%%% -*-BibTeX-*-
%%% ====================================================================
%%%  BibTeX-file{
%%%     author          = "Nelson H. F. Beebe",
%%%     version         = "1.44",
%%%     date            = "20 March 2021",
%%%     time            = "18:22:42 MDT",
%%%     filename        = "toce.bib",
%%%     address         = "University of Utah
%%%                        Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB
%%%                        155 S 1400 E RM 233
%%%                        Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090
%%%                        USA",
%%%     telephone       = "+1 801 581 5254",
%%%     FAX             = "+1 801 581 4148",
%%%     URL             = "http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe",
%%%     checksum        = "20731 12038 64414 610303",
%%%     email           = "beebe at math.utah.edu, beebe at acm.org,
%%%                        beebe at computer.org (Internet)",
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%%%     keywords        = "bibliography; BibTeX; ACM Journal on
%%%                        Educational Resources in Computing (JERIC);
%%%                        ACM Transactions on Computing Education
%%%                        (TOCE)",
%%%     license         = "public domain",
%%%     supported       = "no",
%%%     docstring       = "This is a COMPLETE BibTeX bibliography for
%%%                        the journal ACM Transactions on Computing
%%%                        Education (TOCE) (CODEN unknown, ISSN
%%%                        1946-6226), for 2009--date.
%%%
%%%                        Publication began with volume 9, number 1, in
%%%                        January 2009 as a continuation of the older
%%%                        ACM Journal on Educational Resources in
%%%                        Computing (JERIC).  The journal appears
%%%                        quarterly.
%%%
%%%                        The journal has World-Wide Web sites at:
%%%
%%%                            http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce
%%%                            http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193
%%%
%%%                        Qualified subscribers can retrieve the full
%%%                        text of recent articles in PDF form.
%%%
%%%                        At version 1.44, the COMPLETE journal
%%%                        coverage looked like this:
%%%
%%%                             2009 (  17)    2014 (  21)    2019 (  42)
%%%                             2010 (  21)    2015 (  21)    2020 (  30)
%%%                             2011 (  24)    2016 (  18)    2021 (   8)
%%%                             2012 (  16)    2017 (  27)
%%%                             2013 (  19)    2018 (  17)
%%%
%%%                             Article:        281
%%%
%%%                             Total entries:  281
%%%
%%%                        Data for this bibliography was derived from
%%%                        data at the ACM Web site.
%%%
%%%                        ACM copyrights explicitly permit abstracting
%%%                        with credit, so article abstracts, keywords,
%%%                        and subject classifications have been
%%%                        included in this bibliography wherever
%%%                        available.
%%%
%%%                        The bibsource keys in the bibliography
%%%                        entries below indicate the data sources.
%%%
%%%                        URL keys in the bibliography point to
%%%                        World Wide Web locations of additional
%%%                        information about the entry.
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%%%
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%%%                        publication order, using bibsort -byvolume.''
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%%% ====================================================================
%%% Acknowledgement abbreviations:

@String{ack-nhfb = "Nelson H. F. Beebe,
University of Utah,
Department of Mathematics, 110 LCB,
155 S 1400 E RM 233,
Salt Lake City, UT 84112-0090, USA,
Tel: +1 801 581 5254,
FAX: +1 801 581 4148,
e-mail: \path|beebe@math.utah.edu|,
\path|beebe@acm.org|,
\path|beebe@computer.org| (Internet),
URL: \path|http://www.math.utah.edu/~beebe/|"}


%%% ====================================================================
%%% Journal abbreviations:

@String{j-TOCE                  = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education"}


%%% ====================================================================
%%% Bibliography entries:

@Article{Tenenberg:2009:IAT,
author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
title =        "Introducing the {ACM Transactions on Computing
Education}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513594",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE)
represents a name change and a broadening of scope for
the ACM Journal on Educational Resources on Computing
(JERIC). The topics covered by this new journal will
range across diverse aspects of computing education:
traditional computer science, computer engineering,
software engineering, information technology, and
informatics; emerging aspects of computing; and
applications of computing to other disciplines, such as
computational biology. The common characteristics
shared by these articles are a scholarly approach to
teaching and learning, a broad appeal to educational
practitioners, and a clear connection to student
learning.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Computing education; practitioner research;
scholarship of teaching and learning",
}

@Article{Richards:2009:DPB,
author =       "Debbie Richards",
title =        "Designing Project-Based Courses with a Focus on
Group Formation and Assessment",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513595",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The value and the pitfalls of project and group work
are well recognized. The principles and elements which
apply to projects in general, apply to project-based
courses. Thoughtful and detailed planning,
understanding of the stakeholders and their needs, a
good design, appropriate testing, monitoring and
quality control and continual management can maximize
the benefits and minimize the negatives. In this
article we draw together the literature to consider key
design choices of project-based courses considering:
type, length, size, management, participants, and
content with a particular focus on the composition of
groups and the issues surrounding assessment.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "assessment; Group-based courses; group formation",
}

@Article{Ritzhaupt:2009:CGD,
author =       "Albert D. Ritzhaupt",
title =        "Creating a Game Development Course with Limited
Resources: An Evaluation Study",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513596",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article provides an overview of the challenges in
implementing a game development course with limited
resources in computing curricula. An approach to a
holistic game development course is outlined in terms
of its organization, software, and instructional
methods. The course had 23 students enrolled in its
first offering and was systematically evaluated in
light of the approach using multiple sources of data.
Descriptive statistics and measures of internal
consistency reliability are provided. Three important
findings resulted from this research: (1) a game
development course can be implemented with limited
institutional monetary support for a reasonable cost
per student, (2) cooperation and competition can be
effectively integrated into a game development course
as instructional strategies, and (3) integrated lecture
and computer lab sessions with cooperative learning is
an effective instructional method for a game
development course. Finally, insights and lessons
learned are provided to assist educators in creating
their own game development courses.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "computing education; educational evaluation; Game
development curriculum; game development tools",
}

@Article{Caspersen:2009:SFP,
author =       "Michael E. Caspersen and Michael Kolling",
title =        "{STREAM}: A First Programming Process",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513597",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Programming is recognized as one of seven grand
challenges in computing education. Decades of research
have shown that the major problems novices experience
are composition-based---they may know what the
individual programming language constructs are, but
they do not know how to put them together. Despite this
fact, textbooks, educational practice, and programming
education research hardly address the issue of teaching
the skills needed for systematic development of
programs.\par

We provide a conceptual framework for incremental
program development, called Stepwise Improvement, which
unifies best practice in modern software development
such as test-driven development and refactoring with
the prevailing perspective of programming methodology,
stepwise refinement. The conceptual framework enables
well-defined characterizations of incremental program
development.\par

We utilize the conceptual framework to derive a
programming process, STREAM, designed specifically for
novices. STREAM is a carefully down-scaled version of a
full and rich agile software engineering process
particularly suited for novices learning
object-oriented programming. In using it we hope to
achieve two things: to help novice programmers learn
faster and better while at the same time laying the
foundation for a more thorough treatment of more
advanced aspects of software engineering. In this
article, two examples demonstrate the application of
STREAM.\par

The STREAM process has been taught in the introductory
programming courses at our universities for the past
three years and the results are very encouraging. We
report on a small, preliminary study evaluating the
learning outcome of teaching STREAM. The study
indicates a positive effect on the development of
students' process competences.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "agile methods; programming education; programming
methodology; programming process; refactoring; Stepwise
improvement; stepwise refinement; test-driven
development",
}

@Article{Barker:2009:SFP,
author =       "L. Barker",
title =        "Student and Faculty Perceptions of Undergraduate
Research Experiences in Computing",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513598",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Undergraduate research experiences are promoted and
funded for their potential in increasing students'
likelihood of pursuing graduate degrees, increasing
their confidence, and expanding their awareness of
their discipline and career opportunities. These
outcomes, however, depend on the social,
organizational, and intellectual conditions under which
students conduct research. Large-scale comparative
studies suggest that computer science undergraduate
researchers participate in fewer of the activities that
lead to membership in a culture of research.'' This
interview-based study illuminates the experiences of
both undergraduates and their faculty research mentors
in computer science summer and academic year programs.
Twenty-five undergraduates and 31 faculty mentors, the
majority women, were interviewed. Their stories reveal
best and worst case research conditions for students,
the special benefits to women who have experienced
harassment in their classes, unconscious biases of
faculty, the wisdom of faculty who guide undergraduates
to successful research outcomes, and faculty's
perceptions of benefits for themselves, their
departments, and the students they mentor.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "research career; research experiences for
computing",
}

@Article{Ocker:2009:TSW,
author =       "Rosalie Ocker and Mary Beth Rosson and Dana Kracaw and
S. Roxanne Hiltz",
title =        "Training Students to Work Effectively in
Partially Distributed Teams",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "6:1--6:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513599",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Information technology teams are often partially
distributed teams (PDTs). A PDT consists of two or more
subteams that are separated geographically. This
articles describes research focused on the use of PDTs
to engage students in real world'' IT team learning
about the subject matter while also teaching them the
skills they will need to work in global software
development teams. Findings from a large-scale
international study indicate that the introduction of
training modules enhanced perceived learning of
appropriate PDT teaming behaviors; students with
training reported improved shared team identification,
trust, awareness, coordination, competence, and
conflict with respect to distant subteam members, and
higher overall team performance.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "distributed teams; partially distributed teams;
Virtual teams",
}

@Article{Myller:2009:EET,
author =       "Niko Myller and Roman Bednarik and Erkki Sutinen and
Mordechai Ben-Ari",
title =        "Extending the Engagement Taxonomy: Software
Visualization and Collaborative Learning",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "1",
pages =        "7:1--7:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1513593.1513600",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Jun 1 17:49:31 MDT 2009",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "As collaborative learning in general, and pair
programming in particular, has become widely adopted in
computer science education, so has the use of
pedagogical visualization tools for facilitating
collaboration. However, there is little theory on
collaborative learning with visualization, and few
studies on their effect on each other. We build on the
concept of the {\em engagement taxonomy\/} and extend
it to classify finer variations in the engagement that
result from the use of a visualization tool. We analyze
the applicability of the taxonomy to the description of
the differences in the collaboration process when
visualization is used. Our hypothesis is that
increasing the level of engagement between learners and
the visualization tool results in a higher positive
impact of the visualization on the collaboration
investigation designed to test the hypothesis. The
results provide support for our extended engagement
taxonomy and hypothesis by showing that the
collaborative activities of the students and the
engagement levels are correlated.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "collaborative learning; engagement taxonomy; Program
visualization",
}

@Article{Rossling:2009:EPA,
author =       "Guido R{\"o}ssling and J. {\'A}ngel
Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
title =        "Editorial: Program and Algorithm Visualization in
Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8:1--8:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538235",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Urquiza-Fuentes:2009:SSE,
author =       "Jaime Urquiza-Fuentes and J. {\'A}ngel
Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide",
title =        "A Survey of Successful Evaluations of Program
Visualization and Algorithm Animation Systems",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "9:1--9:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538236",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Karavirta:2009:SMH,
author =       "Ville Karavirta",
title =        "Seamless Merging of Hypertext and Algorithm
Animation",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "10:1--10:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538237",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rossling:2009:VBC,
author =       "Guido R{\"o}ssling and Teena Vellaramkalayil",
title =        "A Visualization-Based Computer Science Hypertextbook
Prototype",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538238",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Bruce-Lockhart:2009:ATG,
author =       "Michael Bruce-Lockhart and Theodore Norvell and
Pierluigi Crescenzi",
title =        "Adding Test Generation to the Teaching Machine",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "12:1--12:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538239",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cross:2009:RGD,
author =       "James H. {Cross II} and T. Dean Hendrix and David A.
Umphress and Larry A. Barowski and Jhilmil Jain and
Lacey N. Montgomery",
title =        "Robust Generation of Dynamic Data Structure
Visualizations with Multiple Interaction Approaches",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "13:1--13:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538240",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Schaeckeler:2009:COP,
author =       "Stefan Schaeckeler and Weijia Shang and Ruth Davis",
title =        "Compiler Optimization Pass Visualization: The
Procedural Abstraction Case",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "2",
pages =        "14:1--14:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1538234.1538241",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:01 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Pears:2009:VOC,
author =       "Arnold Pears and Lauri Malmi",
title =        "Values and Objectives in Computing Education
Research",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "3",
pages =        "15:1--15:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1594399.1594400",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Paterson:2009:PPS,
author =       "J. H. Paterson and K. F. Cheng and J. Haddow",
title =        "{PatternCoder}: a Programming Support Tool for
Learning Binary Class Associations and Design
Patterns",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "3",
pages =        "16:1--16:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1594399.1594401",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kiesmuller:2009:DLP,
author =       "Ulrich Kiesm{\"u}ller",
title =        "Diagnosing Learners' Problem-Solving Strategies Using
Learning Environments with Algorithmic Problems in
Secondary Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "3",
pages =        "17:1--17:??",
month =        sep,
year =         "2009",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1594399.1594402",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:04 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "17",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2010:WDM,
author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
title =        "Why Discipline Matters in Computing Education
Scholarship",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "18:1--18:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656256",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "18",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Brusilovsky:2010:LSP,
author =       "Peter Brusilovsky and Sergey Sosnovsky and Michael V.
Yudelson and Danielle H. Lee and Vladimir Zadorozhny
and Xin Zhou",
title =        "Learning {SQL} Programming with Interactive Tools:
From Integration to Personalization",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "19:1--19:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656257",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "19",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Yuan:2010:VTT,
author =       "Xiaohong Yuan and Percy Vega and Yaseen Qadah and
Ricky Archer and Huiming Yu and Jinsheng Xu",
title =        "Visualization Tools for Teaching Computer Security",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "20:1--20:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656258",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "20",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Meerbaum--Salant:2010:ACM,
author =       "Orni Meerbaum--Salant and Orit Hazzan",
title =        "An Agile Constructionist Mentoring Methodology for
Software Projects in the High School",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "9",
number =       "4",
pages =        "21:1--21:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1656255.1656259",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Mar 16 10:14:05 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "21",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Baldwin:2010:GEI,
author =       "Doug Baldwin and Alyce Brady",
title =        "{Guest Editors}' Introduction: Computer Science in the
Liberal Arts",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731042",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "For many people, computer science is not closely
associated with the liberal arts. Yet liberal arts''
can denote a philosophy of education that emphasizes
broadly preparing students for all aspects of their
future lives, and as computing becomes more central to
the ways in which we think about the world, computer
science becomes correspondingly more central in such an
education. This, in turn, makes computer science more
important in the programs of educational institutions
that follow a liberal arts philosophy. This issue of
{\em Transactions on Computing Education\/} presents
three articles that examine the intersection of
computer science and the liberal arts. Walker and
Kelemen explore in detail how a liberal arts philosophy
complements the needs of computer science education,
and how computer science as a discipline fits the goals
of a liberal arts philosophy. Bruce et al. present the
history of a consortium of computer scientists from
liberal arts colleges and the model computer science
curricula they have developed for such colleges.
Finally, Baldwin et al. describe the concrete computer
science programs at five institutions, each with a
distinct place in the liberal arts spectrum. We hope
that these articles will advance understanding of
computer science in the liberal arts, and inspire
readers to incorporate liberal arts principles into
their own computer science programs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Liberal arts",
}

@Article{Walker:2010:CSL,
author =       "Henry M. Walker and Charles Kelemen",
title =        "Computer Science and the Liberal Arts: a
Philosophical Examination",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731043",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article explores the philosophy and position of
the discipline of computer science within the liberal
arts, based upon a discussion of the nature of computer
science and a review of the characteristics of the
liberal arts. A liberal arts environment provides
important opportunities for undergraduate programs, but
also presents important constraints. A well designed
program can flourish in this environment, and evidence
indicates that a liberal arts program in computer
science can indeed succeed well.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Liberal arts; undergraduate education",
}

@Article{Bruce:2010:HLA,
author =       "Kim B. Bruce and Robert D. Cupper and Robert L. Scot
Drysdale",
title =        "A History of the Liberal Arts Computer Science
Consortium and its Model Curricula",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731044",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "With the support of a grant from the Sloan Foundation,
nine computer scientists from liberal arts colleges
came together in October, 1984 to form the Liberal Arts
Computer Science Consortium (LACS) and to create a
model curriculum appropriate for liberal arts colleges.
Over the years the membership has grown and changed,
but the focus has remained on helping to establish and
maintain high-quality computer science programs in
liberal arts colleges. In this report we discuss
briefly the history of the group, the series of three
curricula produced by LACS, and other contributions of
the members to computer science education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Computing Curriculum Guidelines; LACS; liberal arts",
}

@Article{Baldwin:2010:CSL,
author =       "D. Baldwin and A. Brady and A. Danyluk and J. Adams
and A. Lawrence",
title =        "Case Studies of Liberal Arts Computer Science
Programs",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1731041.1731045",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:39 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Many undergraduate liberal arts institutions offer
computer science majors. This article illustrates how
quality computer science programs can be realized in a
wide variety of liberal arts settings by describing and
contrasting the actual programs at five liberal arts
colleges: Williams College, Kalamazoo College, the
State University of New York at Geneseo, Spelman
College, and Calvin College. While the example programs
differ in size, mission, and the nature of their home
institutions, all take advantage of their liberal arts
setting to offer rich computer science educations.
Comparing these programs to each other and to the
latest ACM/IEEE Computer Society computer science
curriculum shows that the liberal arts programs are
distinguishable from the ACM/Computer Society
recommendations, but at the same time are strong
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Liberal arts",
}

@Article{Goldman:2010:SSC,
author =       "Ken Goldman and Paul Gross and Cinda Heeren and
Geoffrey L. Herman and Lisa Kaczmarczyk and Michael
C. Loui and Craig Zilles",
title =        "Setting the Scope of Concept Inventories for
Introductory Computing Subjects",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789935",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "A concept inventory is a standardized assessment tool
intended to evaluate a student's understanding of the
core concepts of a topic. In order to create a concept
inventory it is necessary to accurately identify these
core concepts. A Delphi process is a structured
multi-step process that uses a group of experts to
achieve a consensus opinion. We present the results of
three Delphi processes to identify topics that are
important and difficult in each of three introductory
computing subjects: discrete mathematics, programming
fundamentals, and logic design. The topic rankings can
not only be used to guide the coverage of concept
inventories, but can also be used by instructors to
identify what topics merit special attention.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "concept inventory; Curriculum; delphi; discrete math;
logic design; programming fundamentals",
}

@Article{dAmore:2010:SOV,
author =       "Roberto d'Amore",
title =        "A Synthesis-Oriented {VHDL} Course",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "6:1--6:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789936",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article proposes a VHDL language course that
establishes a strong correlation between the language
statements and their use in circuit synthesis. Two
course modules are described: a basic module that
contains the essential concepts of the language,
sufficient for students to describe medium complexity
circuits, followed by a second module with more complex
language concepts. The benefits of correlated
laboratory tasks which use simulation and synthesis
tools are discussed. Evaluation content, student test
scores, and student feedback are presented. Suggestions
for improving and modifying the course are given.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "digital course; SystemC; System Verilog; Verilog;
VHDL",
}

@Article{Shoufan:2010:CRP,
author =       "Abdulhadi Shoufan and Sorin A. Huss",
title =        "A Course on Reconfigurable Processors",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "7:1--7:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789937",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Reconfigurable computing is an established field in
computer science. Teaching this field to computer
science students demands special attention due to
limited student experience in electronics and digital
system design. This article presents a compact course
on reconfigurable processors, which was offered at the
Technische Universit{\"a}t Darmstadt, and is intended
for instructors aiming to introduce a new course in
reconfigurable computing. Therefore, a detailed
description of the course structure and content is
provided. In contrast to courses on digital system
design, which use FPGAs as a case platform, our course
places this platform at the center of its focus and
highlights its features as a basis for reconfigurable
computing. Both declarative knowledge and functioning
knowledge are considered in defining learning outcomes
based on a novel What-Why-How Model. Lab activities
were designated to deepen the functioning knowledge.
The written exam is aligned to learning outcomes and
shows that most students acquired the intended
outcomes.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "configuration resources; configuration technologies;
Design process; VHDL",
}

@Article{Bennedsen:2010:BVD,
author =       "Jens Bennedsen and Carsten Schulte",
title =        "{BlueJ} Visual Debugger for Learning the Execution of
Object-Oriented Programs?",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8:1--8:??",
month =        jun,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1789934.1789938",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:48 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article reports on an experiment undertaken in
order to evaluate the effect of a program visualization
tool for helping students to better understand the
dynamics of object-oriented programs. The concrete tool
used was BlueJ's debugger and object inspector. The
study was done as a control-group experiment in an
introductory programming course.\par

The results of the experiment show that the students
who used BlueJ's debugger did not perform statistically
significantly better than the students not using it;
both groups profited about the same amount from the
exercises given in the experiment.\par

We discuss possible reasons for and implications of
this result.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "BlueJ; CS1; debugger; learning program execution;
object inspector; object orientation; tools;
visualization",
}

@Article{Shaffer:2010:AVS,
author =       "Clifforda Shaffer and Matthew L. Cooper and Alexander
Joel D. Alon and Monika Akbar and Michael Stewart and
Sean Ponce and Stephen H. Edwards",
title =        "Algorithm Visualization: The State of the Field",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "9:1--9:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1821996.1821997",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "We present findings regarding the state of the field
of Algorithm Visualization (AV) based on our analysis
of a collection of over 500 AVs. We examine how AVs are
distributed among topics, who created them and when,
their overall quality, and how they are disseminated.
There does exist a cadre of good AVs and active
developers. Unfortunately, we found that many AVs are
of low quality, and coverage is skewed toward a few
easier topics. This can make it hard for instructors to
locate what they need. There are no effective
repositories of AVs currently available, which puts
many AVs at risk for being lost to the community over
time. Thus, the field appears in need of improvement in
disseminating materials, propagating known best
practices, and informing developers about topic
coverage. These concerns could be mitigated by building
community and improving communication among AV users
and developers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Algorithm animation; algorithm visualization; AlgoViz
Wiki; community; data structure visualization; free and
open source software",
}

@Article{Renumol:2010:ICP,
author =       "V. G. Renumol and Dharanipragada Janakiram and S.
Jayaprakash",
title =        "Identification of Cognitive Processes of Effective and
Ineffective Students During Computer Programming",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "10:1--10:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1821996.1821998",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Identifying the set of cognitive processes (CPs) a
student can go through during computer programming is
an interesting research problem. It can provide a
better understanding of the human aspects in computer
programming process and can also contribute to the
computer programming education in general. The study
identified the presence of a set of 42 CPs in computer
programming (C language). The study used Verbal
Protocol Analysis (VPA) in identifying these CPs. It is
a qualitative study on the Verbal Protocols (VPs) of 19
students. Some of the CPs have been inferred by
referring to the literature and some have been
additionally identified by this study. The additional
CPs found are confusion, hypothesis, interrogation,
iteration, monitoring, recollection, recurrence, and
translation. It is observed that programming involves
the interplay of lower and higher CPs and needs various
cognitive skills, which increase the processing load on
the brain and make the programming process difficult
and complex to learn and practice. The same set of CPs
was found in both the effective and ineffective
subjects. The research results can provide deeper
knowledge to teachers on cognitive aspects of
programming and the cognitive behavior of students
during the programming process.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "cognitive processes; cognitive psychology; computer
programming; effective and ineffective students;
Programming education; verbal protocol analysis",
}

@Article{Russell:2010:MPB,
author =       "Ingrid Russell and Zdravko Markov and Todd Neller and
Susan Coleman",
title =        "{MLeXAI}: a Project-Based Application-Oriented
Model",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "3",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        aug,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1821996.1821999",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Aug 14 16:59:56 MDT 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Our approach to teaching introductory artificial
intelligence (AI) unifies its diverse core topics
through a theme of machine learning, and emphasizes how
AI relates more broadly with computer science. Our
work, funded by a grant from the National Science
Foundation, involves the development, implementation,
and testing of a suite of projects that can be closely
integrated into a one-term AI course. Each project
involves the development of a machine learning system
in a specific application. These projects have been
used in six different offerings over a three-year
period at three different types of institutions. While
we have presented a sample of the projects as well as
limited preliminary experiences in other venues, this
article presents the first assessment of our work over
an extended period of three years. Results of
assessment show that the projects were well received by
the students. By using projects involving real-world
applications we provided additional motivation for
students. While illustrating core concepts, the
projects introduced students to an important area in
computer science, machine learning, thus motivating
further study.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
keywords =     "Artificial intelligence; projects",
}

@Article{Fincher:2010:PSI,
author =       "Sally Fincher and Ian Utting",
title =        "Preface to Special Issue on Initial Learning
Environments",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "12:1--12:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868359",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Fincher:2010:MT,
author =       "Sally Fincher and Ian Utting",
title =        "Machines for Thinking",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "13:1--13:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868360",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "In this article we set a context for three Initial
Learning Environments Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. We
consider historical antecedents, technical comparators
and design approaches.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kolling:2010:GPE,
author =       "Michael K{\"o}lling",
title =        "The {Greenfoot} Programming Environment",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "14:1--14:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868361",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Greenfoot is an educational integrated development
environment aimed at learning and teaching programming.
It is aimed at a target audience of students from about
14 years old upwards, and is also suitable for college-
and university-level education. Greenfoot combines
graphical, interactive output with programming in Java,
a standard, text-based object-oriented programming
language. This article first describes Greenfoot and
then goes on to discuss design goals and motivations,
strengths and weaknesses of the system, and its
relation to two environments with similar goals,
Scratch and Alice.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Cooper:2010:DA,
author =       "Stephen Cooper",
title =        "The Design of {Alice}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "15:1--15:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868362",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article explores the major design characteristics
(both pedagogic as well as technical) that helped to
shape Alice 2. It identifies several strengths of Alice
as well as several weaknesses. An example problem is
solved in Alice, covering many of the design
characteristics. Finally, the effects and impacts of
Alice instruction are presented, and the future
directions of Alice development are provided.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Maloney:2010:SPL,
author =       "John Maloney and Mitchel Resnick and Natalie Rusk and
Brian Silverman and Evelyn Eastmond",
title =        "The {Scratch} Programming Language and Environment",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "16:1--16:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868363",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Scratch is a visual programming environment that
allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer
programming while working on personally meaningful
projects such as animated stories and games. A key
design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed
learning through tinkering and collaboration with
peers. This article explores how the Scratch
programming language and environment support this
goal.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Utting:2010:AGS,
author =       "Ian Utting and Stephen Cooper and Michael K{\"o}lling
and John Maloney and Mitchel Resnick",
title =        "{Alice}, {Greenfoot}, and {Scratch} --- a
Discussion",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "10",
number =       "4",
pages =        "17:1--17:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2010",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1868358.1868364",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Thu Dec 9 11:26:15 MST 2010",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article distills a discussion about the goals,
mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim
to support the acquisition and development of computing
concepts (problem solving and programming) in
pre-University and non-technical students: Alice,
Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a
special session on the topic at the 2010 ACM SIGCSE
Symposium on Computer Science Education and continued
during the creation of the resulting Special Issue of
the ACM Transactions on Computing Education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "17",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2011:EEP,
author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
title =        "Editorial: Entry Points for Computing Education
Research",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1921608",
abstract =     "The goal of this editorial is to provide entry points
into the literature on making and warranting claims in
the social and behavioral sciences that might be of use
to computing educators. In addition, we provide some
heuristic advice on getting started and continuing
along this direction based on our experience as
computing education researchers.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Braught:2011:CPP,
author =       "Grant Braught and Tim Wahls and L. Marlin Eby",
title =        "The Case for Pair Programming in the Computer Science
Classroom",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1921609",
abstract =     "Previous studies indicate that the use of pair
programming has beneficial effects on student learning.
In this article, we present a controlled study that
directly measured students' acquisition of individual
programming skills using laboratory practica (in which
students programmed individually under exam
conditions). Additionally, we analyzed other measures
of student performance, attitudes, and retention. Our
results provide direct evidence that pair programming
improves the individual programming skills of lower SAT
students, and that students who pair program are more
confident in their work and are more likely to
successfully complete the course.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Borstler:2011:QEI,
author =       "J{\"u}rgen B{\"o}rstler and Marie Nordstr{\"o}m and
James H. Paterson",
title =        "On the Quality of Examples in Introductory {Java}
Textbooks",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Example programs play an important role in the
teaching and learning of programming. Students as well
as teachers rank examples as the most important
resources for learning to program. Example programs
work as role models and must therefore always be
consistent with the principles and rules we are
teaching. However, it is difficult to find or develop
examples that are fully faithful to all principles and
guidelines of the object-oriented paradigm and also
follow general pedagogical principles and practices.
Unless students are able to engage with good examples,
they will not be able to tell desirable from
undesirable properties in their own and others'
programs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Liberman:2011:DLI,
author =       "Neomi Liberman and Catriel Beeri and Yifat Ben-David
Kolikant",
title =        "Difficulties in Learning Inheritance and
Polymorphism",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article reports on difficulties related to the
concepts of inheritance and polymorphism, expressed by
a group of 22 in-service CS teachers with an experience
with the procedural paradigm, as they coped with a
course on OOP. Our findings are based on the analysis
of tests, questionnaires that the teachers completed in
the course, as well as on observations made during the
course. The article suggests that the difficulties are
mostly caused by the learners' ignorance about a
programming model for inheritance and polymorphism.
Such a model is presented in the appendix.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wang:2011:EEU,
author =       "Alf Inge Wang",
title =        "Extensive Evaluation of Using a Game Project in a
Software Architecture Course",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "1",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        feb,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Feb 28 16:08:34 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article describes an extensive evaluation of
introducing a game project to a software architecture
course. In this project, university students have to
construct and design a type of software architecture,
evaluate the architecture, implement an application
based on the architecture, and test this
implementation. In previous years, the domain of the
software architecture project has been a robot
controller for navigating a maze. In 2008, the students
on the software architecture course chose between the
two domains: Khepera robot simulation in Java and XNA
game development in C\#. Independent of the domain
chosen, the students had to go through the same phases,
produce the same documents based on the same templates,
and follow exactly the same process.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

