our eyes' perception of these
                 letterforms. The author's Optical Letter Spacer is
                 described, and its application for reading research is
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Lehman:1973:HLM,
  author =       "C. L. Lehman",
  title =        "Handwriting Legibility: a Method of Objective
                 Evaluation",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "325--344",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A rationale and method is presented for objective
                 evaluation of handwriting according to legibility
                 criteria for the roman alphabet and its slanted
                 version, italic: letter angle, letter length, spacing
                 between letters, and the shaping of counter spaces.
                 Inaccurate performance of letters according to these
                 criteria reduces legibility in our roman-reading
                 culture in proportion to deviation from the system of
                 visual order. Measurement procedures and a flowchart
                 description of the computer process are given.
                 Preliminary findings of a being made between the
                 commonly taught printscript and a simple italic hand
                 are noted and identified for potential use in
                 modification of curriculum design and teaching
                 practices.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Pollack:1973:PDI,
  author =       "Michael Pollack",
  title =        "The {Prophetess Deborah} and the Invention of
                 Printing",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "345--350",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A colophon in one of the earliest dated imprints in
                 the Hebrew language (1475) extols the mystery and power
                 of the newly invented printing press. Seemingly
                 unnoticed by printing and bibliographical scholars
                 working outside the area of Hebraica, the colophon is
                 translated into English and its poetic composition
                 discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wright:1973:RBU,
  author =       "Patricia Wright",
  title =        "Research in Brief: Understanding Tabular Displays",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "351--359",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Alternative representations of tabular information is
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Conway:1973:CSG,
  author =       "Patricia Conway",
  title =        "Cover: Subway Graffiti in {New York City}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "360--362",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "From an article by the author, \booktitle{Subway
                 Graffiti: The Message from Underground}.
                 \booktitle{Print}, XXVII (May\slash June 1973),
                 25--32.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Banks:1973:BRA,
  author =       "Colin Banks",
  title =        "Book Review: {Allen Hutt. \booktitle{Fournier: The
                 Compleat Typographer}. London: Frederick Muller Ltd,
                 1973 \pounds 4.50}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "363--364",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "The author of this book, Allen Hutt, died in August,
                 1973.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Haugen:1973:C,
  author =       "Einar Haugen and Louis Marck and David Abercrombie",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "365--369",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Stern:1972:OPE,Wrolstad:1972:ER}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1973:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "370--371",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "372--372",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1973:IVV,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume VI}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "373--376",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1973",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V7N4_1973_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:GIa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--4",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N1_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Herrick:1974:TAS,
  author =       "Earl M. Herrick",
  title =        "A Taxonomy of Alphabets and Scripts",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--32",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N1_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This paper describes a taxonomy or system of
                 classification to describe alphabets and to show the
                 various degrees of formal similarity which they bear to
                 one another. The principles of this taxonomy, largely
                 borrowed from the biological sciences, are briefly
                 stated; three taxonomic levels, corresponding to three
                 degrees of similarity, are then defined. For each
                 level, the paper describes the kinds and degrees of
                 similarity which alphabets must have to be included
                 within one taxon; these similarities are illustrated by
                 several different kinds of taxa and some of the
                 alphabets which belong to them. Several problems in the
                 comparison of writing systems which will require
                 further research are mentioned.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The Appendix that begins on page 30 discusses the
                 rearrangement of vowels and consonants in words in
                 Sanskrit (and its descendants).",
}

@Article{Haugen:1974:RSS,
  author =       "Einar Haugen",
  title =        "The Rune Stones of {Spirit Pond, Maine}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "33--64",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N1_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The author reports on his official investigation of
                 the inscription on three rune stones discovered in 1971
                 by Walter J. Elliott near Spirit Pond, Maine (USA). In
                 determining the authenticity of the stones as Viking
                 Age artifacts, three steps were involved: (1)
                 transcription of the runes, (2) transliteration into
                 the Latin alphabet, and (3) interpretation of the
                 meaning of the inscriptions. The relationship of runes
                 (as alphabetic symbols) to the history of Scandinavian
                 languages is outlined; special problems of these
                 inscriptions are discussed: (1) the runes are not those
                 used in the eleventh or later centuries, (2) spelling
                 and the use of ``runic'' numerals are inconsistent with
                 runic and scribal practice, (3) the grammatical form is
                 unrecognizable as Old Norse, (4) peculiarities relate
                 directly to the Kensington Stone inscription in
                 Minnesota. Conclusion: the inscriptions could not have
                 been carved by Scandinavian Vikings in the Middle Ages,
                 and probably date since 1932.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Turner:1974:EGM,
  author =       "E. G. Turner",
  title =        "Excerpt: {Greek} Manuscripts of the {Ancient World}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "65--82",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N1_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Reineck:1974:DBW,
  author =       "Gay Beste Reineck",
  title =        "Design in Brief: Word\slash Forms",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "85--88",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N1_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Palladino:1974:C,
  author =       "Robert J. Palladino",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "89--93",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Hochuli:1973:BRE}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N1_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1974:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "94--95",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N1_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "96--96",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N1_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:GIb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--100",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Barganz:1974:POR,
  author =       "Robert A. Barganz",
  title =        "Phonological and Orthographic Relationships of Reading
                 Performance",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--122",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This study investigated the use of an intermediate
                 level of orthographic representation based on the
                 theoretical framework of transformational-generative
                 grammar. A general objective was to determine whether a
                 system of semantic correspondence was utilized when
                 irrelevant phonetic aspects of orthography were
                 encountered by good and poor readers from a fifth-grade
                 population. A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was employed
                 to investigate the effects of reading ability (good and
                 poor), word reality (real and pseudo), and mode of
                 presentation for stimuli and response items (oral and
                 written). Good readers performed better than poor
                 readers at a statistically significant level ($ p <
                 0.0005$) on those tasks which required recognizing
                 regularities on a deep level. When regularities were
                 recognized on a surface level, these differences
                 between good and poor readers diminished. Good readers
                 appeared to display a search technique which abandons a
                 simpler level of correspondence in favor of one more
                 efficient, one which precludes grapheme/phoneme
                 correspondences for one directed toward semantic
                 correspondence.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bormuth:1974:LPE,
  author =       "John R. Bormuth",
  title =        "Literacy Policy and the Emerging Technology of
                 Readability",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "123--135",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The procedures for predicting and adjusting the
                 comprehensibility of printed prose have steadily
                 progressed from the status of an art, through that of a
                 quasi-science, and are now emerging as a scientific
                 technology having considerable generality and
                 precision. Of special interest is the fact that this
                 body of knowledge has much potential for enhancing the
                 effectiveness of a nation's efforts to achieve a
                 desirable level of literacy in its population while, at
                 the same time, reducing the costs of those efforts.
                 This paper outlines some of the arguments that favor
                 accelerating the development of this technology in the
                 developed nation and the founding of the technology in
                 the mother tongues of developing nations.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:BAG,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "[{Boston} area gravestone]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "136--136",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Duval:1974:IOP,
  author =       "Francis Duval and Ivan Rigby",
  title =        "Inscriptions of Our Past",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "137--150",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A selection of inscriptions on American gravestones
                 from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are
                 illustrated. A brief introduction comments on the
                 urgent need for their recording before further damage
                 is inflicted upon them.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Shillman:1974:BCR,
  author =       "R. Shillman and C. Cox and T. Kuklinski and J. Ventura
                 and M. Eden and B. Blesser",
  title =        "A Bibliography in Character Recognition: Techniques
                 for Describing Characters",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "151--166",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A bibliography is presented in the field of character
                 recognition. Many of the references are from the fields
                 of engineering and psychology and deal with various
                 techniques for describing machine and hand-printed
                 characters.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Raben:1974:HCL,
  author =       "Joseph Raben",
  title =        "The Humanist in the Computer Lab",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "167--177",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The attempts made so far to utilize computers in
                 studying the humanities have resulted in a fundamental
                 analysis of the subject areas themselves rather than in
                 any significant results. The problems of inputting and
                 outputting, of determining what processes may
                 appropriately be employed, and of developing new
                 processes not derived from the customary numerical
                 approaches which presently dominate computer thinking
                 --- all these have retarded what had been expected to
                 be a dramatic advance into a new order of humanistic
                 criticism. The most substantial accomplishments to date
                 have been the rationalized lists of words
                 (dictionaries, indexes, and concordances) for which the
                 computer's capacity to sort rapidly without fatigue or
                 error has accelerated production of these traditional
                 aids to scholarship. A new breed of humanistic scholar
                 now evolving --- highly trained genuinely relevant to
                 his studies --- will contribute to the creation of new
                 programming languages specially designed for this word,
                 assist in the training of others who follow, and help
                 to guide computer-assisted instruction beyond the
                 mechanistic mode in which it currently operates.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Sutherland:1974:PSS,
  author =       "Eric Sutherland",
  title =        "[Photograph of {{\booktitle{Sentence Structures}}}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "178--178",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Lettieri:1974:EWC,
  author =       "Larry Lettieri",
  title =        "Excerpt: Which Computer Printer When?",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "179--185",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "Discussion of serial, dot-matrix, chain, and drum
                 printers.",
}

@Article{Banks:1974:BRR,
  author =       "Colin Banks",
  title =        "Book Review: {Ruari McLean. \booktitle{Victorian Book
                 Design and Colour Printing}. London: Faber \& Faber,
                 1973. \pounds 15}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "187--188",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1974:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "189--191",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--192",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N2_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:GIc,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--196",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Beiman:1974:CPS,
  author =       "Abbie W. Beiman",
  title =        "Concrete Poetry: a Study in Metaphor",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "197--223",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Various characteristics of concrete poetry have been
                 examined but little attention has been focused on this
                 art form's contribution to literature. Indeed, the
                 concrete poem exemplifies a dramatic variation in the
                 most basic element of poetry: figurative language.
                 Traditionally, figurative language has established a
                 relationship between the tangible objects around man
                 and the intangibles which he seeks to know. The most
                 common form of such figurative yokings has been the
                 metaphor, a rope that creates a tension between the
                 similarities and dissimilarities of the juxtaposed
                 elements. With concrete poetry the focus of that rope
                 is no longer just the abstract and spiritual leg of the
                 metaphor, but the sensory perception of the literal and
                 concrete as well.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Longuet-Higgins:1974:LM,
  author =       "H. C. Longuet-Higgins",
  title =        "The Language of Music",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "224--224",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpted from the author's ``\booktitle{The Language
                 of Music},'' \booktitle{The Times Literary Supplement},
                 November 20, 1970, pp. 1351--1352.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Frye:1974:RB,
  author =       "Northrop Frye",
  title =        "The Renaissance of Books",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "225--240",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The article attempts to deal with the place of the
                 book among the instruments of communication in modern
                 society. The paperback revolution is characterized as a
                 change in the conception of the book from cultural
                 monument to intellectual tool. The cultural context of
                 this change is discussed and the effect of radio and
                 more particularly television on twentieth-century
                 society is briefly consulted. The book, the author
                 points out, can not only be read but unread, consulted
                 at will as a stationary focus for the community. The
                 book is the technological instrument that makes
                 democracy possible, and public access to written
                 documents the principle that keeps it functioning.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Pearson:1974:WRL,
  author =       "P. David Pearson and Michael L. Kamil",
  title =        "Word Recognition Latencies as a Function of Form
                 Class, Stem Length, and Affix Length",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "241--246",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This study investigated the effects of form class
                 (nouns or verbs), stem length (3--10 letters per word)
                 and affix length of inflicted verbs (`{\o},' \-s,'
                 `-ed,' or `-ing') on the recognition latency of
                 visually presented stimuli. Stem length proved to be a
                 significant source of variation for all words and for
                 the noun stimuli separately, but not for the verb
                 stimuli. Subsequent analysis of the verb data revealed
                 that stem length was a significant source of variation
                 only on the first block of trials and that the
                 additional time required for processing affixes is
                 reduced between the first and fourth block of trials.
                 The data fit a letter-by-letter interpretation of the
                 recognition process, modified by a possible morphemic
                 segmentation strategy for affixes.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gray:1974:LS,
  author =       "Nicolete Gray",
  title =        "Lettering and Society",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "247--260",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Lettering is omnipresent in our daily lives and takes
                 a great variety of forms; it involves two different
                 types of reading behavior: private and voluntary,
                 public and involuntary. There is little physical
                 similarity between the two. Thought of as a medium, the
                 physical qualities of lettering --- color, form and
                 dimension --- regain importance. Lettering can transmit
                 not only the meaning of the words but also an attitude
                 towards those words. Criteria for which public
                 lettering should be judged are presented. Socially,
                 public lettering should enrich our environment through
                 creative variety of all appropriate letter styles. In
                 lettering education both the application of geometric
                 principles and the study of the past are important. The
                 past can provide models, ideas, and inspiration toward
                 the many directions lettering can be extended; no
                 legible letter is obsolete.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Crouwel:1974:PEL,
  author =       "Wim Crouwel",
  title =        "A Proposition for Education in Letterforms and
                 Handwriting",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "261--264",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Education should provide the means to find a personal
                 form of expression through letterforms; it should not
                 be restricted to an established system for copying
                 existing styles. A new starting point for creating
                 letterforms (as well as for design in general) ---
                 based on a system of regular pattern in the widest
                 sense --- would create a system allowing the greatest
                 freedom and flexibility. Utility and self-expression
                 are equally important in teaching a child to write ---
                 and, at the same time, to recognize patterns and the
                 basic rules of form and shape.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ehri:1974:RBP,
  author =       "Linnea C. Ehri and Lee S. Wilce",
  title =        "Research in Brief: Printed Intonation Cues and Reading
                 in Children",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "265--274",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Eighty third- and fourth-graders read one of four
                 types of printed texts: standard print; print in which
                 word size was varied to reflect aspects of speech
                 information (three stress-pitch levels); print in which
                 word size reflected differences in the grammatical form
                 class of words; and print in which word size was varied
                 randomly. Reading speed and comprehension with standard
                 print were compared to performances with each of the
                 other texts. Results revealed that the intoned text was
                 read faster than the standard text by third-graders but
                 not by fourth-grades. No other major effects were
                 observed. Findings though preliminary are consistent
                 with the view that less experienced readers transform
                 graphic to aural input before deriving a semantic
                 interpretation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Clay:1974:RBO,
  author =       "Marie M. Clay",
  title =        "Research in Brief: Orientation to the Spatial
                 Characteristics of the Open Book",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "275--282",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "One of the first code-breaking activities for the
                 beginning reader concerns the arbitrary conventions of
                 how books are presented. The orientation to the spatial
                 characteristics of visible language was observed in 4
                 five-year-old identical girls through the developmental
                 progression of their hand behavior while reading.
                 Preliminary theoretical explanations are offered in
                 terms of bilateral nervous systems, handedness and
                 reading, and perceptual strategies for visual analysis
                 of stimuli.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wendt:1974:KBA,
  author =       "Dirk Wendt and Fernand Baudin",
  title =        "{Kurzfassung der Beitr{\"a}ge} [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {German} and {French}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "283--285",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "287--287",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N3_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:GId,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "291--292",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N4_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gelb:1974:RWD,
  author =       "I. J. Gelb",
  title =        "Records, Writing, and Decipherment",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "293--318",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N4_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Written records together with material remains derived
                 from excavations form the main bases for our
                 understanding of past civilizations and their
                 underlying language systems. There is no systematic
                 treatment of written records, and little attention has
                 been paid to the interrelationship between ancient
                 writing and language. Full systems of writing express
                 language at two levels --- morphological and phonetic
                 --- which give rise to three basic writing systems
                 types --- logo-syllabic, syllabic, and alphabetic. Four
                 categories of decipherment --- based on our relative
                 knowledge of the writing system and the language ---
                 are discussed: known writing/known language; unknown
                 writing/known language; known writing/unknown language;
                 and unknown writing/unknown language. From a
                 cryptanalytic point of view there are two general
                 decipherment methods: (1) utilization of external
                 information to determine probable contents (e.g.,
                 bilingual texts,) and (2) internal information from an
                 analysis of the text itself (structure and typology).
                 The assumption of the underlying language is critical
                 for deciphering procedures and provides the test of
                 successful decipherment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Germain:1974:FSI,
  author =       "Edward Germain",
  title =        "Four Surrealist Images",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "319--332",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N4_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Surrealism has consistently asserted its desire to
                 comprehend the essence of thought --- a statement
                 usually read in aesthetic terms by art and literary
                 critics or in clinical terms by psychological critics.
                 If this statement is taken more literally, certain
                 overlooked insights arise, including the hypothesis
                 that the surrealists' search for an ultimate synthesis
                 may itself reflect a structure of the mind.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Marcus:1974:IVS,
  author =       "Aaron Marcus",
  title =        "An Introduction to the Visual Syntax of Concrete
                 Poetry",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "333--360",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Mayer:1975:Ca,Kinniburg:1975:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N4_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Many different forms of concrete poetry have emerged
                 in the past twenty years. One way to appreciate,
                 describe, and compare these works is to examine them in
                 terms of their visual syntax. This includes emphasis on
                 figure-field relationships, implied depths, spatial
                 structure, and movement. Examples are presented which
                 illustrate basic types of visual organization and are
                 analyzed to relate their visual syntax to their total
                 meaning. This initial classification could be
                 elaborated and supplemented to provide a basis for a
                 semiotic of concrete poetry.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{damen:1974:ETT,
  author =       "herman damen",
  title =        "excerpt: towards a three-dimensional pouitry",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "361--368",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N4_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The article text is entirely in lowercase.",
}