author =       "Richard Ladner and Tammy VanDeGrift",
title =        "Introduction to Special Issue (Part 1): Broadening
Participation in Computing Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "6:1--6:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993070",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This special issue includes the first set of articles
education. The articles span the stages of the
pipeline, from introducing middle school children to
computer science to retaining underrepresented groups
at the university level. The preface presented here
outlines the need for increasing the participation of
underrepresented minorities, women, and people with
disabilities in the development of technology. In
addition, the preface summarizes the six articles
included in this first (of two) issues on broadening
participation.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Doerschuk:2011:IHS,
author =       "Peggy Doerschuk and Jiangjiang Liu and Judith Mann",
title =        "{INSPIRED} High School Computing Academies",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "7:1--7:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993071",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "If we are to attract more women and minorities to
computing we must engage students at an early age. As
part of its mission to increase participation of women
and underrepresented minorities in computing, the
Increasing Student Participation in Research
Development Program (INSPIRED) conducts computing
academies for high school students. The academies are
designed to increase students' knowledge of and
interest in computing and to encourage females and
minorities to participate in computing. INSPIRED
academies differ from others in several ways. They are
relatively easy to organize and require relatively few
resources; they focus on computing concepts and
object-oriented programming; they expose students to
successful female and minority computer scientists; and
they actively engage university students from
underrepresented groups to organize, coordinate, teach,
and help assess the academies.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Kim:2011:EWC,
author =       "Karen A. Kim and Amy J. Fann and Kimberly O.
Misa-Escalante",
title =        "Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering:
Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8:1--8:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993072",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Building on research that identifies and addresses
issues of women's underrepresentation in computing,
undergraduate research experiences that promote women's
long-term interest in computer science and engineering.
Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU
programs include programmatic elements designed to
promote gender equity and identifies specific
mechanisms that are seen as effective in supporting
women in REU programs and in encouraging them to
persist in computer science and engineering fields.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Wolz:2011:CTE,
author =       "Ursula Wolz and Meredith Stone and Kim Pearson and
Sarah Monisha Pulimood and Mary Switzer",
title =        "Computational Thinking and Expository Writing in the
Middle School",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "9:1--9:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993073",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "To broaden participation in computing we need to look
beyond traditional domains of inquiry and expertise. We
present results from a demonstration project in which
interactive journalism was used to infuse computational
thinking into the standard curriculum and regular
classroom experience at a middle school with a diverse
population. Outcomes indicate that we were able to
develop positive attitudes about computational thinking
and programming among students and teachers who did not
necessarily view themselves as math types.'' By
partnering with language arts, technology and math
teachers at Fisher Middle School, Ewing New Jersey, we
introduced the isomorphism between the journalistic
process and computational thinking to 7th and 8th
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Zimmerman:2011:WLH,
author =       "Thomas G. Zimmerman and David Johnson and Cynthia
Wambsgans and Antonio Fuentes",
title =        "Why {Latino} High School Students Select Computer
Science as a Major: Analysis of a Success Story",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "10:1--10:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993074",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article reports on a public school that is
succeeding in encouraging Latino high school students
to select Computer Science (CS) as a major. The
students attend a charter high school designed to
encourage low-income Latino students to attend college
and attain proficiency in English, Spanish, and
computers. Using data from surveys and by analyzing
test scores, the authors quantify the characteristics
of students who are likely to choose CS as a major. A
survey of 139 tenth- through twelfth-grade Latino
students is used to determine factors that influence CS
major selection. The survey includes questions from a
previous study (836 high school math students from 9
public and private schools) as a control.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rheingans:2011:RMG,
author =       "Penny Rheingans and Anne Brodsky and Jill Scheibler
and Anne Spence",
title =        "The Role of Majority Groups in Diversity Programs",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993075",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The underrepresentation of women in technical fields
is a widely acknowledged national problem, limiting
both the raw size of the talent pool and the diversity
of experiences and perspectives of those who will
design solutions to key problems facing society.
Empowering women to succeed in these fields is clearly
one important component of any solution. Because the
population in those fields will likely continue to be
overwhelmingly male for some time to come, men must
also be a key component of the solution. Specifically,
since the attitudes of the majority group are a strong
determinant of climate, it is almost equally important
to foster a population of men supportive of increasing
the representation of women.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Goode:2011:ECS,
author =       "Joanna Goode and Jane Margolis",
title =        "Exploring Computer Science: a Case Study of School
Reform",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "2",
pages =        "12:1--12:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/1993069.1993076",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Wed Aug 17 09:27:37 MDT 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
participation in computing in urban schools through a
comprehensive reform effort of curricular development,
teacher professional development, and policy changes.
Beginning with an account of the curricular development
of Exploring Computer Science, we will describe the
inquiry-based research that underlies these learning
materials. Next, we argue that accompanying
professional development that supports the curriculum
is essential for supporting this inquiry-based approach
to computer science instruction. We then explain the
policy strategies used to designate this course as a
college-preparatory elective and place it in 17 Los
Angeles high schools. Finally, we share the initial
results of how students experience this course and
ongoing challenges encountered when working in the
public school system.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

author =       "Richard Ladner and Tammy VanDeGrift",
title =        "Special Issue on Broadening Participation in Computing
Education (Part 2)",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "13:1--13:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037277",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rosson:2011:OUT,
author =       "Mary Beth Rosson and John M. Carroll and Hansa
Sinha",
title =        "Orientation of Undergraduates Toward Careers in the
Computer and Information Sciences: Gender,
Self-Efficacy and Social Support",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "14:1--14:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037278",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Crutchfield:2011:BFO,
author =       "Orpheus S. L. Crutchfield and Christopher D. Harrison
and Guy Haas and Daniel D. Garcia and Sheila
M. Humphreys and Colleen M. Lewis and Peter Khooshabeh",
title =        "{Berkeley Foundation for Opportunities in Information
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "15:1--15:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037279",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Gates:2011:CAH,
author =       "Ann Quiroz Gates and Sarah Hug and Heather Thiry and
Richard Al{\'o} and Mohsen Beheshti and John Fernandez
title =        "{The Computing Alliance of Hispanic-Serving
Institutions}: Supporting Hispanics at Critical
Transition Points",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "16:1--16:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037280",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Eglash:2011:FSA,
author =       "Ron Eglash and Mukkai Krishnamoorthy and Jason Sanchez
and Andrew Woodbridge",
title =        "Fractal Simulations of {African} Design in Pre-College
Computing Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "17:1--17:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037281",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "17",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Dahlberg:2011:SAV,
author =       "Teresa Dahlberg and Tiffany Barnes and Kim Buch and
Audrey Rorrer",
title =        "The {STARS} Alliance: Viable Strategies for Broadening
Participation in Computing",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "18:1--18:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037282",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "18",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Burgstahler:2011:UDI,
author =       "Sheryl Burgstahler",
title =        "Universal Design: Implications for Computing
Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "19:1--19:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037283",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "19",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ludi:2011:URP,
author =       "Stephanie Ludi and Tom Reichlmayr",
title =        "The Use of Robotics to Promote Computing to
Pre-College Students with Visual Impairments",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "3",
pages =        "20:1--20:??",
month =        oct,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2037276.2037284",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sun Nov 6 06:32:28 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "20",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Tenenberg:2011:ECT,
author =       "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney",
title =        "Editorial: Computational Tools for Computing
Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "21:1--21:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048932",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The goal of this editorial is to both encourage
authors to continue to submit articles describing
computational tools for computing education to TOCE,
and to make explicit our expectations as the editors of
TOCE for what makes a good tools'' article. We
elaborate three key criteria, and provide examples from
previous TOCE papers that satisfy these criteria: (1)
establish that the tool is related essentially to
computing education, (2) make explicit claims about the
impact of the tool on learning, and (3) evidence these
claims through actual use.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "21",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Miller:2011:WPD,
author =       "Craig S. Miller and Amber Settle",
title =        "When Practice Doesn't Make Perfect: Effects of Task
Goals on Learning Computing Concepts",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "22:1--22:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048933",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Specifying file references for hypertext links is an
elementary competence that nevertheless draws upon core
computational thinking concepts such as tree traversal
and the distinction between relative and absolute
references. In this article we explore the learning
effects of different instructional strategies in the
context of an introductory computing course. Results
suggest that asking students to do targeted tasks,
albeit supported with working examples, is not the best
preparation. Instead, unstructured study of examples
produces superior learning. Answering targeted
conceptual questions can also yield comparably positive
learning but only in qualified contexts. While perhaps
unintuitive, these results are consistent with a long
line of research on human cognition and learning.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "22",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Armoni:2011:LST,
author =       "Michal Armoni",
title =        "Looking at Secondary Teacher Preparation Through the
Lens of Computer Science",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "23:1--23:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048934",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Teaching computer science (CS) in high schools, rather
than just programming or even computer literacy, is
important as a means of introducing students to the
true nature of CS, and enhancing their problem-solving
skills. Since teachers are the key to the success of
any high school educational initiative, any discussion
of high school programs must consider the teachers, and
specifically the teacher preparation needed to make the
implementation of such programs possible. However,
there is scant research on CS teacher education,
probably because CS is a relatively young discipline.
Very few of the publications in the area of CS teacher
preparation are research-based.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "23",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Nikula:2011:MGH,
author =       "Uolevi Nikula and Orlena Gotel and Jussi Kasurinen",
title =        "A Motivation Guided Holistic Rehabilitation of the
First Programming Course",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "11",
number =       "4",
pages =        "24:1--24:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2011",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2048931.2048935",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 19 15:46:39 MST 2011",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "It has been estimated that more than two million
students started computing studies in 1999 and 650,000
of them either dropped or failed their first
programming course. For the individual student,
dropping such a course can distract from the completion
of later courses in a computing curriculum and may even
result in changing their course of study to a
curriculum without programming. In this article, we
report on how we set out to rehabilitate a troubled
first programming course, one for which the dropout
statistic and repercussion was evident. The five-year
longitudinal case study described in this article began
by systematically tracking the pass rate of a first
programming course, its throughput, as proposed by the
Theory of Constraints.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "24",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:TRI,
author =       "Tanya McGill and Jocelyn Armarego and Tony Koppi",
title =        "The Teaching--Research--Industry--Learning Nexus in
Information and Communications Technology",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133798",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The teaching-research nexus concept has been
extensively examined in the higher education
literature, and the importance of industry linkages in
information and communications technology (ICT)
education has also been widely discussed. However, to
date there has been little recognition of the full
extent of relationships between aspects of teaching,
learning, research, and industry, and of the synergy
possible from exploiting these relationships. Koppi and
Naghdy [2009] introduced the concept of the
teaching-research-industry-learning (TRIL) nexus in ICT
understanding of the concept by exploring the
literature that underpins it. The article contributes
to a clearer understanding of the nature of the
relationships involved as they apply to ICT education,
and makes comprehensive recommendations to support
strengthening the TRIL nexus in ICT education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

author =       "Leonardo Mariani and Daniela Micucci",
title =        "{AuDeNTES}: Automatic Detection of {teNtative}
plagiarism according to a {rEference} Solution",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133799",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "In academic courses, students frequently take
advantage of someone else's work to improve their own
evaluations or grades. This unethical behavior
seriously threatens the integrity of the academic
system, and teachers invest substantial effort in
preventing and recognizing plagiarism. When students
take examinations requiring the production of computer
programs, plagiarism detection can be semiautomated
using analysis techniques such as JPlag and Moss. These
techniques are useful but lose effectiveness when the
text of the exam suggests some of the elements that
should be structurally part of the solution. A loss of
effectiveness is caused by the many common parts that
are shared between programs due to the suggestions in
the text of the exam rather than plagiarism. In this
article, we present the AuDeNTES anti-plagiarism
technique. AuDeNTES detects plagiarism via the code
fragments that better represent the individual
students' contributions by filtering from students'
submissions the parts that might be common to many
students due to the suggestions in the text of the
exam. The filtered parts are identified by comparing
students' submissions against a reference solution,
which is a solution of the exam developed by the
teachers. Specifically, AuDeNTES first produces
tokenized versions of both the reference solution and
the programs that must be analyzed. Then, AuDeNTES
removes from the tokenized programs the tokens that are
included in the tokenized reference solution. Finally,
AuDeNTES computes the similarity among the filtered
tokenized programs and produces a ranked list of
program pairs suspected of plagiarism. An empirical
comparison against multiple state-of-the-art plagiarism
detection techniques using several sets of real
students' programs collected in early programming
courses demonstrated that AuDeNTES identifies more
plagiarism cases than the other techniques at the cost
of a small additional inspection effort.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Herman:2012:DWW,
author =       "Geoffrey L. Herman and Michael C. Loui and Lisa
Kaczmarczyk and Craig Zilles",
title =        "Describing the What and Why of Students' Difficulties
in {Boolean} Logic",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133800",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "The ability to reason with formal logic is a
foundational skill for computer scientists and computer
engineers that scaffolds the abilities to design,
debug, and optimize. By interviewing students about
their understanding of propositional logic and their
ability to translate from English specifications to
Boolean expressions, we characterized common
misconceptions and novice problem-solving processes of
students who had recently completed a digital logic
design class. We present these results and discuss
their implications for instruction and the development
of pedagogical assessment tools known as concept
inventories.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:LPP,
author =       "Monica M. McGill",
title =        "Learning to Program with Personal Robots: Influences
on Student Motivation",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:??",
month =        mar,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2133797.2133801",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 24 09:42:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "One of the goals of using robots in introductory
programming courses is to increase motivation among
learners. There have been several types of robots that
have been used extensively in the classroom to teach a
variety of computer science concepts. A more recently
introduced robot designed to teach programming to
novice students is the Institute for Personal Robots in
Education (IPRE) robot. The author chose to use this
robot and study its motivational effects on
non-computer science students in a CS0 course. The
purpose of this study was to determine whether using
the IPRE robots motivates students to learn programming
in a CS0 course. After considering various motivational
theories and instruments designed to measure
motivation, the author used Keller's Instructional
Materials Motivation Survey to measure four components
of motivation: attention, relevance, confidence, and
satisfaction. Additional items were added to the
survey, including a set of open-ended questions. The
results of this study indicate that the use of these
robots had a positive influence on participants'
attitudes towards learning to program in a CS0 course,
but little or no effect on relevance, confidence, or
satisfaction. Results also indicate that although
gender and students interests may affect individual
components of motivation, gender, technical
self-perception, and interest in software development
have no bearing on the overall motivational levels of
students.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Poor:2012:NUL,
author =       "G. Michael Poor and Laura M. Leventhal and Julie
Barnes and Duke R. Hutchings and Paul Albee and Laura
Campbell",
title =        "No User Left Behind: Including Accessibility in
Student Projects and the Impact on {CS} Students'
Attitudes",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "5:1--5:??",
month =        apr,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160548",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Usability and accessibility have become increasingly
important in computing curricula. This article briefly
reviews how these concepts may be included in existing
courses. The authors conducted a survey of student
attitudes toward these issues at the start and end of a
usability engineering course that included a group
project with an accessibility component. Results of the
survey indicate that students' awareness of issues
related to usability and accessibility are increased
after taking the course and completing the project. Our
work and results are potentially valuable to CS
educators in three ways: (1) They validate the
usefulness of the survey instrument in assessing
pedagogies in usability engineering, (2) They provide
useful insights into the attitudes of CS majors
relative to the important topics of usability and
accessibility, and (3) They point to possible benefits
of including usability and accessibility topics into CS
curricula.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ip:2012:FNI,
author =       "Barry Ip",
title =        "Fitting the Needs of an Industry: An Examination of
Games Design, Development, and Art Courses in the
{UK}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "6:1--6:??",
month =        apr,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160549",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "There have been growing criticisms in recent years
among the computer and video games community on the
apparent lack of graduates capable of meeting the
industry's employment needs. Following the sharp rise
in the number of computer and video games courses
across higher education (HE) institutions in the UK and
across the globe, this article examines the composition
of existing British games design, development, and art
programs in relation to prescribed study areas voiced
by industry bodies. From a sample of 242 courses, and a
further 11 industry-derived and accredited programs,
the results explore content currently residing within a
variety of games programs and qualification types and
evaluate the extent to which such content adheres to
the industry's demand for the focus on specific skills
and study areas. The findings point toward certain
shortfalls in some key areas deemed to be important by
industry professionals and the consideration of the
degree to which course providers should cater to the
specific demands of industry.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McGill:2012:CPP,
author =       "Monica M. McGill",
title =        "The Curriculum Planning Process for Undergraduate Game
Degree Programs in the {United Kingdom} and {United
States}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "7:1--7:??",
month =        apr,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160550",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and
consumed by an increasing number of people and the game
industry is only expected to grow. In response,
postsecondary institutions in the UK and the U.S. have
started to create game degree programs. Though
curriculum theorists provide insight into the process
of creating a new program, no formal research
contextualizes curriculum planning for game degree
programs. The purpose of this research was to explore
these processes when planning undergraduate game degree
programs. The research methodology included an
explanatory mixed-methods approach, using a
quantitative survey of participants in the UK and the
U.S., followed by interviews with several participants
selected on the basis of their institution's
demographics. Results indicate that five external
factors influence the development of game programs
(government, industry, other universities, society, and
trade associations) and eight internal factors
influence curriculum planning (facilities, faculty,
institution, interdisciplinary collaboration, learners,
learning time and space, originating department, and
backgrounds of the planners). Results also indicate
that while some differences exist in the game degree
programs across countries, the vast majority of
curriculum planning processes and influencing factors
are the same. The study concludes with a set of
recommendations for educators, trade associations, and
the games industry to improve game degree programs.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Taub:2012:CUM,
author =       "Rivka Taub and Michal Armoni and Mordechai Ben-Ari",
title =        "{CS} Unplugged and Middle-School Students' Views,
Attitudes, and Intentions Regarding {CS}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "2",
pages =        "8:1--8:??",
month =        apr,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2160547.2160551",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Apr 24 06:11:43 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Many students hold incorrect ideas and negative
attitudes about computer science (CS). In order to
address these difficulties, a series of learning
activities called Computer Science Unplugged was
developed by Tim Bell and his colleagues. These
activities expose young people to central concepts in
CS in an entertaining way without requiring a computer.
The CS Unplugged activities have become more and more
popular among CS educators and several activities are
recommended in the ACM K-12 curriculum for elementary
schools. CS Unplugged is used worldwide and has been
translated into many languages. We examined the effect
of the CS Unplugged activities on middle-school
students' ideas about CS and their desire to consider
and study it in high school. The results indicate that
following the activities the ideas of the students on
what CS is about were partially improved, but their
desire to study CS lessened. In order to provide
possible explanations to these results, we analyzed the
CS Unplugged activities to determine to what extent the
objectives of CS Unplugged were addressed in the
activities. In addition, we checked whether the
activities were designed according to constructivist
principles and whether they were explicitly linked to
central concepts in CS. We found that only some of the
objectives were addressed in the activities, that the
activities do not engage with the students' prior
knowledge and that most of the activities are not
explicitly linked to central concepts in CS. We offer
suggestions for modifying the CS Unplugged activities
so that they will be more likely to achieve their
objectives.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Talon:2012:DCI,
author =       "B{\'e}n{\'e}dicte Talon and Mouldi Sagar and
Christophe Kolski",
title =        "Developing Competence in Interactive Systems: The
{GRASP} Tool for the Design or Redesign of Pedagogical
{ICT} Devices",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "9:1--9:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275598",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Training professionals to design and produce
interactive systems requires the use of well
thought-out training scenarios. Indeed, it is essential
to consider pedagogical forms whose objective is
providing learners with field experience. It is also
necessary to motivate learners to learn about subjects
that sometimes seem distant from their immediate
concerns and to renew their interest in these subjects.
This article presents a tool, called GRASP, that helps
design pedagogical devices. This tool was first
evaluated through three educational initiatives
implemented in two universities in the north of France.
These initiatives were analyzed to enhance the tool.
Then, a second evaluation was conducted to validate the
tool more widely. The first part of this article
presents the scientific context. Then the design tool,
the evaluation protocol, and the three devices built
using this tool and their evaluation are introduced.
Some of the lessons learned during the initiatives are
described. Next, the second evaluation, conducted with
more teachers, is presented. Finally, the conclusion
highlights the perspectives opened by these
initiatives.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

author =       "Michael J. O'Grady",
title =        "Practical Problem-Based Learning in Computing
Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "10:1--10:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275599",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Computer Science (CS) is a relatively new disciple and
how best to introduce it to new students remains an
open question. Likewise, the identification of
appropriate instructional strategies for the diverse
topics that constitute the average curriculum remains
open to debate. One approach considered by a number of
practitioners in CS education involves Problem-Based
Learning (PBL), a radical departure from the
conventional lecturing format. PBL has been adopted in
other domains with success, but whether these positive
experiences will be replicated in CS remains to be
seen. In this article, a systematic review of PBL
initiatives in undergraduate and postgraduate CS is
presented from a Computing Education Research (CER)
perspective. This includes analyses of a range of
practical didactic issues, including the degree to
which PBL has been systematically evaluated, practical
problem description in the literature, as well as a
survey of topics for which a PBL approach has been
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Apiola:2012:CSL,
author =       "Mikko Apiola and Matti Lattu and Tomi A. Pasanen",
title =        "Creativity-Supporting Learning Environment---{CSLE}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "11:1--11:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275600",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Despite much public discussion about the importance of
creativity and innovation-friendly teaching in Finnish
higher education, the impact of the general opinion on
actual teaching practices has been limited. In the
Finnish computer science education the teaching mostly
follows a pattern of lectures, fixed exercise sets, and
exams. With this article we want to open a discussion
about possibilities of enhancing the learning
environment by focusing on creative problem solving. We
will present results from two research experiments in
which we aimed to provide computer science students
with a practically oriented learning environment with
an explicit intention of supporting the creative work
of students. There exists a vast amount of scientific
theory about creativity, yet it is unclear on how to
turn that theory into practice. Thus, our main interest
was to find ways of applying creativity theory in
practice in the context of computer science education.
Our research experiments consist of a practically
oriented computer science course, where
LEGO\reg{}Mindstorms robots were used as the platform
for the student work. Methodological tools used in this
study included content analysis of student products,
observations from our learning sessions and
semi-structured interviews with the students. The
course was organised two times: the first time was in
spring 2009 and the second in spring 2010. The total
number of attending students was 72. In this article we
argue that our approach of providing a
creativity-supporting practical computer science course
was a success. We gained a lot of ideas on how to
support creativity, the students were clearly
motivated, and they began to learn a new kind of
experimental working style. The robotics kit seemed to
work well both as a trigger for motivation and as a
platform to support experimental learning, enhancing
students' creativity and working style. In our opinion
these findings are of great importance, and give
promising practical ideas for the support of creativity
in higher computer science education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Exter:2012:EEP,
author =       "Marisa Exter and Nichole Turnage",
title =        "Exploring Experienced Professionals' Reflections on
Computing Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "3",
pages =        "12:1--12:??",
month =        jul,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2275597.2275601",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Jul 31 16:56:57 MDT 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This exploratory qualitative study examines computing
professional's memories of their own formal and
non-formal educational experiences, their reflections
on how these have prepared them for their professional
roles, and their recommendations for an ideal''
undergraduate degree program. Data was collected
through semi-structured interviews of experienced
computing professionals. Ongoing on-the-job learning is
a natural part of professionals' work lives.
Participants indicate that important elements in an
undergraduate degree program include foundational
computing topics, development of critical thinking and
communications skills, and a strong emphasis on
experiences similar to those encountered in a
professional position, such as complex, realistic group
projects. Specific programming languages and
technologies should be used only as practice in solving
problems and learning on one's own.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Benkrid:2012:DHD,
author =       "Khaled Benkrid and Thomas Clayton",
title =        "Digital Hardware Design Teaching: an Alternative
Approach",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "13:1--13:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382565",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "This article presents the design and implementation of
a complete review of undergraduate digital hardware
design teaching in the School of Engineering at the
University of Edinburgh. Four guiding principles have
been used in this exercise: learning-outcome driven
teaching, deep learning, affordability, and
flexibility. This has identified discrete electronics
as key components in the early stages of the curriculum
and FPGAs as an economical platform for the teaching of
various digital hardware design concepts and techniques
in later stages of the curriculum. In particular, the
article presents the detailed design and implementation
of one digital hardware design laboratory, called
Gateway, which introduces students to synchronous
digital circuit development from high level functional
specifications, uses Verilog for hardware description
and FPGAs as an implementation platform. Biggs' theory
of constructive alignment was applied in the design of
this lab's learning outcomes, lab content, teaching and
learning methods, and assessment methods. The lab makes
extensive use of multimedia in both lab content
delivery and demonstration applications developed by
students. Student feedback following the deployment of
this lab was overwhelmingly positive and an evaluation
of the lab results compared to previous lab offerings'
shows the merit of the approach taken.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Sondag:2012:FTU,
author =       "Tyler Sondag and Kian L. Pokorny and Hridesh Rajan",
title =        "{Frances}: a Tool for Understanding Computer
Architecture and Assembly Language",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "14:1--14:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382566",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Students in all areas of computing require knowledge
of the computing device including software
implementation at the machine level. Several courses in
computer science curricula address these low-level
details such as computer architecture and assembly
languages. For such courses, there are advantages to
studying real architectures instead of simplified
examples. However, real architectures and instruction
sets introduce complexity that makes them difficult to
grasp in a single semester course. Visualization
techniques can help ease this burden, unfortunately
existing tools are often difficult to use and
consequently difficult to adopt in a course where time
is already limited. To solve this problem, we present
Frances. Frances graphically illustrates key
differences between familiar high-level languages and
unfamiliar low-level languages and also illustrates how
familiar high-level programs behave on real
architectures. Key to this tool is that we use a simple
Web interface that requires no setup, easing course
adoption hurdles. We also include several features that
further enhance its usefulness in a classroom setting.
These features include graphical relationships between
high-level code and machine code, clearly illustrated
step-by-step machine state transitions, color coding to
make instruction behavior clear, and illustration of
pointers. We have used Frances in courses and performed
experimental evaluation. Our experiences with Frances
in the classroom demonstrate its usability. Most
notably, in our experimental setting, students with no
computer architecture course experience were able to
complete lessons using Frances with no guidance.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Benda:2012:WLL,
author =       "Klara Benda and Amy Bruckman and Mark Guzdial",
title =        "When Life and Learning Do Not Fit: Challenges of
Workload and Communication in Introductory Computer
Science Online",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "15:1--15:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382567",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "We present the results of an interview study
investigating student experiences in two online
introductory computer science courses. Our theoretical
approach is situated at the intersection of two
research, which tends to be sociologically oriented,
and computer science education research, which has
strong connections with pedagogy and psychology. The
article reviews contributions from both traditions on
student failure in the context of higher education,
distance and online education as well as introductory
computer science. Our research relies on a combination
of the two perspectives, which provides useful results
for the field of computer science education in general,
as well as its online or distance versions. The
interviewed students exhibited great diversity in both
socio-demographic and educational background. We
identified no profiles that predicted student success
or failure. At the same time, we found that
expectations about programming resulted in challenges
of time-management and communication. The time
requirements of programming assignments were
unpredictable, often disproportionate to expectations,
and clashed with the external commitments of adult
professionals. Too little communication was available
to access adequate instructor help. On the basis of
these findings, we suggest instructional design
solutions for adult professionals studying introductory
computer science education.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hubwieser:2012:CSE,
author =       "Peter Hubwieser",
title =        "Computer Science Education in Secondary Schools ---
The Introduction of a New Compulsory Subject",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "12",
number =       "4",
pages =        "16:1--16:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2012",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2382564.2382568",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Mon Dec 3 20:59:55 MST 2012",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "In 2004 the German state of Bavaria introduced a new
compulsory subject of computer science (CS) in its
grammar schools (Gymnasium). The subject is based on a
comprehensive teaching concept that was developed by
the author and his colleagues during the years
1995--2000. It comprises mandatory courses in grades
6/7 for all students of grammar schools and in grade
9/10 for the students of the science and technology
track of this school type. In grades 11 and 12 there
are elective courses that qualify for an optional
graduation exam in CS. The first students that have
attended the course in total graduated in 2011. This
article describes the whole project in the form of an
extensive case study that is guided by the Darmstadt
Model, which was developed as a category system for
computer science education in secondary schools by a
working group at ITiCSE 2011. This case study is the
first (nearly) all-embracing discussion of the whole
project that describes the long way from the original
concept to the first graduates as well as the internal
structure of the subject and the first results.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Ben-Ari:2013:ISI,
author =       "Mordechai Ben-Ari and Dan Garcia and Tom Murphy",
title =        "Introduction to the special issue on concurrent and
parallel programming",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "13",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2013",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414447",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "Much of computing education research is devoted to
introductory computer science. The articles in this
special issue look at the other end of the spectrum:
learning advanced subjects, here, concurrent, parallel
and distributed computation. The articles present four
approaches for teaching these subjects using
infra-structure that is feasible for educational
institutions to acquire: MapReduce in a cloud, remote
computing on a multicore system, a network of gaming
consoles, and software modeling using formal
specification.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Rabkin:2013:UCM,
author =       "Ariel Rabkin and Charles Reiss and Randy Katz and
David Patterson",
title =        "Using clouds for {MapReduce} measurement assignments",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "13",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:??",
month =        jan,
year =         "2013",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414448",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013",
bibsource =    "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce;
http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
abstract =     "We describe our experiences teaching MapReduce in a
large undergraduate lecture course using public cloud
services and the standard Hadoop API. Using the
standard API, students directly experienced the quality
of industrial big-data tools. Using the cloud, every
student could carry out scalability benchmarking
assignments on realistic hardware, which would have
been impossible otherwise. Over two semesters, over 500
students took our course. We believe this is the first
large-scale demonstration that it is feasible to use
pay-as-you-go billing in the cloud for a large
undergraduate course. Modest instructor effort was
sufficient to prevent students from
overspending. Average per-pupil expenses in the Cloud
were under \45. Students were excited by the assignment: 90\% said they thought it should be retained in future course offerings.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Abuzaghleh:2013:IAH, author = "Omar Abuzaghleh and Kathleen Goldschmidt and Yasser Elleithy and Jeongkyu Lee", title = "Implementing an affordable high-performance computing for teaching-oriented computer science curriculum", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = jan, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414449", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "With the advances in computing power, high-performance computing (HPC) platforms have had an impact on not only scientific research in advanced organizations but also computer science curriculum in the educational community. For example, multicore programming and parallel systems are highly desired courses in the computer science major. However, the high cost of HPC equipment and maintenance makes it hard to be adapted into a conventional computer science curriculum. Specifically, teaching-oriented institutions cannot afford an HPC system due to the high cost, lack of experience, and smaller research infrastructure. The main objective of this article is to present an affordable and easy-to-use high-performance cluster system for teaching-oriented computer science curriculums. In order to address this, we have designed and implemented an affordable high-performance cluster system based on the PlayStation 3 (PS3). For the performance evaluation of the PS3 cluster, we conducted a benchmarking test, that is, matrix multiplication, with different numbers of synergistic processing elements (SPEs) and nodes. As a result, it was concluded that the PS3Cluster provides enough computing power as an HPC for computer science courses, while the total cost is less than 10\% of an existing cluster system on the market that has similar performance. In addition, the implemented PS3Cluster system has been used for computer science courses, such as Parallel and Distributed Databases and Parallel Programming.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Ziwisky:2013:EEO, author = "Michael Ziwisky and Kyle Persohn and Dennis Brylow", title = "A down-to-earth educational operating system for up-in-the-cloud many-core architectures", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "1", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = jan, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414450", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We present Xipx, the first port of a major educational operating system to a processor in the emerging class of many-core architectures. Through extensions to the proven Embedded Xinu operating system, Xipx gives students hands-on experience with system programming in a distributed message-passing environment. We expose the software primitives needed to maintain coherency between many cores in a system lacking specialized caching hardware. Our proposed series of laboratory assignments adds parallel thread execution and intercore message passing communication to a well-established OS curriculum.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Carro:2013:MDA, author = "Manuel Carro and {\'A}ngel Herranz and Julio Mari{\~n}o", title = "A model-driven approach to teaching concurrency", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "1", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = jan, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2414446.2414451", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Feb 2 06:44:42 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We present an undergraduate course on concurrent programming where formal models are used in different stages of the learning process. The main practical difference with other approaches lies in the fact that the ability to develop correct concurrent software relies on a systematic transformation of formal models of inter-process interaction (so called shared resources), rather than on the specific constructs of some programming language. Using a resource-centric rather than a language-centric approach has some benefits for both teachers and students. Besides the obvious advantage of being independent of the programming language, the models help in the early validation of concurrent software design, provide students and teachers with a lingua franca that greatly simplifies communication at the classroom and during supervision, and help in the automatic generation of tests for the practical assignments. This method has been in use, with slight variations, for some 15 years, surviving changes in the programming language and course length. In this article, we describe the components and structure of the current incarnation of the course --- which uses Java as target language --- and some tools used to support our method. We provide a detailed description of the different outcomes that the model-driven approach delivers (validation of the initial design, automatic generation of tests, and mechanical generation of code) from a teaching perspective. A critical discussion on the perceived advantages and risks of our approach follows, including some proposals on how these risks can be minimized. We include a statistical analysis to show that our method has a positive impact in the student ability to understand concurrency and to generate correct code.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Isomottonen:2013:TPE, author = "Ville Isom{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Ville Tirronen", title = "Teaching programming by emphasizing self-direction: How did students react to the active role required of them?", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = jun, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483711", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Lecturing is known to be a controversial form of teaching. With massed classrooms, in particular, it tends to constrain the active participation of students. One of the remedies applied to programming education is to use technology that can vitalize interaction in the classroom, while another is to base teaching increasingly on programming activities. In this article, we present the first results of an exploratory study, in which we teach programming without lectures, exams, or grades, by heavily emphasizing programming activity, and, in a pedagogical sense, student self-direction. This article investigates how students reacted to the active role required of them and what issues emerged in this setting where self-direction was required. The results indicate three issues that should be taken into account when designing a student-driven course: the challenge of supporting students' theoretical synthesis of the topics to be learned, the individual's opportunities for self-direction in a group work setting, and mismatch between individual learning processes and academic course scheduling.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Ngai:2013:DIM, author = "Grace Ngai and Stephen C. F. Chan and Hong Va Leong and Vincent T. Y. Ng", title = "Designing {i*CATch}: a multipurpose, education-friendly construction kit for physical and wearable computing", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = jun, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483712", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article presents the design and development of i*CATch, a construction kit for physical and wearable computing that was designed to be scalable, plug-and-play, and to provide support for iterative and exploratory learning. It consists of a standardized construction interface that can be adapted for a wide range of soft textiles or electronic boards, a set of functional components, and an easy-to-use hybrid text-graphical integrated development environment. The objective was to design an easily usable, manufacturable and extensible construction kit that can be used in a wide range of teaching tasks for a wide variety of student demographic profiles. We present detailed specifications of our construction kit and explain some of the major design decisions. Experiences in using the kit in multiple teaching environments, ranging from elementary school to postgraduate, demonstrate that the design objectives have been achieved.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Sorva:2013:NMI, author = "Juha Sorva", title = "Notional machines and introductory programming education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "2", pages = "8:1--8:??", month = jun, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2483710.2483713", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 1 17:10:15 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article brings together, summarizes, and comments on several threads of research that have contributed to our understanding of the challenges that novice programmers face when learning about the runtime dynamics of programs and the role of the computer in program execution. More specifically, the review covers the literature on programming misconceptions, the cognitive theory of mental models, constructivist theory of knowledge and learning, phenomenographic research on experiencing programming, and the theory of threshold concepts. These bodies of work are examined in relation to the concept of a notional machine''-an abstract computer for executing programs of a particular kind. As a whole, the literature points to notional machines as a major challenge in introductory programming education. It is argued that instructors should acknowledge the notional machine as an explicit learning objective and address it in teaching. Teaching within some programming paradigms, such as object-oriented programming, may benefit from using multiple notional machines at different levels of abstraction. Pointers to some promising pedagogical techniques are provided.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "8", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Grissom:2013:ISI, author = "Scott Grissom", title = "Introduction to special issue on alternatives to lecture in the computer science classroom", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499948", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Active learning in the college classroom has long been promoted as more effective than traditional lecture. Increased adoption of these instructional practices is recommended in several prominent national reports as well as a new National Science Foundation program. The goal of this special issue is to share evidence-based instructional practices that have been applied to computer science education. With collaborative learning, students interact with each other to achieve a common learning goal. Peer Instruction is an active pedagogy pioneered in Physics education in which most lecture time is replaced with students answering carefully designed multiple-choice questions. Chemistry faculty developed and refined an inquiry-based pedagogy called Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning (POGIL). The fields of Architecture and Fine Arts promote student collaboration in studio-based learning.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Beck:2013:CLI, author = "Leland Beck and Alexander Chizhik", title = "Cooperative learning instructional methods for {CS1}: Design, implementation, and evaluation", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2492686", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Cooperative learning is a well-known instructional technique that has been applied with a wide variety of subject matter and a broad spectrum of populations. This article briefly reviews the principles of cooperative learning, and describes how these principles were incorporated into a comprehensive set of cooperative learning activities for a CS1 course. In each activity, specific roles are assigned to group members in order to highlight important concepts and to enhance the overall functioning of the group. The group processing is followed by a whole-class debriefing led by the instructor, which works in tandem with the group activity to help students improve their understanding of the material. The effectiveness of these cooperative learning activities was assessed in a series of educational research studies which spanned three academic years and included two different instructors. The results of these studies show statistically significant benefits from the cooperative learning approach, both overall and for a broad range of subgroups of students. The article concludes with suggestions for faculty members who may want to use these cooperative learning activities in the classroom, or to develop their own activities along similar lines.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Renaud:2013:THC, author = "Karen Renaud and Quintin Cutts", title = "Teaching human-centered security using nontraditional techniques", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2492687", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computing science students amass years of programming experience and a wealth of factual knowledge in their undergraduate courses. Based on our combined years of experience, however, one of our students' abiding shortcomings is that they think there is only one correct answer to issues in most courses: an idealistic stance. Human-centered security, as well as other areas, requires students to understand that they have to weigh up a number of different possible solutions, and satisfice, rather than choose the one that is undeniably the best. In other words, they need to adopt a more realistic stance. Lecture-based teaching cannot develop this facility, due to its inability to engage students deeply with the issues and possible solutions. We argue that depth (in terms of understanding the complexity and issues involved) as well as breadth (in terms of appreciating the different positions taken by users on these issues) are essential for developing the realistic stance. This article reports on an instructional design that was used to help students become more realistic in their decision making. The design is based on seven educational strategies that, in tandem, help students to see the depth and breadth of topics in the course. We detail the instructional design and its application to three topic areas in the course, and report on the outcomes. We found evidence that students did indeed develop the depth and breadth we were hoping for. In concluding, we reflect on the design and the positive result, and propose changes to further improve the course.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Lee:2013:CPI, author = "Cynthia Bailey Lee and Saturnino Garcia and Leo Porter", title = "Can peer instruction be effective in upper-division computer science courses?", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499949", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Peer Instruction (PI) is an active learning pedagogical technique. PI lectures present students with a series of multiple-choice questions, which they respond to both individually and in groups. PI has been widely successful in the physical sciences and, recently, has been successfully adopted by computer science instructors in lower-division, introductory courses. In this work, we challenge readers to consider PI for their upper-division courses as well. We present a PI curriculum for two upper-division computer science courses: Computer Architecture and Theory of Computation. These courses exemplify several perceived challenges to the adoption of PI in upper-division courses, including: exploration of abstract ideas, development of high-level judgment of engineering design trade-offs, and exercising advanced mathematical sophistication. This work includes selected course materials illustrating how these challenges are overcome, learning gains results comparing these upper-division courses with previous lower-division results in the literature, student attitudinal survey results (N = 501), and pragmatic advice to prospective developers and adopters. We present three main findings. First, we find that these upper-division courses achieved student learning gains equivalent to those reported in successful lower-division computing courses. Second, we find that student feedback for each class was overwhelmingly positive, with 88\% of students recommending PI for use in other computer science classes. Third, we find that instructors adopting the materials introduced here were able to replicate the outcomes of the instructors who developed the materials in terms of student learning gains and student feedback.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hu:2013:UPH, author = "Helen H. Hu and Tricia D. Shepherd", title = "Using {POGIL} to help students learn to program", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499950", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "POGIL has been successfully implemented in a scientific computing course to teach science students how to program in Python. Following POGIL guidelines, the authors have developed guided inquiry activities that lead student teams to discover and understand programming concepts. With each iteration of the scientific computing course, the authors have refined the activities and learned how to better adapt POGIL for the computer science classroom. This article details how POGIL activities differ from both traditional computer science labs and other active-learning pedagogies. Background is provided on POGIL's effectiveness. The article then includes a full description of how POGIL activities were used in the scientific computing course, as well as an example POGIL activity on recursion. Discussion is provided on how to facilitate and develop POGIL activities. Quotes from student evaluations and an assessment on how well students learned to program are provided.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hundhausen:2013:TAC, author = "Christopher D. Hundhausen and Anukrati Agrawal and Pawan Agarwal", title = "Talking about code: Integrating pedagogical code reviews into early computing courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "3", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = aug, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2499947.2499951", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Fri Aug 16 07:53:11 MDT 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Given the increasing importance of soft skills in the computing profession, there is good reason to provide students with more opportunities to learn and practice those skills in undergraduate computing courses. Toward that end, we have developed an active learning approach for computing education called the Pedagogical Code Review (PCR). Inspired by the code inspection process used in the software industry, a PCR is a collaborative activity in which a small team of students, led by a trained moderator: (a) walk through segments of each other's programming solutions, (b) check the code against a list of best coding practices, and (c) discuss and log issues that arise. To evaluate the viability and effectiveness of this approach, we conducted a series of four mixed-method empirical studies of various implementations of PCRs in CS1 courses at Washington State University. The first study validated the viability of the PCR activity. Using a quasi-experimental design, the final three studies evaluated two alternative implementations of PCRs- face-to-face and online. Our results provide evidence that PCRs can promote positive attitudinal shifts, and hone skills in critical review, teamwork, and communication. Based on our findings, we present a set of best practices for implementing PCRs.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Sorva:2013:RGP, author = "Juha Sorva and Ville Karavirta and Lauri Malmi", title = "A Review of Generic Program Visualization Systems for Introductory Programming Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2490822", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article is a survey of program visualization systems intended for teaching beginners about the runtime behavior of computer programs. Our focus is on generic systems that are capable of illustrating many kinds of programs and behaviors. We inclusively describe such systems from the last three decades and review findings from their empirical evaluations. A comparable review on the topic does not previously exist; ours is intended to serve as a reference for the creators, evaluators, and users of educational program visualization systems. Moreover, we revisit the issue of learner engagement which has been identified as a potentially key factor in the success of educational software visualization and summarize what little is known about engagement in the context of the generic program visualization systems for beginners that we have reviewed; a proposed refinement of the frameworks previously used by computing education researchers to rank types of learner engagement is a side product of this effort. Overall, our review illustrates that program visualization systems for beginners are often short-lived research prototypes that support the user-controlled viewing of program animations; a recent trend is to support more engaging modes of user interaction. The results of evaluations largely support the use of program visualization in introductory programming education, but research to date is insufficient for drawing more nuanced conclusions with respect to learner engagement. On the basis of our review, we identify interesting questions to answer for future research in relation to themes such as engagement, the authenticity of learning tasks, cognitive load, and the integration of program visualization into introductory programming pedagogy.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Magana:2013:IDB, author = "Alejandra J. Magana and Michael L. Falk and Michael J. {Reese, Jr.}", title = "Introducing Discipline-Based Computing in Undergraduate Engineering Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "16:1--16:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2534971", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article investigates the effectiveness of a course employing a discipline-based computing approach. The research questions driving this study were: (1) Can experiences with discipline-based computing promote students' acquisition and application of foundational computing concepts and procedures? (2) How do students perceive and experience the integration of discipline-based computing as relevant to their future career goals? (3) How do students perceive the structure of the class as useful and engaging for their learning? We used qualitative and quantitative research methods to approach the research questions. The population studied was 20 engineering undergraduates from Johns Hopkins University. Results of this study suggest that students performed proficiently in applying computing methods, procedures, and concepts to the solution of well-structured engineering problems. Results also suggest that student self-perceptions of their overall computing abilities and their abilities to specifically solve engineering problems shifted from low to high confidence. Students consistently found the course to be important and useful for their studies and their future careers. They also found the course to be of very high quality and identified the instructors and the teaching and feedback methods employed as very useful for their learning. Finally, students also described the course as very challenging compared with other courses in their own department and at the university in general.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "16", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Shesh:2013:TSU, author = "Amit Shesh", title = "Toward a Singleton Undergraduate Computer Graphics Course in Small and Medium-sized Colleges", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "17:1--17:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2522689", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article discusses the evolution of a single undergraduate computer graphics course over five semesters, driven by a primary question: if one could offer only one undergraduate course in graphics, what would it include? This constraint is relevant to many small and medium-sized colleges that lack resources, adequate expertise, and enrollment to sustain multiple courses in graphics that spread out its vast and evolving content. We strive to include material that would provide (1) a basic but solid theoretical foundation, (2) topics, data structures, and algorithms that are most practically used, (3) ample experience in actual graphics programming and (4) a basic awareness of advanced topics. We have a secondary objective of relating and complementing computer graphics knowledge and programming with topics in other computer science courses to provide a more cohesive understanding to our students. We achieve both objectives by using an early-scenegraphs'' approach to progressively create graphics applications that use XML-based modeling and both pipeline-based and ray traced rendering. We report and analyze results that show how students were able to achieve more complex results within similar time periods while largely retaining prior average student performance in the course. Students also report higher rates of satisfaction with the course when it follows our proposed approach. Pedagogically our main contribution is an evolving blueprint for a single undergraduate CG course that offers flexibility to emphasize different aspects like modeling, rendering, etc. according to the instructor's and students' interests, while aligning the course better within the computer science curriculum especially when resources are limited.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "17", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Velazquez-Iturbide:2013:EMA, author = "J. {\'A}ngel Vel{\'a}zquez-Iturbide", title = "An Experimental Method for the Active Learning of Greedy Algorithms", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "18:1--18:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2534972", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Greedy algorithms constitute an apparently simple algorithm design technique, but its learning goals are not simple to achieve. We present a didactic method aimed at promoting active learning of greedy algorithms. The method is focused on the concept of selection function, and is based on explicit learning goals. It mainly consists of an experimental method and the interactive system, GreedEx, that supports it. We also present our experience of five years using the didactic method and the evaluations we conducted to refine it, which are of two kinds: usability evaluations of GreedEx and analysis of students' reports. Usability evaluations revealed a number of opportunities of improvement for GreedEx, and the analysis of students' reports showed a number of misconceptions. We made use of these findings in several ways, mainly: improving GreedEx, elaborating lecture notes that address students' misconceptions, and adapting the class and lab sessions and materials. As a consequence of these actions, our didactic method currently satisfies its initial goals. The article has two main contributions. First, the didactic method itself can be valuable for computer science educators in their teaching of algorithms. Secondly, the refinement process we have carried out, which was a multifaceted, medium-term action research, can be of interest to researchers of technology-supported computing education, since it illustrates how the didactic method was integrated into our educational practice.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "18", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Stefik:2013:EIP, author = "Andreas Stefik and Susanna Siebert", title = "An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "13", number = "4", pages = "19:1--19:??", month = nov, year = "2013", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2534973", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Nov 13 17:27:51 MST 2013", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming language syntax as part of a larger analysis into the, so called, programming language wars. We first present two surveys conducted with students on the intuitiveness of syntax, which we used to garner formative clues on what words and symbols might be easy for novices to understand. We followed up with two studies on the accuracy rates of novices using a total of six programming languages: Ruby, Java, Perl, Python, Randomo, and Quorum. Randomo was designed by randomly choosing some keywords from the ASCII table (a metaphorical placebo). To our surprise, we found that languages using a more traditional C-style syntax (both Perl and Java) did not afford accuracy rates significantly higher than a language with randomly generated keywords, but that languages which deviate (Quorum, Python, and Ruby) did. These results, including the specifics of syntax that are particularly problematic for novices, may help teachers of introductory programming courses in choosing appropriate first languages and in helping students to overcome the challenges they face with syntax.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "19", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kafai:2014:COA, author = "Yasmin B. Kafai and Eunkyoung Lee and Kristin Searle and Deborah Fields and Eliot Kaplan and Debora Lui", title = "A Crafts-Oriented Approach to Computing in High School: Introducing Computational Concepts, Practices, and Perspectives with Electronic Textiles", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2576874", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In this article, we examine the use of electronic textiles (e-textiles) for introducing key computational concepts and practices while broadening perceptions about computing. The starting point of our work was the design and implementation of a curriculum module using the LilyPad Arduino in a pre-AP high school computer science class. To understand students' learning, we analyzed the structure and functionality of their circuits and program code as well as their design approaches to making and debugging their e-textile creations and their views of computing. We also studied students' changing perceptions of computing. Our discussion addresses the need for and design of scaffolded challenges and the potential for using crafts materials and activities such as e-textiles for designing introductory courses that can broaden participation in computing.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Lukowiak:2014:CEB, author = "Marcin Lukowiak and Stanislaw Radziszowski and James Vallino and Christopher Wood", title = "Cybersecurity Education: Bridging the Gap Between Hardware and Software Domains", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2538029", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "With the continuous growth of cyberinfrastructure throughout modern society, the need for secure computing and communication is more important than ever before. As a result, there is also an increasing need for entry-level developers who are capable of designing and building practical solutions for systems with stringent security requirements. This calls for careful attention to algorithm choice and implementation method, as well as trade-offs between hardware and software implementations. This article describes motivation and efforts taken by three departments at Rochester Institute of Technology (Computer Engineering, Computer Science, and Software Engineering) that were focused on creating a multidisciplinary course that integrates the algorithmic, engineering, and practical aspects of security as exemplified by applied cryptography. In particular, the article presents the structure of this new course, topics covered, lab tools and results from the first two spring quarter offerings in 2011 and 2012.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Buchanan:2014:CSB, author = "Sarah Buchanan and Joseph J. {Laviola, Jr.}", title = "{CSTutor}: a Sketch-Based Tool for Visualizing Data Structures", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2535909", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We present CSTutor, a sketch-based interface designed to help students understand data structures, specifically Linked Lists, Binary Search Trees, AVL Trees, and Heaps. CSTutor creates an environment that seamlessly combines a user's sketched diagram and code. In each of these data structure modes, the user can naturally sketch a data structure on the canvas just as they would on a white board. CSTutor analyzes the user's diagrams in real time, and automatically generates code in a separate code view to reflect any changes the user has made. Additionally, the code can also be edited and any new code changes will animate the data structure drawn on the canvas. The connection between the data structure drawn on the canvas and the code implementation is intended to bridge the gap between the conceptual diagram of a data structure and the actual implementation. We also present the results of two semester-long studies using CSTutor in a CS1 course. The results indicate that students preferred CSTutor and were more engaged using it than a standard whiteboard lecture; however, results were mixed in quiz and exam performance.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Goldsmith:2014:FIC, author = "Judy Goldsmith and Nicholas Mattei", title = "Fiction as an Introduction to Computer Science Research", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2576873", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The undergraduate computer science curriculum is generally focused on skills and tools; most students are not exposed to much research in the field, and do not learn how to navigate the research literature. We describe how fiction reviews (and specifically science fiction) are used as a gateway to research reviews. Students learn a little about current or recent research on a topic that stirs their imagination, and learn how to search for, read critically, and compare technical papers on a topic related to their chosen science fiction book, movie, or TV show.