@Article{Kostka:1974:AG,
  author =       "Robert Kostka",
  title =        "Aspects of Graffiti",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "369--375",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N4_1974_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "As a natural part of our environment, graffiti is both
                 spontaneous and functional --- free from design
                 conventions and often the sole communication weapon of
                 an oppressed people. It can be a personal
                 identification or it can mark the boundaries for an
                 urban street gang. Its history is probably as old as
                 writing itself. Graffiti has adapted personal
                 expression to whatever space, writing tool, surface, or
                 viewing requirements the environment demands.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1974:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Felix Beltran",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "376--378",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N4_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "380--380",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N4_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1974:IVV,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume VIII}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "VIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "382--384",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1974",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Fri Feb 12 07:31:41 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V8N4_1974_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:GIa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--4",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:BC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Brief Communications",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--6",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The pages are output on a 100dpi Mead Dijit (Direct
                 Image by Jet Ink Transfer) device.",
}

@Article{Venezky:1975:CRL,
  author =       "Richard L. Venezky",
  title =        "The Curious Role of Letter Names in Reading
                 Instruction",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "7--23",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Arnheim:1975:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "For about two thousand years educators assumed without
                 question that learning the letter names in their proper
                 sequence was a prerequisite for literacy. Learning the
                 ABC's became synonymous with learning to read. But
                 today there is disagreement over the value of early
                 letter-name training. Some claim that it aids letter or
                 word discrimination; some claim that it aids attaching
                 sound to letter, and some claim that it interferes with
                 both of these tasks. An analysis of the letter names
                 and of experimental and pedagogic evidence lends little
                 support to the claims of letter-naming benefits. In
                 several countries --- including the United State, the
                 Soviet Union, and Israel --- letter-name knowledge has
                 been found to interfere with learning to attach sound
                 to letter. But letter-name knowledge has also been
                 shown to be one of the best single predictors of
                 reading success, and no matter what is shown
                 experimentally about the utility of letter names, they
                 are efficient labels for the letters and an inseparable
                 element in the popular concept of reading
                 instruction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Steig:1975:CDB,
  author =       "William Steig",
  title =        "{C D B!}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "24--24",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Reprint of letter cartoons from the author's book of
                 the same title, New York: Windmill Books, Inc., Simon
                 \& Schuster, Inc. (1968).",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{King:1975:RDW,
  author =       "Terrance J. King",
  title =        "Radial Design in {Wallace Stevens}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "25--46",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In some early cases of Stevens poems there is evidence
                 of a typographical pattern I call ``radial design,'' a
                 device in which the poet selects a central unit (such
                 as a word) and on both sides evenly arranges a pattern
                 of other units. Radial design is no accident. One finds
                 not only a definite historical consistency in the way
                 the pattern develops but also a tight continuity
                 between it and ideas about language and perception
                 expressed in the poems themselves. Stevens' overall aim
                 is to impose this fixed, spatial structure upon the
                 sequential flow of a poem in order to suspend the
                 representational function of its language and thus
                 compel us to observe words as things in themselves.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Dole:1975:CWD,
  author =       "William Dole and Gerald Nordland",
  title =        "The Collages of {William Dole}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "47--56",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "William Dole's painted collages are formal
                 compositional inventions, balancing pictorial elements
                 and sensitive saturations of color-form with
                 unintelligible signs --- the calligraphy of type,
                 symbol, diagram, and handwriting --- which seduce one's
                 eyes and provoke uncertain readings. The artist also
                 comments on his own work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hauser:1975:PRL,
  author =       "Robert A. Hauser",
  title =        "Photographic Restoration of Letterforms",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "57--66",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The creation, for exhibition purposes, of a
                 photographically restored facsimile of a damaged
                 nineteenth-century lithograph is discussed, with
                 emphasis on the varieties of deterioration that can
                 affect letterforms and on the principles of
                 conservation and restoration. The paper follows the
                 sequence of deterioration and conservation of the
                 artwork, looking at the typographic restoration in
                 detail. Some discussion about the archival nature of
                 the print and museum conservation in general is a
                 necessary prerequisite to understand the preferences
                 for choosing the ultimate photographic restoration
                 processes used to restore the missing letterforms,
                 which is the primary concern of the article.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Groff:1975:RBS,
  author =       "Patrick Groff",
  title =        "Research in Brief: Shapes as Cues to Word
                 Recognition",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "67--71",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The theory that ``shape'' provides a useful learning
                 cue for a child's early recognition of a word had been
                 maintained by various writers, but it has not been
                 verified by research. An analysis of similar shapes for
                 high-frequency words also argues against using shape as
                 a cue for word recognition. The broader concept of word
                 shape (or contours) is considered and deeper research
                 suggested.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Charyn:1975:AFL,
  author =       "Jerome Charyn",
  title =        "{Azazian} is a frenetic language \ldots{}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "72--72",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Except from the author's book, \booktitle{Eisenhower,
                 My Eisenhower}, New York: Holt, Rinehart \& Winston.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Doblin:1975:ESA,
  author =       "Jay Doblin and Inder Agrawal and Marianna Porter and
                 Robert Peterson",
  title =        "Excerpt: Simplifying the {ABC}'s",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "73--86",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpted from an article in the January\slash
                 February 1974 issue of \booktitle{Industrial Design}
                 magazine.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "How efficient is the roman alphabet? Not very in an
                 age when man-to-man and man-to-machine exchanges are so
                 vital to our communication processes. The efficiency of
                 the alphabet is discussed in terms of information
                 theory, and a new system of letterform design --- an
                 extension of the familiar seven-stroke electronic
                 numerals --- is proposed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  keywords =     "BASIC letterform; Braille alphabet; Evans--Epps
                 letterform",
}

@Article{Nesbitt:1975:CDL,
  author =       "Alexander Nesbitt",
  title =        "Comment: The Designer and Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "87--89",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A brief commentary on the subject by a designer and
                 educator.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{sandberg:1975:AT,
  author =       "willem sandberg",
  title =        "art and typography",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--90",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The text is entirely in lowercase.",
}

@Article{Mayer:1975:Ca,
  author =       "Peter Mayer and James Mosley and Hermann Zapf",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "91--92",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Commentary on the phrase ``26 (more or less) soldiers
                 (of lead).'', plus Zapf's disapproval of the cover, and
                 threat to resign from the Advisory Board. See response
                 to Zapf \cite{Mayer:1975:Cb}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1975:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Felix Beltran",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "93--95",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "96--96",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N1_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:GIb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--100",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Conley:1975:VSP,
  author =       "Tom Conley",
  title =        "Verbal Shape in the Poetry of {Villon} and {Marot}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--122",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Generally speaking lyrics written in the early years
                 of the printing press cannot be read in editions other
                 than their own. A visual aesthetic informing the poetic
                 texture of Fran{\c{c}}ois Villon and Cl{\'e}ment Marot
                 is essential to an understanding of their work: Le
                 Grant Testament of 1489 in gothic font and the physical
                 shape of the epitaphs and rondeaux of the Adolescence
                 Cl{\'e}mentine use in a differential manner the absence
                 of volume on the page's two-dimensional surface to
                 elaborate a human drama of three dimensions. Thus their
                 dialogue between voice and space or discourse and
                 figure is always an open one, showing in its
                 punctuation the areas of mediation and desire that
                 generate great lyric poetry.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Antonsen:1975:IWS,
  author =       "Elmer H. Antonsen",
  title =        "The Inscription of the {Whetstone} from {Str{\o}m}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "123--132",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The runic inscription on the Whetstone from Str{\o}m
                 in Norway is of particular interest because it
                 represents the earliest attestation of a work-song in
                 the Germanic languages. Archeologists cannot aid in the
                 dating of this inscription, since no other objects were
                 found with the whetstone. Previous attempts to fix a
                 date on the basis of runic and linguistic evidence have
                 relied on ad hoc assumptions concerning phonological
                 developments and the relative age of certain runic
                 variants. It is shown that the inscription can be
                 interpreted without such ad hoc hypotheses and the
                 work-song must date from approximately 450--500 A.D. at
                 the latest, rather than from the beginning of the
                 seventh century as previously assumed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Herrick:1975:LAB,
  author =       "Earl M. Herrick",
  title =        "Letters with Alternative Basic Shapes",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "133--144",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In many written languages there are letters each of
                 which may be embodied by marks having more than one
                 basic shape. For each occurrence of such a letter, the
                 shape of the mark used to embody it is normally
                 selected according to the circumstances in which the
                 letter occurs. Thus, some alternative basic shapes are
                 appropriate to certain places in a word or another part
                 of a text; some are used by different dialects; some
                 belong to different co-scripts (subdivisions of a
                 script that each have basic shapes for all of its
                 letters); some are used by certain typefaces or styles
                 of handwriting. This paper discusses these several
                 kinds of variation among basic shapes, and gives
                 examples from several scripts.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Suen:1975:HEB,
  author =       "Ching Y. Suen",
  title =        "Handwriting Education --- A Bibliography of
                 Contemporary Publications",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "145--158",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This bibliography presents some contemporary
                 references related to handwriting education. The varied
                 collection is aimed at providing the researcher with
                 extensive up-to-date source materials on handwriting
                 instruction, systems and practices, instruments,
                 quality and methods of evaluation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{ODonnell:1975:MRC,
  author =       "Thomas D. O'Donnell",
  title =        "{Maurice Roche}: Cr{\^a}ne, Carne",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "159--172",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Maurice Roche has distinguished himself from the more
                 traditional nouveau roman through the role he accords
                 to language and through the phenomenon of
                 intertextuality in his three novels, Compact, Circus,
                 and Codex. His approach to both phenomena is well
                 illustrated by the pun ``carne/cr{\^a}ne'' to which he
                 constantly returns in Circus. The cr{\^a}ne, suggesting
                 death, and the carne, suggesting sexuality, may be seen
                 as the traditional polarities of the eros/thanatos
                 axis, and substantiate an anagrammatic reading of
                 Circus' title: cri, or death, and cu(l)s, or sex. The
                 pun, as the intersection of two or more signs, becomes
                 for Roche the intersection of two or more sign systems:
                 the spoken word, the written word, and the layout of
                 the printed page. It is in his refusal to accept the
                 linearity of a novelistic text that Roche is the most
                 avant-garde.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{AIGA:1975:DPP,
  author =       "{American Institute of Graphic Arts}",
  title =        "The Development of Passenger\slash Pedestrian Oriented
                 Symbols for Use in Transportation-Related Facilities",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "173--185",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The American Institute of Graphic Arts in cooperation
                 with the United States Department of Transportation,
                 Office of Facilitation, has created 34 passenger and
                 pedestrian oriented symbols for use in
                 transportation-related facilities. The intent of the
                 project was to produce a consistent and interrelated
                 group of symbols to bridge the language barrier and
                 simplify basic messages at domestic and international
                 travel facilities. The working process attempted to
                 take full advantage of strong forms only where no
                 satisfactory concepts existed. The report includes
                 detailed descriptions of the process employed to create
                 the symbols as well as guidelines for their use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Mayer:1975:Cb,
  author =       "Peter Mayer and Ken Komai",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "186--188",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Marcus:1974:IVS,Mayer:1975:Ca}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1975:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "189--191",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--192",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N2_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:GIc,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--196",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Steinberg:1975:RBS,
  author =       "Danny D. Steinberg and Miho T. Steinberg",
  title =        "Reading Before Speaking",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "197--224",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "It is generally believed children are not ready to
                 read until about 5 years and that speech production is
                 a necessary and desirable basis for teaching
                 methodology. In this study, a four-phase program ---
                 Alphabet Familiarization: Alphabet Identification;
                 Word, Phrase, and Sentence Identification; and Text
                 Reading --- was administered to a subject, beginning at
                 6 months of age. Significant reading skills were
                 acquired during the subject's pre-speech period. By
                 three and a half years the subject read short sentences
                 fluently, and by 8 years, his speech and accuracy
                 equaled eleventh graders. A mongoloid child who was
                 administered the program at a later age (at 5 year) now
                 reads 48 words and 5 phrases and sentences. It is
                 concluded that most current notions on reading
                 readiness and on the role of speech production in
                 teaching methodology require reconsideration.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Moxley:1975:AWS,
  author =       "Roy A. {Moxley, Jr.}",
  title =        "Acquisition of Writing Skills",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "225--248",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Acquisition of writing skills is viewed as a reduction
                 of alternatives. Various levels and aspects of early
                 writing are examined --- including mirror-image
                 reversals --- in terms of a selection from an
                 adjustable number of alternatives. It is argued that
                 allowing information processing to proceed in adaptive
                 stages will result in writing skills that are more
                 accurate, complete, and individualized.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Mendel:1975:LTI,
  author =       "Mark Mendel",
  title =        "Line Transmitter Installation --- a Poem in the
                 Environment",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "249--262",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Ojos Numerosos is a poem of twenty-three three-line
                 stanzas. It was written to be painted on the sides of
                 buildings, on viaducts, and on other urban surfaces
                 where graffiti is typically found. The verses are in
                 random series and are interchangeable within the poem.
                 They form a chain in the experience of the person
                 moving about town. People confront this poem as they do
                 graffiti or corporate-graffiti/advertising every day.
                 Poetry predates writing and printing. The recent
                 tradition of poetics as a possession of the educated
                 elite grew from its confinement to the printed page; I
                 want this poem to fit the viaduct as the sonnet was
                 once felt to fit the page. This is the sprayed word ---
                 the continuous simultaneous transmission of a poem into
                 the environment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kristeller:1975:MRR,
  author =       "Paul Oskar Kristeller",
  title =        "Methods of Research in Renaissance Manuscripts",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "263--275",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The use and study of manuscripts brings us into direct
                 physical contact with the past, both enriching our
                 original source material and opening new research
                 dimensions and perspectives. Unfortunately, manuscript
                 references in text editions or secondary studies are
                 often wrong, incomplete, or antiquated. Meticulous,
                 first-hand searching out of individual references is
                 most important, as is direct inspection of the
                 manuscript or its reproduction. Whenever practical, it
                 is advisable to scan or read completely and
                 systematically all available printed catalogues and
                 handwritten inventories. Special difficulties in
                 finding pertinent manuscripts --- even in familiar
                 collections --- are discussed. Each manuscript is a
                 unique research resource --- deserving careful
                 preservation, adequate cataloging, and greater
                 accessibility.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anno:1975:EAA,
  author =       "Mitsumasa Anno",
  title =        "Excerpt from {{\booktitle{Anno's Alphabet: An
                 Adventure in Imagination}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "276--276",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Photographs from the author's book, New York: Thomas
                 Y. Crowell Company.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Mountford:1975:CMA,
  author =       "John Mountford",
  title =        "Comment: The Medial Aspect of Language: a Linguistic
                 Framework for Literacy",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "277--281",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This is a brief article defining the branches of the
                 discipline of linguistics.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kinniburg:1975:C,
  author =       "Ian A. G. Kinniburg",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "282--285",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Marcus:1974:IVS}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The letter is illustrated with unusual world map
                 projections.",
}

@Article{Baudin:1975:RAAc,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "285--287",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "288--288",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N3_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:GId,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "291--292",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Watt:1975:WPC,
  author =       "W. C. Watt",
  title =        "What Is the Proper Characterization of the Alphabet?
                 {I}. {Desiderata}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "293--327",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "To a point an alphabet can be viewed as a ``language''
                 and described by a ``grammar''; however, since for any
                 such language many different grammars are possible, to
                 take the ``linguistic'' analog seriously is to want to
                 find criteria for judging which ``correct'' grammar is
                 ``best.'' If we grant that the alphabet's users have
                 some systematic mental representation of the alphabet,
                 then the basis for this judgment is clear: that grammar
                 is best which best approximates to the system that
                 people have in their heads. To show how psychological
                 evidence bears on this question, two sophisticated
                 ``linguistic'' analyses of the alphabet are examined;
                 the conclusion is drawn that the evidence points toward
                 another analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:RC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Research Connection",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "328--328",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ascher:1975:QVL,
  author =       "Marcia Ascher and Robert Ascher",
  title =        "The Quipu as a Visible Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "329--356",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The Inca are often cited as a civilization ``without
                 writing.'' But writing is more than a record of
                 language sounds placed upon familiar materials. The
                 media of the Inca were devices made of cotton cords
                 that are called quipus. This introduction to the quipu
                 is based upon a recent study of most of the world's
                 known quipus now spread throughout three continents and
                 concentrates on what we infer to be the way the
                 physical elements of quipus are combined to create a
                 symbolic structure; i.e., the representation of
                 numbers, the expression of N-dimensional arrays, and
                 hierarchical configurations. A discussion of the
                 connections between the quipus and civilization
                 includes: (1) cotton as a material which carried its
                 own message for the Inca; (2) reflections of the quipu
                 in non-media domains of Inca civilization; and (3) the
                 purpose of writing in early civilization.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Robson:1975:OWW,
  author =       "Ernest M. Robson",
  title =        "An Orthographic Way of Writing {English} Prosody",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "357--372",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "An alphabetic process for cueing readers to speak the
                 three dimensions of sound in speech has been
                 constructed: fundamental frequency, duration, and
                 intensity. A scanning model based on differences in the
                 apparent levels of the three dimensions is presented.
                 Considerations of the information in an alphabetic
                 approach are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Feagler:1975:RTN,
  author =       "Dick Feagler",
  title =        "{RTA} --- The Transit Network?",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "373--374",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Comment on the logos of the Regional Transit Authority
                 and the Radio Corporation of America.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Arnheim:1975:C,
  author =       "Rudolf Arnheim and Peter Mayer",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "375--377",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Arnheim comments on the orientation of roman capitals,
                 and Mayer on letternames \cite{Venezky:1975:CRL}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1975:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "378--379",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "380--380",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1975:IVI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume IX}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "IX",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "381--384",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1975",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:00 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V9N4_1975_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:GIa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--4",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N1_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1976:MVL,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "A Manifesto for Visible Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--40",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Hewes:1976:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N1_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Mounting research evidence from the sciences, the
                 humanities, and the visual arts prompts this call for a
                 reassessment of some of the basic operating principles
                 of language study. Linguistic research has not
                 adequately clarified the relationship among three
                 components: our inner organization of language
                 (comlang) and its expression as visible language and as
                 audible language. The visible and the audible language
                 systems are discrete; one system cannot be interpreted
                 in terms of the other, and it is not the fit between
                 systems which is of first importance but how each
                 operates independently. Language is of a piece with
                 total human development. Research is reported which
                 indicates that a closer affinity exists between man's
                 internal information processing network and the visible
                 language system --- both for the way we handle language
                 today and for the way in which our behavioral patterns
                 were established during the origin and early
                 development of language. An appeal is issued for
                 additional research and theory to study the critical
                 issues.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gaskell:1976:NLR,
  author =       "Phillip {Gaskell}",
  title =        "Nomenclature of the Letterforms of Roman Type",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "41--51",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Hewes:1976:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N1_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "While the organization of nomenclature for the
                 elements of letterforms has had a long history, there
                 is today no fully codified system. This paper attempts
                 to define all of the necessary terms for naming the
                 parts of the printed images of roman types in one
                 self-consistent system, and to illustrate their use.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  keywords =     "arm; ascender; ascender line; bar; base line; body;
                 bowl; bracketed; calligraphic; capital line; capitals;
                 contraction; contrast; counter; descender; descender
                 line; diagonal; diphthong; ear; face; fount; hair-line;
                 inscriptional; kern; ligature; link; majuscules; mean
                 line; minuscules; sanserif; serif; set; shoulder; slab;
                 sort; spur; stem; stress; stroke; tail; terminal;
                 titling''; typeface; weight; x-height",
}

@Article{Oldenburg:1976:AGC,
  author =       "Claes Oldenburg",
  title =        "Alphabet Goodhumor --- Cloth Study, 1972--73",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52--52",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Photograph of art work.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N1_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{White:1976:ASA,
  author =       "John J. White",
  title =        "The Argument for a Semiotic Approach to Shape Writing:
                 The Case of {Italian} Futurist Typography",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--86",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N1_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Using futurist poetic experiments as its demonstration
                 object, this paper explores what advantages a semiotic
                 approach has in the investigation of shaped writing.
                 The examples considered are seen to belong to the class
                 of iconic signs, and the concept of iconicity is shown
                 to offer both a more systematic and differentiating
                 method of analyzing their constituent parts than the
                 traditional mimetic model did. Consideration is given
                 to the way in which Gestalt psychology has modified the
                 definition of iconicity to take account of codes of
                 recognition and graphic conventions. Examples of such
                 codes and conventions are explored and attention is
                 paid to the signaling of new codes within an innovative
                 work. Finally, the relationship between the
                 signification of dynamism in futurist painting and
                 poetry is compared in order to show how a semiotic
                 model is able to distinguish between iconic,
                 conventionalized, and codified elements; particular
                 attention is paid here to the accommodation of iconic
                 effects to the medium of print.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{vanKrimpen:1976:BRJ,
  author =       "Huib van Krimpen",
  title =        "Book Review: {Jan Tschichold on Typography: Jan
                 Tschichold, \booktitle{Ansgew{\"a}hlte Anfs{\"a}tze
                 {\"u}ber Fragen der Gestalt des Buches und der
                 Typographie} (Selected Essays on Book Design and
                 Typography). Basel: Birkh{\"a}user Verlag, 1975; ISBN
                 3-7643-0711-0, 23 Swiss Francs}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "87--90",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N1_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1976:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "91--93",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N1_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "95--95",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N1_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:BS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{Burma Shave}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "96--96",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Photograph of widely-seen advertising sign from Frank
                 Rowsome, Jr., \booktitle{The Verse by the Side of the
                 Road: The Story of the Burma-Shave Signs and Jingles},
                 The Stephen Greene Press (Brattleboro, Vermont
                 05310).",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N1_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:GIb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "99--100",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wanat:1976:RR,
  author =       "Stanley F. Wanat",
  title =        "Reading Readiness",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "101--127",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The nature and assessment of reading readiness are
                 considered through an examination of factors in reading
                 readiness, and through an examination of purposes and
                 principles in reading readiness assessment. Skills in
                 extant reading readiness tests are identified, and
                 subskill categories derived from research on reading
                 readiness, reading acquisition, and reading achievement
                 are considered. These skills include attention and
                 automaticity; linguistic awareness; understanding of
                 the task; letter, letter-sequence, word, and
                 word-sequence skills; and flexibility in reading.
                 Effects of instructional factors on reading readiness
                 are also considered. The providing of information for
                 instructional decision-making is identified as the
                 major purpose of reading readiness assessment. Twelve
                 principles for the design and use of reading readiness
                 tests are developed, and twelve major categories of
                 factors that should be considered in an assessment of
                 reading readiness are identified. It is argued that
                 reading readiness should be conceptualized and assessed
                 in terms of the specific reading skill or skills
                 demanded by the task confronting the learner.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Zenker:1976:S,
  author =       "Helmut Zenker",
  title =        "{Sunday}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "128--128",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpted from Alan Riddell, \booktitle{Typewriter
                 Art}, London: London Magazine Editions, 1975.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Nelson:1976:JMC,
  author =       "T. M. Nelson and C. J. Ladan",
  title =        "Judgment of Meaningfulness of {Chinese} Characters by
                 {English}-Speaking Observers",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "129--143",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Liu and Chuang (1970) obtained measures of
                 meaningfulness for 1,200 Chinese characters from
                 ratings made by literate Chinese. A sample of these
                 characters rated by persons unfamiliar with Chinese
                 showed that the amount of perceptual information
                 conveyed to English-speaking observers correlates with
                 Liu and Chuang's index for Chinese-speaking
                 individuals. For English-speaking observers,
                 meaningfulness appears more closely related to visual
                 form characteristics than is the case for the Chinese
                 reader. Results of the study provide a further
                 hypothesis: that the Chinese language evolved according
                 to a visual ``simplicity'' principle. Results also
                 suggest that conclusions from some experiments
                 involving Chinese characters as stimuli may be limited
                 by ignorance of the role that visual dimensions play in
                 discrimination of language forms.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Segalen:1976:CCP,
  author =       "Victor Segalen",
  title =        "[{Chinese} characters and poem]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "144--144",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpt from the author's \booktitle{Stele du chemin
                 de l'ame}, The Greenwood Press (San Francisco, CA
                 94133), 1976.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Orth:1976:LND,
  author =       "Bernard Orth and Hans Weckerle and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "Legibility of Numerals Displayed in a $ 4 \times 7 $
                 Dot Matrix and Seven-Segment Digits",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "145--155",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Conventional and especially designed numerals in 4 x 7
                 dot matrices and 7-segment displays were
                 tachistoscopically presented to, and identified by,
                 human observers. The number of errors made in this
                 identification task were analyzed as a measure of
                 legibility in terms of information transmission. It is
                 shown that the representation of digits in such
                 matrices can be improved by appropriate design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Parker:1976:HFC,
  author =       "George A. Parker",
  title =        "How to find characters per pica for caps",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "156--156",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ranta:1976:PPG,
  author =       "Jerrald Ranta",
  title =        "Palindromes, Poems and Geometric Form",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "157--172",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Reprinted from the author's article in
                 \booktitle{College English}, XXXXVI (October 1974),
                 161--172, National Council of Teachers of English.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Emphasizing the similarities between the form of the
                 palindrome and the forms of certain modern American
                 short poems, I urge the recognition of a unique kind of
                 little-studied, modern, cyclic, poetic form which,
                 lacking an established term, I call ``palindromic''
                 form. Widely used by twentieth-century American poets,
                 this kind of form is distinguishable from the
                 better-known, traditional kinds of poetic form, though
                 it sometimes occurs in combination with them. Cedric
                 Hubbell Whitman's discussion of ring composition and
                 hysteron proteron in the Iliad reveals the classical
                 origin of this form and suggests that its larger class
                 is geometric form.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Marcus:1976:CPP,
  author =       "Aaron Marcus and Joe Rothrock",
  title =        "A Course in Poetry and Printing",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "173--182",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "An experimental course was devised in which students
                 with backgrounds in poetry and in the graphic arts
                 worked to discover essential relationships between
                 verbal and visual poetic statement. The course
                 organization utilized a university environment to the
                 fullest and is offered as a prototypical case study.
                 Students participated in a series of multidisciplinary
                 guest lectures and in studio-based development of
                 creative projects. Their work eventually moved beyond
                 the more traditional views of the poetry-printing
                 dialectic conceived for the course and resembled more
                 the creative speculation of avant-garde art.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Banks:1976:BRF,
  author =       "Colin Banks",
  title =        "Book Review: {F. E. Pardoe, \booktitle{John
                 Baskerville}. London: Muller, 1976; ISBN 0-584-10354-9;
                 \pounds 9.50}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "183--188",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1976:EN,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "{Editor}'s Note",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "188--188",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The typeface you are now reading is Baskerville. In
                 fact, since our first issue in 1967, the basic text and
                 display typeface used in this journal has been
                 Baskerville. The modification of a basic typeface is
                 illustrated in the variations of Baskerville produced
                 by the four different composing systems we have used
                 during this period: Volumes I through VIII were
                 produced on hot-metal composing machines --- Volumes I
                 and II by Linotype, Volumes III through VIII by
                 Monotype. Volumes IX and X were produced on
                 phototypesetting equipment --- Volume IX, Number I, on
                 the VariTyper by Addressograph Multigraph Corporation,
                 and all numbers since then on Monophoto equipment.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1976:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French} and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "189--190",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--192",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N2_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:GIc,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "195--196",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Littlewood:1976:ISB,
  author =       "A. R. Littlewood",
  title =        "An `Ikon of the Soul`: The {Byzantine} Letter",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "197--226",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Byzantine epistolographic concepts are a natural
                 development of the concepts of classical antiquity, and
                 especially of the Second Sophistic, that were adapted
                 to fit the requirements of Christian ontology. The
                 surviving letters were intended not always to convey
                 information, for which the courier or ``living letter''
                 was often responsible, but usually to fulfill the
                 obligations and genuine needs of friendship and to
                 serve as much prized pieces of literary art in their
                 own right. In the one case the letter was deemed an
                 ``ikon of the soul,'' creating an illusion of the
                 presence of the writer and thereby demanding tokens of
                 his individual characteristics. In the other it was
                 required to be original within the strict framework
                 imposed by the imitation of ancient models; and by
                 adherence to changing stylistic canons it came both to
                 foster obscurity and to embrace subject-matter not
                 commonly associated with the letter.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gomringer:1976:PMS,
  author =       "Eugen Gomringer",
  title =        "Poetry as a Means for the Structuring of a Social
                 Environment",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "227--241",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Translated by Mark E. Cory.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "From the outset, the movement of concrete poetry has
                 regarded the poet as a conscious participant in a team
                 of designers dedicated to the aesthetic restructuring
                 of society. To participate, the poet had to study
                 fields not normally associated with poetry, e.g.,
                 architecture, advertising graphics, and typography. His
                 contribution in turn has been to provide craftsmen in
                 other fields with models for the solution of their own
                 verbal problems. The goal of such a poetry involves
                 entertainment, but goes beyond the immediacy of this
                 game-activity to include an awakening of aesthetic
                 sensibility, especially to the world of type, print,
                 and sound. A review of the interrelationships between
                 concrete poetry, industrial design, and the plastic
                 arts over the past fifteen years illustrates the sort
                 of team work necessary if poets are to have an active
                 voice in our contemporary society.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Panian:1976:U,
  author =       "Ed Panian",
  title =        "Untitled",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "242--242",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Signatories of the Declaration of Independence.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Weiss:1976:S,
  author =       "Jack Weiss",
  title =        "Statements 76",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "243--246",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "To honor the American Bicentennial, the Society of
                 Typographic Arts in Chicago organized the exhibition
                 Statements 76 ``to revitalize the words that inspired
                 the American Revolution.'' Appropriate quotations from
                 that historic period were the dominant element in a
                 wide variety of media --- from sculpture to a patchwork
                 quilt.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Otto:1976:OHE,
  author =       "Wayne Otto and Cathy Stallard",
  title =        "One Hundred Essential Sight Words",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "247--252",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Sight word lists have been used since before 20 BC and
                 have changed forms many times. Today sight word lists
                 are numerous and are widely and variously used. They
                 differ in terms of source, intended purpose and/or
                 audience, and criteria for including specific words.
                 Despite these differences, there is much agreement that
                 they do reflect the most basic words in our language
                 and that there is a high degree of commonality among
                 them. This report identifies the one hundred sight
                 words which appeared in sixteen major sight word
                 lists.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The 100 words are: a; about; after; again; all; an;
                 and; any; are; at; away; be; big; but; by; came; come;
                 could; did; do; down; for; from; get; go; good; got;
                 had; has; have; he; her; here; him; his; how; I; if;
                 in; is; it; just; know; like; little; look; made; make;
                 me; my; new; no; not; now; of; off; old; on; one; our;
                 out; over; put; right; said; saw; say; see; she; so;
                 some; take; that; the; them; then; there; they; think;
                 this; three; to; too; two; up; us; want; was; we; went;
                 were; what; when; where; who; will; with; would; you;
                 your",
}