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Yadav:2014:CTE, author = "Aman Yadav and Chris Mayfield and Ninger Zhou and Susanne Hambrusch and John T. Korb", title = "Computational Thinking in Elementary and Secondary Teacher Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "1", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = mar, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2576872", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Apr 1 06:15:14 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computational thinking (CT) is broadly defined as the mental activity for abstracting problems and formulating solutions that can be automated. In an increasingly information-based society, CT is becoming an essential skill for everyone. To ensure that students develop this ability at the K-12 level, it is important to provide teachers with an adequate knowledge about CT and how to incorporate it into their teaching. This article describes a study on designing and introducing computational thinking modules and assessing their impact on preservice teachers' understanding of CT concepts, as well as their attitude towards computing. Results demonstrate that introducing computational thinking into education courses can effectively influence preservice teachers' understanding of CT concepts.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Tenenberg:2014:ECE, author = "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney", title = "Editorial: Computing Education in ({K--12}) Schools from a Cross-National Perspective", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602481", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This special issue on computing education in (K--12) schools represents considerable effort by the editorial team, authors, and reviewers. It provides a series of country-specific case studies of computing education in schools that highlights the way in which curricula emerge from each country's specific historical and cultural circumstances. As a result, not only is there much to learn from each of the case studies, but there are additional lessons in the commonalities and generalizations obtainable only by having a rich set of case studies such as these that can be viewed comparatively.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hubwieser:2014:PVC, author = "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail N. Giannakos and Roland T. Mittermeir", title = "Perspectives and Visions of Computer Science Education in Primary and Secondary ({K--12}) Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602482", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In view of the recent developments in many countries, for example, in the USA and in the UK, it appears that computer science education (CSE) in primary or secondary schools (K--12) has reached a significant turning point, shifting its focus from ICT-oriented to rigorous computer science concepts. The goal of this special issue is to offer a publication platform for soundly based in-depth experiences that have been made around the world with concepts, approaches, or initiatives that aim at supporting this shift. For this purpose, the article format was kept as large as possible, enabling the authors to explain many facets of their concepts and experiences in detail. Regarding the structure of the articles, we had encouraged the authors to lean on the Darmstadt Model, a category system that was developed to support the development, improvement, and investigation of K--12 CSE across regional or national boundaries. This model could serve as a unifying framework that might provide a proper structure for a well-founded critical discussion about the future of K--12 CSE. Curriculum designers or policy stakeholders, who have to decide, which approach an upcoming national initiative should follow, could benefit from this discussion as well as researchers who are investigating K12 CSE in any regard. With this goal in mind, we have selected six extensive and two short case studies from the UK, New Zealand, USA/Israel, France, Sweden, Georgia (USA), Russia, and Italy that provide an in-depth analysis of K--12 CSE in their respective country or state.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Gal-Ezer:2014:TTC, author = "Judith Gal-Ezer and Chris Stephenson", title = "A Tale of Two Countries: Successes and Challenges in {K--12} Computer Science Education in {Israel} and the {United States}", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "8:1--8:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602483", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article tells a story of K--12 computer science in two different countries. These two countries differ profoundly in culture, language, government and state structure, and in their education systems. Despite these differences, however, they share the pursuit of excellence and high standards in K--12 education. In Israel, curriculum is determined at the national level. The high-school computer science curriculum has been in place for more than 20 years and is offered in all schools as an elective similar to biology, chemistry, and physics. The picture in the United States is more complex and therefore less amenable to generalization. Because educational policy is set at the state and sometimes even at the school district level, access to computer science courses and the content of those courses can vary even for schools within the same district. This article will describe the development of the curricula/standards in both countries and the current situation, focusing on common issues and challenges in areas such as equity and teacher training.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "8", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Brown:2014:RRC, author = "Neil C. C. Brown and Sue Sentance and Tom Crick and Simon Humphreys", title = "Restart: The Resurgence of Computer Science in {UK} Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602484", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer science in UK schools is undergoing a remarkable transformation. While the changes are not consistent across each of the four devolved nations of the UK (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), there are developments in each that are moving the subject to become mandatory for all pupils from age 5 onwards. In this article, we detail how computer science declined in the UK, and the developments that led to its revitalisation: a mixture of industry and interest group lobbying, with a particular focus on the value of the subject to all school pupils, not just those who would study it at degree level. This rapid growth in the subject is not without issues, however: there remain significant forthcoming challenges with its delivery, especially surrounding the issue of training sufficient numbers of teachers. We describe a national network of teaching excellence which is being set up to combat this problem, and look at the other challenges that lie ahead.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Bell:2014:CSI, author = "Tim Bell and Peter Andreae and Anthony Robins", title = "A Case Study of the Introduction of Computer Science in {NZ} Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602485", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "For many years computing in New Zealand schools was focused on teaching students how to use computers, and there was little opportunity for students to learn about programming and computer science as formal subjects. In this article we review a series of initiatives that occurred from 2007 to 2009 that led to programming and computer science being made available formally as part of the National Certificate in Educational Achievement (NCEA), the main school-leaving assessment, in 2011. The changes were phased in from 2011 to 2013, and we review this process using the Darmstadt model, including describing the context of the school system, the socio-cultural factors in play before, during and after the changes, the nature of the new standards, the reactions and roles of the various stakeholders, and the teaching materials and methods that developed. The changes occurred very quickly, and we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having such a rapid process. In all these changes, teachers have emerged as having a central role, as they have been key in instigating and implementing change.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Baron:2014:CSE, author = "Georges-Louis Baron and Beatrice Drot-Delange and Monique Grandbastien and Fran{\c{c}}oise Tort", title = "Computer Science Education in {French} Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602486", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year of secondary education, together with other initiatives that might contribute to introducing Computer Science as a school subject. We also aim at discussing some perspectives for the future to support a better informatics education for all students. The sources we have used are mainly historical and administrative, however we have also drawn on empirical research and surveys conducted since the seventies. This article therefore takes both retrospective and perspective viewpoints.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Rolandsson:2014:PSL, author = "Lennart Rolandsson and Inga-Britt Skogh", title = "Programming in School: Look Back to Move Forward", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602487", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In this article, the development of the Swedish informatics curriculum during the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s is studied and described. The study's design is inspired by the curriculum theory presented by Lindensj{\"o} and Lundgren [2000], who suggest using the concept of arenas (the arenas of enactment, transformation and realisation) when discussing curriculum development. Data collection in this study comprises activities and actors in the arenas of enactment and transformation. Collected data include contemporary articles, journals, reports, booklets, government documents and archived documents. Findings show that informatics education in Sweden evolved from primarily focusing on programming knowledge related to automatic data processing and offered exclusively in vocational education (the 1960s and 1970s) to later (early 1980s) being introduced in the upper secondary school curriculum under the heading Datakunskap. The enactment of the informatics curriculum in 1983 encompassed programming, system development and computing in relation to applied sciences and civics. Mathematics teachers did much of the experimental work. It is shown that the competencies of upper secondary school teachers at the time rarely corresponded to the demands of the subject (content knowledge, resources and pedagogical skills). Stereotypical examples were therefore developed to support teachers in instructing about the subject content. When implemented in the theoretical natural science-programme, system development/systemisation was transformed into a twofold issue, comprising vocational attributes and societal aspects of computer programming. The implementation of today's informatics education, including programming in the curriculum, should draw from lessons learned from history. For a successful outcome, this study emphasises the necessity to understand (1) the common incentives for introducing computer programming in the curriculum, (2) the requirement for teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and (3) the stakeholders' role in the curriculum development process.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Guzdial:2014:GCI, author = "Mark Guzdial and Barbara Ericson and Tom Mcklin and Shelly Engelman", title = "{Georgia} Computes! {An} Intervention in a {US} State, with Formal and Informal Education in a Policy Context", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602488", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Georgia Computes! ( GaComputes ) was a six-year (2006--2012) project to improve computing education across the state of Georgia in the United States, funded by the National Science Foundation. The goal of GaComputes was to broaden participation in computing and especially to engage more members of underrepresented groups which includes women, African Americans, and Hispanics. GaComputes' interventions were multi-faceted and broad: summer camps and after-school/weekend programs for 4th--12th grade students, professional development for secondary teachers, and professional development for post-secondary instructors faculty. All of the efforts were carefully evaluated by an external team (led by the third and fourth authors), which provides us with an unusually detailed view into a computing education intervention across a region (about 59K square miles, about 9.9 million residents). Our dataset includes evaluations from over 2,000 students who attended after-school or weekend workshops, over 500 secondary school teachers who attended professional development, 120 post-secondary teachers who attended professional development, and over 2,000 students who attended a summer day (non-residential) camp. GaComputes evaluations provide insight into details of interventions and into influences on student motivation and learning. In this article, we describe the results of these evaluations and describe how GaComputes broadened participation in computing in Georgia through both direct interventions and indirect support of other projects.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Khenner:2014:SSI, author = "Evgeniy Khenner and Igor Semakin", title = "School Subject Informatics (Computer Science) in {Russia}: Educational Relevant Areas", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602489", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article deals with some aspects of studying Informatics in Russian schools. Those aspects are part of the third dimension' of the Darmstadt model (they are also projected on the other two dimensions of this model) and include evolution of the subject, regulatory norms conforming to the Federal Educational Standards, the learning objectives, the required learning outcomes, and the Unified National Examination in Informatics, which is required for admission to a number of university programs. It is interesting to note that correspondence between requirements for the outcomes of learning Informatics in Russian school and the requirements of K--12 Computer Science Standards (USA) is quite satisfactory. It is noteworthy that the relatively high level of school education in Informatics in Russia is determined by the well-established methodological system with a 30-year history, the subject's being on the list of core disciplines at school, as well as the existence of a state-sponsored system of education teachers of Informatics.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Bellettini:2014:IEI, author = "Carlo Bellettini and Violetta Lonati and Dario Malchiodi and Mattia Monga and Anna Morpurgo and Mauro Torelli and Luisa Zecca", title = "Informatics Education in {Italian} Secondary Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "2", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = jun, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2602490", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jul 7 16:49:40 MDT 2014", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article describes the state of informatics education in the Italian secondary schools, highlighting how the learning objectives set up by the Ministry of Education are difficult to meet, due to the fact that the subject is often taught by teachers not holding an informatics degree, the lack of suitable teaching material and the expectations of pupils and families, who tend to identify informatics with the use of computer applications.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Tenenberg:2014:ARQ, author = "Josh Tenenberg", title = "Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "16:1--16:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2644924", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making the world sensible, at the same time they preclude carrying out many research studies that may further our collective research enterprise. I build this argument by first considering a few proposed research questions typical of much of the existing research in CS education, making visible the cognitivist assumptions that these questions presuppose. I then provide a different set of assumptions based on sociocultural theories of cognition and enumerate some of the (different) research questions to which these presuppositions give rise. My point is not to debate the merits of the contrasting theories but to demonstrate how theories about how minds and sociality operate are imminent in the very questions that researchers ask. Finally, I argue that by appropriating existing theory from the social, behavioral, and learning sciences, and making such theories explicit in carrying out and reporting their research, CS education researchers will advance the field.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "16", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Mitra:2014:UUM, author = "Sandeep Mitra", title = "Using {UML} Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "17:1--17:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2635831", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these applications satisfy the customer by providing the functionality the customer expects and perform reliably and efficiently, it is equally important to be able to accommodate the customer's change requests over the period of the product's lifetime. The challenges in achieving these goals include the lack of real-world software development experience among the student developers and the fact that postdeployment change requests will almost certainly have to be handled by students who are not among the original developers. In this article, we describe how a model-centric approach using UML has been effective in enabling students to develop and maintain eight software applications for small businesses over a 9-year period. We discuss the characteristics of our modeling technique, which include the application of modeling patterns and quality check rules that enable students to create a model that can be clearly and consistently mapped to code. We also describe the nature of these mapping-to-code techniques, emphasizing how they reduce coupling among the implementation's classes. We then discuss our experiences in the classroom with these techniques, focusing on how we have improved our teaching over the years based on the analysis of student performance and feedback. Finally, we compare our approach to related work teaching modeling and the development and maintenance of code in software engineering courses with both extensive and minimal modeling.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "17", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Clarke:2014:ITS, author = "Peter J. Clarke and Debra Davis and Tariq M. King and Jairo Pava and Edward L. Jones", title = "Integrating Testing into Software Engineering Courses Supported by a Collaborative Learning Environment", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "18:1--18:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2648787", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "As software becomes more ubiquitous and complex, the cost of software bugs continues to grow at a staggering rate. To remedy this situation, there needs to be major improvement in the knowledge and application of software validation techniques. Although there are several software validation techniques, software testing continues to be one of the most widely used in industry. The high demand for software engineers in the next decade has resulted in more software engineering (SE) courses being offered in academic institutions. However, due to the number of topics to be covered in SE courses, little or no attention is given to software testing, resulting in students entering industry with little or no testing experience. We propose a minimally disruptive approach of integrating software testing into SE courses by providing students access to a collaborative learning environment containing learning materials on testing techniques and testing tools. In this article, we describe the learning environment and the studies conducted to measure the benefits accrued by students using the learning environment in the SE courses.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "18", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Luse:2014:USE, author = "Andy Luse and Julie A. Rursch and Doug Jacobson", title = "Utilizing Structural Equation Modeling and Social Cognitive Career Theory to Identify Factors in Choice of {IT} as a Major", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "19:1--19:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2623198", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In the United States, the number of students entering into and completing degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas has declined significantly over the past decade. Although modest increases have been shown in enrollments in computer-related majors in the past 4 years, the prediction is that even in 3 to 4 years when these students graduate, there will be shortages of computer-related professionals for industry. The challenge on which this article focuses is attracting students to select an information technology (IT) field such as computer science, computer engineering, software engineering, or information systems as a major when many high schools do not offer a single computer course, and high school counselors, families, and friends do not provide students with accurate information about the field. The social cognitive career theory (SCCT) has been used extensively within counseling and career psychology as a method for understanding how individuals develop vocational interests, make occupational choices, and achieve success within their chosen field. In this article, the SCCT model identifies factors that specifically influence high school students to select a major in an IT-related discipline. These factors can then be used to develop new or enhance existing IT-related activities for high school students. Our work demonstrates that both interest and outcome expectations have a significant positive impact on choice to major. Interest also is found to mediate the effects of self-efficacy and outcome expectations on choice of major. Overall, the model predicts a good portion of variance in the ultimate outcome of whether or not an individual chooses to major in IT.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "19", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Allinjawi:2014:ADA, author = "Arwa A. Allinjawi and Hana A. Al-Nuaim and Paul Krause", title = "An Achievement Degree Analysis Approach to Identifying Learning Problems in Object-Oriented Programming", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "20:1--20:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2648794", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Students often face difficulties while learning object-oriented programming (OOP) concepts. Many papers have presented various assessment methods for diagnosing learning problems to improve the teaching of programming in computer science (CS) higher education. The research presented in this article illustrates that although max-min composition is a method to analyze and determine student learning problems, when performed on an OOP exam, it shows some limitations. The max-min composition may be suitable for multiple choice questions (MCQs), but it is not adequate for questions with a more complex structure, as in the OOP assessment. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to present the incorporation of a concept-effect propagation approach and the Handy Instrument for Course Level Assessment (HI-Class) approach to promote a modified valid analysis approach, the Achievement Degree Analysis (ADA). The ADA approach will diagnose students' problem outcomes and demonstrate its effectiveness within the context of an OOP course.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "20", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Alexandron:2014:SBP, author = "Giora Alexandron and Michal Armoni and Michal Gordon and David Harel", title = "Scenario-Based Programming, Usability-Oriented Perception", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "3", pages = "21:1--21:??", month = nov, year = "2014", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2648814", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Feb 11 21:50:27 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In this article, we discuss the possible connection between the programming language and the paradigm behind it, and programmers' tendency to adopt an external or internal perspective of the system they develop. Based on a qualitative analysis, we found that when working with the visual, interobject language of live sequence charts (LSC), programmers tend to adopt an external and usability-oriented view of the system, whereas when working with an intraobject language, they tend to adopt an internal and implementation-oriented viewpoint. This is explained by first discussing the possible effect of the programming paradigm on programmers' perception and then offering a more comprehensive explanation. The latter is based on a cognitive model of programming with LSC, which is an interpretation and a projection of the model suggested by Adelson and Soloway [1985] onto LSC and scenario-based programming, the new paradigm on which LSC is based. Our model suggests that LSC fosters a kind of programming that enables iterative refinement of the artifact with fewer entries into the solution domain. Thus, the programmer can make less context switching between the solution domain and the problem domain, and consequently spend more time in the latter. We believe that these findings are interesting mainly in two ways. First, they characterize an aspect of problem-solving behavior that to the best of our knowledge has not been studied before-the programmer's perspective. The perspective can potentially affect the outcome of the problem-solving process, such as by leading the programmer to focus on different parts of the problem. Second, relating the structure of the language to the change in perspective sheds light on one of the ways in which the programming language can affect the programmer's behavior.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "21", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hassner:2015:TCV, author = "Tal Hassner and Itzik Bayaz", title = "Teaching Computer Vision: Bringing Research Benchmarks to the Classroom", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "22:1--22:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2597627", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article concerns the design of effective computer vision programming exercises and presents a novel means of designing these assignments. We describe three recent case studies designed to evaluate the effectiveness of assigning graduate-level computer vision students with publicly available research benchmarks as competitive assignments. This was done rather than assigning more traditional exercises that require students to implement specific algorithms or applications. We allowed our students the freedom of designing or choosing their own methods, with the goal of obtaining the best performance on the benchmark chosen for each assignment. Students, therefore, competed against each other, as well as published state of the art. We detail the design, application, and results of these benchmark exercises. We show that not only are these benchmarks easily adapted for the classroom, but also that in some cases, student assignments matched published state-of-the-art performance. This observation provides strong evidence to support the effectiveness of the proposed exercise design. We conclude by discussing the benefits and drawbacks of these exercises compared to those traditionally employed in computer vision classrooms.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "22", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Reardon:2015:SSB, author = "Susan Reardon and Brendan Tangney", title = "{Smartphones}, Studio-Based Learning, and Scaffolding: Helping Novices Learn to Program", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "23:1--23:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2677089", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article describes how smartphones, studio-based learning, and extensive scaffolding were used in combination in the teaching of a freshman Introduction to Programming course. To reduce cognitive overload, a phased approach was followed in introducing programming concepts and development environments, beginning with the visual programming environment Scratch and culminating with Java development for Android smartphones. Studio-based learning, a pedagogical approach long established in the fields of architecture and design education, was used as the basis for a collaborative social constructivist-and constructionist-approach to learning. Smartphones offered students the potential to develop applications for a context that is both immediate and clearly relevant to the ways in which they utilize and interact with technology. The research was carried out over three full academic years and included 53 student participants. An exploratory case study methodology was used to investigate the efficacy of the approach in helping to overcome the barriers faced by novice programmers. The findings indicate that the approach has merit. The students were motivated and engaged by the learning experience and were able to develop sophisticated applications that incorporated images, sound, arrays, and event handling. There is evidence that aspects of the studio-based learning approach, such as the scope that it gave students to innovate and the open feedback during student presentations, provided a learning environment that was motivating. Overall, the combination of smartphones, studio-based learning, and appropriate scaffolding offers an effective way to teach introductory programming courses.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "23", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Werner:2015:CPG, author = "Linda Werner and Jill Denner and Shannon Campe", title = "Children Programming Games: a Strategy for Measuring Computational Learning", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "24:1--24:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2677091", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article reports the results of a study of the relationship of computer game programming to computational learning (CL). The results contribute to the growing body of knowledge about how to define and measure CL among children by proposing a new concept, Game Computational Sophistication (GCS). We analyzed 231 games programmed by 325 11 and 12 year olds with a range of prior computer experience who attended a voluntary technology class during or after school. Findings suggest that students' games exhibited a range of GCS: programs composed of sequences of simple programming constructs; programs composed of programming constructs, some of which are used to implement higher-order patterns; and programs composed of game mechanics built from combinations of patterns glued'' together with simple programming constructs. We use case studies of students' games to illustrate how variation in the use and integration of programming constructs, patterns, and game mechanics can be used to demonstrate evidence of CL. The study contributes to an understanding of what CL looks like in middle school, how to assess it, and how game-programming activities might promote CL.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "24", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Armoni:2015:SRP, author = "Michal Armoni and Orni Meerbaum-Salant and Mordechai Ben-Ari", title = "From Scratch to Real'' Programming", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "25:1--25:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2677087", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer science (CS) activities for young students are widely used, particularly visual programming environments. We investigated the use of the Scratch environment for teaching CS concepts to middle school students. In a previous article [Meerbaum-Salant et al. 2013], we reported on the extent to which the CS concepts were successfully learned. In this article, we look at the transition from studying CS with the visual Scratch environment in middle school to studying CS with a professional textual programming language (C\# or Java) in secondary school. We found that the programming knowledge and experience of students who had learned Scratch greatly facilitated learning the more advanced material in secondary school: less time was needed to learn new topics, there were fewer learning difficulties, and they achieved higher cognitive levels of understanding of most concepts (although at the end of the teaching process, there were no significant differences in achievements compared to students who had not studied Scratch). Furthermore, there was increased enrollment in CS classes, and students were observed to display higher levels of motivation and self-efficacy. This research justifies teaching CS in general and visual programming in particular in middle schools.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "25", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Koulouri:2015:TIP, author = "Theodora Koulouri and Stanislao Lauria and Robert D. Macredie", title = "Teaching Introductory Programming: a Quantitative Evaluation of Different Approaches", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "26:1--26:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2662412", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Teaching programming to beginners is a complex task. In this article, the effects of three factors-choice of programming language, problem-solving training, and the use of formative assessment-on learning to program were investigated. The study adopted an iterative methodological approach carried out across 4 consecutive years. To evaluate the effects of each factor (implemented as a single change in each iteration) on students' learning performance, the study used quantitative, objective metrics. The findings revealed that using a syntactically simple language (Python) instead of a more complex one (Java) facilitated students' learning of programming concepts. Moreover, teaching problem solving before programming yielded significant improvements in student performance. These two factors were found to have variable effects on the acquisition of basic programming concepts. Finally, it was observed that effective formative feedback in the context of introductory programming depends on multiple parameters. The article discusses the implications of these findings, identifies avenues for further research, and argues for the importance of studies in computer science education anchored on sound research methodologies to produce generalizable results.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "26", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Yuen:2015:QSS, author = "Timothy T. Yuen and Kay A. Robbins", title = "A Qualitative Study of Students' Computational Thinking Skills in a Data-Driven Computing Class", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "14", number = "4", pages = "27:1--27:??", month = feb, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2676660", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Feb 24 18:20:55 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Critical thinking, problem solving, the use of tools, and the ability to consume and analyze information are important skills for the 21st century workforce. This article presents a qualitative case study that follows five undergraduate biology majors in a computer science course (CS0). This CS0 course teaches programming within a data-driven context and is part of a university-wide initiative to improve students' quantitative scholarship. In this course, students learn computing concepts and computational thinking by writing programs in MATLAB that compute with data, by performing meaningful analyses, and by writing about the results. The goal of the study reported here is to better understand the thought processes students use in such a data-driven approach. Findings show that students engage in an ongoing organizational process to understand the structure of the data. The computational and visualization tasks appear to be closely linked, and the visualization component appears to provide valuable feedback for students in accomplishing the programming tasks.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "27", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Miller:2015:ISI, author = "Craig S. Miller and Randy Connolly", title = "Introduction to the Special Issue on {Web} Development", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = mar, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2724759", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Despite its prevalence in computing, web development is underrepresented in computing curricula and computing education research. This special issue takes a step towards improving its representation with three articles on web development education. Drawing upon diverse methods from a variety of contexts, the articles address challenges of teaching web development and common difficulties students encounter when learning particular concepts. All three articles identify web development as a promising avenue for motivating students in their study of computing.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Alston:2015:UTC, author = "Peter Alston and David Walsh and Gary Westhead", title = "Uncovering Threshold Concepts'' in {Web} Development: an Instructor Perspective", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = mar, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700513", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The field of Web development has evolved and diversified significantly in recent years, and narrowing the gap between the requirements of academia and the demands of industry remains a challenge. Moreover, many faculty members often struggle with knowing how much'' of a particular subject they should teach to their students and at what level. This small-scale, exploratory study seeks to uncover the existence of threshold concepts'' within Web development. Threshold concepts are the fundamental concepts which, once mastered, allow a learner to progress to a deeper understanding of a subject. An online questionnaire was sent out to 24 instructors within UK higher education institutions who teach Web development subjects. Nine participants responded to the questionnaire and interviews were conducted with five to discuss and expand on the responses provided, resulting in the identification of four areas that were perceived as difficult for students to grasp when learning Web development. Analysis of these areas suggests that threshold concepts do exist within the subject and we offer up two candidates for the field of Web development: basic programming principles and decomposition and abstraction. Designing a curriculum based on threshold concepts and less on the latest methods, tools, and techniques can go a long way in helping students to become experts in their chosen discipline.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Zhang:2015:IEF, author = "Yulei (Gavin) Zhang and Yan (Mandy) Dang", title = "Investigating Essential Factors on Students' Perceived Accomplishment and Enjoyment and Intention to Learn in {Web} Development", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = mar, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700515", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Web development is an important component in the curriculum of computer science and information systems areas. However, it is generally considered difficult to learn among students. In this study, we examined factors that could influence students' perceptions of accomplishment and enjoyment and their intention to learn in the web development course. Specifically, we investigated both student-related and instructor-related factors. A research model was developed. To empirically test the model and the hypotheses, the survey method was used and the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique was adopted for data analysis. Overall, the results indicated that both student-related factors (perceived web development efficacy and motivation) and instructor-related factors (instructor characteristics and teaching method) could significantly influence students' perceptions toward accomplishment and enjoyment and their intention to learn web development. We also summarized comments collected from students to gain a deeper understanding of their ideas toward learning web development techniques. We believe the research results can help provide better knowledge and insights to educators on teaching web development.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Park:2015:AHC, author = "Thomas H. Park and Brian Dorn and Andrea Forte", title = "An Analysis of {HTML} and {CSS} Syntax Errors in a {Web} Development Course", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "1", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = mar, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700514", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Thu Mar 5 08:01:35 MST 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Many people are first exposed to code through web development, yet little is known about the barriers beginners face in these formative experiences. In this article, we describe a study of undergraduate students enrolled in an introductory web development course taken by both computing majors and general education students. Using data collected during the initial weeks of the course, we investigate the nature of the syntax errors they make when learning HTML and CSS, and how they resolve them. This is accomplished through the deployment of openHTML, a lightweight web-based code editor that logs user activity. Our analysis reveals that nearly all students made syntax errors that remained unresolved in their assessments, and that these errors continued weeks into the course. Approximately 20\% of these errors related to the relatively complex system of rules that dictates when it is valid for HTML elements to be nested in one another. On the other hand, 35\% of errors related to the relatively simple tag syntax determining how HTML elements are nested. We also find that validation played a key role in resolving errors: While the majority of unresolved errors were present in untested code, nearly all of the errors that were detected through validation were eventually corrected. We conclude with a discussion of our findings and their implications for computing education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hubwieser:2015:HIR, author = "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail N. Giannakos", title = "How to Implement Rigorous Computer Science Education in {K--12} Schools? {Some} Answers and Many Questions", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2729983", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Aiming to collect various concepts, approaches, and strategies for improving computer science education in K-12 schools, we edited this second special issue of the ACM TOCE journal. Our intention was to collect a set of case studies from different countries that would describe all relevant aspects of specific implementations of Computer Science Education in K-12 schools. By this, we want to deliver well-founded arguments and rich material to the critical discussion about the state and the goals of K-12 computer science education, and also provide visions for the future of this research area. In this editorial, we explain our intention and report some details about the genesis of these special issues. Following, we give a short summary of the Darmstadt Model, which was suggested to serve as a structuring principle of the case studies. The next part of the editorial presents a short description of the five extended case studies from India, Korea, NRW/Germany, Finland, and USA that are selected to be included in this second issue. In order to give some perspectives for the future, we propose a set of open research questions of the field, partly derived from the Darmstadt Model, partly stimulated by a look on large-scale investigations like PISA.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hubwieser:2015:MRM, author = "Peter Hubwieser and Michal Armoni and Michail Giannakos", title = "In Memoriam: {Roland Mittermeir} (1950--2014)", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2729982", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Raman:2015:CSC, author = "Raghu Raman and Smrithi Venkatasubramanian and Krishnashree Achuthan and Prema Nedungadi", title = "Computer Science {(CS)} Education in {Indian} Schools: Situation Analysis using {Darmstadt} Model", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716325", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer science (CS) and its enabling technologies are at the heart of this information age, yet its adoption as a core subject by senior secondary students in Indian schools is low and has not reached critical mass. Though there have been efforts to create core curriculum standards for subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Math, CS seems to have been kept outside the purview of such efforts leading to its marginalization. As a first step, using the Darmstadt model from the ITiCSE working group that provides a systematic categorization approach to CS education in schools, we coded and analyzed the CS situation for the Indian schools. Next, we focused on the motivation category of the Darmstadt model and investigated behavioral intentions of secondary school students and teachers from 332 schools in India. Considering the CS subject as an educational innovation, using Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations, we propose a pedagogical framework for innovation attributes that can significantly predict-adoption of the CS subject among potential-adopter students and teachers. Data was analyzed to answer research questions about student and teacher intentions, influence of gender, school management, and school location in adopting CS. Interestingly, girls, urban students, teachers, and private schools were seen favoring the adoption of CS. An important issue that needed to be addressed, however, was the interchangeable use of terms like CS, Informatics, ICT, and digital literacy. Through our article, we offer a promising picture of the educational policy directives and the academic environment in India that is rapidly growing and embracing CS as a core subject of study in schools. We also analyze the factors that influence the adoption of CS by school students and teachers and conclude that there is a very positive response for CS among educators and students in India.