@Article{Perrin:1976:DIK,
  author =       "Stephen G. Perrin",
  title =        "{Declaration of Independence} Kit",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "253--256",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Excerpted permission from the author's
                 \booktitle{Rutabaga in Eight Languages}",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This ``poem'' is a spoof on the nature of the alphabet
                 and writing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Johnson:1976:MPH,
  author =       "Dale D. Johnson and Richard L. Venezky",
  title =        "Models for Predicting How Adults Pronounce Vowel
                 Digraph Spellings in Unfamiliar Words",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "257--268",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This study explored the relationships between type and
                 token frequencies and contextual position effects in
                 pronunciation of written English. Specifically, the
                 major question was whether or not vowel cluster
                 pronunciation preferences of adult readers were more
                 affected by frequency of occurrence than by graphemic
                 environment. Two opposing hypotheses were tested
                 regarding four vowel diagraph spellings. Six synthetic
                 words were constructed for each vowel cluster according
                 to contextual and word position constraints. The
                 subjects were 51 undergraduates whose task was to read
                 the synthetic words and note how they pronounced the
                 underlined vowel cluster. Three models were constructed
                 to assess the hypotheses and to predict responses for
                 each vowel cluster. The models were a final consonant
                 model, a variant type-token model, and an invariant
                 principal response model. Several data analysis
                 techniques were used. The final consonant model was
                 superior to the other two models, but it was found that
                 other factors, not yet assessed, were present in the
                 results.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Greengold:1976:C,
  author =       "Jane Greengold and Chris Tanz",
  title =        "``{Correspondences}''",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "269--276",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "``Correspondences'' explores the correspondence
                 between concrete poetry and conceptual art; between
                 postal language and ordinary language; between
                 sending/receiving letters and private theater. The
                 article presents part of an actual correspondence
                 between friends/poet-artists attending to the act and
                 experience of corresponding, and making the language of
                 correspondence visible.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hewes:1976:C,
  author =       "Gordon W. Hewes and Alan Lomax and Martyn Hitchcock
                 and Philip Gaskell",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "277--283",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See
                 \cite{Wrolstad:1976:MVL,Gaskell:1976:NLR,Herrick:1977:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1976:SOM,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "[{Statement} of Ownership, Management and Circulation
                 of \booktitle{Visible Language}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "283--283",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The report says 1588 average copies per issue for past
                 twelve months.",
}

@Article{Baudin:1976:RAAc,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "284--287",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "288--288",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N3_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:GId,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "291--292",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Venezky:1976:ISI,
  author =       "Richard L. Venezky",
  title =        "An Introduction to This Special Issue",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "293--294",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Jaquith:1976:DAP,
  author =       "James Jaquith",
  title =        "Digraphia in Advertising: The Public as Guinea Pig",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "295--308",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See comments \cite{Herrick:1977:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Orthographic conventions adopted by advertisers for
                 many consumer products depart significantly from
                 ordinary standards of correctness. e.g., ARRID, BISKIT,
                 MIX, DETANE, KLEEN, WHEY-FERS. This paper analyzes more
                 than 1,500 expressions of this practice and suggests
                 that advertising spelling (1) constitutes the graphic
                 analog of what linguists call diglossia, (2) has
                 influenced the criteria by which English readers judge
                 correctness in spelling, and (3) is made possible by
                 special properties of the graphic-phonological system
                 with which English is written.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Secrist:1976:IEO,
  author =       "Robert H. Secrist",
  title =        "Internalization of {English} Orthographic Patterns",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "309--322",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This paper examines (1) the patterns of regularity
                 underlying the largely superficial chaos of English
                 orthography, (2) the extent --- or the lack --- of
                 internalization of both these patterns and the graphic
                 representations of specific phonemes in different
                 environments, (3) the reactions of literate native
                 speakers as to the relative ``rightness'' or
                 naturalness of the different phoneme-grapheme
                 correspondences in these situations, and (4) the
                 reactions of these informants to recognition tests
                 involving alternative solutions to certain special
                 problems involved in English spelling reform --- such
                 as lexicographic separation of agnates, polymorphic
                 representation of inflectional affixes, and graphic
                 distinction of homophones.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kerek:1976:PRS,
  author =       "Andrew Kerek",
  title =        "The Phonological Relevance of Spelling Pronunciation",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "323--338",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Although commonly viewed as an isolated, haphazard,
                 and hit-or-miss, chancy affair, spelling-pronunciation
                 is in fact capable of patterning and may yield profound
                 phonological effects in at least two ways. It may
                 induce the restructuring of the underlying form of
                 morphemes within an orthographic paradigm, and thus
                 trigger a redistribution of functional loads in the
                 phonemic system; this often happens through a
                 ``reversal'' of historical changes that are no longer
                 operative. Spelling-pronunciation may also repeatedly
                 block (and hence weaken) synchronic phonological rules,
                 thus often resulting in the phonetic surfacing of
                 underlying or near-underlying phonemic forms; in this
                 way it not only slows down phonological change, but may
                 in the long run alter the phonetic character of a
                 language. Although it commonly obliterates etymological
                 distinctions, as a mechanism of iconicity
                 spelling-pronunciation promotes spelling-sound
                 isomorphism and thus tends to reduce purposeless
                 variety in language. Widespread literacy has rendered
                 the influence of orthography on phonology a significant
                 external variable which linguistic description can no
                 longer ignore.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gates:1976:MTL,
  author =       "Arthur I. Gates and Esther H. Chase",
  title =        "Methods and Theories of Learning to Spell Tested by
                 Studies of Deaf Children",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "339--350",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Research is reported on the reading and spelling
                 ability of children congenitally deaf. In comparison
                 with their other linguistic abilities and with normal
                 children of similar reading experience, deaf children
                 (1) greatly excel in spelling ability, and (2) possess
                 extraordinary word-perception ability. Both abilities
                 appear due to a peculiarly effective type of perceiving
                 which relies on a visual reaction to words. For normal
                 children learning to spell, much may be gained by
                 visual study of the word and mastering the habit of
                 writing the word.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Venezky:1976:NHE,
  author =       "Richard L. Venezky",
  title =        "Notes on the History of {English} Spelling",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "351--365",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/spell.bib;
                 http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "To introduce the non-specialist in English linguistics
                 to the diversity and complexity of influences which
                 have shaped modern English spelling, three problems in
                 the history of English spelling are presented. The
                 first traces the evolution of the hard and soft
                 pronunciations of word-initial `c' and centers on
                 historical reconstruction of proto-Old English forms,
                 Old English, Old French, and Latin sound changes, and
                 soft pronunciations of word-initial `c' and centers on
                 reconstruction of prehistoric Old English forms, Old
                 English, Old French, and Latin sound changes, and
                 Anglo-Norman scribal practices. The second problem
                 concerns the avoidance of sequences of short down
                 strokes (minims) as a motivating factor in certain role
                 of the English chancery scribes in reforming English
                 spelling along classical lines is examined.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Webster:1976:EAS,
  author =       "Noah Webster",
  title =        "Excerpt from {{\booktitle{The American Spelling
                 Book}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "366--376",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1976:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "377--380",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "380--380",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1976:IVX,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume X}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "X",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "381--384",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1976",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 06:40:49 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V10N4_1976_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:GIa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--4",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Rawski:1977:SSS,
  author =       "Conrad H. Rawski",
  title =        "The Scientific Study of Subject Literatures",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--23",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The paper addresses fundamental questions concerning
                 the nature, genesis, and function of a subject
                 literature --- all knowledge records pertaining to a
                 subject. A generalizable notion of a subject literature
                 is developed and discussed in the terms of object,
                 content, and use, and their interrelationships. The
                 main areas of a scientific study of subject literatures
                 are indicated. Structural interpretation is shown to be
                 a promising strategic assumption for basic theoretical
                 efforts and analytic research. The results of such
                 studies aimed at explanation are examined as to their
                 practical significance.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:SR,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Stereogrammic Relations",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "24--24",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gurtler:1977:CGF,
  author =       "Andr{\'e} G{\"u}rtler and Christian Mengelt",
  title =        "{Cyrillic Gothic}: Formal Modifications in the Design
                 of a {Russian} Sans-serif Typeface",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "25--36",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Four series for text and display composition were
                 designed for a new Cyrillic sans-serif typeface.
                 Historic and existing Cyrillic typefaces are assessed.
                 Illustrations show the modification of individual
                 characters toward an over-all consistent design of the
                 entire alphabet.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Walker:1977:CWS,
  author =       "Laurence Walker",
  title =        "Comprehension of Writing and Spontaneous Speech",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "37--51",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this study was to explore a difference
                 between reading comprehension and the comprehension of
                 spontaneous speech which an earlier investigation by
                 the present author had suggested. It was hypothesized
                 that, because of channel differences and because of
                 differences in the linguistic structure of formal
                 writing and extemporaneous speech, reading
                 comprehension was a more precise form of language
                 processing than listening to this type of material.
                 Data to test this hypothesis were obtained by
                 administering a test of precision in literal
                 comprehension to a sample of undergraduate students who
                 had been exposed either to passages of spontaneous
                 speech or equivalent written passages. Statistical
                 analysis of the data revealed a significant difference
                 between the mean scores of the listening group and the
                 mean score of both an untimed reading group and a
                 reading group whose reading time had been matched to
                 the time available to the listeners. It was concluded
                 that normal reading comprehension, at least at the
                 literal level in mature readers, was shown to be a more
                 precise form of language processing than listening to
                 spontaneous speech.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:VLS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Visible language as speech written down",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Walklin:1977:LAC,
  author =       "Carol Walklin",
  title =        "Letters, Art, and Children",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "53--62",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Letterforms provide a natural and useful medium for
                 teaching visual awareness, creativity and many basic
                 art education ideas to young children. The work of
                 English children is illustrated showing their
                 experimentation with letter symbols, handwriting, word
                 shapes and printed textures.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Quirk:1977:SNW,
  author =       "Randolph Quirk",
  title =        "Setting New Word Records",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "63--74",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bonavia:1977:CWW,
  author =       "David Bonavia",
  title =        "{China}'s War of Words",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "75--78",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "Reprinted from \booktitle{Far Eastern Economic
                 Review}, March 4, 1977, pp. 20--21.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This brief article examines problems associated with
                 language reform in China.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Banks:1977:BRC,
  author =       "Colin Banks",
  title =        "Book Review: {Catalogue of the Edward Clark Library
                 (with typographical notes by Harry Carter and an essay
                 on the Printing of Illustrations by Frank P. Restall).
                 P. J. W. Kilpatrick, general editor. Edinburgh:
                 privately printed for Napier College of Commerce and
                 Technology, Lothian Regional Council, 1976. Two
                 volumes, 685 pages, 74 illustrations. ISBN
                 0-902703-12-9}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "79--86",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1977:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "87--89",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "90--90",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:CAI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Cumulative Author Index for {Volumes I--X}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "91--96",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N1_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:DC,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Diagram of Contents",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "2--3",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Marcus:1977:EM,
  author =       "Aaron Marcus",
  title =        "At the Edge of Meaning",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "4--21",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The use of video, computer graphics, and holographic
                 communication suggest that a diagrammatic,
                 three-dimensional typography is an appropriate means of
                 visible language to express the potential of these
                 media. This special issue of Visible Language explores
                 some aspects of such an approach to visible language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Franke:1977:OCP,
  author =       "Herbert W. Franke",
  title =        "Observations Concerning Practical Visual Languages",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "22--32",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Normal means of communication --- human languages ---
                 are very well suited to a description of linear order.
                 As one makes use of the verbal system in almost all
                 spheres of culture, there follows involuntarily an
                 orientation to certain regularities. One tends to
                 recognize chronological and casual orders and to
                 overlook other types of connections. According to
                 modern knowledge other relationships have at least as
                 much importance in our world, e.g., reciprocity
                 effects, feedback, and cyclical process. For the
                 description of all so-called network connections, one
                 needs a more visual coding system. In the verbal realm
                 a complex system exists that is distinguished by its
                 applicability to a great number of conditions, but
                 there are only starting points in the visual sector. It
                 is to be expected that there will gradually come into
                 existence a normal visual grammar. In this way, new
                 visual languages may develop which are as practical as
                 verbal languages. Starting points can be seen in
                 diagrams for automata that are used in general automata
                 theory. As a step in this direction examples should be
                 examined which have already proven successful in
                 scientific realms, namely representation by graphs and
                 by Venn diagrams.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Howe:1977:SR,
  author =       "Nelson Howe",
  title =        "To the Sincere Reader",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "32--32",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "An experimental diagrammatic image to score a poetry
                 performance is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ockerse:1977:D,
  author =       "Thomas Ockerse",
  title =        "Documentracings",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "33--37",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Two documentracings are presented. Documentracing
                 record time-space events or objects through collecting
                 fragments in a programmed manner.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Knowlton:1977:CPG,
  author =       "Ken Knowlton and Leon Harmon",
  title =        "Computer-Produced Grey Scales",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "38--49",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Pictorial output from computers is usually binary ---
                 that is, microscopically black or white at a point
                 owing to the physical processes involved. A number of
                 techniques have been developed in the past to derive
                 subjective grey values using binary-output devices.
                 Several new extensions of these techniques are reported
                 here. The basic procedure is to quantize space into
                 cells which are filled with different sizes and shapes
                 of black areas on a white background (or vice versa).
                 We include several examples which result from judicious
                 selection of patterns or from rules which divide cells
                 into particular classes of black and white regions.
                 Some of the results raise intriguing questions about
                 the physiology and psychology of vision.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kostelanetz:1977:N,
  author =       "Richard Kostelanetz",
  title =        "On Numbers",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "50--51",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A visual poetic presentation is presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Price:1977:S,
  author =       "Jonathan Price and Joel Katz",
  title =        "Signs",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "52--67",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The signage encountered in the urban environment
                 constitutes the material for an authentic American
                 poetry. The collaborators of the verbi-visual poem
                 ``Signs'' describe and analyze their contributions to
                 the final work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Cumming:1977:SSS,
  author =       "Robert Cumming",
  title =        "``{Sentence} Structures'' and ``A Structure''",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "68--69",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Finlay:1977:S,
  author =       "Ian Hamilton Finlay",
  title =        "`{Sundial}'",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "70--70",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A poem is located three-dimensionally on street
                 furniture.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Sky:1977:PW,
  author =       "Alison Sky",
  title =        "The Public Word",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "71--80",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The priorities moulding the development of word/images
                 constructed specifically to function within the public
                 domain and those accepted as ``art'' have been very
                 different and separate issues. This article is
                 concerned with the possibility of developing a new
                 public language --- an alternative to the one now
                 existing which is largely consecrated to consumption.
                 An examination is made of billboard advertisements and
                 movie marquee slogans. Graffiti is presented as an
                 example of language inversion, establishing it as an
                 intrusion on the high pressure message of advertising
                 and potentially the closest thing to a public poetry.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1977:RTE,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin",
  title =        "Reflection on the Theme: At the Edge of Meaning",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "81--92",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In a changing typographic world, the one constant is
                 writing --- the rational ordering, recording and
                 communicating of intelligent thought. Governments and
                 institutions no longer feel any concern about the
                 teaching of writing. Universities, not only art and
                 design schools, should assume a new responsibility for
                 instruction in the planning of every material as well
                 as intellectual aspect of handwritten, mechanized or
                 computerized writing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Friedman:1977:SBD,
  author =       "Daniel Friedman",
  title =        "A Study in Basic Design and Meaning",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "93--101",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Work and commentary from a basic design course created
                 to explore and control visual perception is
                 presented.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kenedy:1977:WDS,
  author =       "R. C. Kenedy",
  title =        "{Wortgebilde Durch Spiel und Kombinatorik}: Or, Why
                 {Duchamps} Loved Words",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "102--127",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Meaningful art criticism in not possible unless the
                 terms of language-description are successfully applied
                 to the art historian's themes. Because there is no
                 generally valid scheme of metalinguistics to embrace
                 the different means of communicating visual language
                 information, for its special purposes this study
                 resurrects Saussure's distinction between the lexical
                 and the arbitrary in order to examine the intellectual
                 implications of Marcel Duchamp's oeuvre. The argument
                 examines the rhetorical features of visual form in
                 discussing the work and attempts to suggest broader
                 issues, of sociopolitical significance, through their
                 analysis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:AB,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Abstract\slash Biography",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "128--134",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1977:RAAb,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "135--139",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:DN,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Design Notes",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "140--140",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:PN,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Production Notes",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "141--141",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1977:BM,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "[Back matter]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "142--143",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 08:32:58 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N2_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:GIc,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "243--245",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:11:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hellerstein:1977:PCG,
  author =       "Nina S. Hellerstein",
  title =        "{Paul Claudel} and {Guillaume Apollinaire} as Visual
                 Poets: {{\booktitle{Id{\'e}ogrammes occidentaux}}} and
                 {{\booktitle{Calligrammes}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "245--270",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Paul Claudel and Guillaume Apollinaire both
                 experimented with visual forms in an effort to
                 incorporate a more synthetic and immediate experience
                 into their poetry. The letters of the Id{\'e}ogramme
                 and the shapes of the Calligramme do not reproduce
                 reality as much as they translate the fundamental
                 images and world-view of the authors into the visual
                 mode. In both cases the linearity of writing symbolizes
                 movement and time while the larger unit, word or
                 sentence-shape, imposes a more immobile, spatial form
                 upon this movement. For both authors, in spite of
                 differences, this synthetic aspect of visual logic
                 expresses the structure of the real world, which is a
                 dynamic and simultaneous interaction of multiple
                 phenomena, yet is constant evolution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{McCarthy:1977:CLA,
  author =       "Lenore McCarthy",
  title =        "A Child Learns the Alphabet",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "271--284",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This study chronicles the process in which a young
                 child teaches herself to write the letters of the
                 alphabet. The letters which she chose to learn may be
                 classified into categories containing distinctive
                 features of circles: O, C, Q; straight lines: L, I, T,
                 E, F, H; lines and loops: B, P, R; and angles: M, N, Z,
                 K, V, W. The four stages through which the child
                 progressed before she was able to recall the graphic
                 form of a letter which only the letter name was
                 mentioned were: Stage I, the letter must be visible so
                 that the child could copy the form; Stage II, the
                 distinctive features of a letter written in the air
                 facilitated recognition of the graphic form; Stage III,
                 the verbal description of the letter enabled the child
                 to write the letter; and Stage IV, the name of the
                 letter was sufficient information to enable the child
                 to produce the letter. Implications for further
                 research and possible teaching methods are
                 recommended.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Allington:1977:EGS,
  author =       "Richard L. Allington and Michael Strange",
  title =        "Effects of Grapheme Substitutions in Connected Text
                 Upon Reading Behaviors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "285--297",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "It has been suggested that good readers make better
                 use of semantic/syntactic information than do poor
                 readers and that the former group uses relatively less
                 graphic information compared to the latter group. To
                 test these hypotheses, minor visual alterations were
                 inserted in words in connected text. Fifteen good and
                 15 poor readers at the fourth grade level orally read
                 two of these altered passages. Results indicated the
                 good readers' rate of reading was significantly faster
                 and that this group made fewer miscalls in overall word
                 identification. However, there were no differences in
                 ratio of textually acceptable miscalls, and poor
                 readers' responses to altered words seemed less bound
                 to graphic cues than those of the good readers. Neither
                 comparison supported the above hypothesis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:DPF,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Decorative page from {{\booktitle{Festschrift of
                 Originals}}} given to and in honor of {Paul A. Bennett}
                 by {The Typophiles, New York City}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "298--298",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:11:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Bank:1977:CAB,
  author =       "Arnold Bank",
  title =        "Calligraphy of {Arnold Bank}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "299--306",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The following selection of work is from the recent
                 exhibition --- Arnold Bank: Artist, Scholar, Teacher
                 --- held at the Hunt Library, Carnegie-Mellon
                 University, Pittsburgh. Arnold Bank is a calligrapher
                 and has been a professor of design at Carnegie-Mellon
                 since 1962. The exhibition was coordinated by Ann
                 Skoog, librarian of the Fine and Rare Book Room of the
                 Hunt Library.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hatherly:1977:RR,
  author =       "Ana Hatherly",
  title =        "The Reinvention of Reading",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "307--320",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The concrete poetry movement started simultaneously in
                 Europe and in Brazil. Although they agreed on
                 fundamentals, the Brazilians/Portuguese --- with a
                 background in traditional poetry --- were concerned
                 with spatialization of the text and its relation to
                 music, while the Europeans --- with a background in
                 graphics and architecture --- were more influenced by
                 the plastic arts. For both the concrete poem becomes a
                 relational field of functions yielding tensions of
                 word-things in space-time, and extending the boundaries
                 of reading beyond the traditional literary limits. The
                 author illustrates and discusses her own
                 ``image-texts'' --- studies in the illegibility or
                 ambiguity of writing and the disintegration of
                 language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Nesbitt:1977:DLI,
  author =       "Alexander Nesbitt",
  title =        "The Designer and Language {II}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "321--324",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:11:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1977:SOM,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "[{Statement} of Ownership, Management and Circulation
                 of \booktitle{Visible Language}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "324--324",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:11:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The report says 1679 average copies per issue for past
                 twelve months.",
}

@Article{Bigelow:1977:BRD,
  author =       "Charles A. Bigelow",
  title =        "Book Review: {David Kindersley. \booktitle{Optical
                 Letter Spacing for New Printing Systems}. London:
                 Wynkyn de Worde Society, 1976. 4-1/2 $ \times $ 11
                 inches. 40 pp., 45 figs. ISBN 0-85331-360-1.
                 (Distributed by Lund Humphries Publishers Ltd.)}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "325--329",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:11:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Herrick:1977:C,
  author =       "Earl M. Herrick and Laurence Urdang",
  title =        "Correspondence",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "330--332",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:11:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Hewes:1976:C,Jaquith:1976:DAP}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1977:RAAc,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "333--335",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:11:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "336--336",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:11:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N3_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Barthes:1977:LRR,
  author =       "Roland Barthes",
  title =        "Letter to {Randolph Runyon}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "338--338",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:31:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ungar:1977:BES,
  author =       "Steven Ungar",
  title =        "Beyond the Empire of Signs",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "338--338",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:31:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Barthes:1977:ELS,
  author =       "Roland Barthes",
  title =        "Excerpt: {{\booktitle{L'Empire des Signes}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "339--340",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "No abstract.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Caplan:1977:NLB,
  author =       "Jay Caplan",
  title =        "Nothing But Language: on {Barthes}'s
                 {{\booktitle{Empire of Signs}}}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "341--362",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "No abstract.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The last several pages of this article form the first
                 column of pages of succeeding articles: what confusing
                 nonsense!",
}