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Choi:2015:CEK, author = "Jeongwon Choi and Sangjin An and Youngjun Lee", title = "Computing Education in {Korea} --- Current Issues and Endeavors", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "8:1--8:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716311", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer education has been provided for a long period of time in Korea. Starting as a vocational program, the content of computer education for students evolved to include content on computer literacy, Information Communication Technology (ICT) literacy, and brand-new computer science. While a new curriculum related to computer science was established in 2007, the range of computer education being provided in Korean schools has been repeatedly reduced. To identify the cause of this recent phenomenon, we review the computer education environment using the Darmstadt model, including educational systems, curricula, and teaching environments. Then we examine what factors affected the decline of computer education. The major causes of failure are found to be the absence of policy and a comprehensive evaluation method. These causes have led to a reduction in the selection ratio of computer-related subjects and in the number of students taking computer classes. Based on this understanding, we bring some fundamental message for establishing robust computer science education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "8", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Knobelsdorf:2015:CSE, author = "Maria Knobelsdorf and Johannes Magenheim and Torsten Brinda and Dieter Engbring and Ludger Humbert and Arno Pasternak and Ulrik Schroeder and Marco Thomas and Jan Vahrenhold", title = "Computer Science Education in {North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany} --- A Case Study", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716313", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In North-Rhine Westphalia, the most populated state in Germany, Computer Science (CS) has been taught in secondary schools since the early 1970s. This article provides an overview of the past and current situation of CS education in North-Rhine Westphalia, including lessons learned through efforts to introduce and to maintain CS in secondary education. In particular, we focus on the differential school system and the educational landscape of CS education, the different facets of CS teacher education, and CS education research programs and directions that are directly connected with these aspects. In addition, this report offers a rationale for including CS education in general education, which includes the educational value of CS for students in today's information and knowledge society. Through this article, we ultimately provide an overview of the significant elements that are crucial for the successful integration of CS as a compulsory subject within secondary schools.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kurhila:2015:PMA, author = "Jaakko Kurhila and Arto Vihavainen", title = "A Purposeful {MOOC} to Alleviate Insufficient {CS} Education in {Finnish} Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716314", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The Finnish national school curriculum, effective from 2004, does not include any topics related to Computer Science (CS). To alleviate the problem that school students are not able to study CS-related topics, the Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki prepared a completely online course that is open to pupils and students in all schools in Finland. The course is a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), as the attendance scales without an upper bound. Schools in Finland have offered the MOOC as an elective CS course for their students and granted formal school credits for completing (parts of) it. Since our MOOC is exactly the same programming course as our university-level CS1 course, we are able to use the MOOC also as a long-lasting entrance exam to the CS BSc and MSc degrees. After two spring semesters of operation, we have observed that there are school students dispersed around Finland who are ready and willing to take on a challenging programming course online, and bridging the MOOC to a full study right makes a strong incentive to keep working on the programming assignments, even without traditional teaching.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Repenning:2015:SGD, author = "Alexander Repenning and David C. Webb and Kyu Han Koh and Hilarie Nickerson and Susan B. Miller and Catharine Brand and Ian Her Many Horses and Ashok Basawapatna and Fred Gluck and Ryan Grover and Kris Gutierrez and Nadia Repenning", title = "Scalable Game Design: a Strategy to Bring Systemic Computer Science Education to Schools through Game Design and Simulation Creation", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "2", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = may, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700517", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue May 12 06:10:11 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "An educated citizenry that participates in and contributes to science technology engineering and mathematics innovation in the 21st century will require broad literacy and skills in computer science (CS). School systems will need to give increased attention to opportunities for students to engage in computational thinking and ways to promote a deeper understanding of how technologies and software are used as design tools. However, K-12 students in the United States are facing a broken pipeline for CS education. In response to this problem, we have developed the Scalable Game Design curriculum based on a strategy to integrate CS education into the regular school curriculum. This strategy includes opportunities for students to design and program games and science technology engineering and mathematics simulations. An approach called Computational Thinking Pattern Analysis has been developed to measure and correlate computational thinking skills relevant to game design and simulations. Results from a study with more than 10,000 students demonstrate rapid adoption of this curriculum by teachers from multiple disciplines, high student motivation, high levels of participation by women, and interest regardless of demographic background.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Tenenberg:2015:LBL, author = "Josh Tenenberg and Robert McCartney", title = "Looking Backward to Look Forward: {TOCE} in Transition", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "3", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = sep, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2817209", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This editorial marks the end of our tenure as founding co-editors-in-chief of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE). We have three goals in this editorial. First, we provide a retrospective on how we positioned TOCE, both in terms of how it embodies our conception of Computing Education Research (CER) as a field, as well as the journal's role in the larger computing education community and the ACM. We focus on the process by which we determined what constitutes publishability for a manuscript submitted to TOCE, describing what is best understood as a living process negotiated among the authors, reviewers, associate editors, and editors-in-chief in interaction with manuscripts and one another. Second, having reviewed a bit of history, we look at some possible changes in TOCE's future, particularly in light of conversations that the ACM is engaged in at all levels regarding recent open publishing initiatives as well as the relationship between journal and conference publications. Finally, we thank the many people who have contributed to the success of TOCE for their significant effort in establishing TOCE as a publication venue for papers in computing education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Xinogalos:2015:OOD, author = "Stelios Xinogalos", title = "Object-Oriented Design and Programming: an Investigation of Novices' Conceptions on Objects and Classes", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "3", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = sep, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2700519", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) technique is nowadays the most popular programming technique among tertiary education institutions. However, learning OOP is a cognitively demanding task for undergraduate students. Several difficulties and misconceptions have been recorded in the literature for both OOP concepts and languages, mainly Java. This article focuses on reviewing and advancing research on the most fundamental OOP concepts, namely, the concepts of object'' and class'' and their role during program execution. The results of a long-term investigation on the subject are presented, focusing on a study exploring undergraduate students' conceptions on objects'' and classes.'' The study advances related research on categories of conceptions on objects'' and classes'' by providing quantitative results, in addition to qualitative results, regarding the frequency of the recorded conceptions. Nearly half the students seem to comprehend the modeling and static/dynamic aspects of the concepts object'' and class.'' Implications for achieving a deep conceptual understanding of text, action, and modeling aspects of these fundamental concepts are also discussed. Information regarding the programming environments utilized in the course and key features of the applied teaching approach are presented, in order to facilitate both a better understanding of the context and a better employment of the results of the presented study. Finally, proposals for enhancing the contribution of this and similar studies are made.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Zingaro:2015:EIG, author = "Daniel Zingaro", title = "Examining Interest and Grades in {Computer Science 1}: a Study of Pedagogy and Achievement Goals", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "3", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = sep, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2802752", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computer Science 1 (CS1), the first course taken by college-level computer science (CS) majors, has traditionally suffered from high failure rates. Efforts to understand this phenomenon have considered a wide range of predictors of CS success, such as prior programming experience, math ability, learning style, and gender, with findings that are suggestive but inconclusive. The current quasiexperimental study extends this research by exploring how the pedagogical approach of the course (traditional lecture vs. Peer Instruction (PI) and clickers) in combination with student achievement goals (mastery goals vs. performance goals) relates to exam grades, interest in the subject matter, and course enjoyment. The research revealed that students with performance goals scored significantly lower on final exams in both the lecture and PI conditions. However, students with performance goals reported higher levels of subject matter interest when taught through PI. Students with mastery goals, in both conditions, scored significantly higher on the final exam, had higher levels of interest, and reported higher levels of course enjoyment than their performance-oriented counterparts. The results suggest that PI may improve the level of subject-matter interest for some students, thereby indicating the importance of studying pedagogical approach as we seek to understand student outcomes in CS1.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Drachova:2015:TMR, author = "Svetlana V. Drachova and Jason O. Hallstrom and Joseph E. Hollingsworth and Joan Krone and Rich Pak and Murali Sitaraman", title = "Teaching Mathematical Reasoning Principles for Software Correctness and Its Assessment", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "15", number = "3", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = sep, year = "2015", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2716316", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Oct 5 08:43:02 MDT 2015", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Undergraduate computer science students need to learn analytical reasoning skills to develop high-quality software and to understand why the software they develop works as specified. To accomplish this central educational objective, this article describes a systematic process of introducing reasoning skills into the curriculum and assessing how well students have learned those skills. To facilitate assessment, a comprehensive inventory of principles for reasoning about correctness that captures the finer details of basic skills that students need to learn has been defined and used. The principles can be taught at various levels of depth across the curriculum in a variety of courses. The use of a particular instructional process is illustrated to inculcate reasoning principles across several iterations of a sophomore-level development foundations course and a junior-level software engineering course. The article summarizes how learning outcomes motivated by the inventory of reasoning principles lead to questions that in turn form the basis for a careful analysis of student understanding and for fine-tuning teaching interventions that together facilitate continuous improvements to instruction.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hundhausen:2016:KTP, author = "Christopher D. Hundhausen", title = "Keeping {TOCE} on a Positive Trajectory", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = feb, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2872275", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In my inaugural editorial as the new editor-in-chief of the ACM Transactions on Computing Education, I take stock of the journal's progress in its first 6 years of existence, and I describe my plans to help the journal maintain its positive trajectory as a viable and vibrant computing education research journal.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1e", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Ott:2016:TPE, author = "Claudia Ott and Anthony Robins and Kerry Shephard", title = "Translating Principles of Effective Feedback for Students into the {CS1} Context", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = feb, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2737596", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Learning the first programming language is challenging for many students. High failure rates and bimodally distributed grades lead to a pedagogical interest in supporting students in first-year programming courses (CS1). In higher education, the important role of feedback for guiding the learning process and improving the learning outcome is widely acknowledged. This article introduces contemporary models of effective feedback practice as found in the higher education literature and offers an interpretation of those in the CS1 context. One particular CS1 course and typical course components are investigated to identify likely loci for feedback interventions and to connect related computer science education literature to these forms of feedback.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{McCartney:2016:WCS, author = "Robert McCartney and Jonas Boustedt and Anna Eckerdal and Kate Sanders and Lynda Thomas and Carol Zander", title = "Why Computing Students Learn on Their Own: Motivation for Self-Directed Learning of Computing", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = feb, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2747008", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In this article, we address the question of why computing students choose to learn computing topics on their own. A better understanding of why some students choose to learn on their own may help us to motivate other students to develop this important skill. In addition, it may help in curriculum design; if we need to leave some topics out of our expanding curriculum, a good choice might be those topics that students readily learn on their own. Based on a thematic analysis of 17 semistructured interviews, we found that computing students' motivations for self-directed learning fall into four general themes: projects, social and peer interactions, joy of learning, and fear. Under these, we describe several more specific subthemes, illustrated in the words of the students. The project-related and social motivations are quite prominent. Although these motivations appear in the literature, they received greater emphasis from our interviewees. Perhaps most characteristic of computing is the motivation to learn to complete some project, both projects done for fun and projects required for school or work.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kunkle:2016:IDT, author = "Wanda M. Kunkle and Robert B. Allen", title = "The Impact of Different Teaching Approaches and Languages on Student Learning of Introductory Programming Concepts", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = feb, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2785807", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Learning to program, especially in the object-oriented paradigm, is a difficult undertaking for many students. As a result, computing educators have tried a variety of instructional methods to assist beginning programmers. These include developing approaches geared specifically toward novices and experimenting with different introductory programming languages. However, determining the effectiveness of these interventions poses a problem. The research presented here developed an instrument to assess student learning of fundamental and object-oriented programming concepts, then used that instrument to investigate the impact of different teaching approaches and languages on university students' ability to learn those concepts. Extensive data analysis showed that the instrument performed well overall. Reliability of the assessment tool was statistically satisfactory and content validity was supported by intrinsic characteristics, question response analysis, and expert review. Preliminary support for construct validity was provided through exploratory factor analysis. Three components that at least partly represented the construct understanding of fundamental programming concepts'' were identified: methods and functions, mathematical and logical expressions, and control structures. Analysis revealed significant differences in student performance based on instructional language and approach. The analyses showed differences on the overall score and questions involving assignment, mathematical and logical expressions, and code completion. Instructional language and approach did not appear to affect student performance on questions addressing object-oriented concepts.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Borstler:2016:TPC, author = "J{\"u}rgen B{\"o}rstler and Thomas B. Hilburn", title = "Team Projects in Computing Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "2", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = mar, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2808192", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Team projects are a way to expose students to conflicting project objectives, and [t]here should be a strong real-world element \ldots{} to ensure that the experience is realistic'' [ACM/IEEE-CS 2015b]. Team projects provide an opportunity for students to put their education into practice and prepare them for their professional careers. The aim of this special issue, and the previous one, is to collect and share evidence about the state of practice of team projects in computing education and to help educators in designing and running team projects. The articles presented in the present issue cover the following topics: real projects for real clients, open source projects, multidisciplinary team projects, student and team assessment, and cognitive and psychological aspects of team projects.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Marshall:2016:EPS, author = "Linda Marshall and Vreda Pieterse and Lisa Thompson and Dina M. Venter", title = "Exploration of Participation in Student Software Engineering Teams", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "2", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = mar, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2791396", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Employers require software engineers to work in teams when developing software systems. It is therefore important for graduates to have experienced teamwork before they enter the job market. We describe an experiential learning exercise that we designed to teach the software engineering process in conjunction with teamwork skills. The underlying teaching strategy applied in the exercise maximises risks in order to provide maximal experiential learning opportunities. The students are expected to work in fairly large, yet short-lived, instructor-assigned teams to complete software engineering tasks. After undergoing the exercise our students form self-selected teams for their capstone projects. In this article, we determine and report on the influence the teaching exercise had on the formation of teams for the capstone project. By analysing data provided by the students through regular peer reviews we gain insight into the team dynamics as well as to what extent the members contributed to the team effort. We develop and present a graphical model of a capstone project team which highlights participation of individuals during the teaching exercise. The participatory history of the members is visualised using segmented concentric rings. We consider how this visualisation can aid the identification of capstone project teams that are at risk. In our experience the composition of the team and the behaviour of other members in the team may have a marked impact on the behaviour of each individual in the team. We established a team classification in order to model information about teams. We use a statistical clustering method to classify teams. For this we use team profiles that are based on the participatory levels of its members. The team types that emerge from the clustering are used to derive migration models. When we consider migration, we build spring models to visualise the teams through which individuals migrate. We colour code the teams to characterise them according to the team types that were identified during the cluster classification of the teams. Owing to the complexity of the resulting model, only migrations for capstone team members who have worked together during the exercise or for solitary capstone team members are modelled. These models support the identification of areas of interest that warrant further investigation. To conclude, we present our observations from the analysis of team compositions, team types, and team migrations and provide directions for future work and collaborations.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Largent:2016:MUT, author = "David L. Largent", title = "Measuring and Understanding Team Development by Capturing Self-assessed Enthusiasm and Skill Levels", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = mar, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2791394", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "To prepare graduates for today's work environment, they must be immersed in positive (and perhaps negative) small group experiences in their courses, which will in turn provide a basic understanding of how teams form and develop over time. In the fall of 2009, we started exploring how software development teams form and interact in a computer science college capstone course setting. Our initial findings were presented at ICER 2010 in Aarhus, Denmark. The focus of our research was on the experiences of computer science college course teams as compared and contrasted to the theory of Bruce Tuckman's stages of small group development model, which he characterized as forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. We continued data collection with the computer science capstone course in the fall of 2010 and added an information systems capstone course as well. At the conclusion of the spring 2014 semester, we have collected and analyzed data for a total of 5 academic years from nine cohorts of students taught by five instructors involving 215 students on 51 teams. Each year, participants repeatedly self-assessed their enthusiasm and skill levels over time using a questionnaire by agreeing or disagreeing to statements. The data shows patterns similar to that of Tuckman's model. Since most people find Tuckman's model easy to understand, it may provide an effective tool to teach teamwork and monitor team development. In addition to briefly presenting our empirical findings in this article, we provide a simple conceptualization of Tuckman's model that can be captured in two data points: enthusiasm and skill level. By comparing changes in these two dimensions over time, team development can be tracked through the various Tuckman stages of small group development. We also provide a minicurriculum which can be used to introduce students to Tuckman's model and provide them insight into what leadership style works best in each of the development stages.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Vivian:2016:MAC, author = "Rebecca Vivian and Katrina Falkner and Nickolas Falkner and Hamid Tarmazdi", title = "A Method to Analyze Computer Science Students' Teamwork in Online Collaborative Learning Environments", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = mar, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2793507", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Jun 8 09:37:21 MDT 2016", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Although teamwork has been identified as", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Dolog:2016:APB, author = "Peter Dolog and Lone Leth Thomsen and Bent Thomsen", title = "Assessing Problem-Based Learning in a Software Engineering Curriculum Using {Bloom}'s Taxonomy and the {IEEE} Software Engineering Body of Knowledge", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2845091", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has often been seen as an all-or-nothing approach, difficult to apply in traditional curricula based on traditional lectured courses with exercise and lab sessions. Aalborg University has since its creation in 1974 practiced PBL in all subjects, including computer science and software engineering, following a model that has become known as the Aalborg Model. Following a strategic decision in 2009, the Aalborg Model has been reshaped. We first report on the software engineering program as it was in the old Aalborg Model. We analyze the programme wrt competence levels according to Bloom's taxonomy and compare it with the expected skills and competencies for an engineer passing a general software engineering 4-year program with an additional 4 years of experience as defined in the IEEE Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK) [Abran et al. 2004]. We also compare with the Graduate Software Engineering 2009 Curriculum Guidelines for Graduate Degree Programmes in Software Engineering (GSwE2009) [Pyster 2009]. We then describe the new curriculum and draw some preliminary conclusions based on analyzing the curriculum according to Bloom's taxonomy and the results of running the program for 2 years. As the new program is structured to be compliant with the Bologna Process and thus presents all activities in multiples of 5 European Credit Transfer System points, we envision that elements of the program could be used in more traditional curricula. This should be especially easy for programs also complying with the Bologna Process.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Thota:2016:LCS, author = "Neena Thota and Anders Berglund", title = "Learning Computer Science: Dimensions of Variation Within What {Chinese} Students Learn", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2853199", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We know from research that there is an intimate relationship between student learning and the context of learning. What is not known or understood well enough is the relationship of the students' background and previous studies to the understanding and learning of the subject area-here, computer science (CS). To show the contextual influences on learning CS, we present empirical data from a qualitative investigation of the experiences of Chinese students studying for a master degree at Sweden's Uppsala University. Data were collected of the students' understanding and learning of CS, their experience of the teaching and their own studies, and of their personal development in Sweden. Using an analysis framework grounded in phenomenography, we analytically separated the what and how aspects of learning. In this article, we describe the what, or the content of the students' learning, and identify dimensions of variation in the experiences of students. These dimensions relate to the foci of the CS programs, the learning outcomes, and the impact of the studies. The findings from the analyses indicate pedagogical and pragmatic implications for teaching and learning CS in higher education institutions. The study extends the traditional use of phenomenography through the discussion of the dimensions of variation in the experiences and the values within the dimensions. It opens the way for understanding the relational nature of learning in computing education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Wagner:2016:GPC, author = "Isabel Wagner", title = "Gender and Performance in Computer Science", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2920173", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The term gender gap refers to the significant underrepresentation of females in many subjects. In Computer Science, the gender gap exists at all career levels. In this article, we study whether there is a performance gap in addition to the gender gap. To answer this question, we analyzed statistical data on student performance in Computer Science from 129 universities in the United Kingdom covering the years 2002 to 2013. We find that male students were awarded significantly more first-class degrees than female students. We evaluate four other subjects-Subjects Allied to Medicine, Business \& Administrative Studies, Mathematical Sciences, and Engineering \& Technology-and find that they do not exhibit this performance gap. From this finding, we review explanations for the gender and performance gaps, as well as potential solutions to eliminate the gaps. Most solutions do not require major institutional change and could thus be implemented easily.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kolling:2016:HEN, author = "Michael K{\"o}lling and Fraser McKay", title = "Heuristic Evaluation for Novice Programming Systems", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2872521", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The past few years has seen a proliferation of novice programming tools. The availability of a large number of systems has made it difficult for many users to choose among them. Even for education researchers, comparing the relative quality of these tools, or judging their respective suitability for a given context, is hard in many instances. For designers of such systems, assessing the respective quality of competing design decisions can be equally difficult. Heuristic evaluation provides a practical method of assessing the quality of alternatives in these situations and of identifying potential problems with existing systems for a given target group or context. Existing sets of heuristics, however, are not specific to the domain of novice programming and thus do not evaluate all aspects of interest to us in this specialised application domain. In this article, we propose a set of heuristics to be used in heuristic evaluations of novice programming systems. These heuristics have the potential to allow a useful assessment of the quality of a given system with lower cost than full formal user studies and greater precision than the use of existing sets of heuristics. The heuristics are described and discussed in detail. We present an evaluation of the effectiveness of the heuristics that suggests that the new set of heuristics provides additional useful information to designers not obtained with existing heuristics sets.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Larraza-Mendiluze:2016:URB, author = "Edurne Larraza-Mendiluze and Nestor Garay-Vitoria and Iratxe Soraluze and Jos{\'e} Mart{\'\i}n and Javier Muguerza and Txelo Ruiz-V{\'a}zquez", title = "Using a Real Bare Machine in a Project-Based Learning Environment for Teaching Computer Structure: an Analysis of the Implementation Following the Action Research Model", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "3", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = jun, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2891415", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The computer input/output (I/O) subsystem and its functioning are very abstract concepts that are difficult for undergraduate freshmen to understand. However, it is important that freshmen assimilate these low-level concepts if they are going to be taught about the operating systems (OS) working over that architecture layer, or working directly with them in embedded systems, real-time systems, or in the area of human--computer interaction (HCI). This article describes the use of a game console (Nintendo\reg DS, NDS) in a project-based learning (PBL or PjBL) environment in which the design of a game is the basis of the project in order to encourage the students to get more involved with the computer I/O subsystem abstraction. A 4yr experience is reported in which the action research model (planning, acting, observing, and reflecting) has been followed. The general procedure for the 4yr and the specific characteristics and achieved results for each year are reported. The aim of the study was twofold: to assess the learning effectiveness of the active PjBL educational approach and some related factors, and to analyze the motivation toward the subject fostered by the game console. The first aim is analyzed using the scores achieved by the students; the second aim is analyzed via satisfaction questionnaires.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Magerko:2016:ESB, author = "Brian Magerko and Jason Freeman and Tom Mcklin and Mike Reilly and Elise Livingston and Scott Mccoid and Andrea Crews-Brown", title = "{EarSketch}: a {STEAM}-Based Approach for Underrepresented Populations in High School Computer Science Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2886418", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article presents EarSketch, a learning environment that combines computer programming with sample-based music production to create a computational remixing environment for learning introductory computing concepts. EarSketch has been employed in both formal and informal settings, yielding significant positive results in student content knowledge and attitudes toward computing as a discipline, especially in ethnic and gender populations that are currently underrepresented in computing fields. This article describes the rationale and components of EarSketch, the evaluation design, and lessons learned to apply to future environment design and development.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{McGill:2016:USP, author = "Monica M. McGill and Adrienne Decker and Amber Settle", title = "Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Impact of Pre-College Computing Activities on Choices of Major", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2920214", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "A lack of diversity in the computing field has existed for several decades, and although female participation in computing remains low, outreach programs attempting to address the situation are now quite numerous. To begin to understand whether or not these past activities have had long-term impact, we conducted a systematic literature review. Upon discovering that longitudinal studies were lacking, we investigated whether undergraduate students believed that their participation in computing activities prior to college contributed to their decision to major in a computing field. From the 770 participants in the study, we discovered that approximately 20\% of males and 24\% of females who were required to participate in computing activities chose a computing or related major, but that males perceived that the activity had a greater affect on their decision (20\%) than females (6.9\%). Females who participated in an outreach activity were more likely to major in computing. Compared with females who chose to major in computing, females who did not were less likely to indicate that the majority of students participating in activities were boys and that they were a welcome part of the groups. Results also showed that female participants who do not ultimately major in computing have a much stronger negative perception of the outreach activities than male participants who also chose a non-computing major. Although many computing outreach activities are designed to diversify computing, it may be the case that, overall, boys receive these activities more favorably than girls, although requiring participation yields approximately the same net positive impact.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Taylor:2016:SII, author = "Blair Taylor and Siddharth Kaza", title = "Security Injections@Towson: Integrating Secure Coding into Introductory Computer Science Courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "16:1--16:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2897441", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Despite the critical societal importance of computer security, security is not well integrated into the undergraduate computing curriculum. Security classes and tracks treat security issues as separable topics as opposed to fundamental issues that pervade all aspects of software development. Recently, there has been an increasing focus on security as a cross-cutting concern across the computer science curriculum. The Security Injections@Towson project provides resources and effective strategies to incorporate secure coding in the early programming classes. We describe the development, assessment, and dissemination of more than 40 lab-based security injection modules designed to be injected into courses with minimal impact on the curriculum. We include assessment results from 1,135 students across five diverse institutions demonstrating that the security injections help students retain, comprehend, and apply secure coding concepts in the introductory programming courses.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "16", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Shin:2016:EMD, author = "Shin-Shing Shin", title = "Evaluation of Model Driven Architecture-Based Instruction for Understanding Phase Transitions in Object-Oriented Analysis and Design", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "17:1--17:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2914797", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Object-Oriented Analysis and Design (OOAD) courses enable students to establish a requirements model of an application, successively transform those requirements into logical design models, and then transform the logical models into physical design models. However, students attending OOAD courses typically encounter difficulties in the transition. Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) provides a model transformation framework for transitioning between OOAD phases. Considering the advantages of MDA in phase transitions, this study proposes that integrating conventional OOAD instruction with the MDA framework and describing transition relations in diagrammatic representations might improve students' understanding of the transitions. This study used an empirical design that involved using two treatments (MDA-based and conventional instruction) to examine the relevance of MDA-based instruction in the effective understanding of the transitions on the basis of cognitive load theory, the split-attention principle, and theories of representation format. The results indicate that, compared with conventional instruction, MDA-based instruction is more efficient because it improves mental efficiency by reducing extraneous cognitive load. This study can assist educators in understanding the difficulties in learning phase transitions and motivate researchers to develop more effective learning instructions for transitioning between OOAD phases.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "17", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kaila:2016:ROO, author = "Erkki Kaila and Einari Kurvinen and Erno Lokkila and Mikko-Jussi Laakso", title = "Redesigning an Object-Oriented Programming Course", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "16", number = "4", pages = "18:1--18:??", month = oct, year = "2016", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2906362", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Educational technology offers several potential benefits for programming education. Still, to facilitate the technology properly, integration into a course must be carefully designed. In this article, we present a redesign of an object-oriented university-level programming course. In the redesign, a collaborative education tool was utilized to enhance active learning, facilitate communication between students and teachers, and remodel the evaluation procedure by utilizing automatically assessed tasks. The redesign was based on the best practices found in our own earlier research and that of the research community, with a focus on facilitating active learning methods and student collaboration. The redesign was evaluated by comparing two instances of the redesigned course against two instances using the old methodology. The drop-out rate decreased statistically significantly in the redesigned course instances. Moreover, there was a trend toward higher grade averages in the redesigned instances. Based on the results, we can conclude that the utilization of educational technology has a highly positive effect on student performance. Still, making major changes to course methodology does not come without certain difficulties. Hence, we also present our experiences and suggestions for the course redesign to help other educators and researchers perform similar design changes.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "18", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Isomottonen:2017:FBA, author = "Ville Isom{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Ville Tirronen", title = "Flipping and Blending --- an Action Research Project on Improving a Functional Programming Course", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = jan, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2934697", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article reports on an action research project on improving a functional programming course by moving toward a practical and flexible study environment-flipped and blended classroom. Teaching the topic of functional programming was found to be troublesome using a traditional lectured course format. The need to increase students' amount of practice emerged while subsequent challenges relating to students' independent practical coursework were observed. Particular concerns relating to group work, learning materials, and the attribute of flexibility were investigated during the third action research cycle. The research cycle was analyzed using a qualitative survey on students' views, teacher narrative, and students' study activity data. By this third research cycle, we found that (i) the call for explanation'' is an apt conceptualization for supporting independent work, and in particular for the design of learning materials; (ii) use of student-selected groups that can be flexibly resized or even disbanded enables spontaneous peer support and can avoid frustration about group work; and (iii) students greatly appreciate the high degree of flexibility in the course arrangements but find that it causes them to slip from their goals. The project has improved our understanding of a successful implementation of the target course based on group work and learning materials in the context of independent study, while the attribute of flexibility revealed a contradiction that indicates the need for further action.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Isayama:2017:CSE, author = "Daiki Isayama and Masaki Ishiyama and Raissa Relator and Koichi Yamazaki", title = "Computer Science Education for Primary and Lower Secondary School Students: Teaching the Concept of Automata", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = jan, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2940331", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We explore the feasibility of early introduction to automata theory through gamification. We designed a puzzle game that players can answer correctly if they understand the fundamental concepts of automata theory. In our investigation, 90 children played the game, and their actions were recorded in play logs. An analysis of the play logs shows that approximately 60\% of the children achieved correct-answer rates of at least 70\%, which suggests that primary and lower secondary school students can understand the fundamental concepts of automata theory. Meanwhile, our analysis shows that most of them do not fully understand automata theory, but some of them have a good understanding of the concept.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Theodoropoulos:2017:HDD, author = "Anastasios Theodoropoulos and Angeliki Antoniou and George Lepouras", title = "How Do Different Cognitive Styles Affect Learning Programming? {Insights} from a Game-Based Approach in {Greek} Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = jan, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2940330", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Is there any relationship between students' cognitive style and the ability to learn programming through serious games? The aim of this work is to assess the learning effectiveness and motivational appeal of digital games for learning basic programming concepts, involving secondary education students. For this purpose, the Code.org^\reg 's activity named K-8 Intro to Computer Science was used. The study investigated students' attitudes from gaming activities to reveal the quality of their learning experience. Next, students' attitudes from games were correlated with their cognitive profile to reveal potential differences. Finally, students' performance from the digital games was assessed to reveal game-based learning (GBL) effectiveness compared to their cognitive styles. In the study, 77 students of two Greek high schools participated in the context of the European Code Week. The results suggest that these specific games, or similar educational computer games, can be exploited as effective and motivational learning environments within schools, as they provide a high-quality learning experience. Cognitive style was found to be a significant learning characteristic that should be taken into consideration when using digital games to learn programming.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Enstrom:2017:IIM, author = "Emma Enstr{\"o}m and Viggo Kann", title = "Iteratively Intervening with the Most Difficult'' Topics of an Algorithms and Complexity Course", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "1", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = jan, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3018109", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Apr 3 11:14:37 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "When compared to earlier programming and data structure experiences that our students might have, the perspective changes on computers and programming when introducing theoretical computer science into the picture. Underlying computational models need to be addressed, and mathematical tools employed, to understand the quality criteria of theoretical computer science. Focus shifts from doing to proving. Over several years, we have tried to make this perspective transition smoother for the students of a third-year mandatory algorithms, data structures, and computational complexity course. The concepts receiving extra attention in this work are NP-completeness, one of the most central concepts in computer science, and dynamic programming, an algorithm construction method that is powerful but somewhat unintuitive for some students. The major difficulties that we attribute to NP-completeness are that the tasks look similar but have a different purpose than in algorithm construction exercises. Students do not immediately see the usefulness of the concept, and hence motivation could be one issue. One line of attacking NP-completeness has been to emphasize its algorithmic aspects using typical tools for teaching algorithms. Some potential difficulties associated with dynamic programming are that the method is based on a known difficult concept-recursion-and that there are many ingredients in a dynamic programming solution to a problem. For both dynamic programming and NP-completeness, we have invented several new activities and structured the teaching differently, forcing students to think and adopt a standpoint, and practice the concepts in programming assignments. Student surveys show that these activities are appreciated by the students, and our evaluations indicate that they have positive effects on learning. We believe that these activities could be useful in any similar course. The approach to improving the course is action research, and the evaluation has been done using course surveys, self-efficacy surveys, rubrics-like grading protocols, and grades. We have also interviewed teaching assistants about their experiences.