@Article{Conley:1977:BES,
  author =       "Tom Conley",
  title =        "{Barthes}'s {{\booktitle{Exc{\`e}s}}}: The Silent
                 Apostrophe of {S/Z}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "355--385",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Despite the elaborate coding of a rhetorical analysis
                 exploiting Marxist and Lacanian views of the printed
                 letter in all its materiality, S/Z represses the hidden
                 chi which both generates and destroys the narrative of
                 Balzac's ``Sarrasine.'' Barthes may omit reference to
                 this character of the text because its energies might
                 violate his systems of interpretation. Based as they
                 are on a privilege of castration, they veil the
                 dumbfounding assault of the letters which would
                 otherwise obliterate his interpretive gesture. Through
                 an alternative reading of ``Sarrasine,'' we imply that
                 the chi purloined from S/Z indicates how Barthes sees
                 as the basis of all {\'e}criture at zero-degree a font
                 of repression.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gallop:1977:B,
  author =       "Jane Gallop",
  title =        "``B S''",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "364--387",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Contemporaneous with the composition of his book S/Z,
                 Roland Barthes wrote Sade, Fourier, Loyola. Reducing
                 this second book to three figures (SFL: the
                 abbreviation used by Barthes and others to refer to
                 this text), as Barthes reduces the Balzac story
                 ``Sarrasine'' to three figures, S/Z, and following the
                 example of what Barthes does with those figures as
                 signifiers in the center of S/Z, we tease out a similar
                 dynamic in the diacritical relation of SFL to other
                 possible groups of letters, a dynamic resonant with
                 what we find being played out on other levels of the
                 book (semantic, thematic, ideological), so that the
                 insistence of the letter marks our point of disruptive
                 entry into Barthes's well-defended system.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Runyon:1977:FAD,
  author =       "Randolph Runyon",
  title =        "Fragments of An Amorous Discourse: Canon in Ubis",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "387--400",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The cover of Roland Barthes's recent Fragments d'un
                 discours amoureux presets a puzzle for the reader: a
                 fragment of a painting of Tobias and the Angel, it
                 constitutes an opaque glaze, a scumble, through which
                 the reader scans the text that follows. The
                 configuration created by that frame seems to form the
                 letter R. A prolonged gaze discloses prefigurations of
                 Roland's childhood in the Apocryphal story on which the
                 painting is based, makes possible a reading of Goethe's
                 Werther as a parallel to that noncanonical legend, and
                 reveals Barthes's name inscribed within a short story
                 of Balzac. Alternatively playing the roles of Tobias,
                 angel and fish, Barthes and the reader engage in
                 canonical imitation, a reunion of readers and lovers.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ungar:1977:WLB,
  author =       "Steven Ungar",
  title =        "From Writing to the Letter: {Barthes} and
                 Alphabetese",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "391--400",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Roland Barthes's career as a critic can be measured by
                 the various definitions and functions which he has
                 given to writing. While his earliest works emphasized
                 its social and institutional dimensions, he has more
                 recently sought to develop a revised version of
                 Saussurian semiology into a social critique which he
                 terms semioclastics. In his 1970 preface to the
                 alphabet of the fashion designer Ert{\'e}, Barthes
                 finds a semiotic system which allows him to combine
                 these interests in an extended commentary of the
                 alphabetical letter and on alphabetism as an autonomous
                 semiotic entity.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% TO DO: V11N4_1977_E.pdf stops at page 400, so there are about 30
%%% pages unaccounted for, and thus still unchecked.  The typesetting of
%%% much of this issue is bizarre, with overlapping articles, and
%%% uncertain titling.
@Article{Baudin:1977:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "430--430",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:31:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:GId,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "430--430",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:31:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "432--432",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:31:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1977:IVX,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume XI}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XI",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "432--??",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1977",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Sat Feb 13 09:31:17 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V11N4_1977_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% PDF file V12N1_1978_E has jumbled pages
@Article{Massaro:1978:SMR,
  author =       "Dominic W. Massaro",
  title =        "A Stage Model of Reading and Listening",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--26",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Language processing is the abstracting of meaning from
                 a physical signal such as a printed text of sequence of
                 speech sounds. The goal of an information-processing
                 model is to describe how language is processed, not
                 simply what the reader or listener must know to
                 understand language. Language processing is viewed as a
                 sequence of internal processing stages or operations
                 that occur between the language stimulus and meaning.
                 The operations of a particular stage take time and
                 transform the information in some way, making the
                 transformed information available to the following
                 stage of processing. In the present model the storage
                 component describes the nature of the information at a
                 particular stage of processing whereas the functional
                 component describes the operations of a stage of
                 processing. The information-processing model is used
                 heuristically to incorporate data and theory from a
                 variety of studies of language processing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Pastore:1978:PAC,
  author =       "Richard E. Pastore",
  title =        "Phonemes and Alphanumeric Characters: Possible
                 Components of Parallel Human Communications Systems",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "27--42",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Alphanumeric characters and phonemes can be viewed as
                 information codes used by human communication systems.
                 If such communication systems were designed to be
                 effective, then we should expect to find certain
                 characteristics which should be manifested in the
                 nature of the physical representations of the
                 information codes and in the perception of these codes.
                 These characteristics are discussed in terms of their
                 importance to communication systems in general and
                 their manifestations in human audible and visible
                 language. When viewed from the perspective of such
                 communication systems, we should expect to find many
                 parallels in the perception of alphanumeric characters
                 and phonemes. This paper examines some of these
                 parallels, drawing upon our knowledge of human
                 perception.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Frith:1978:PMP,
  author =       "Uta Frith",
  title =        "From Print to Meaning and from Print to Sound, or How
                 to Read Without Knowing How to Spell",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "43--54",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Two groups of 12-year-olds, both of normal
                 intelligence and reading age, were compared. One group
                 consisted of good spellers, the other of poor spellers.
                 The two groups were equally good at reading single
                 words and sentences. However, they differed on other
                 reading tasks, notably with nonsense words and other
                 tasks involving conversion of print into sound. The
                 differences indicated that the poor spellers were
                 proficient at going from print directly to meaning, but
                 were impaired at converting print to sound. In
                 contrast, the good spellers shower mastery of both
                 aspects of reading, converting print to meaning and
                 converting print to sound.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baron:1978:USS,
  author =       "Jonathan Baron and June Hodge",
  title =        "Using Spelling--Sound Correspondences Without Trying
                 to Learn Them",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "55--70",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Adult subjects learned spoken responses to nonsense
                 words written in an artificial alphabet.
                 Correspondences between letters and phonemes were
                 hidden by the use of right-to-left correspondences.
                 Even though subjects did not notice the existence of
                 correspondences, they were able to decode new nonsense
                 words in the same alphabet. In a second experiment,
                 nonsense words written with hidden correspondences were
                 read more quickly than nonsense words without
                 correspondences. A third experiment suggested that this
                 effect was due to the fact that similar words had
                 similar responses. In general, the results suggest that
                 correspondences can be used without the use of special
                 correspondences, but when this occurs, people use
                 examples rather than knowledge of the correspondences
                 themselves.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Martin:1978:VRD,
  author =       "James G. Martin and Richard H. Meltzer and Carol B.
                 Mills",
  title =        "Visual Rhythms: Dynamic Text Display for Learning to
                 Read a Second Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "71--80",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A method is described in which sentences are presented
                 in a dynamic visual display. A television monitor is
                 used to present simultaneously the visual and auditory
                 versions of a sentence, with each of its successive
                 visual and auditory syllables yoked in parallel; the
                 onset of each visual syllable is synchronized with the
                 onset of each syllable as it is heard through the
                 auditory channel. The result is a sentence which
                 ``grows'' left-to-right across the screen, one syllable
                 at a time, in ``visual rhythm.'' In an experiment, the
                 subjects were three groups of secondary-school students
                 learning Spanish as a second language. In training
                 sessions, the rhythmic group saw the sentences in
                 ``visual rhythm,'' the unrhythmic group saw the same
                 sentences but in static visual display, and the control
                 group had no exposure to either visual-auditory
                 display. Before and after training, all groups provided
                 pre-test and post-test measures of oral reading
                 fluency. The dependent measure was pre-test to
                 post-test relative change in judged reading fluency.
                 The results favored the rhythmic group.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Levy:1978:SAD,
  author =       "Betty Ann Levy",
  title =        "Speech Analysis During Sentence Processing: Reading
                 and Listening",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "81--102",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The present paper is concerned with the role of speech
                 recoding during reading. Specifically, it examines
                 information processing with respect to where reading
                 and listening might come to share common mechanisms
                 during comprehension. The paper is divided into four
                 sections. The first section contains a review of
                 evidence related to the issue of whether speech
                 recoding is necessary prior to lexical access. The
                 weight is against this view. The second section of the
                 paper explores an alternative view --- namely that
                 speech recoding occurs in working memory, where word
                 units are held in a speech form until comprehension of
                 phrases or sentences occurs. Section three describes an
                 experiment which shows that disrupting word information
                 in memory does not lead to semantic comprehension
                 failure. These results suggest that reading does not
                 occur by converting visual signals into a speech code
                 until comprehension occurs. Finally, general discussion
                 centers on models of visual language processing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1978:B,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Biography",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "103--103",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:08:39 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1978:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Acknowledgements",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "104--104",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:08:39 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1978:RAA,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "105--110",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:08:39 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1978:GI,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "111--112",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:08:39 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N1_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% v12 n2 has a journal redesign, with a table of contents showing only
%%% first author family names and initial page numbers.  Page numbers
%%% appear on the left edge, but are sometimes truncated to the last one
%%% or two digits in the PDF file.  The page layout of all of volume 12
%%% is landscape.  Pages with author biographies and comments sometimes
%%% precede the title page, but are included in the page range.
@Article{Bormuth:1978:VVL,
  author =       "John Bormuth",
  title =        "Value and Volume of Literacy",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "118--161",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This study set out to determine the volume and
                 monetary value of literacy and to trace their growth
                 over the past generation. The literacy consumed was
                 taken to be the information that people exchange via
                 the written word, and the literacy production industry
                 was seen as having three major components --- one that
                 produces materials, another that distributes them, and
                 a third that teaches people to read and write. Various
                 product counts were used to index the volume of output
                 for each production component, and the time that people
                 spend reading and writing was used to index the volume
                 of literacy consumed. These unit counts were examined
                 individually within each component, comparing them to
                 population size to determine their growth during the
                 period studied. Then dollar values were assigned to
                 these unit measures, and a national literacy account
                 was formed, first, to estimate the total monetary value
                 of the nation's literacy and, second, to estimate the
                 net value of literacy and the benefit-cost ratio of the
                 literacy program and to examine their trends. It was
                 possible to infer from these data that a large and
                 growing fraction of the population has reached a high
                 and increasing level of literacy, that literacy has
                 been worth many times what it cost to produce, that
                 literacy is one of the nation's most important economic
                 activities, that personal and social investments in
                 literacy have been rising, but that the nation has yet
                 to reach the point where it would consider itself
                 literate.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Arnheim:1978:SAG,
  author =       "Rudolf Arnheim",
  title =        "Spatial Aspects of Graphological Expression",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "162--170",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The spatial character of a piece of writing or reading
                 is perceptually twofold. Writing and reading establish
                 a close bodily and mental relation between a writer or
                 reader and the surface on which letters are formed.
                 This relation involves two different attitudes.
                 Attitude I, an orthographic relationship to letters, is
                 dominated by vision and evokes a sense of rising and
                 conquering or its opposite, stability. Attitude II, a
                 horizontal relationship, is dominated by action and
                 evokes the senses of near and far, outgoing and
                 withholding, active and passive. In the process of
                 writing or reading the attitudes fuse, combining a
                 detached self with a self that actively engages in
                 reaching a goal.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Cowie:1978:BCA,
  author =       "Frederick J. Cowie",
  title =        "{Boniface} (c. 675--754): Archbishop, Legate, and
                 {Postmaster General}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "171--182",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Boniface was the prime mover in the transalpine Church
                 during the eighth century, forming dioceses in Germany
                 while reorganizing and reforming those in Bavaria and
                 Frankland. To accomplish this, he made use of a
                 communion of believers, including Anglo-Saxons, Franks,
                 Germans and Italians. Among the participants were
                 monks, nuns, counts, kings and popes. To keep this
                 spiritalis communio alive and healthy, Boniface had to
                 devise a communication system which covered all of
                 Roman Christendom. His postal service consisted
                 primarily of highly educated priests, performing the
                 duties of mailmen, delivery men and
                 ambassadors-at-large. This network of envoys formed a
                 ``barbarian'' answer to the Roman cursus publicis,
                 while laying the groundwork for the missi dominici of
                 Charlemagne's empire.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hartley:1978:ELL,
  author =       "James Hartley and Peter Burnhill and Lindsey Davis",
  title =        "The Effects of Line Length and Paragraph Denotation on
                 Retrieval of Information from Prose Text",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "183--194",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Grade-school children read either two-column (each
                 column 20 ems) of a single-column (42 ems) of text in
                 one of four ways that indicated new paragraphs.
                 Students were assigned to find missing words to measure
                 the readability of the various systems. The results
                 suggest that a two-column layout with traditional
                 paragraphing denotation is preferable to a
                 single-column in terms of cost-effectiveness; however,
                 an extreme line-length does not place an undue strain
                 on the reader.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Duffelmeyer:1978:VCP,
  author =       "Frederick Duffelmeyer",
  title =        "The Vowel Cluster: Pronunciation Preferences of
                 Proficient and Non-Proficient Adult Readers",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "195--200",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this research was to determine whether
                 the results of a study conducted by Johnson and Venezky
                 (1976) are generalizable to non-proficient adult
                 readers. One hundred eight college undergraduates for
                 whom grade-equivalent scores on a standardized reading
                 test were available were administered the same
                 pronunciation test used by Johnson and Venezky. The
                 pronunciation test data of the subjects whose
                 grade-equivalent scores placed them in either the upper
                 (proficient readers) or lower (non-proficient readers)
                 quartiles were subsequently analyzed. The proficient
                 reader results coincided with the Johnson and Venezky
                 results, but the non-proficient reader results did not.
                 These data were interpreted as suggesting that the
                 vowel cluster pronunciation preferences of adult
                 readers vary as a function of reading competency.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Foster:1978:LLR,
  author =       "Jeremy Foster",
  title =        "Locating Legibility Research: a Guide for the Graphic
                 Designer",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "201--205",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A review of legibility research published between 1972
                 and 1976 yielded 285 references. The journals which
                 most frequently contain reports on legibility research
                 are indicated. A list of those journals likely to be
                 most useful to the designer wishing to keep abreast of
                 the literature is provided.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Weber:1978:BRW,
  author =       "Rose-Marie Weber",
  title =        "Book Review: What did {I} write? {Marie M. Clay.
                 \booktitle{What Did I Write?} Auckland: Heinemann
                 Educational Books, 1975. 7 1/2 $ \times $ 9 inches. 78
                 pp.}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "206--209",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:25:40 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1978:AFD,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "Abstracts: {Fran{\c{c}}ais}; {Deutsch};
                 {Espa{\~n}ol}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "211--219",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:25:40 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1978:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "220--221",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:25:40 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1978:GI,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "222--222",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:25:40 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1978:SOM,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "[{Statement} of Ownership, Management and Circulation
                 of \booktitle{Visible Language}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "222--222",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:25:40 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The report says 1784 average copies per issue for past
                 twelve months.",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1978:C,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Colophon",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "222--222",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:25:40 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N2_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This issue is set in 9 on 12 Press Roman by IBM
                 Selectric to facilitate the drop-down paragraphing.
                 Wide tables and wide-measure reading examples suggested
                 the major shift in format. Design by Ed Fisher Jr.,
                 Pittsburgh.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% V12N3_1978_E.pdf is missing from the Web site, so the contents
%%% of this issue cannot yet be checked, corrected, and completed.
@Article{Hedges:1978:CWM,
  author =       "Inez Hedges",
  title =        "Cinematic Writing of {Maurice Roche}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N3_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Abstract not available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hubert:1978:PVP,
  author =       "Ren{\'e}e Riese Hubert",
  title =        "{Ponge}: Visual and Poetic Writing",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N3_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Abstract not available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Andermatt:1978:WLL,
  author =       "Verna Andermatt",
  title =        "Writing the Letter: Lower-Case of h{\'e}l{\`e}ne
                 cixous",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N3_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Abstract not available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{McKenna:1978:DHP,
  author =       "A. J. McKenna",
  title =        "{Derrida} and His Precursors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N3_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Abstract not available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Conley:1978:S,
  author =       "Tom Conley",
  title =        "{Serres} ({{\'E}})",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N3_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Abstract not available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Lydon:1978:LLM,
  author =       "Mary Lydon",
  title =        "Love Letters: {Michel Butor} and Visible Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N3_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Abstract not available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ames:1978:MLD,
  author =       "S. S. Ames",
  title =        "{Mallarm{\'e}}'s Letters in {Duras}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N3_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Abstract not available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Rodriguez:1978:RWV,
  author =       "L. S. Rodriguez",
  title =        "Readable\slash Writable\slash Visible",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "??--??",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N3_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Abstract not available.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% PDF file V12N4_1978_E has jumbled pages
@Article{Anonymous:1978:ABa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "{Advisory Board}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "388--388",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:51:21 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1978:GIS,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "General Information. {Subscription} Rates. {Reprints}
                 and Back Copies. {Manuscripts}. {Letters} to the
                 Editor. {Advertising}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "389--389",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:51:21 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Marcel:1978:URE,
  author =       "Tony Marcel",
  title =        "Unconscious Reading: Experiments on People Who Do Not
                 Know They Are Reading",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "391--404",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See correction in figure layout
                 \cite{Anonymous:1979:ERT}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The work reported in this paper is theoretically,
                 methodologically and practically relevant for reading
                 in particular and perception in general. It is relevant
                 theoretically because it forces a distinction between
                 conscious and unconscious processes. It is relevant
                 methodologically because it suggests the importance of
                 investigating perceptual processes in an indirect way.
                 It is relevant practically because assessment of
                 reading ability often relies on oral performance and
                 this many turn out not always to reflect what we mean
                 by ``reading.''",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Cosmos:1978:TVS,
  author =       "Spencer Cosmos",
  title =        "Toward a Visual Stylistics: Assent and Denial in
                 {Chaucer}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "406--427",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "In this essay I describe a distribution among various
                 expressions meaning ``yes'' and ``no'' in the poetry of
                 Geoffrey Chaucer. Although it is true that the
                 distinctions receive phonological as well as graphic
                 expression, it is nevertheless my argument that the
                 systemic character of the contrasts belongs
                 fundamentally and essentially to visible rather than to
                 audible language. I demonstrate this by showing that
                 variations in the spelling of these expressions,
                 distinguishing no from nay and yes from yea, are quite
                 explicably systematic in the highly literate poetry of
                 Chaucer, but in free variation in records preserving
                 the oral traditions of alliterative verse. The
                 implication of this research which I believe will most
                 interest students of writing is this: if it is true
                 that these contrasts --- which are expressed both in
                 writing and speech --- are systemic only in writing,
                 then the visible form of expression must be afforded
                 the status of language in every significant sense of
                 that term as used in modern linguistics. In this
                 research we have, in other words, further evidence that
                 writing and speech are not simply alternative modes of
                 expressing language, but rather that each is quite
                 fully and integrally a language in its own right.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Cox:1978:GCP,
  author =       "Charles H. {Cox III} and Barry A. Blesser and Murray
                 Eden",
  title =        "Graphical Context of Printed Characters",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "428--447",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The notion of a grammar together with the concept of
                 contextual modification of meaning have proved to be
                 powerful means for studying verbal communication. It is
                 natural to seek to apply these methods to other modes
                 of communication. Not surprisingly, attempts along this
                 line have already been made. For example, Eden and
                 Halle (1959, 1961) first presented a grammar for
                 cursive English writing in 1959. He decomposed words
                 into strokes and further decomposed strokes into
                 segments. Rankin and co-workers (1965, 1966, 1970)
                 presented a generative grammar for Chinese ideograms.
                 This grammar, when used in conjunction with a lexicon
                 of basic shapes, was capable of generating 80\% of the
                 ideograms in Mattheus' (1960) dictionary. More
                 recently, Rosenfeld (1975) has explored Web grammars as
                 a means for representing general two-dimensional
                 images.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Mosenthal:1978:WRR,
  author =       "Peter Mosenthal and Sean Walmsley and Richard
                 Allington",
  title =        "Word Recognition Reconsidered: Toward a Multi-Context
                 Model",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "448--468",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A significant yet poorly understood question in the
                 literature of reading research is what is meant by the
                 process of ``decoding'' or ``word recognition.'' Of
                 particular interest are the differences between good
                 and poor readers with respect to these skills. Although
                 much research has been conducted in an attempt to
                 define ``decoding'' and ``word recognition,'' this
                 research has been quite fragmented. This stems partly
                 from the fact that this research has focused equally on
                 a few variables at a time --- e.g., word frequency,
                 word length, word meaningfulness and word imagery ---
                 and has failed to control for the interaction between
                 these variables. Another reason is that there has been
                 little attempt to operationalize systematically what it
                 means to say a word has been ``decoded.'' Most
                 operational definitions of decoding have emphasized
                 identification or reproduction of physical aspects of a
                 word; e.g., speed by which words can be pronounced,
                 recognized or compared under various tachistoscopic
                 time-frame conditions.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1978:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "469--474",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:51:21 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1978:AB,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "{Advisory Board}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "475--475",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:51:21 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1978:IVX,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index to {Volume XII}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "476--479",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:51:21 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1978:CNB,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Credits. {Note}. {Back} numbers",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "480--480",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1978",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 06:51:21 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V12N4_1978_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% v13 reverts to conventional portrait, but the PDF scans
%%% are two-up landscape.  No months or seasons are present on the
%%% cover page.
@Article{Lehman:1979:TLC,
  author =       "Charles Lehman",
  title =        "Teaching and Learning The Craft of Handwriting",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "4--15",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Handwriting is a traditional craft in its own right
                 with its own criteria of quality. Successful selection
                 of appropriate tools, techniques and letter designs for
                 modern handwriting education requires a collaboration
                 of experienced classroom teachers, educational
                 researchers and traditional craftsmen to share their
                 understanding of the developing psychology of the
                 learner, the historical and modern development of
                 handwriting models and the techniques and materials
                 needed for personal proficiency in performing the
                 craft. The result of such collaboration can be found in
                 writings of some calligraphers and in the instructional
                 programs currently used in some schools.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Graves:1979:LCS,
  author =       "Donald H. Graves",
  title =        "Let Children Show Us How to Help Them Write",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "16--28",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Ebsen:1980:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Preliminary findings are presented from a current
                 two-year MIE case study observing the development of
                 primary children's composing, spelling, and motor
                 behaviors during the writing process. Handwriting is
                 influenced by all phases of the writing process and
                 problems unique to different stages of the writer's
                 development. Children's earliest efforts at writing
                 resemble their speech habits in their lack of
                 organization. Later, when children choose their own
                 writing topics, the language for expression, and
                 written format, the compositions become more
                 successful. Handwriting is one component of writing
                 that illustrates the nature of children's decision
                 making processes. Teachers attempt to guide the
                 children's craft to greater clarity in drawing letters,
                 word order, word separation, page placement, and later,
                 in rewriting and use of prosodic techniques.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Macleod:1979:DAT,
  author =       "Iain Macleod and Peter Procter",
  title =        "A Dynamic Approach to Teaching Handwriting Skills",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "29--42",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Ebsen:1980:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A computer-based system for teaching handwriting
                 skills has been developed, using a graphic display
                 screen and a hand-held ``pen.'' The system is such that
                 exercises can be completed only by executing the
                 required sequence of strokes in the specified order and
                 direction and within a preset accuracy. In the simplest
                 presentation, a thin guideline is displayed for each
                 stroke in turn. The computer responds to correct pen
                 movements by leaving a thicker track behind. Incorrect
                 pen movements are ignored and a blinking spot calls
                 attention to the point where the pen should be. The
                 resultant visual pattern is the teacher's well-formed
                 example rather than the student's actual strokes, thus
                 reinforcing the appearance of the desired result rather
                 than the student's possibly ill-formed attempts. The
                 system emphasizes the process used in creating cursive
                 writing as well as the appearance of the product and,
                 in one application, has been used to teach fluent
                 signatures to intellectually handicapped students.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Rhodes:1979:CDN,
  author =       "Chris Rhodes",
  title =        "Considerations for the Design of a New Pen Range",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "43--48",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Basic questions that confront a pen designer begin
                 with the style of the nib. Apart from specialists' pens
                 used for commercial marking or technical graphics, the
                 designer is restricted to the fountain pen, the
                 ballpoint, the fibre-tip, the plastic-tip, and the
                 roller-tip. Unique, specialized inks and reservoir
                 systems serve each of these kinds of pens. Each pen's
                 usability is directly affected by its barrel design,
                 which can vary in size for children and adults.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Briem:1979:WHF,
  author =       "Gunnlauger S. E. Briem",
  title =        "Wanted: Handwriting to Fit Pens",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "49--62",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Ebsen:1980:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The limited range of the pointed pen restricted the
                 range of movements that make up the copperplate hand.
                 The ball-point and the fibre-tip can write in any
                 direction and do not fit the motion patterns that
                 modern handwriting inherited from the copperplate.
                 Analysis of the late roman cursive, a monoline
                 documentary hand, might yield some alternative
                 solutions in the rethinking of handwriting models for
                 children.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Gray:1979:TNH,
  author =       "Nicolete Gray",
  title =        "Towards a New Handwriting Adapted to the Ballpoint
                 Pen",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "63--69",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Ebsen:1980:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Modern ballpoint and fibre pens are radically
                 different in design and construction, and they can move
                 with equal ease in all directions. The capacity for
                 all-direction line movement fosters development of more
                 convenient and efficient letter designs and
                 combinations. After rejecting the typographic models
                 and debased cursive designs used for formal writing in
                 the past, the natural scribble of children is taken as
                 a beginning point for all-direction cursive writing. By
                 integrating such handwriting with the teaching of
                 reading and other language arts, the habit of legible
                 handwriting can easily flow into an adult hand
                 characterized as fast, pleasurable, and flexible enough
                 for individual expression. Certain historic hands, late
                 roman cursive, gothic, and secretary, offer examples of
                 contradictory rhythms that support the goal of
                 all-direction writing movement. Specific new models are
                 presented for modern writing but only as provisional
                 designs. Experimental interpretations are encouraged;
                 standard techniques for penhold are questioned in favor
                 of new possibilities that reflect the all-direction
                 approach to writing.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Osley:1979:CRH,
  author =       "A. S. Osley",
  title =        "Cannons of Renaissance Handwriting",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "70--94",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Ebsen:1980:C}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Due to the greatly increased demand for clear, rapid
                 handwriting by secretaries in the service of
                 government, church, and commerce, Renaissance writing
                 masters found themselves playing an important role as
                 instructors. In producing their manuals for students,
                 the writing masters utilized the recent technically
                 developed script of scholars and diplomats and
                 churchmen, the cancellaresca cursiva. The teaching of
                 seven Renaissance writing masters is assembled to
                 examine separately what the masters had to say about
                 basic elements of writing --- slope, pen angle, letter
                 proportion, length of ascenders, spacing, and joining.
                 Having thus identified the fundamental canons that
                 regulated the classic chancery hand of the Renaissance,
                 the author applies them to modern systems of italic
                 handwriting and concludes that the models of Alfred
                 Fairbank as seen in his Handwriting Manual and the
                 Beacon Writing Series come closest to the spirit and
                 teaching of the early writing masters. He supports the
                 use of the edged pen as a teaching aid for young
                 children.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1979:RAAa,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Dirk Wendt and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {German}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "95--99",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 07:15:19 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:Aa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "100--101",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 07:15:19 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:GIa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "102--103",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 07:15:19 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1979:SOM,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "[{Statement} of Ownership, Management and Circulation
                 of \booktitle{Visible Language}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "103--103",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 07:15:19 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N1_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "The report says 1788 average copies per issue for past
                 twelve months.",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:GIb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "107--107",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:01:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N2_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wendt:1979:EAI,
  author =       "Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "An Experimental Approach to the Improvement of the
                 Typographic Design of Textbooks",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "108--133",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N2_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Three different approaches were taken to try to
                 improve the legibility of a textbook for secondary
                 school: (1) two columns of about 58 mm (15 picas) line
                 width instead of one column of about 126 mm (32 picas)
                 line width, (2) insertion of additional space between
                 the constituents of the sentences to convey the phrase
                 structure of the text, and (3) ``visualizing'' the
                 information by structuring it vertically and
                 horizontally in such a way that the total design is
                 more appropriate to the visual medium. In an
                 experimental test of a lesson in physics printed in a
                 standard version and in the above three experimental
                 versions, given to 600 students, only the third on
                 (``visualization'') showed an improvement over the
                 standard version.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Unger:1979:DT,
  author =       "Gerard Unger",
  title =        "The Design of a Typeface",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "134--149",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N2_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The design of Demos typeface was the result of
                 technical as well as aesthetic considerations. Demos
                 was designed for the Hell CRT Digiset, an electronic
                 composition process that creates type by vertical
                 lines. Curves and angles appear smooth only after
                 emulsion. Rather than falling back on hot-metal
                 methods, the unique characteristics of the Digiset were
                 used to determine the design, ever mindful that visual
                 appearance is the final arbiter of any letterform
                 design. All of the type for this issue of Visible
                 Language has been set in Demos for the Hell Digiset; a
                 few of the typographic elements have been set in the
                 companion face Praxis.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Brann:1979:MDP,
  author =       "Noel L. Brann",
  title =        "A Monastic Dilemma Posed by the Invention of Printing:
                 the Context of {{\booktitle{De laude Scriptorum
                 Manualium}}} by {Abbot Johann Trithemius}
                 (1462--1516)",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "150--167",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N2_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "By no means was the invention of printing universally
                 looked upon by contemporary witnesses an unqualifiable
                 progressive step in the history of mankind; in the
                 monastic scriptorium, for example, the printing art
                 came out into direct competition with the
                 long-cultivated art of handcopying. A Benedictine abbot
                 living in the age of incunabula, the Abbot Trithemius
                 of Sponheim near Kreuznach in Germany, composed his
                 De-laude scriptorum manualium (1492) in support of the
                 proposition that the handcopying of texts is in many
                 respects superior to printing. However, the author was
                 not hostile to the printing art in principle, viewing
                 it on balance as a divinely inspired aid in the golden
                 age of monastic erudition. Far from being a reactionary
                 in the face of the printing revolution, Trithemius was
                 one of printing's most vigorous Renaissance
                 advocates.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Marmolin:1979:MRP,
  author =       "Hans Marmolin and Lars-G{\"o}ran Nilsson and Hans
                 Smedshammar",
  title =        "Mediated Reading Process of the Partially Sighted",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "168--183",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N2_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The model presented extend current theorizing about
                 reading by relating the underlying processes of skilled
                 and average readers to those of poor readers. While the
                 non-mediated reading process for skilled readers is
                 immediately directed to the meaning of a word, the
                 reading process for poor readers is mediated by the
                 interruption of the individual letters constituting the
                 word. The continuous interaction between the
                 interpretation of single letters and reading for
                 meaning of the word is what determines the slow reading
                 rate for poor readers. An empirical study was carried
                 out to demonstrate the viability of the present
                 approach. A series of measures were derived to compare
                 the reading process for good and poor partially sighted
                 readers. The locus of the difference in reading rate
                 between the two groups of subjects was confined mainly
                 to the peripheral subprocesses of reading whereas the
                 deeper and more semantic levels of the reading process
                 were less affected.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Larcher:1979:DWL,
  author =       "Jean Larcher",
  title =        "A Different Way of Looking at Typography",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "184--191",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N2_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Despite the mechanization and mass production of
                 typography, some letter design still retains the
                 aesthetic qualities of individual, hand-executed
                 design. My work is influenced by studies of calligraphy
                 and optical illusions. In addition, the innovative
                 lettering of American graphic artists has shown me
                 semantic influences of letter design in which form
                 contributed to meaning. Nowhere is this concept more
                 alive than in the logotype, the letterform symbol that
                 reflects the essence of a company or institution.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wendt:1979:KBAa,
  author =       "Dirk Wendt and Fernand Baudin and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "{Kurzfassung der Beitr{\"a}ge} [{Abstracts} of Journal
                 Articles in {German}, {French}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "192--197",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:01:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N2_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:Ab,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "198--198",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:01:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N2_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:ERT,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Errata: {Re: Tony Marcel, ``Unconscious Reading:
                 Experiments on People Who Do Not Know That They Are
                 Reading,'' XII 4 (Autumn 1978), pp. 319--404}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "2",
  pages =        "199--200",
  month =        "Spring",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:01:50 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See \cite{Marcel:1978:URE}.",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N2_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
  remark =       "Correction of figure layout.",
}