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hundhausen:2017:EDT, author = "C. D. Hundhausen", title = "From the {Editor}'s Desk: {TOCE} Continues on a Positive Trajectory in 2016", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "2", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = jun, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3078193", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "During my first full year as editor-in-chief of ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE), the editorial board and I took the following four steps to improve the journal's ability to serve the growing community of computing education researchers: (1) We streamlined the peer review process, (2) we established a new partnership with the ACM Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education Conference, (c) we transitioned to a double-blind review process, and (4) we recruited guest editors for two new special issues that address timely research topics. In this editorial, I present key statistics on TOCE's review process and submissions during the 2016 calendar year, discuss and reflect on the positive steps we took to improve the journal during 2016, and describe steps we will consider in the coming year in order to ensure that ACM TOCE continues on its positive trajectory. These include forging additional partnerships with professional conferences, altering the review criteria to make the journal more welcoming to a broader range of research, especially within the K-12 space, and developing a set of evidence standards for research published in the journal.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Margolis:2017:SMT, author = "Jane Margolis and Jean Ryoo and Joanna Goode", title = "Seeing Myself through Someone Else's Eyes: The Value of In-Classroom Coaching for Computer Science Teaching and Learning", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = jun, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2967616", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article describes the impact of in-classroom coaching for computer science (CS) educators. Coaching is a way to support teachers in their classroom while teachers master new curricula or educational approaches and is not evaluative in purpose. Using qualitative methods to analyze computer science classroom observations, teacher surveys, teacher interviews, coaching logs, and coach interviews, this research answers the following question: How does in-classroom coaching support inquiry and equity-based teaching practices? This study of Exploring Computer Science classrooms illustrates the importance of having in-classroom coaches who can collaborate and reflect with teachers about current practices and who can help support new inquiry and equity-based instructional skills. Teachers note that in-classroom coaching helped (1) positively impact changes in pedagogy, (2) enrich teachers' CS content knowledge, and (3) break CS teacher isolation at schools. Three case studies from computer science classrooms served by different coaches are shared to illustrate the ways teacher instructional practice can be strengthened over time through coaching.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Brown:2017:NJP, author = "Neil C. C. Brown and Amjad Altadmri", title = "Novice {Java} Programming Mistakes: Large-Scale Data vs. Educator Beliefs", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = jun, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2994154", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/java2010.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Teaching is the process of conveying knowledge and skills to learners. It involves preventing misunderstandings or correcting misconceptions that learners have acquired. Thus, effective teaching relies on solid knowledge of the discipline, but also a good grasp of where learners are likely to trip up or misunderstand. In programming, there is much opportunity for misunderstanding, and the penalties are harsh: failing to produce the correct syntax for a program, for example, can completely prevent any progress in learning how to program. Because programming is inherently computer-based, we have an opportunity to automatically observe programming behaviour --- more closely even than an educator in the room at the time. By observing students' programming behaviour, and surveying educators, we can ask: do educators have an accurate understanding of the mistakes that students are likely to make? In this study, we combined two years of the Blackbox dataset (with more than 900 thousand users and almost 100 million compilation events) with a survey of 76 educators to investigate which mistakes students make while learning to program Java, and whether the educators could make an accurate estimate of which mistakes were most common. We find that educators' estimates do not agree with one another or the student data, and discuss the implications of these results.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Cosma:2017:PCS, author = "Georgina Cosma and Mike Joy and Jane Sinclair and Margarita Andreou and Dongyong Zhang and Beverley Cook and Russell Boyatt", title = "Perceptual Comparison of Source-Code Plagiarism within Students from {UK}, {China}, and {South Cyprus} Higher Education Institutions", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "2", pages = "8:1--8:??", month = jun, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3059871", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Perspectives of students on what constitutes source-code plagiarism may differ based on their educational background. Surveys have been conducted with home students undertaking computing and joint computing subject degrees at higher education institutions throughout the UK, China, and South Cyprus, and a total of 984 responses have been statistically analysed to determine the common areas of understanding and misunderstanding among students on various topics related to source-code plagiarism. The study identifies those topics which are well understood, and those topics which are not properly understood across the different groups of students, and is the first study which specifically discusses Cypriot student perceptions on source-code plagiarism. This study provides useful information to educators (teaching home and international students) who wish to better inform their students on the issues of plagiarism and source-code plagiarism. Finally, the survey results revealed that although students who were informed about plagiarism better understood what actions constitute plagiarism, some topics were still unclear among students regardless of the students' educational background and whether they had been previously informed about plagiarism.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "8", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Merkouris:2017:TPS, author = "Alexandros Merkouris and Konstantinos Chorianopoulos and Achilles Kameas", title = "Teaching Programming in Secondary Education Through Embodied Computing Platforms: Robotics and Wearables", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "2", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = jun, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3025013", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Pedagogy has emphasized that physical representations and tangible interactive objects benefit learning especially for young students. There are many tangible hardware platforms for introducing computer programming to children, but there is limited comparative evaluation of them in the context of a formal classroom. In this work, we explore the benefits of learning to code for tangible computers, such as robots and wearable computers, in comparison to programming for the desktop computer. For this purpose, 36 students participated in a within-groups study that involved three types of target computer platform tangibility: (1) desktop, (2) wearable, and (3) robotic. We employed similar blocks-based visual programming environments, and we measured emotional engagement, attitudes, and computer programming performance. We found that students were more engaged by and had a higher intention of learning programming with the robotic rather than the desktop computer. Furthermore, tangible computing platforms, either robot or wearable, did not affect the students' performance in learning basic computational concepts (e.g., sequence, repeat, and decision). Our findings suggest that computer programming should be introduced through multiple target platforms (e.g., robots, smartphones, wearables) to engage children.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Pappas:2017:ASB, author = "Ilias O. Pappas and Michail N. Giannakos and Letizia Jaccheri and Demetrios G. Sampson", title = "Assessing Student Behavior in Computer Science Education with an {fsQCA} Approach: The Role of Gains and Barriers", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "2", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = jun, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3036399", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Aug 28 17:19:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This study uses complexity theory to understand the causal patterns of factors that stimulate students' intention to continue studies in computer science (CS). To this end, it identifies gains and barriers as essential factors in CS education, including motivation and learning performance, and proposes a conceptual model along with research propositions. To test its propositions, the study employs fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis on a data sample from 344 students. Findings indicate eight configurations of cognitive and noncognitive gains, barriers, motivation for studies, and learning performance that explain high intention to continue studies in CS. This research study contributes to the literature by (1) offering new insights into the relationships among the predictors of CS students' intention to continue their studies and (2) advancing the theoretical foundation of how students' gains, barriers, motivation, and learning performance combine to better explain high intentions to continue CS studies.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Grover:2017:UPL, author = "Shuchi Grover and Ari Korhonen", title = "Unlocking the Potential of Learning Analytics in Computing Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "3", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = aug, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3122773", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11e", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hundhausen:2017:IBL, author = "C. D. Hundhausen and D. M. Olivares and A. S. Carter", title = "{IDE}-Based Learning Analytics for Computing Education: a Process Model, Critical Review, and Research Agenda", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "3", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = aug, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3105759", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In recent years, learning process data have become increasingly easy to collect through computer-based learning environments. This has led to increased interest in the field of learning analytics, which is concerned with leveraging learning process data in order to better understand, and ultimately to improve, teaching and learning. In computing education, the logical place to collect learning process data is through integrated development environments (IDEs), where computing students typically spend large amounts of time working on programming assignments. While the primary purpose of IDEs is to support computer programming, they might also be used as a mechanism for delivering learning interventions designed to enhance student learning. The possibility of using IDEs both to collect learning process data, and to strategically intervene in the learning process, suggests an exciting design space for computing education research: that of IDE-based learning analytics. In order to facilitate the systematic exploration of this design space, we present an IDE-based data analytics process model with four primary activities: (1) Collect data, (2) Analyze data, (3) Design intervention, and (4) Deliver intervention. For each activity, we identify key design dimensions and review relevant computing education literature. To provide guidance on designing effective interventions, we describe four relevant learning theories, and consider their implications for design. Based on our review, we present a call-to-action for future research into IDE-based learning analytics.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Carter:2017:BMP, author = "Adam S. Carter and Christopher D. Hundhausen and Olusola Adesope", title = "Blending Measures of Programming and Social Behavior into Predictive Models of Student Achievement in Early Computing Courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "3", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = aug, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3120259", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Analyzing the process data of students as they complete programming assignments has the potential to provide computing educators with insights into both their students and the processes by which they learn to program. In prior research, we explored the relationship between (a) students' programming behaviors and course outcomes, and (b) students' participation within an online social learning environment and course outcomes. In both studies, we developed statistical measures derived from our data that significantly correlate with students' course grades. Encouraged both by social theories of learning and a desire to improve the accuracy of our statistical models, we explore here the impact of incorporating our predictive measure derived from social behavior into three separate predictive measures derived from programming behaviors. We find that, in combining the measures, we are able to improve the overall predictive power of each measure. This finding affirms the importance of social interaction in the learning process, and provides evidence that predictive models derived from multiple sources of learning process data can provide significantly better predictive power by accounting for multiple factors responsible for student success.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Ahadi:2017:CTD, author = "Alireza Ahadi and Arto Hellas and Raymond Lister", title = "A Contingency Table Derived Method for Analyzing Course Data", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "3", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = aug, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123814", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We describe a method for analyzing student data from online programming exercises. Our approach uses contingency tables that combine whether or not a student answered an online exercise correctly with the number of attempts that the student made on that exercise. We use this method to explore the relationship between student performance on online exercises done during semester with subsequent performance on questions in a paper-based exam at the end of semester. We found that it is useful to include data about the number of attempts a student makes on an online exercise.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Grover:2017:FUH, author = "Shuchi Grover and Satabdi Basu and Marie Bienkowski and Michael Eagle and Nicholas Diana and John Stamper", title = "A Framework for Using Hypothesis-Driven Approaches to Support Data-Driven Learning Analytics in Measuring Computational Thinking in Block-Based Programming Environments", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "3", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = aug, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3105910", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Systematic endeavors to take computer science (CS) and computational thinking (CT) to scale in middle and high school classrooms are underway with curricula that emphasize the enactment of authentic CT skills, especially in the context of programming in block-based programming environments. There is, therefore, a growing need to measure students' learning of CT in the context of programming and also support all learners through this process of learning computational problem solving. The goal of this research is to explore hypothesis-driven approaches that can be combined with data-driven ones to better interpret student actions and processes in log data captured from block-based programming environments with the goal of measuring and assessing students' CT skills. Informed by past literature and based on our empirical work examining a dataset from the use of the Fairy Assessment in the Alice programming environment in middle schools, we present a framework that formalizes a process where a hypothesis-driven approach informed by Evidence-Centered Design effectively complements data-driven learning analytics in interpreting students' programming process and assessing CT in block-based programming environments. We apply the framework to the design of Alice tasks for high school CS to be used for measuring CT during programming.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Fields:2017:YCP, author = "Deborah A. Fields and Yasmin B. Kafai and Michael T. Giang", title = "Youth Computational Participation in the Wild: Understanding Experience and Equity in Participating and Programming in the Online Scratch Community", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "3", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = aug, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3123815", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Tue Aug 29 16:06:17 MDT 2017", bibsource = "http://www.acm.org/pubs/toce; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Most research in primary and secondary computing education has focused on understanding learners within formal classroom communities, leaving aside the growing number of promising informal online programming communities where young users contribute, comment, and collaborate on programs to facilitate learning. In this article, we examined trends in computational participation in Scratch, an online community with over 1 million registered youth designers. Drawing on a random sample of 5,004 youth programmers and their activities over 3 months in early 2012, we examined programming concepts used in projects in relation to level of participation, gender, and length of membership of Scratch programmers. Latent class analysis results identified the same four groups of programmers in each month based on the usage of different programming concepts and showed how membership in these groups shifted in different ways across time. Strikingly, the largest group of project creators (named Loops) used the simplest and fewest programming concepts. Further, this group was the most stable in membership and was disproportionately female. In contrast, the more complex programming groups (named Variables, Low Booleans, and High Booleans) showed much movement across time. Further, the Low Booleans and High Booleans groups, the only groups to use and,'' or,'' and not'' statements in their programs, were disproportionately male. In the discussion, we address the challenges of analyzing young learners' programming in informal online communities and opportunities for designing more equitable computational participation.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Umapathy:2017:MAP, author = "Karthikeyan Umapathy and Albert D. Ritzhaupt", title = "A Meta-Analysis of Pair-Programming in Computer Programming Courses: Implications for Educational Practice", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "4", pages = "16:1--16:??", month = sep, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/2996201", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Several experiments on the effects of pair programming versus solo programming in the context of education have been reported in the research literature. We present a meta-analysis of these studies that accounted for 18 manuscripts with 28 independent effect sizes in the domains of programming assignments, exams, passing rates, and affective measures. In total, our sample accounts for N = 3,308 students either using pair programming as a treatment variable or using traditional solo programming in the context of a computing course. Our findings suggest positive results in favor of pair programming in three of four domains with exception to affective measures. We provide a comprehensive review of our results and discuss our findings.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "16", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Vieira:2017:WCC, author = "Camilo Vieira and Alejandra J. Magana and Michael L. Falk and R. Edwin Garcia", title = "Writing In-Code Comments to Self-Explain in Computational Science and Engineering Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "4", pages = "17:1--17:??", month = sep, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3058751", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article presents two case studies aimed at exploring the use of self-explanations in the context of computational science and engineering (CSE) education. The self-explanations were elicited as students' in-code comments of a set of worked-examples, and the cases involved two different approaches to CSE education: glass box and black box. The glass-box approach corresponds to a programming course for materials science and engineering students that focuses on introducing programming concepts while solving disciplinary problems. The black-box approach involves the introduction of Python-based computational tools within a thermodynamics course to represent disciplinary phenomena. Two semesters of data collection for each case study allowed us to identify the effect of using in-code comments as a self-explanation strategy on students' engagement with the worked-examples and students' perceptions of these activities within each context. The results suggest that the use of in-code comments as a self-explanation strategy increased students' awareness of the worked-examples while engaging with them. The students' perceived uses of the in-code commenting activities include: understanding the example, making a connection between the programming code and the disciplinary problem, and becoming familiar with the programming language syntax, among others.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "17", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Clarke:2017:IUT, author = "Peter J. Clarke and Debra L. Davis and Raymond Chang-Lau and Tariq M. King", title = "Impact of Using Tools in an Undergraduate Software Testing Course Supported by {WReSTT}", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "4", pages = "18:1--18:??", month = sep, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3068324", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Software continues to affect a major part of our daily lives, including the way we use our phones, home appliances, medical devices, and cars. The pervasiveness of software has led to a growing demand for software developers over the next decade. To ensure the high quality of software developed in industry, students being trained in software engineering also need to be trained on how to use testing techniques and supporting tools effectively at all levels of development. In this article, we investigate how testing tools are used in the software project of an undergraduate testing course. We also investigate how a cyberlearning environment-the Web-Based Repository of Software Testing Tutorials (WReSTT)-is used to supplement the learning materials presented in class, particularly the tutorials on different software testing tools. The results of a study spanning three semesters of the undergraduate course suggest that (1) the use of code coverage tools motivates students to improve their test suites; (2) the number of bugs found when using coverage tools slightly increased, which is similar to the results found in the research literature; and (3) students find WReSTT to be a useful resource for learning about software testing techniques and the use of code coverage tools.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "18", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Fronza:2017:TCT, author = "Ilenia Fronza and Nabil {El Ioini} and Luis Corral", title = "Teaching Computational Thinking Using Agile Software Engineering Methods: a Framework for Middle Schools", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "4", pages = "19:1--19:??", month = sep, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3055258", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computational Thinking (CT) has been recognized as one of the fundamental skills that all graduates should acquire. For this reason, motivational concerns need to be addressed at an early age of a child, and reaching students who do not consider themselves candidates for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines is important as well if the broadest audience possible is to be engaged. This article describes a framework for teaching and assessing CT in the context of K-12 education. The framework is based on Agile software engineering methods, which rely on a set of principles and practices that can be mapped to the activities of CT. The article presents as well the results of an experiment applying this framework in two sixth-grade classes, with 42 participants in total. The results show that Agile software engineering methods are effective at teaching CT in middle schools, after the addition of some tasks to allow students to explore, project, and experience the potential product before using the software tools at hand. Moreover, according to the teachers' feedback, the students reached all the educational objectives of the topics involved in the multidisciplinary activities. This result can be taken as an indicator that it is possible to use computing as a medium for teaching other subjects, besides computer science.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "19", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Outlay:2017:GIT, author = "Christina N. Outlay and Alana J. Platt and Kacie Conroy", title = "Getting {IT} Together: a Longitudinal Look at Linking Girls' Interest in {IT} Careers to Lessons Taught in Middle School Camps", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "4", pages = "20:1--20:??", month = sep, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3068838", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The dearth of women choosing information technology (IT) careers has been identified as a national problem in the United States. Efforts have been made to combat this by educating girls at a young age about technology. Recent research demonstrates that exposure to technology is insufficient to change young girls' attitudes towards IT careers and that interventions must explicitly tie technology activities to careers. Faculty and staff of a Midwestern university modified an IT summer camp for middle school girls to include career specific programming. The camp deployed the Girls Educating Themselves about Information Technology (GET IT) program to garner interest among middle school girls in IT careers. This article describes the impact of this summer camp and other social influence factors on girls' interest in pursuing careers in IT, immediately after camp completion and one year in the future.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "20", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Ravitz:2017:ELE, author = "Jason Ravitz and Chris Stephenson and Karen Parker and Juliane Blazevski", title = "Early Lessons from Evaluation of Computer Science Teacher Professional Development in {Google}'s {CS4HS} Program", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "17", number = "4", pages = "21:1--21:??", month = sep, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3077617", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article compares self-reported learning gains and experiences of teachers in four professional development courses funded through Google's 2014 Computer Science for High School program. The courses were designed and taught independently at four universities and started late enough in the year to participate in our pre-post study. Two of the courses used a face-to-face approach, one was online only, and one used a hybrid format. Analyses from 314 pre-surveys and 129 post-surveys indicate CS teachers are far from homogeneous, suggesting that some customization may benefit professional development. We also saw a stronger sense of community in the two face-to-face courses. Among the outcomes we measured, teacher concerns (Hall and Hord 1977) were more sensitive to change than our measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, readiness, or beliefs. Findings illustrate the variety of CS teacher professional development experiences and the need to study the best ways to scale effective CS teacher education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "21", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Qian:2017:SMO, author = "Yizhou Qian and James Lehman", title = "Students' Misconceptions and Other Difficulties in Introductory Programming: a Literature Review", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = dec, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3077618", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Efforts to improve computer science education are underway, and teachers of computer science are challenged in introductory programming courses to help learners develop their understanding of programming and computer science. Identifying and addressing students' misconceptions is a key part of a computer science teacher's competence. However, relevant research on this topic is not as fully developed in the computer science education field as it is in mathematics and science education. In this article, we first review relevant literature on general definitions of misconceptions and studies about students' misconceptions and other difficulties in introductory programming. Next, we investigate the factors that contribute to the difficulties. Finally, strategies and tools to address difficulties including misconceptions are discussed. Based on the review of literature, we found that students exhibit various misconceptions and other difficulties in syntactic knowledge, conceptual knowledge, and strategic knowledge. These difficulties experienced by students are related to many factors including unfamiliarity of syntax, natural language, math knowledge, inaccurate mental models, lack of strategies, programming environments, and teachers' knowledge and instruction. However, many sources of students' difficulties have connections with students' prior knowledge. To better understand and address students' misconceptions and other difficulties, various instructional approaches and tools have been developed. Nevertheless, the dissemination of these approaches and tools has been limited. Thus, first, we suggest enhancing the dissemination of existing tools and approaches and investigating their long-term effects. Second, we recommend that computing education research move beyond documenting misconceptions to address the development of students' (mis)conceptions by integrating conceptual change theories. Third, we believe that developing and enhancing instructors' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), including their knowledge of students' misconceptions and ability to apply effective instructional approaches and tools to address students' difficulties, is vital to the success of teaching introductory programming.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Acher:2017:TSP, author = "Mathieu Acher and Roberto E. Lopez-Herrejon and Rick Rabiser", title = "Teaching Software Product Lines: a Snapshot of Current Practices and Challenges", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = dec, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3088440", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Software Product Line (SPL) engineering has emerged to provide the means to efficiently model, produce, and maintain multiple similar software variants, exploiting their common properties, and managing their variabilities (differences). With over two decades of existence, the community of SPL researchers and practitioners is thriving, as can be attested by the extensive research output and the numerous successful industrial projects. Education has a key role to support the next generation of practitioners to build highly complex, variability-intensive systems. Yet, it is unclear how the concepts of variability and SPLs are taught, what are the possible missing gaps and difficulties faced, what are the benefits, and what is the material available. Also, it remains unclear whether scholars teach what is actually needed by industry. In this article, we report on three initiatives we have conducted with scholars, educators, industry practitioners, and students to further understand the connection between SPLs and education, that is, an online survey on teaching SPLs we performed with 35 scholars, another survey on learning SPLs we conducted with 25 students, as well as two workshops held at the International Software Product Line Conference in 2014 and 2015 with both researchers and industry practitioners participating. We build upon the two surveys and the workshops to derive recommendations for educators to continue improving the state of practice of teaching SPLs, aimed at both individual educators as well as the wider community.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Weintrop:2017:CBB, author = "David Weintrop and Uri Wilensky", title = "Comparing Block-Based and Text-Based Programming in High School Computer Science Classrooms", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = dec, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3089799", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The number of students taking high school computer science classes is growing. Increasingly, these students are learning with graphical, block-based programming environments either in place of or prior to traditional text-based programming languages. Despite their growing use in formal settings, relatively little empirical work has been done to understand the impacts of using block-based programming environments in high school classrooms. In this article, we present the results of a 5-week, quasi-experimental study comparing isomorphic block-based and text-based programming environments in an introductory high school programming class. The findings from this study show students in both conditions improved their scores between pre- and postassessments; however, students in the blocks condition showed greater learning gains and a higher level of interest in future computing courses. Students in the text condition viewed their programming experience as more similar to what professional programmers do and as more effective at improving their programming ability. No difference was found between students in the two conditions with respect to confidence or enjoyment. The implications of these findings with respect to pedagogy and design are discussed, along with directions for future work.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Witherspoon:2017:DCT, author = "Eben B. Witherspoon and Ross M. Higashi and Christian D. Schunn and Emily C. Baehr and Robin Shoop", title = "Developing Computational Thinking through a Virtual Robotics Programming Curriculum", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "1", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = dec, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3104982", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Computational thinking describes key principles from computer science that are broadly generalizable. Robotics programs can be engaging learning environments for acquiring core computational thinking competencies. However, few empirical studies evaluate the effectiveness of a robotics programming curriculum for developing computational thinking knowledge and skills. This study measures pre/post gains with new computational thinking assessments given to middle school students who participated in a virtual robotics programming curriculum. Overall, participation in the virtual robotics curriculum was related to significant gains in pre- to posttest scores, with larger gains for students who made further progress through the curriculum. The success of this intervention suggests that participation in a scaffolded programming curriculum, within the context of virtual robotics, supports the development of generalizable computational thinking knowledge and skills that are associated with increased problem-solving performance on nonrobotics computing tasks. Furthermore, the particular units that students engage in may determine their level of growth in these competencies.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Grissom:2017:HSC, author = "Scott Grissom and Ren{\'e}e Mccauley and Laurie Murphy", title = "How Student Centered is the Computer Science Classroom? {A} Survey of College Faculty", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "1", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = dec, year = "2017", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3143200", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Mon Jan 22 10:10:24 MST 2018", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Student-centered instructional practices structure a class so that students interact with each other, engage deeply with the content, and receive formative feedback. These evidence-based practices benefit all students but are particularly effective with underrepresented learners, including women and members of other minority groups. To what extent have computer science (CS) faculty embraced these strategies? We surveyed over 700 U.S. faculty to find out. Results suggest that female faculty, associate professors, and those teaching courses with enrollment above 80 students are more likely to use these student-centered practices. Across all responses, 20\% of faculty use student--student interaction on a regular basis during class. In contrast, 38\% of faculty rely on lectures for content delivery. Results were also compared with published data for other academic disciplines. CS faculty are less likely to use these practices compared to their non-STEM colleagues but more likely to use these practices compared to other STEM discipline faculty. Overall, CS faculty have adopted student-centered practices to some degree, but our community should strive for higher adoption rates to help as many students as possible learn and remain in computer science.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Sherriff:2018:CLP, author = "Mark Sherriff and Sarah Heckman", title = "Capstones and Large Projects in Computing Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "2", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = jul, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3229882", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Capstone and large projects in computing education are used as a vehicle for giving students as close to a real-world'' experience in software development as possible within the constraints of a computing degree program. This special issue presents four articles that focus on empirical research on capstone or other large-scale projects. These articles discuss areas such as project selection, working with external stakeholders, choosing the appropriate development methodology, incorporating creative activities to support student engagement, and learning.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Braught:2018:MIP, author = "Grant Braught and John Maccormick and James Bowring and Quinn Burke and Barbara Cutler and David Goldschmidt and Mukkai Krishnamoorthy and Wesley Turner and Steven Huss-Lederman and Bonnie Mackellar and Allen Tucker", title = "A Multi-Institutional Perspective on {H\slash FOSS} Projects in the Computing Curriculum", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = jul, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3145476", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Many computer science programs have capstone experiences or project courses that allow students to integrate knowledge from the full breadth of their major. Such capstone projects may be student-designed, instructor-designed, designed in conjunction with outside companies, or integrated with ongoing free and open source (FOSS) projects. The literature shows that the FOSS approach has attracted a great deal of interest, in particular when implemented with projects that have humanitarian goals (HFOSS). In this article, we describe five unique models from five distinct types of institutions for incorporating sustained FOSS or HFOSS (alternatively H/FOSS) project work into capstone experiences or courses. The goal is to provide instructors wishing to integrate open source experiences into their curriculum with additional perspectives and resources to help in adapting this approach to the specific needs and goals of their institution and students. All of the models presented are based on sustained engagement with H/FOSS projects that last at least one semester and often more. Each model is described in terms of its characteristics and how it fits the needs of the institution using the model. Assessment of each model is also presented. We then discuss the themes that are common across the models, such as project selection, team formation, mentoring, and student assessment. We examine the choices made by each model, as well as the challenges faced. We end with a discussion how the models have leveraged institutional initiatives and collaborations with outside organizations to address some of the challenges associated with these projects.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Steghofer:2018:IES, author = "Jan-Philipp Stegh{\"o}fer and H{\aa}kan Burden and Regina Hebig and Gul Calikli and Robert Feldt and Imed Hammouda and Jennifer Horkoff and Eric Knauss and Grischa Liebel", title = "Involving External Stakeholders in Project Courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "2", pages = "8:1--8:??", month = jul, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152098", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Problem: The involvement of external stakeholders in capstone projects and project courses is desirable due to its potential positive effects on the students. Capstone projects particularly profit from the inclusion of an industrial partner to make the project relevant and help students acquire professional skills. In addition, an increasing push towards education that is aligned with industry and incorporates industrial partners can be observed. However, the involvement of external stakeholders in teaching moments can create friction and could, in the worst case, lead to frustration of all involved parties. Contribution: We developed a model that allows analysing the involvement of external stakeholders in university courses both in a retrospective fashion, to gain insights from past course instances, and in a constructive fashion, to plan the involvement of external stakeholders. Key Concepts: The conceptual model and the accompanying guideline guide the teachers in their analysis of stakeholder involvement. The model is comprised of several activities (define, execute, and evaluate the collaboration). The guideline provides questions that the teachers should answer for each of these activities. In the constructive use, the model allows teachers to define an action plan based on an analysis of potential stakeholders and the pedagogical objectives. In the retrospective use, the model allows teachers to identify issues that appeared during the project and their underlying causes. Drawing from ideas of the reflective practitioner, the model contains an emphasis on reflection and interpretation of the observations made by the teacher and other groups involved in the courses. Key Lessons: Applying the model retrospectively to a total of eight courses shows that it is possible to reveal hitherto implicit risks and assumptions and to gain a better insight into the interaction between external stakeholders and students. Our empirical data reveals seven recurring risk themes that categorise the different risks appearing in the analysed courses. These themes can also be used to categorise mitigation strategies to address these risks proactively. Additionally, aspects not related to external stakeholders, e.g., about the interaction of the project with other courses in the study programme, have been revealed. The constructive use of the model for one course has proved helpful in identifying action alternatives and finally deciding to not include external stakeholders in the project due to the perceived cost-benefit-ratio. Implications to Practice: Our evaluation shows that the model is a viable and useful tool that allows teachers to reason about and plan the involvement of external stakeholders in a variety of course settings, and in particular in capstone projects.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "8", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Saltz:2018:SMG, author = "Jeffrey S. Saltz and Robert R. Heckman", title = "A Scalable Methodology to Guide Student Teams Executing Computing Projects", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "2", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = jul, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3145477", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article reports on a sequential mixed-methods research study, which compared different approaches on how to guide students through a semester-long data science project. Four different methodologies, ranging from a traditional just assign some intermediate milestones'' to other more Agile methodologies, were first compared via a controlled experiment. The results of this initial experiment showed that the project methodology used made a significant difference in student outcomes. Surprisingly, the Agile Kanban approach was found to be much more effective than the Agile Scrum methodology. Based on these initial results, in the second semester, we focused on use of the Kanban methodology. The findings in the second, more qualitative phase, confirmed the methodology's usefulness and scalability. A key issue when using the scrum methodology was that the students had a very difficult time estimating what could be completed in each of their two-week sprints. The Kanban board, which visually shows and limits work-in-progress, was found to be an effective way for students to communicate with each other as well as with their instructor. In addition, Agile Kanban also streamlined the work required for instructors to efficiently provide guidance to student teams and to understand each team's status. In summary, a scalable Kanban methodology, which can be applied to a wide variety of student computing projects, was found to an effective methodology to guide and manage student projects, improving student outcomes and minimizing instructor workload.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Krusche:2018:STT, author = "Stephan Krusche and Dora Dzvonyar and Han Xu and Bernd Bruegge", title = "Software Theater-Teaching Demo-Oriented Prototyping", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "2", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = jul, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3145454", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Modern capstone courses use agile methods to deliver and demonstrate software early in the project. However, a simple demonstration of functional and static aspects does not provide real-world software usage context, although this is integral to understand software requirements. Software engineering involves capabilities such as creativity, imagination, and interaction, which are typically not emphasized in software engineering courses. A more engaging, dynamic way of presenting software prototypes is needed to demonstrate the context in which the software is used. We combine agile methods, scenario-based design, and theatrical aspects into software theater, an approach to present visionary scenarios using techniques borrowed from theater and film, including props and humor. We describe the software theater workflow, provide examples, and explain patterns to demonstrate its potential. We illustrate two large case studies in which we teach students with varying levels of experience to apply software theater: a capstone course involving industrial customers with 100 students and an interactive lecture-based course with 400 students. We empirically evaluated the use of software theater in both courses. Our evaluations show that students can understand and apply software theater within one semester and that this technique increases their motivation to prepare demonstrations even early in the project. Software theater is more creative, memorable, dynamic, and engaging than normal demonstration techniques and brings fun into education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Jones:2018:CCD, author = "Keith S. Jones and Akbar Siami Namin and Miriam E. Armstrong", title = "The Core Cyber-Defense Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities That Cybersecurity Students Should Learn in School: Results from Interviews with Cybersecurity Professionals", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "3", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = sep, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152893", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Our cybersecurity workforce needs surpass our ability to meet them. These needs could be mitigated by developing relevant curricula that prioritize the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) most important to cybersecurity jobs. To identify the KSAs needed for performing cybersecurity jobs, we administered survey interviews to 44 cyber professionals at the premier hacker conferences Black Hat 2016 and DEF CON 24. Questions concerned 32 KSAs related to cyber defense. Participants rated how important each KSA was to their job and indicated where they had learned that KSA. Fifteen of these KSAs were rated as being of higher-than-neutral importance. Participants also answered open-ended questions meant to uncover additional KSAs that are important to cyber-defense work. Overall, the data suggest that KSAs related to networks, vulnerabilities, programming, and interpersonal communication should be prioritized in cybersecurity curricula.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Wainer:2018:CEP, author = "Jacques Wainer and Eduardo C. Xavier", title = "A Controlled Experiment on {Python} vs {C} for an Introductory Programming Course: Students' Outcomes", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "3", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = sep, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152894", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/python.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We performed a controlled experiment comparing a C and a Python Introductory Programming course. Three faculty members at University of Campinas, Brazil, taught the same CS1 course for the same majors in two different semesters, one version in Python and one in C, with a total of 391 students involved in the experiment. We measured the dropout rate, the failure rate, the grades on the two exams, the proportion of completed lab assignments, and the number of submissions per completed assignment. There was no difference in the dropout rate. The failure rate for Python was 16.9\% against 23.1\% for C. The effect size (Cohen's D) on the comparison of Python against C on the midterm exam was 0.27, and 0.38 for the final exam. The effect size for the proportion of completed assignments was 0.39 and the effect size for the number of submissions per assignment was -0.61 (Python had less submissions per completed assignments). Thus, for all measures, with the exception of dropout rate, the version of the course in Python yielded better student outcomes than the version in C and all differences are significant (with 95\% confidence) with the exception of the failure rate (p-value = 0.12).", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Turner:2018:PRC, author = "Scott Alexander Turner and Manuel A. P{\'e}rez-Qui{\~n}ones and Stephen H. Edwards", title = "Peer Review in {CS2}: Conceptual Learning and High-Level Thinking", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "3", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = sep, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152715", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In computer science, students could benefit from exposure to critical programming concepts from multiple perspectives. Peer review is one method to allow students to experience authentic uses of the concepts in an activity that is not itself programming. In this work, we examine how to implement the peer review process in early, object-oriented computer science courses as a way to increase the students' knowledge of programming concepts, specifically Abstraction, Decomposition, and Encapsulation, and to develop their higher-level thinking skills. We are exploring the peer review process, the effects of the type of review on the reviewers, and the results this has on the students' learning. To study these ideas, we used peer review activities in CS2 classes at two universities over the course of a semester. Using three groups (one reviewing their peers, one reviewing the instructor, and one completing small design or coding assignments), we measured the students' conceptual understanding throughout the semester with concept maps and the reviews they completed. We found that reviewing helped students learn Decomposition, especially those reviewing the instructor's programs, but we did not find that it improved the students' level of thinking. Overall, reviews (peer or otherwise) are beneficial for teaching Decomposition to CS2 students and can be used as an alternative method for teaching other object-oriented programming concepts.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Sentance:2018:CBR, author = "Sue Sentance and Jane Sinclair and Carl Simmons and Andrew Csizmadia", title = "Classroom-Based Research Projects for Computing Teachers: Facilitating Professional Learning", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "3", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = sep, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3171129", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The introduction of Computing to the national curriculum in England has led to a situation where in-service teachers need to develop subject knowledge and pedagogical expertise in computer science, which presents a significant challenge. Professional learning opportunities can support this; these may be most effective when situated in the teachers' own working practices. This article describes a project to support Computing teachers in developing pedagogical skills by carrying out classroom-based research in their schools. A group of 22 primary (Grades K--5) and secondary (Grades 6--10) teachers from schools across England planned, designed, and implemented research projects either individually or in small groups, supported by a team of university colleagues. Inter and intra group progress was shared online and face-to-face within a distributed community of inquiry. Data collection included surveys, video data, and the projects completed by the teachers. The findings from the project are analysed using Clarke and Hollingsworth's Interconnected Model of Teacher Professional Growth (IMTPG), which enables an identification and exploration of teacher change. Results of the analysis demonstrate that the approach can foster growth networks''-the construct used within IMTPG to indicate teacher change which is likely to be sustained and fundamental to teachers' understanding. The individual nature of this change indicates that the approach supports personal change related to each teacher's specific situation. Although there is a huge literature on action research as part of teacher professional learning, we believe this to be the first time this has been carried out in the context of computer science education. We conclude by critically reflecting on the lessons that we have learned in leading this project.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Taipalus:2018:ECS, author = "Toni Taipalus and Mikko Siponen and Tero Vartiainen", title = "Errors and Complications in {SQL} Query Formulation", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "3", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = sep, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3231712", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:50 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "SQL is taught in almost all university level database courses, yet SQL has received relatively little attention in educational research. In this study, we present a database management system independent categorization of SQL query errors that students make in an introductory database course. We base the categorization on previous literature, present a class of logical errors that has not been studied in detail, and review and complement these findings by analyzing over 33,000 SQL queries submitted by students. Our analysis verifies error findings presented in previous literature and reveals new types of errors, namely logical errors recurring in similar manners among different students. We present a listing of fundamental SQL query concepts we have identified and based our exercises on, a categorization of different errors and complications, and an operational model for designing SQL exercises.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Korhonen:2018:SSI, author = "Ari Korhonen and Shuchi Grover", title = "Second Special Issue on Learning Analytics in Computing Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "4", pages = "16:1--16:??", month = nov, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3243140", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "16", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Tomkin:2018:IGP, author = "Jonathan H. Tomkin and Matthew West and Geoffrey L. Herman", title = "An Improved Grade Point Average, With Applications to {CS} Undergraduate Education Analytics", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "4", pages = "17:1--17:??", month = nov, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3157086", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "We present a methodological improvement for calculating Grade Point Averages (GPAs). Heterogeneity in grading between courses systematically biases observed GPAs for individual students: the GPA observed depends on course selection. We show how a logistic model can account for course selection by simulating how every student in a sample would perform if they took all available courses, giving a new modeled GPA.'' We then use 10 years of grade data from a large university to demonstrate that this modeled GPA is a more accurate predictor of student performance in individual courses than the observed GPA. Using Computer Science (CS) as an example learning analytics application, it is found that required CS courses give significantly lower grades than average courses. This depresses the recorded GPAs of CS majors: modeled GPAs are 0.25 points higher than those that are observed. The modeled GPA also correlates much more closely with standardized test scores than the observed GPA: the correlation with Math ACT is 0.37 for the modeled GPA and is 0.20 for the observed GPA. This implies that standardized test scores are much better predictors of student performance than might otherwise be assumed.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "17", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Crues:2018:HDG, author = "R. Wes Crues and Genevieve M. Henricks and Michelle Perry and Suma Bhat and Carolyn J. Anderson and Najmuddin Shaik and Lawrence Angrave", title = "How do Gender, Learning Goals, and Forum Participation Predict Persistence in a Computer Science {MOOC}?", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "4", pages = "18:1--18:??", month = nov, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152892", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)-in part, because of their free, flexible, and relatively anonymous nature-may provide a means for helping overcome the large gender gap in Computer Science (CS). This study examines why women and men chose to enroll in a CS MOOC and how this is related to successful behavior in the course by (a) using k-means clustering to explore the reasons why women and men enrolled in this MOOC and then (b) analyzing if these reasons are related to forum participation and, ultimately, persistence in the course. Findings suggest that women and men have different reasons for taking this CS MOOC, and they persist at different rates, an outcome that is moderated by forum participation.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "18", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Lagus:2018:TLM, author = "Jarkko Lagus and Krista Longi and Arto Klami and Arto Hellas", title = "Transfer-Learning Methods in Programming Course Outcome Prediction", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "4", pages = "19:1--19:??", month = nov, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3152714", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "The computing education research literature contains a wide variety of methods that can be used to identify students who are either at risk of failing their studies or who could benefit from additional challenges. Many of these are based on machine-learning models that learn to make predictions based on previously observed data. However, in educational contexts, differences between courses set huge challenges for the generalizability of these methods. For example, traditional machine-learning methods assume identical distribution in all data-in our terms, traditional machine-learning methods assume that all teaching contexts are alike. In practice, data collected from different courses can be very different as a variety of factors may change, including grading, materials, teaching approach, and the students. Transfer-learning methodologies have been created to address this challenge. They relax the strict assumption of identical distribution for training and test data. Some similarity between the contexts is still needed for efficient learning. In this work, we review the concept of transfer learning especially for the purpose of predicting the outcome of an introductory programming course and contrast the results with those from traditional machine-learning methods. The methods are evaluated using data collected in situ from two separate introductory programming courses. We empirically show that transfer-learning methods are able to improve the predictions, especially in cases with limited amount of training data, for example, when making early predictions for a new context. The difference in predictive power is, however, rather subtle, and traditional machine-learning models can be sufficiently accurate assuming the contexts are closely related and the features describing the student activity are carefully chosen to be insensitive to the fine differences.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "19", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Kori:2018:ASP, author = "K{\"u}lli Kori and Margus Pedaste and Olev Must", title = "The Academic, Social, and Professional Integration Profiles of Information Technology Students", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "4", pages = "20:1--20:??", month = nov, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3183343", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "Low retention rates in higher education Information Technology (IT) studies have led to an unmet demand for IT specialists. Therefore, universities need to apply interventions to increase retention rates and provide the labor market with more IT graduates. However, students with different characteristics may need different types of interventions. The current study applies a person-oriented approach and identifies the profiles of first-year IT students in order to design group-specific support. Tinto's [13, 14] integration model was used as a framework to analyze questionnaire data from 509 first-year IT students in Estonia. The students' response profiles were distinguished through latent profile analysis, and the students were divided into four profiles based on their responses to questions about academic integration, professional integration, and graduation-related self-efficacy. The difference in academic integration was smaller among the profiles than the difference in professional integration. Knowing these profiles helps universities to design interventions for each student group and apply the interventions to increase the number of IT graduates.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "20", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Exter:2018:CCP, author = "Marisa Exter and Secil Caskurlu and Todd Fernandez", title = "Comparing Computing Professionals' Perceptions of Importance of Skills and Knowledge on the Job and Coverage in Undergraduate Experiences", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "4", pages = "21:1--21:??", month = nov, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218430", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "This article discusses the findings of a survey of nearly 300 computing professionals who are involved in the design and/or development of software across a variety of industries. We report on the surveyed professionals' perceptions of the importance of a range of topics and skills, and the degree to which 55 recent graduates felt that each topic or skill was emphasized in their undergraduate experience. Our findings highlight the value of breadth and flexibility in technical skills, and the universal importance of critical thinking, problem solving, on-the-job learning, and the ability to work well in cross-disciplinary teams. These findings align roughly with recommendations by the ACM/IEEE task force on computing curricula. However, the recent graduates we surveyed report inconsistent coverage of these most important areas within their degree experiences. We discuss implications for education and for future research.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "21", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Mazur:2018:FTF, author = "Rebecca Mazur and Rebecca H. Woodland", title = "A Fringe Topic in a Fragile Network: How Digital Literacy and Computer Science Instruction Is Supported (or Not) by Teacher Ties", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "18", number = "4", pages = "22:1--22:??", month = nov, year = "2018", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218361", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", abstract = "In this NSF CSforALL funded research study, the authors sought to understand the extent to which an urban district's teacher instructional support network enabled or constrained capacity to implement and diffuse Digital Literacy and Computer Science (DLCS) instructional practices throughout the K-12 curriculum. Social network analysis was used to investigate informal teacher advice-seeking and advice-giving patterns of DLCS support. Network measures of cohesion and centrality were computed. Findings revealed that DLCS-focused teacher support networks tend to exhibit very low density, have relatively few ties, include a high number of isolates (teachers with no connections), and centralize around a particular actor. In addition, a low level of overlap was found between DLCS networks and primary instructional networks. Overall, study findings suggest that teacher networks are not well-structured to support the flow of DLCS advice and support. The authors conclude that examining and strengthening teacher networks of instructional support may be a crucial step for educational leaders concerned with school improvement and the diffusion of DLCS curricula in US schools.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "22", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hamouda:2019:RIT, author = "Sally Hamouda and Stephen H. Edwards and Hicham G. Elmongui and Jeremy V. Ernst and Clifford A. Shaffer", title = "{RecurTutor}: an Interactive Tutorial for Learning Recursion", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "1", pages = "1:1--1:??", month = jan, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218328", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218328", abstract = "Recursion is one of the most important and hardest topics in lower division computer science courses. As it is an advanced programming skill, the best way to learn it is through targeted practice exercises. But the best practice problems are time consuming to manually grade by an instructor. As a consequence, students historically have completed only a small number of recursion programming exercises as part of their coursework. We present a new way for teaching such programming skills. Students view examples and visualizations, then practice a wide variety of automatically assessed, small-scale programming exercises that address the sub-skills required to learn recursion. The basic recursion tutorial (RecurTutor) teaches material typically encountered in CS2 courses. Students who used RecurTutor had significantly better grades on recursion exam questions than did students who used typical instruction. Students who experienced RecurTutor spent significantly more time on solving recursive programming exercises than students who experienced typical instruction, and came out with a significantly higher confidence level.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "1", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Rucker:2019:HES, author = "Michael T. R{\"u}cker and Niels Pinkwart", title = "{How Else Should It Work?''} {A} Grounded Theory of Pre-College Students' Understanding of Computing Devices", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "1", pages = "2:1--2:??", month = jan, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3226592", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3226592", abstract = "In order to understand and evaluate computing technology in their environment, students first need to be able to identify it. This task becomes increasingly difficult, however, as computing systems become more and more ubiquitous and invisible. Based on the analysis of semi-structured focus interviews with 28 German pre-college students, we present a grounded theory of their conceptions and reasoning related to the identification of computing within technical devices. At its core is the finding that many students seemed to differentiate technical artifacts with respect to three conceived levels of capability. Many household appliances, for instance, were very well seen as electronic and programmed, but still as too limited in their capability to warrant the presence of a real'' computer or to be related to informatics. Given the increasing versatility, power, and associated risks of modern embedded systems as well as the advent of the internet of things, this issue should clearly be addressed. Based on our grounded theory, we propose some first ideas for how this might be done.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "2", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Keuning:2019:SLR, author = "Hieke Keuning and Johan Jeuring and Bastiaan Heeren", title = "A Systematic Literature Review of Automated Feedback Generation for Programming Exercises", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "1", pages = "3:1--3:??", month = jan, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3231711", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3231711", abstract = "Formative feedback, aimed at helping students to improve their work, is an important factor in learning. Many tools that offer programming exercises provide automated feedback on student solutions. We have performed a systematic literature review to find out what kind of feedback is provided, which techniques are used to generate the feedback, how adaptable the feedback is, and how these tools are evaluated. We have designed a labelling to classify the tools, and use Narciss' feedback content categories to classify feedback messages. We report on the results of coding a total of 101 tools. We have found that feedback mostly focuses on identifying mistakes and less on fixing problems and taking a next step. Furthermore, teachers cannot easily adapt tools to their own needs. However, the diversity of feedback types has increased over the past decades and new techniques are being applied to generate feedback that is increasingly helpful for students.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "3", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Marin:2019:EIB, author = "B. Mar{\'\i}n and J. Frez and J. Cruz-Lemus and M. Genero", title = "An Empirical Investigation on the Benefits of Gamification in Programming Courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "1", pages = "4:1--4:??", month = jan, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3231709", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3231709", abstract = "Context: Programming courses are compulsory for most engineering degrees, but students' performance on these courses is often not as good as expected. Programming is difficult for students to learn, given that it includes a lot of new, complex, and abstract topics. All of this has led experts to the conclusion that new teaching techniques are required if students are to be motivated and engaged in learning on programming courses. Gamification has come to be an effective technique in education in general, and is especially useful in programming courses. This motivated us to develop an open source gamified platform, called UDPiler, for use in a programming course. Objective: The main goal of this article is to obtain empirical evidence on the improvement of students' learning performance when using UDPiler in comparison to a non-gamified compiler. Method: A quasi-experiment was performed with two groups of first-year engineering students at Diego Portales University in Chile, using a non-gamified compiler and a gamified platform, respectively. Results: The results reveal that the students obtained better marks when the gamified platform was used to learn C programming. In addition, there is statistical significance in favor of there being a positive effect on the learning performance of those students who used the gamified platform. Conclusions: The results allow us to conclude that gamification is an encouraging approach with which to teach C programming, a finding that is aligned with previous empirical studies concerning gamification on programming courses, carried out in academic contexts. Nonetheless, we are aware that further validation is also required to corroborate and strengthen the findings obtained and to investigate whether the kind of gamified elements (mechanics, dynamics, and aesthetics) used have any influence on students' performance, among other issues that deserve further investigation and that are explained throughout this article.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "4", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Peters:2019:SEP, author = "Anne-Kathrin Peters", title = "Students' Experience of Participation in a Discipline --- a Longitudinal Study of Computer Science and {IT} Engineering Students", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "1", pages = "5:1--5:??", month = jan, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3230011", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3230011", abstract = "This article concludes a longitudinal study with the broader aim to explore learner development as a long-term, social process. One goal has been to inform the endeavours of improving student engagement, retention, as well as under-representation of certain demographics in computing. Students of two computer science--related study programmes (CS/IT) reflected on their engagement in their field of study at different times during the first three study years. Drawing on social identity theory, the focus has been to analyse and describe different ways in which the students experience participation in CS/IT, i.e., doing, thinking, and feeling, in relation to CS/IT, negotiated among different people. Insights into participation in CS/IT were used to discuss what it entails to fit in and become a computing professional. Phenomenographic analysis yields an outcome space that describes increasingly broad ways in which first-, second-, and third-year students experience participation in CS/IT. Two further outcome spaces provide nuanced insights into experiences that are of increasing relevance as the students advance in their studies, participation as problem solving, and problem solving for others. Participation as problem solving appears to be central in this learning environment and the students integrate such experiences into their histories of engagement in CS/IT. In study year 3, the students also reason about participation as problem solving for others that they encounter in the human computer interaction course. However, at that time several students perform a technical problem solver identity and reject such broader ways of participating in CS/IT.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "5", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Abreu:2019:MCQ, author = "Pedro Henriques Abreu and Daniel Castro Silva and Anabela Gomes", title = "Multiple-Choice Questions in Programming Courses: Can We Use Them and Are Students Motivated by Them?", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "1", pages = "6:1--6:??", month = jan, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3243137", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3243137", abstract = "Low performance of nontechnical engineering students in programming courses is a problem that remains unsolved. Over the years, many authors have tried to identify the multiple causes for that failure, but there is unanimity on the fact that motivation is a key factor for the acquisition of knowledge by students. To better understand motivation, a new evaluation strategy has been adopted in a second programming course of a nontechnical degree, consisting of 91 students. The goals of the study were to identify if those students felt more motivated to answer multiple-choice questions in comparison to development questions, and what type of question better allows for testing student knowledge acquisition. Possibilities around the motivational qualities of multiple-choice questions in programming courses will be discussed in light of the results. In conclusion, it seems clear that student performance varies according to the type of question. Our study points out that multiple-choice questions can be seen as a motivational factor for engineering students and it might also be a good way to test acquired programming concepts. Therefore, this type of question could be further explored in the evaluation points.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "6", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Clear:2019:GSE, author = "Tony Clear and Sarah Beecham", title = "Global Software Engineering Education Practice Continuum Special Issue of the {{\booktitle{ACM Transactions on Computing Education}}}", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "2", pages = "7:1--7:??", month = feb, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3294011", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3294011", abstract = "We are pleased to introduce this Special Issue on Global Software Engineering Education published by the ACM Transactions on Computing Education (TOCE) that focuses on educational practices to prepare students for a global workplace. This issue comes at a time when universities are recognizing the need to provide courses that address the challenges of distributed development and presents research that will facilitate course leaders currently running, or embarking on, Global Software Engineering Education (GSE-Ed).", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "7", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Bosnic:2019:AID, author = "Ivana Bosni{\'c} and Igor Cavrak and Mario Zagar", title = "Assessing the Impact of the Distributed Software Development Course on the Careers of Young Software Engineers", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "2", pages = "8:1--8:??", month = feb, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3274529", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3274529", abstract = "Various software engineering (SE) curricula in higher education have started including courses on global software engineering (GSE), carried out as internationally distributed project-based courses. These courses, known for their closeness to real-world'' work experience, emphasize the importance of involving industry partners as customers and focus on soft skills essential for employment, an aspect often neglected in engineering education. However, not many such courses are long-lived or consistent in form throughout the years, making their impact and relevance hard to assess. The Distributed Software Development course (DSD), currently run among three universities in Croatia, Italy, and Sweden, has now been carried out for 15 years consecutively, providing a rich source of in-course and post-graduation data. To evaluate the students' experiences of the course after they graduate and start working, a study has been carried out among former DSD students from the University of Zagreb, Croatia. Its goal is to understand how useful this course was in students' early careers, both in first and current employment, as well as related factors at the workplace (magnitude of distributed collaboration, company size). The study results show the relevance of such distributed course experiences for future employment, as well as the importance of building upon soft skills as part of the software engineering curricula. Higher education institutions are invited to consider including such courses in the software engineering curriculum, for the benefit of their students and, indirectly, students' future employers.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "8", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Frezza:2019:ASI, author = "S. Frezza and M. Daniels and A. Wilkin", title = "Assessing Students' {IT} Professional Values in a Global Project Setting", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "2", pages = "9:1--9:??", month = feb, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3231710", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3231710", abstract = "This research aimed at evaluating the development and use of low-cost affective domain assessment instruments, culminating with personal and group characterization of representative global information technology (IT) professional values. Values and valuing are a compelling component of Bloom's affective domain of learning for engineering education. In helping students develop professional engineering competencies, it is essential that they develop not just cognitive knowledge of something but also values related to that knowledge and the ability to express these values in professional action. However, even if some professional values are identified, understood, and expressed, assessing students' values and valuing are difficult, and assessment instruments are often difficult to develop, particularly for assessing student learning in the context of a particular course. This exploratory study aimed at examining assessment of dispositional knowledge in the context of global software engineering (GSE). It focused on the development and use of a set of instruments for assessing affective domain student learning of global IT/software engineering (SE) professional values. The project included making explicit the IT professional values of interest among the participating faculty in the form of actionable value statements. Following a process derived from Thurstone scale development, the project included validation of these statements with an expert panel as question roots, followed by the use of these questions to investigate student and alumni receiving, responding, and valuing of these professional values. The effort needed to generate questionnaires suitable for course use was relatively low; these questionnaires were deployed to students and alumni from an open-ended global software engineering project course. Students responding reported significant agreement when receiving these global values, but sent more mixed responses in responding to and valuing them. The effort helped identify several actionable IT professional values worth reinforcing in future course offerings.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "9", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Bosnic:2019:MDD, author = "Ivana Bosni{\'c} and Federico Ciccozzi and Ivica Crnkovi{\'c} and Igor Cavrak and Elisabetta {Di Nitto} and Raffaela Mirandola and Mario Zagar", title = "Managing Diversity in Distributed Software Development Education --- a Longitudinal Case Study", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "2", pages = "10:1--10:??", month = feb, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218310", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218310", abstract = "Teaching Distributed Software Development with real distributed settings is a challenging and rewarding task. Distributed courses are idiosyncratically more challenging than standard local courses. We have experienced this during our distributed course, which has been run for 14 consecutive years. In this article, we present and analyze the emerging diversities specific to distributed project-based courses. We base our arguments on our experience, and we exploit a three-layered distributed course model, which we use to analyze several course elements throughout the 14-years lifetime of our distributed project-based course. In particular, we focus on the changes that the course underwent throughout the years, combining findings obtained from the analyzed data with our own teaching perceptions. Additionally, we propose insights on how to manage the various diversity aspects.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "10", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Isomottonen:2019:SGE, author = "Ville Isom{\"o}tt{\"o}nen and Mats Daniels and {\AA}sa Cajander and Arnold Pears and Roger Mcdermott", title = "Searching for Global Employability: Can Students Capitalize on Enabling Learning Environments?", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "2", pages = "11:1--11:??", month = feb, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3277568", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3277568", abstract = "Literature on global employability signifies enabling'' learning environments where students encounter ill-formed and open-ended problems and are required to adapt and be creative. Varying forms of projects,'' co-located and distributed, have populated computing curricula for decades and are generally deemed an answer to this call. We performed a qualitative study to describe how project course students are able to capitalize on the promise of enabling learning environments. This critical perspective was motivated by the circumstance of the present-day education systems being heavily regulated for the precipitated production of human capital. The students involved in our study described education system-imposed and group-imposed narratives of narrowed opportunities, as well as many self-related challenges. However, students welcomed autonomy as an enjoyable condition and linked it with motivation. Whole-group commitment and self-related attributes such as taking care of one's own learning appeared as important conditions. The results highlight targets for interventions that can counteract constraining study conditions and continue the march of projects as a means to foster complex learning for the benefit of students and professionalism in global software engineering.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "11", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hjelsvold:2019:EEG, author = "Rune Hjelsvold and Deepti Mishra", title = "Exploring and Expanding {GSE} Education with Open Source Software Development", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "2", pages = "12:1--12:??", month = feb, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3230012", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/gnu.bib; http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3230012", abstract = "Global software engineering (GSE) courses traditionally require cooperation between at least two universities so as to provide a distributed development environment to the students. In this study, we explore an alternative way to organize a global software engineering course where students work on open source software development (OSSD) projects rather than in a multi-university collaboration setting. The results show that the new setup may provide core GSE challenges as well as challenges associated with software development outsourcing and challenges related to working on large open source software. The present article compares the experiences gained from running a combined GSE and OSSD course against the experiences gained from running a traditional GSE course. The two alternatives are compared in terms of students' learning outcomes and course organization. The authors found that a combined GSE and OSSD course provides learning opportunities that are partly overlapping with, and partly complementary to, a traditional GSE course. The authors also found that the combined OSSD and GSE course was somewhat easier to organize because most of the activities took place in a single university setting. The authors used the extended GSE taxonomy for the comparison and found it to be a useful tool for this, although it had some limitations in expressive power. Therefore, two additional relationship dimensions are proposed that will further enrich the extended taxonomy in classifying GSE (and OSSD) projects.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "12", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Billingsley:2019:TSC, author = "William Billingsley and Rosemary Torbay and Peter R. Fletcher and Richard N. Thomas and Jim R. H. Steel and J{\"o}rn Guy S{\"u}{\ss}", title = "Taking a Studio Course in Distributed Software Engineering from a Large Local Cohort to a Small Global Cohort", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "2", pages = "13:1--13:??", month = feb, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218284", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218284", abstract = "One of the challenges of global software engineering courses is to bring the practices and experience of large geographically distributed teams into the local and time-limited environment of a classroom. Over the last 6 years, an on-campus studio course for software engineering has been developed at the University of Queensland (UQ) that places small teams of students on different features of a common product. This creates two layers of collaboration, as students work within their teams on individual features, and the teams must interoperate with many other teams on the common product. The class uses continuous integration practices and predominantly asynchronous communication channels (Slack and GitHub) to facilitate this collaboration. The original goal of this design was to ensure that students would authentically experience issues associated with realistically sized software projects, and learn to apply appropriate software engineering and collaboration practices to overcome them, in a course without significant extra staffing. Data from the development logs showed that most commits take place outside synchronous class hours, and the project operates as a temporally distributed team even though the students are geographically co-located. Since 2015, a course adapted from this format has also been taught at the University of New England (UNE), an Australian regional university that is also a longstanding provider of distance education. In this course, most students study online, and the class has to be able to work globally, because as well as students taking part from around Australia, there are also typically a small number of students taking part from overseas. Transferring the course to a smaller but predominantly online institution has allowed us to evaluate the distributed nature of the course, by considering what aspects of the course needed to change to support students who are geographically distributed, and comparing how the two cohorts behave. This has produced an overall course design, to teach professional distributed software engineering practices, that is adaptable from large classes to small, and from local to global.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "13", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Vizcaino:2019:EGA, author = "Aurora Vizca{\'\i}no and F{\'e}lix Garc{\'\i}a and Ignacio Garc{\'\i}a {Rodriguez De Guzm{\'a}n} and M. {\'A}ngeles Moraga", title = "Evaluating {GSD-Aware}: a Serious Game for Discovering Global Software Development Challenges", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "2", pages = "14:1--14:??", month = feb, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218279", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218279", abstract = "Global Software Development (GSD) is currently a strong industry trend. This means that if computer science engineers are to be trained to deal with this model, it is very important to include the topic in software engineering courses, attempting to ensure that students learn about GSD and become familiar with its advantages and challenges. However, software engineering courses do not always consider including it in their curricula. It must also be recognized that it is difficult to find a suitable method to teach/develop the different skills needed for GSD. There is often a lot of content and not a great deal of time available to teach it. In this article, we propose the use of a serious game called GSD-Aware, with which students can suffer'' some of the typical challenges of GSD by interacting with avatars and by using several means of communication to solve a number of problems posed. The article focuses on the description of the game and on the empirical study conducted to analyze whether GSD-Aware helps students to be conscious of GSD challenges. It was discovered that after 50 minutes playing the game, the students were aware of the greater influence that the following factors can have: lack of coordination, lack of trust, cultural differences, lack of face-to-face and informal communication, time difference, and lack of team spirit. In their final analysis, students agreed that the serious game scenarios helped them to understand what GSD is and to grasp the importance of some GSD challenges.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "14", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Sablis:2019:BLT, author = "Aivars Sablis and Javier Gonzalez-Huerta and Ehsan Zabardast and Darja Smite", title = "Building {LEGO} Towers: an Exercise for Teaching the Challenges of Global Work", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "2", pages = "15:1--15:??", month = feb, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3218249", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:51 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3218249", abstract = "Global software engineering has changed the way software is developed today. To address the new challenges, many universities have launched specially tailored courses to train young professionals to work in globally distributed projects. However, a mere acknowledgment of the geographic, temporal, and cultural differences does not necessarily lead to a deep understanding of the underlying practical implications. Therefore, many universities developed alternative teaching and learning activities, such as multi-university collaborative projects and small-scale simulations or games. In this article, we present a small-scale exercise that uses LEGO bricks to teach skills necessary for global work. We describe the many different interventions that could be implemented in the execution of the exercise. We had seven runs of the exercises and report our findings from executing seven runs of the exercise with the total of 104 students from five different courses in two different universities. Our results suggest that the exercise can be a valuable tool to help students dealing with troublesome knowledge associated with global software engineering and a useful complement to the courses dedicated to this subject.