%%% V13N3_1979_E.pdf is missing pages 346--347
@Article{Anonymous:1979:GIc,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "207--207",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:13:25 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wing:1979:ISI,
  author =       "Alan M. Wing",
  title =        "Introduction to This Special Issue [on Behavioural
                 Studies of the Handwriting Skill]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "208--208",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:13:25 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Woodworth:1979:FHU,
  author =       "R. S. Woodworth",
  title =        "Facility of Handwriting Using Different Movements",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "209--217",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "R. S. Woodworth is best known among psychologists for
                 his text Experimental Psychology. However, early in his
                 career he produced a research monograph on the accuracy
                 of voluntary movement which included a section on
                 different ways of producing handwriting movements. We
                 reproduce this section here for two reasons: on the one
                 hand it is an early example of a psychologist's
                 interest in handwriting, which he followed up with
                 careful observation; on the other hand it provides a
                 basis for comparison to show the extent to which
                 current work on behavioral aspects of handwriting is
                 not only concerned with measurement but has progressed
                 to possible theoretical interpretation.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Tuelings:1979:CAA,
  author =       "Hans-Leo H. M. Tuelings and Arnold J. W. M.
                 Thomassen",
  title =        "Computer-Aided Analysis of Handwriting Movements",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "218--231",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The paper attempts to demonstrate that writing
                 movements --- once recorded on a suitable xy-digitizer
                 --- can be processed and analyzed by means of a
                 computer for many different purposes. This method is
                 used in the authors' laboratory to study the human
                 writing apparatus and, to a smaller extent, the reading
                 of handwriting. From the writing movement certain time
                 and frequency functions are derived and the kinds of
                 information that may be obtained from these functions
                 are briefly indicated. Some feasible practical
                 applications are discussed, and the paper concludes
                 with a suggestion on a new kind of writing
                 instruction.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Watson:1979:CCS,
  author =       "R. S. Watson and P. J. Pobgee",
  title =        "A Computer to Check Signatures",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "232--238",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A growing need to check people's identity
                 automatically --- as a safeguard against crime --- has
                 led to the development of a computer that verifies
                 signatures by the speed and sequence of pen movements
                 as well as by the finished sample.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ansell:1979:HCF,
  author =       "Michael Ansell",
  title =        "Handwriting Classification of Forsenic Science",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "239--251",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Recent methods of classification of features in
                 handwriting for use in the forensic examination of
                 documents are described, including the computerized
                 system of classification. Developments in the
                 statistical analysis of the way people construct
                 numbers and lay out their writing are reviewed. The
                 potential usefulness of these systems in quantifying
                 the current document examiners' scale of probability
                 for attributing questioned writings to particular
                 authors is examined.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hollerbach:1979:CMH,
  author =       "John Hollerbach",
  title =        "A Competence Model of Handwriting",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "252--264",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "It is proposed that handwriting production is
                 fundamentally an oscillatory process arising from two
                 orthogonal joints. Letter shapes emerge from an
                 oscillation train by a process of constrained
                 modulation. The choice of underlying oscillation and
                 modulations limits the diversity of letter shapes and
                 gives rise to a common writing style. The model was
                 tested by synthetic production of human-like cursive
                 script with a mechanical arm under computer control. In
                 this simulation the vertical joint acts as the driving
                 joint, the horizontal joint as the shaping joint.
                 Various force constraints on the oscillations and
                 modulations are proposed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ellis:1979:SP,
  author =       "Andrew W. Ellis",
  title =        "Slips of the Pen",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "265--282",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "A corpus of the author's own slips of the pen is
                 analyzed. Four processing levels --- lexical,
                 graphemic, allographic, and graphic --- are postulated
                 with different types of error being assigned to
                 different levels in the production of handwriting.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wing:1979:VHC,
  author =       "Alan M. Wing",
  title =        "Variability of Handwritten Characters",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "283--298",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Two aspects of the variability of handwriting are
                 considered. In the first part there is a discussion of
                 the effects of variability in the shapes of letters on
                 the legibility. An experiment to compare the relative
                 advantages of cursive and block capital writing is
                 summarized. The second part summarizes experiments
                 concerned with the time taken to prepare handwriting
                 movements and with the variability of the timing of
                 movements in the execution of handwriting.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Thomassen:1979:DDP,
  author =       "Arnold J. W. M. Thomassen and Hans-Leo H. M.
                 Tuelings",
  title =        "The Development of Directional Preference in Writing
                 Movements",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "299--313",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The paper looks into the origin and the development
                 with age of the preference to make either clockwise or
                 counterclockwise curves and contours in writing and
                 drawing. Twenty-six subjects of four age groups
                 performed four writing and drawing tasks. Two of these
                 were writing single symbols and accurately copying
                 patterns; the other two were free scribbling and
                 drawing repeated circles at a high rate. The developing
                 directional preferences that were observed between four
                 years of age and adulthood suggest that two
                 semi-independent motor systems are involved in writing:
                 one, more primitive, for rapid non-figurative tasks
                 evolving from flexion-first to extension-first; the
                 other, which occurs later but more rapidly under a
                 higher degree of cognitive control, for precision and
                 symbolic functions, favoring counterclockwise curves,
                 irrespective of the writing hand.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Sovik:1979:SCP,
  author =       "Nils S{\o}vik",
  title =        "Some Constructional Parameters Related to Children's
                 Copying Performance",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "314--330",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Copying is a common technique for training
                 perceptuo-motor skills such as handwriting. An
                 experiment is described in which stimuli to be copied
                 were presented dynamically or statically close to or
                 distant from children seven and ten years old. The
                 implications of the results for teaching handwriting
                 are discussed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kao:1979:HE,
  author =       "Henry S. R. Kao",
  title =        "Handwriting Ergonomics",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "331--339",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The purpose of this paper is to suggest a conceptual
                 framework for the handwriting system, consisting of
                 three elements: the hand, the writing instrument, and
                 paper. Within this system the hand control mechanism,
                 the writing instrument design, and their integration in
                 the dynamic writing on the paper are discussed relative
                 to efficient, legible, motivated as well as
                 fatigue-reducing handwriting performance. Based on this
                 system framework, an overview of relevant studies and a
                 proposal for needed areas of research are presented.
                 Designs of the writing instruments (in terms of
                 penpoints, shanks, and other physical characteristics),
                 the reduction of writing fatigue, and comparisons of
                 various instruments are analyzed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wendt:1979:KBAb,
  author =       "Dirk Wendt and Fernand Baudin and Ana Fisch",
  title =        "{Kurzfassung der Beitr{\"a}ge} [{Abstracts} of Journal
                 Articles in {German}, {French}, and {Spanish}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "341--345",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:13:25 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:Ac,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "The Authors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "3",
  pages =        "346--347",
  month =        "Summer",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:13:25 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N3_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:Ad,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Abstracts",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "350--351",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Poggenpohl:1979:GDP,
  author =       "Sharon Poggenpohl",
  title =        "Graphic Design: a Practice in Search of Theory",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "352--357",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Over the past two years, Visible Language conducted an
                 international survey of design schools in order to
                 determine the kind and vitality of the research effort.
                 This special issue presents the theory, research, and
                 visual experiment that was discovered. The need for
                 developing a theoretical structure, a more integrated
                 approach to research and its impact on design education
                 is explored. The problems associated with these tasks
                 are analyzed.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Ockerse:1979:SGD,
  author =       "Thomas Ockerse and Hans C. van Dijk",
  title =        "Semiotics and Graphic Design Education",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "358--378",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "The difficulty associated with establishing
                 definitions and goals in graphic design education are
                 explored followed by semiotic theory which is being
                 used as a structural basis and metalanguage for
                 students within the graphic design program at the Rhode
                 Island School of Design. Thomas Ockerse and Hans C. van
                 Dijk collaborated in the design of an innovative
                 curriculum which identifies significant communication
                 principles and develops an experimental approach with
                 emphasis on identification of alternative visual
                 possibilities. Specific problems are discussed in terms
                 of theory and complemented by a visual presentation of
                 related student work.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Stuhr:1979:LFT,
  author =       "David Stuhr",
  title =        "A Language of Form: The Two-Dimensional Isometric
                 System",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "379--409",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "Designers create form in relation to processes or
                 materials, but tradition in design has not established
                 an objective method of inquiry that would lead to an
                 understanding of the relationships present in forms.
                 Rather, a subjective, nonintellectual, nonacademic
                 precedent has persisted. Because an objective method of
                 inquiry, one which would result in an augmented
                 perception and comprehension of form in relation to the
                 visual world, is desirable a recent and extensive
                 search of the current literature was undertaken. This
                 search revealed that an objective point of view does
                 not exist, but a system of relationships used by
                 physical scientists --- classical symmetry theory ---
                 could be adapted for design studies. This system
                 reflects an objective point of view, requires a
                 rigorous academic discipline, and has the possibility
                 of extensive application. Ultimately, it may lead to
                 the formation and conventionalization of a visual
                 language.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Manning:1979:NVD,
  author =       "Robert Manning",
  title =        "Notes on the Visual Differential Theory",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "410--427",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "This work attempts to de-mystify and objectify what
                 has been considered by many teachers, students, and
                 practitioners of visual communication to be an
                 intuitive process; namely, the creation of art and
                 communication design. Expressionist art and
                 communication design are not distinct and unrelated
                 practices but are part of a continuum which can be
                 identified and understood. The visual differential
                 theory develops a conceptual model which attempts to
                 show relationships between visual manipulation and its
                 effect on the communication process. The semantic
                 differential technique serves as the basis for
                 establishing the parameters of the model's components:
                 order, graphic, and literal. Once grasped, the model
                 provides the basis for systematic teaching and analysis
                 of the communication design.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Reynolds:1979:GIR,
  author =       "Linda Reynolds",
  title =        "The Graphic Information Research Unit: Background and
                 Recent Research",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "428--448",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  abstract =     "For the past 8 years the Graphic Information Research
                 Unit has been working on various projects relating to
                 the legibility of scientific and technical information.
                 Much of this work has been funded by the British
                 Library, and has been concerned with problems such as
                 the degradation of printed images as a result of
                 copying processes, the effects of show-through and
                 other background patterns on legibility, the design of
                 typewritten and typeset bibliographics, the design of
                 COM catalogues, and the design of library guiding
                 systems. The Unit's survey of some of the problems of
                 providing adequate guiding in libraries and museums is
                 summarized, and two recent studies of COM catalogues
                 are described.",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% Page 449 is a landscape page of artwork
@Article{Bigelow:1979:NAT,
  author =       "Charles A. Bigelow",
  title =        "{Native American} Texts",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "450--450",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{White:1979:WSD,
  author =       "Constance White",
  title =        "Writing System Design: Finding the Optimal Written
                 Translation of the {English} Language",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "451--451",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Spencer:1979:IDB,
  author =       "Herbert Spencer and Linda Reynolds and Brian Coe",
  title =        "Image Degradation and Background Noise\slash
                 Legibility",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "452--452",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Reynolds:1979:LRV,
  author =       "Linda Reynolds and Herbert Spencer and George Glaze",
  title =        "Legibility and Readability of {Viewdata} Displays",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "453--453",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Skaggs:1979:TMV,
  author =       "Steven Skaggs",
  title =        "Type Manipulation with Video Technology",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "454--454",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Tanaka:1979:IWD,
  author =       "Tadao Tanaka",
  title =        "Investigation of the Word Design in the Katakana Form
                 of {Japanese}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "455--455",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kuyper:1979:IHG,
  author =       "Jerry L. Kuyper",
  title =        "Investigation\slash Hand Gestures",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "456--456",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Kuyper:1979:ZSS,
  author =       "Jerry L. Kuyper",
  title =        "Zoo Symbol Sign",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "457--457",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Remington:1979:SG,
  author =       "R. Roger Remington",
  title =        "The Sign Game",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "458--459",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Marcus:1979:VGI,
  author =       "Aaron Marcus",
  title =        "Visualizing Global Interdependencies",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "460--461",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Remington:1979:HGD,
  author =       "R. Roger Remington",
  title =        "History of Graphic Design",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "462--462",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:DTA,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Design Thesis Abstract",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "463--463",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:CPS,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Class Project Survey",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "464--464",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:Ca,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Contributors",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "465--466",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Baudin:1979:RAAd,
  author =       "Fernand Baudin and Ana Fisch and Dirk Wendt",
  title =        "R{\'e}sum{\'e} des Articles [Abstracts of Journal
                 Articles in {French}, {Spanish}, and {German}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "467--470",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:DN,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Design Notes",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "470--470",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:Cb,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Colophon",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "470--470",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1979:GId,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "471--471",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

%%% v13 n4 p472 is an advertisement for the journal
@Article{Anonymous:1979:IVX,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "Index [to {Volume XIII}]",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "473--475",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1979:AB,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "{Advisory Board}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIII",
  number =       "4",
  pages =        "476--476",
  month =        "Autumn",
  year =         "1979",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V13N4_1979_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wrolstad:1980:ABa,
  author =       "Merald E. Wrolstad",
  title =        "{Advisory Board}",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "2--2",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Mon Feb 15 08:28:03 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V14N1_1980_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Anonymous:1980:GIa,
  author =       "Anonymous",
  title =        "General Information",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "3--4",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 16 06:22:16 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V14N1_1980_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Shimron:1980:DVI,
  author =       "Joseph Shimron and David Navon",
  title =        "The Distribution of Visual Information in the Vertical
                 Dimension of {Roman} and {Hebrew} Letters",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "5--12",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V14N1_1980_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Meares:1980:FGB,
  author =       "Olive Meares",
  title =        "Figure\slash ground, Brightness Contrast, and Reading
                 Disabilities",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "13--29",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V14N1_1980_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Wood:1980:VLP,
  author =       "Richard E. Wood",
  title =        "Visible Language Policy --- Bilingualism and
                 Multinlingualism on Postage Stamps",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "30--51",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V14N1_1980_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{James:1980:SAE,
  author =       "Jean M. James",
  title =        "Signs in {Ancient Egypt}: Another Look at the Relation
                 of Figure to Hieroglyph",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "52--61",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  URL =          "https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/visiblelanguage/pdf/V14N1_1980_E.pdf",
  acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
  ajournal =     "Visible Lang.",
  fjournal =     "Visible Language",
  journal-URL =  "http://visiblelanguage.herokuapp.com/",
}

@Article{Hartley:1980:SCT,
  author =       "James Hartley",
  title =        "Spatial Cues in Text: Some Comments on the paper by
                 {Frase \& Schwartz} (1980)",
  journal =      j-VISIBLE-LANGUAGE,
  volume =       "XIV",
  number =       "1",
  pages =        "62--79",
  month =        "Winter",
  year =         "1980",
  CODEN =        "VSLGAO",
  ISSN =         "0022-2224 (print), 2691-5529 (electronic)",
  ISSN-L =       "0022-2224",
  bibdate =      "Tue Feb 9 08:33:01 MST 2021",
  bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/visible-language.bib",
  note =         "See corrections to layout \cite{Hartley:1980:C}.",
  U