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "15", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Dominguez:2019:EAN, author = "C{\'e}sar Dom{\'\i}nguez and Arturo Jaime and J{\'o}nathan Heras and Francisco J. Garc{\'\i}a-Izquierdo", title = "The Effects of Adding Non-Compulsory Exercises to an Online Learning Tool on Student Performance and Code Copying", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "16:1--16:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3264507", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3264507", abstract = "This study analyzes the impact of adding a review exercises module to an online tool used in a software engineering degree program. The objective of the module is to promote students' self-learning effort to improve their performance. We also intend to determine if this new feature has any effect on the amount of code copies detected in lab sessions when using the same online tool. Two groups of students were compared quantitatively: the first group used the tool exclusively during lab sessions, whereas the second group had the option of employing the tool's new module to enhance their study. The tool allows us to collect interesting data related to the focus of this research: supplementary work completed voluntarily by students and the percentage of students copying others' code during compulsory lab sessions. The results show that the students in the second group achieved better academic results and copied less in lab sessions. In the second group, the students who invested more effort in doing revision exercises and copied less in lab sessions obtained better results; and, interestingly, the effort invested in completing review exercises did not seem to compensate for the learning effort avoided by copying others' exercises during lab sessions. The results show the advantages of a tool used with a dual orientation: compulsory and voluntary. Mandatory usage in lab sessions establishes some milestones that, eventually, act as an incentive fostering learning, while voluntary use reinforces students' perception of the tool's usefulness in terms of learning.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "16", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Richard:2019:DPF, author = "Gabriela T. Richard and Sagun Giri", title = "Digital and Physical Fabrication as Multimodal Learning: Understanding Youth Computational Thinking When Making Integrated Systems Through Bidirectionally Responsive Design", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "17:1--17:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3243138", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3243138", abstract = "This article proposes and explores the kinds of computational thinking, creative practices, design activities, and inclusive learning opportunities provided to diverse high school youth when designing integrated systems through simultaneously physically and digitally responsive wearable games and systems. Previous work in this area, conducted by Richard, coined the term bidirectionally responsive design'' (BRD) to describe the design of dual-feedback systems using multiple digital and physical interfaces. BRD also emphasizes using simplified fabrication tools, media and coding platforms, and microcontrollers common in youth content creation communities and makerspaces. This study provides a framework to analyze computational concepts, practices, and perspectives that leverage an integrated systems and multimodal learning approach, such as BRD, adding to, building on, and integrating previous analytic approaches to looking at Scratch coding, media design, physical computing and e-textiles. Using a detailed case study of one team during one of the early workshop iterations, we conduct a multimodal analysis of bidirectionally responsive making activities and discuss the ways that they present novel understanding of integrating diverse interests and encouraging collaborative and distributed computational thinking. We further examine how BRD operationalizes and extends multimodal learning theory by adding tangible and integrative dimensions as additional modalities learners can leverage to facilitate meaning making, metacognition, and agency. We also discuss how designing integrated systems, as facilitated through BRD, provides an opportunity to engage in authentic practices around the design of complex systems.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "17", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Liao:2019:RML, author = "Soohyun Nam Liao and Daniel Zingaro and Kevin Thai and Christine Alvarado and William G. Griswold and Leo Porter", title = "A Robust Machine Learning Technique to Predict Low-performing Students", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "18:1--18:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3277569", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3277569", abstract = "As enrollments and class sizes in postsecondary institutions have increased, instructors have sought automated and lightweight means to identify students who are at risk of performing poorly in a course. This identification must be performed early enough in the term to allow instructors to assist those students before they fall irreparably behind. This study describes a modeling methodology that predicts student final exam scores in the third week of the term by using the clicker data that is automatically collected for instructors when they employ the Peer Instruction pedagogy. The modeling technique uses a support vector machine binary classifier, trained on one term of a course, to predict outcomes in the subsequent term. We applied this modeling technique to five different courses across the computer science curriculum, taught by three different instructors at two different institutions. Our modeling approach includes a set of strengths not seen wholesale in prior work, while maintaining competitive levels of accuracy with that work. These strengths include using a lightweight source of student data, affording early detection of struggling students, and predicting outcomes across terms in a natural setting (different final exams, minor changes to course content), across multiple courses in a curriculum, and across multiple institutions.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "18", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Denner:2019:DCG, author = "Jill Denner and Shannon Campe and Linda Werner", title = "Does Computer Game Design and Programming Benefit Children? {A} Meta-Synthesis of Research", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "19:1--19:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3277565", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3277565", abstract = "It is widely believed that there are educational benefits to making computer games, but there is no systematic review of research on this topic. This article describes a meta-synthesis of research on children designing and programming computer games that investigates the extent to which there is evidence of benefits for computer science learning and motivation. Over 400 articles were identified, and 68 articles met the inclusion criteria. A systematic analysis and synthesis across studies showed some evidence that computer game design and programming can lead to changes in programming knowledge, problem solving, and computer science attitudes and confidence. However, most of the evidence described engagement in computing-related practices and did not measure learning. The findings were mostly positive, although several studies noted more negative attitudes toward programming after making games. The results were similar across different pedagogical approaches, although social interaction may provide unique opportunities for computer science learning. The synthesis resulted in a list of design elements for studying computer game design and programming activities; these can be used to increase the availability of evidence about learning. The article concludes with the identification of gaps in the research and suggestions for additional research.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "19", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Lakanen:2019:IPC, author = "Antti-Jussi Lakanen and Tommi K{\"a}rkk{\"a}inen", title = "Identifying Pathways to Computer Science: The Long-Term Impact of Short-Term Game Programming Outreach Interventions", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "20:1--20:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3283070", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3283070", abstract = "Short-term outreach interventions are conducted to raise young students' awareness of the computer science (CS) field. Typically, these interventions are targeted at K-12 students, attempting to encourage them to study CS in higher education. This study is based on a series of extra-curricular outreach events that introduced students to the discipline of computing, nurturing creative computational thinking through problem solving and game programming. To assess the long-term impact of this campaign, the participants were contacted and interviewed two to five years after they had attended an outreach event. We studied how participating in the outreach program affected the students' perceptions of CS as a field and, more importantly, how it affected their educational choices. We found that the outreach program generally had a positive effect on the students' educational choices. The most prominent finding was that students who already possessed a maintained situational interest'' in CS found that the event strengthened their confidence in studying CS. However, many students were not affected by attending the program, but their perceptions of CS did change. Our results emphasize the need to provide continuing possibilities for interested students to experiment with computing-related activities and hence maintain their emerging individual interests.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "20", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Luburic:2019:FTS, author = "Nikola Luburi{\'c} and Goran Sladi{\'c} and Jelena Slivka and Branko Milosavljevi{\'c}", title = "A Framework for Teaching Security Design Analysis Using Case Studies and the Hybrid Flipped Classroom", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "21:1--21:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3289238", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3289238", abstract = "With ever-greater reliance of the developed world on information and communication technologies, constructing secure software has become a top priority. To produce secure software, security activities need to be integrated throughout the software development lifecycle. One such activity is security design analysis (SDA), which identifies security requirements as early as the software design phase. While considered an important step in software development, the general opinion of information security subject matter experts and researchers is that SDA is challenging to learn and teach. Experimental evidence provided in literature confirms this claim. To help solve this, we have developed a framework for teaching SDA by utilizing case study analysis and the hybrid flipped classroom approach. We evaluate our framework by performing a comparative analysis between a group of students who attended labs generated using our framework and a group that participated in traditional labs. Our results show that labs created using our framework achieve better learning outcomes for SDA, as opposed to the traditional labs. Secondary contributions of our article include teaching materials, such as lab descriptions and a case study of a hospital information system to be used for SDA. We outline instructions for using our framework in different contexts, including university courses and corporate training programs. By using our proposed teaching framework, with our or any other case study, we believe that both students and employees can learn the craft of SDA more effectively.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "21", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Hosseini:2019:LCP, author = "Hadi Hosseini and Maxwell Hartt and Mehrnaz Mostafapour", title = "Learning {IS} Child's Play: Game-Based Learning in Computer Science Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "22:1--22:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3282844", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3282844", abstract = "Game-based learning has received significant attention in educational pedagogy as an effective way of increasing student motivation and engagement. The majority of the work in this area has been focused on digital games or games involving technology. We focus on the use of traditional game design in improving student engagement and perception of learning in teaching computer science concepts in higher education. In addition, as part of an interdisciplinary effort, we discuss the interplay between game-based learning in higher education and disciplinary cultures, addressing the lack of empirical evidence on the impact of game design on learning outcomes, engagement, and students' perception of learning.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "22", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Yeomans:2019:TTS, author = "Lucy Yeomans and Steffen Zschaler and Kelly Coate", title = "Transformative and Troublesome? {Students}' and Professional Programmers' Perspectives on Difficult Concepts in Programming", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "23:1--23:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3283071", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3283071", abstract = "Programming skills are an increasingly desirable asset across disciplines; however, learning to program continues to be difficult for many students. To improve pedagogy, we need to better understand the concepts that students find difficult and which have the biggest impact on their learning. Threshold-concept theory provides a potential lens on student learning, focusing on concepts that are troublesome and transformative. However, there is still a lack of consensus as to what the most relevant threshold concepts in programming are. The challenges involved are related to concept granularity and to evidencing some of the properties expected of threshold concepts. In this article, we report on a qualitative study aiming to address some of these concerns. The study involved focus groups with undergraduate students of different-year groups as well as professional software developers so as to gain insights into how perspectives on concepts change over time. Four concepts emerged from the data, where the majority of participants agreed on their troublesome nature-including abstract classes and data structures. Some of these concepts are considered transformative, too, but the evidence base is weaker. However, even though these concepts may not be considered transformative in the big'' sense of threshold concept theory, we argue the soft'' transformative effect of such concepts means they can provide important guidance for pedagogy and the design of programming courses. Further analysis of the data identified additional concepts that may hinder rather than help the learning of these threshold concepts, which we have called accidental complexities.'' We conclude the article with a critique of the use of threshold concepts as a lens for studying students' learning of programming.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "23", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Gretter:2019:ELE, author = "Sarah Gretter and Aman Yadav and Phil Sands and Susanne Hambrusch", title = "Equitable Learning Environments in {K-12} Computing: Teachers' Views on Barriers to Diversity", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "24:1--24:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3282939", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3282939", abstract = "The current efforts to expand computer science (CS) education in K-12 schools, such as the CS for All'' initiative, highlight the need for all students to get an opportunity to study computing. However, as recent research has shown, diversity in computing at the K-12 level remains problematic, and additional research is needed to look at how computer science learning environments can impact minority student interest and retention in CS. In this article, we report results from an in-depth qualitative study of high school computer science teachers' perspective on barriers to increasing diversity in their classes. Based on teachers' experiences, we provide practical recommendations on how to encourage equitable learning environments in K-12 computer science courses.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "24", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Lyon:2019:CLI, author = "Louise Ann Lyon and Jill Denner", title = "Chutes and Ladders: Institutional Setbacks on the Computer Science Community College Transfer Pathway", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "25:1--25:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3294009", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3294009", abstract = "Community colleges play a large role in educating students who are historically underrepresented in computer science (CS), including women, Latino men, and Black men, as well as post-traditional (older or working) students. In spite of this, there is a dearth of research on the institutional factors that influence whether or not community college students who are enrolled in CS classes and who express an interest in transferring and completing a bachelor's degree in the field persist. The overused pipeline'' metaphor, which indicates a supply-side lack, has been replaced by many with that of a pathway.'' However, the pathway'' image suggests a general forward-moving trend that can be misleading. In this work, we draw from qualitative interviews with 14 CS students from groups traditionally underrepresented in the field who have studied introductory computer programming at a community college to investigate the following question: What are the institutional barriers along a CS bachelor's degree track that includes community college?'' Our findings indicate that there are three categories of institutional barriers along the transfer pathway: setbacks that hinder student progression forward, discontinuities in which students leave and re-enter the pathway, and departures in which students leave computer science and/or leave college altogether. We describe specific examples of each and introduce the idea of student movement as a game of chutes and ladders,'' a convoluted trail where students can slide backwards or off the path (chutes), necessitating the implementation of targeted institutional supports that can boost student progress forward (ladders). We suggest institutional interventions that can help students facing each type of barrier to continue on course through community college and transfer to a four-year university.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "25", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Sanchez:2019:ICP, author = "Ana S{\'a}nchez and C{\'e}sar Dom{\'\i}nguez and Jose Miguel Blanco and Arturo Jaime", title = "Incorporating Computing Professionals' Know-how: Differences between Assessment by Students, Academics, and Professional Experts", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "26:1--26:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3309157", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3309157", abstract = "It is important for both computer science academics and students to clearly comprehend the differences between academic and professional perspectives in terms of assessing a deliverable. It is especially interesting to determine whether the aspects deemed important to evaluate by a computer science expert are the same as those established by academics and students. Such potential discrepancies are indicative of the unexpected challenges students may encounter once they graduate and begin working. In this article, we propose a learning activity in which computer science students made a video about their future profession after hearing an expert in the field who discussed about the characteristics and difficulties of his or her work. Academics, professional experts, and students assessed the videos by means of a questionnaire. This article reports a quantitative study of the results of this experience, which was conducted for three academic years. The study involved 63 students, 6 academics, and 4 computing professionals with extensive experience, and 14 videos were evaluated. Professional experts proved to be the most demanding in the assessment, followed by academics. The least demanding group was the students. These differences are more salient if more substantial issues are examined. The experts focused more on aspects of content, whereas the student preferred to concentrate on format. The academics' focus falls between these two extremes. Understanding how experts value knowledge can guide educators in their search for effective learning environments in computing education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "26", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Novak:2019:SCS, author = "Matija Novak and Mike Joy and Dragutin Kermek", title = "Source-code Similarity Detection and Detection Tools Used in Academia: a Systematic Review", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "27:1--27:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3313290", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3313290", abstract = "Teachers deal with plagiarism on a regular basis, so they try to prevent and detect plagiarism, a task that is complicated by the large size of some classes. Students who cheat often try to hide their plagiarism (obfuscate), and many different similarity detection engines (often called plagiarism detection tools) have been built to help teachers. This article focuses only on plagiarism detection and presents a detailed systematic review of the field of source-code plagiarism detection in academia. This review gives an overview of definitions of plagiarism, plagiarism detection tools, comparison metrics, obfuscation methods, datasets used for comparison, and algorithm types. Perspectives on the meaning of source-code plagiarism detection in academia are presented, together with categorisations of the available detection tools and analyses of their effectiveness. While writing the review, some interesting insights have been found about metrics and datasets for quantitative tool comparison and categorisation of detection algorithms. Also, existing obfuscation methods classifications have been expanded together with a new definition of source-code plagiarism detection in academia.''", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "27", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Miller:2019:LGL, author = "Craig S. Miller and Amber Settle", title = "Learning to Get Literal: Investigating Reference-Point Difficulties in Novice Programming", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "28:1--28:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3313291", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3313291", abstract = "We investigate conditions in which novices make some reference errors when programming. We asked students from introductory programming courses to perform a simple code-writing task that required constructing references to objects and their attributes. By experimentally manipulating the nature of the attributes in the tasks, from identifying attributes (e.g., title or label ) to descriptive attributes (e.g., calories or texture ), the study revealed the relative frequencies with which students mistakenly omit the name of an identifying attribute while attempting to reference its value. We explain how these reference-point shifts are consistent with the use of metonymy, a form of figurative expression in human communication. Our analysis also reveals how the presentation of examples can affect the construction of the reference in the student's solution. We discuss plausible accounts of the reference-point errors and how they may inform a model of reference construction. We suggest that reference-point errors may be the result of well-practiced habits of communication rather than misconceptions of the task or what the computer can do.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "28", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Yadav:2019:CSP, author = "Aman Yadav and Marc Berges", title = "Computer Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge: Characterizing Teacher Performance", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "3", pages = "29:1--29:??", month = jun, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3303770", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Wed Oct 2 09:58:52 MDT 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3303770", abstract = "Computer science education efforts are expanding across the globe to equip students with the necessary computing skills for today's digital world. However, preparing students to become literate in computing activities requires the training of tens of thousands of teachers in computer science. The discrepancy between student needs and teacher preparation in computer science has raised questions of quality teachers, particularly for teachers who do not possess adequate content or pedagogical knowledge to teach computer science efficiently. To address this issue, we designed an instrument to measure knowledge needed to teach computer science (i.e., computer science pedagogical content knowledge). Results exhibited that our instrument measured aspects of teachers' computer science pedagogical content knowledge; however, teachers' prior background in teaching did not influence their performance. We discuss implications for future research and practice.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "29", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Shapiro:2019:ISS, author = "R. Benjamin Shapiro and Rebecca Fiebrink", title = "Introduction to the Special Section: Launching an Agenda for Research on Learning Machine Learning", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "4", pages = "30:1--30:??", month = nov, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3354136", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3354136", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "30", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Fiebrink:2019:MLE, author = "Rebecca Fiebrink", title = "Machine Learning Education for Artists, Musicians, and Other Creative Practitioners", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "4", pages = "31:1--31:??", month = nov, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3294008", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3294008", abstract = "This article aims to lay a foundation for the research and practice of machine learning education for creative practitioners. It begins by arguing that it is important to teach machine learning to creative practitioners and to conduct research about this teaching, drawing on related work in creative machine learning, creative computing education, and machine learning education. It then draws on research about design processes in engineering and creative practice to motivate a set of learning objectives for students who wish to design new creative artifacts with machine learning. The article then draws on education research and knowledge of creative computing practices to propose a set of teaching strategies that can be used to support creative computing students in achieving these objectives. Explanations of these strategies are accompanied by concrete descriptions of how they have been employed to develop new lectures and activities, and to design new experiential learning and scaffolding technologies, for teaching some of the first courses in the world focused on teaching machine learning to creative practitioners. The article subsequently draws on data collected from these courses-an online course as well as undergraduate and masters-level courses taught at a university-to begin to understand how this curriculum supported student learning, to understand learners' challenges and mistakes, and to inform future teaching and research.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "31", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Saltz:2019:IEW, author = "Jeffrey Saltz and Michael Skirpan and Casey Fiesler and Micha Gorelick and Tom Yeh and Robert Heckman and Neil Dewar and Nathan Beard", title = "Integrating Ethics within Machine Learning Courses", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "4", pages = "32:1--32:??", month = nov, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3341164", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3341164", abstract = "This article establishes and addresses opportunities for ethics integration into Machine-learning (ML) courses. Following a survey of the history of computing ethics and the current need for ethical consideration within ML, we consider the current state of ML ethics education via an exploratory analysis of course syllabi in computing programs. The results reveal that though ethics is part of the overall educational landscape in these programs, it is not frequently a part of core technical ML courses. To help address this gap, we offer a preliminary framework, developed via a systematic literature review, of relevant ethics questions that should be addressed within an ML project. A pilot study with 85 students confirms that this framework helped them identify and articulate key ethical considerations within their ML projects. Building from this work, we also provide three example ML course modules that bring ethical thinking directly into learning core ML content. Collectively, this research demonstrates: (1) the need for ethics to be taught as integrated within ML coursework, (2) a structured set of questions useful for identifying and addressing potential issues within an ML project, and (3) novel course models that provide examples for how to practically teach ML ethics without sacrificing core course content. An additional by-product of this research is the collection and integration of recent publications in the emerging field of ML ethics education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "32", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Sulmont:2019:WHA, author = "Elisabeth Sulmont and Elizabeth Patitsas and Jeremy R. Cooperstock", title = "What Is Hard about Teaching Machine Learning to Non-Majors? {Insights} from Classifying Instructors' Learning Goals", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "4", pages = "33:1--33:??", month = nov, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3336124", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3336124", abstract = "Given its societal impacts and applications to numerous fields, machine learning (ML) is an important topic to understand for many students outside of computer science and statistics. However, machine-learning education research is nascent, and research on this subject for non-majors thus far has only focused on curricula and courseware. We interviewed 10 instructors of ML courses for non-majors, inquiring as to what their students find both easy and difficult about machine learning. While ML has a reputation for having algorithms that are difficult to understand, in practice our participating instructors reported that it was not the algorithms that were difficult to teach, but the higher-level design decisions. We found that the learning goals that participants described as hard to teach were consistent with higher levels of the Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy, such as making design decisions and comparing/contrasting models. We also found that the learning goals that were described as easy to teach, such as following the steps of particular algorithms, were consistent with the lower levels of the SOLO taxonomy. Realizing that higher-SOLO learning goals are more difficult to teach is useful for informing course design, public outreach, and the design of educational tools for teaching ML.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "33", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Tenenberg:2019:SGC, author = "Josh Tenenberg and Donald Chinn", title = "Social Genesis in Computing Education", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "4", pages = "34:1--34:??", month = nov, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3322211", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3322211", abstract = "It is common to think of learning as the acquisition of knowledge by an individual learner. Starting a century ago, Lev Vygotsky developed a different perspective on learning, initiating a tradition of educational research whose momentum and influence continue to grow. One of Vygotsky's key principles is the general genetic law of cultural development that states that whatever skilled cognition that individuals carry out within their own minds is preceded by homologous activity carried out by a social group of which this individual was a part. In linking the individual and society through this law, learning is not simply a matter of the acquisition of domain knowledge. Rather, it is a cyclic process by which a social group, in its functioning through joint activity, leads to individuals taking into themselves (i.e., internalizing ) the social forms of activity. In this article, our goal is to explicate Vygotsky's genetic law and demonstrate its utility for yielding novel insight into computing education. We provide an extended illustration of the use of Vygotsky's law in examining a teacher and students in a university setting write code together during a class session. What our analysis reveals is that the teacher and students together enact a sequential, rule-based, and dialogical process of problem decomposition and code writing far different from the plan and schema-based models for programming that have emerged from prior research focused on the individual student and their cognitive strategies and structures. We provide commentary on implications of the genetic law for both research and practice in computing education.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "34", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Garvin:2019:SCS, author = "Megean Garvin and Michael Neary and Marie Desjardins", title = "State Case Study of Computing Education Governance", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "4", pages = "35:1--35:??", month = nov, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3320491", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3320491", abstract = "High school computing education reform efforts have been ongoing across the United States, particularly in the past decade. Although national Computer Science (CS) for All initiatives are promising, states retain control over education policies. Recent computing education reform efforts in the state of Maryland (U.S.A.) focused on providing every public high school student with access to high-quality high school computing courses. Such access provides exposure to computing careers and better prepares a diverse pool of students for computing majors in college and the workforce. This comprehensive embedded multi-level case study examines the state's computing education reform efforts from 2010 through 2016. The expansion of computing education indicates that while there was positive growth, the growth was not the same for all categories of public high school students. Top-down policies assist in providing leverage to elevate the need for CS; however, bottom-up efforts to support students and to enable teachers to retain autonomy and professionalism is also needed for CS expansion. Despite successes, barriers at the state, Local Education Agencies (LEA), school, and classroom levels persist and are discussed. The findings in this study can be applied to other states with similar governance structures and policies, and we provide specific recommendations.", acknowledgement = ack-nhfb, articleno = "35", fjournal = "ACM Transactions on Computing Education", journal-URL = "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193", } @Article{Ryoo:2019:PSC, author = "Jean J. Ryoo", title = "Pedagogy that Supports Computer Science for All", journal = j-TOCE, volume = "19", number = "4", pages = "36:1--36:??", month = nov, year = "2019", CODEN = "????", DOI = "https://doi.org/10.1145/3322210", ISSN = "1946-6226", ISSN-L = "1946-6226", bibdate = "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019", bibsource = "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib", URL = "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3322210", abstract = "The Computer Science (CS) for All movement has taken hold of the United States and CS education is rapidly expanding across nations throughout the world. Yet, as curricula and professional development opportunities are developed, key questions remain about what works'' for engaging youth in CS education, especially those who are historically underrepresented in the field (including young women, students of color, low-income students). In response, this study answers the questions: What teaching practices do students-who are historically underrepresented in CS-believe are most effective for engaging their interest in CS learning? What pedagogical actions do CS teachers identify as most effective for engaging students? And what do these engaging teaching practices look like in the classroom? Through a qualitative study following three different urban high school Exploring Computer Science classrooms over an entire school year (n = 70 students, 3 teachers; > 105 $h of observation data;$ > 50 \$ interviews with students and teachers), key
pedagogical practices that had greatest impact on
youth's interest and engagement with CS included: (1)
demystifying CS by showing its connections to everyday
life; (2) addressing social issues impacting both CS
and students' communities; and (3) valuing students'
testimonies from students and teachers, as well as
examples of these teaching practices in the
classroom.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "36",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Clarke-Midura:2019:UID,
author =       "Jody Clarke-Midura and Chongning Sun and Katarina
Pantic and Frederick Poole and Vicki Allan",
title =        "Using Informed Design in Informal Computer Science
Programs to Increase Youths' Interest, Self-efficacy,
and Perceptions of Parental Support",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "19",
number =       "4",
pages =        "37:1--37:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2019",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3319445",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3319445",
abstract =     "Our work is situated in research on Computer Science
(CS) learning in informal learning environments and
literature on the factors that influence girls to enter
CS. In this article, we outline design choices around
the creation of a summer programming camp for middle
school youth. In addition, we describe a near-peer
mentoring model we used that was influenced by
Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The purpose of this
article, apart from promoting transparency of program
design, was to evaluate the effectiveness of our camp
design in terms of increasing youths' interest,
self-efficacy beliefs, and perceptions of parental
support. We found significant gains for all three of
these concepts. Additionally, we make connections
between our design choices (e.g., videos, peer support,
mentor support) and the affective gains by thematically
analyzing interview data concerning the outcomes found
in our camps.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "37",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{McCall:2019:NLN,
author =       "Davin McCall and Michael K{\"o}lling",
title =        "A New Look at Novice Programmer Errors",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "19",
number =       "4",
pages =        "38:1--38:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2019",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3335814",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3335814",
abstract =     "The types of programming errors that novice
programmers make and struggle to resolve have long been
of interest to researchers. Various past studies have
analyzed the frequency of compiler diagnostic messages.
This information, however, does not have a direct
correlation to the types of errors students make, due
to the inaccuracy and imprecision of diagnostic
messages. Furthermore, few attempts have been made to
determine the severity of different kinds of errors in
terms other than frequency of occurrence. Previously,
we developed a method for meaningful categorization of
errors, and produced a frequency distribution of these
error categories; in this article, we extend the
previous method to also make a determination of error
difficulty, in order to give a better measurement of
the overall severity of different kinds of errors. An
error category hierarchy was developed and validated,
and errors in snapshots of students source code were
categorized accordingly. The result is a frequency
table of logical error categories rather than
diagnostic messages. Resolution time for each of the
analyzed errors was calculated, and the average
resolution time for each category of error was
determined; this defines an error difficulty score. The
combination of frequency and difficulty allow us to
identify the types of error that are most problematic
for novice programmers. The results show that ranking
errors by severity-a product of frequency and
difficulty-yields a significantly different ordering
than ranking them by frequency alone, indicating that
error frequency by itself may not be a suitable
indicator for which errors are actually the most
problematic for students.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "38",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Crawford:2019:BBI,
author =       "Chris S. Crawford and Juan E. Gilbert",
title =        "Brains and Blocks: Introducing Novice Programmers to
Brain-Computer Interface Application Development",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "19",
number =       "4",
pages =        "39:1--39:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2019",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3335815",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3335815",
abstract =     "Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) hardware is becoming
more affordable and accessible. However, there is
limited work investigating ways to design software that
broadens participation with BCI technology. In this
article, we present a block-based programming
environment designed to assist novice programmers with
creating BCI applications. We also discuss learning
barriers encountered by novice programmers developing
neurofeedback applications. Our findings suggest that
visual programming assists novice programmers with
building basic BCI applications; however, students may
experience understanding and learning barriers
initially.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "39",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Merkouris:2019:PEI,
author =       "Alexandros Merkouris and Konstantinos Chorianopoulos",
title =        "Programming Embodied Interactions with a Remotely
Controlled Educational Robot",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "19",
number =       "4",
pages =        "40:1--40:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2019",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3336126",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3336126",
abstract =     "Contemporary research has explored educational
robotics, but it has not examined the development of
computational thinking in the context of programming
embodied interactions. Apart from the goal of the robot
and how the robot will interact with its environment,
another important aspect that should be taken into
consideration is whether and how the user will
physically interact with the robot. We recruited 36
middle school students to participate in a six-session
robotics curriculum in an attempt to expand their
learning in computational thinking. Participants were
asked to develop interfaces for the remote control of a
robot using diverse interaction styles from low-level
to high-level embodiment, such as touch, speech, and
hand and full-body gestures. We measured students'
perception of computing, examined their computational
practices, and assessed the development of their
computational thinking skills by analyzing the
sophistication of the projects they created during a
problem-solving task. We found that students who
programmed combinations of low embodiment interfaces or
interfaces with no embodiment produced more
sophisticated projects and adopted more sophisticated
computational practices compared to those who
programmed full-body interfaces. These findings suggest
that there might be a tradeoff between the appeal and
the cognitive benefit of rich embodied interaction with
a remotely controlled robot. In further work,
educational robotics research and competitions might be
complemented with a hybrid approach that blends the
traditional autonomous robot movement with student
enactment.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "40",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Johnson:2019:DEA,
author =       "Philip Johnson",
title =        "Design and Evaluation of an Athletic'' Approach to
Software Engineering Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "19",
number =       "4",
pages =        "41:1--41:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2019",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3344273",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3344273",
abstract =     "Modern web application development provides an
attractive application area for introductory software
engineering education, as students have direct
experience with the domain and it provides them with
the potential to gain practical, real-world skills.
Achieving this potential requires the development of
competency with a multiple component tech stack for web
application development, which is challenging to
acquire within a single semester. In this research, we
designed, implemented, and evaluated a new pedagogy
called athletic software engineering'' which is
intended to help students efficiently and effectively
acquire competency with a multiple component tech stack
as a precursor to a web application development
project. We evaluated the pedagogy over 4 years and six
semesters with 286 students and found strong evidence
for its effectiveness.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "41",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Hao:2019:SIR,
author =       "Qiang Hao and David H. {Smith IV} and Naitra Iriumi
and Michail Tsikerdekis and Andrew J. Ko",
title =        "A Systematic Investigation of Replications in
Computing Education Research",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "19",
number =       "4",
pages =        "42:1--42:??",
month =        nov,
year =         "2019",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3345328",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Nov 23 06:53:02 MST 2019",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/ft_gateway.cfm?id=3345328",
abstract =     "As the societal demands for application and knowledge
in computer science (CS) increase, CS student
enrollment keeps growing rapidly around the world. By
continuously improving the efficacy of computing
education and providing guidelines for learning and
teaching practice, computing education research plays a
vital role in addressing both educational and societal
challenges that emerge from the growth of CS students.
Given the significant role of computing education
research, it is important to ensure the reliability of
studies in this field. The extent to which studies can
be replicated in a field is one of the most important
standards for reliability. Different fields have paid
increasing attention to the replication rates of their
studies, but the replication rate of computing
education was never systematically studied. To fill
this gap, this study investigated the replication rate
of computing education between 2009 and 2018. We
examined 2,269 published studies from three major
conferences and two major journals in computing
education, and found that the overall replication rate
of computing education was 2.38\%. This study
demonstrated the need for more replication studies in
computing education and discussed how to encourage
replication studies through research initiatives and
policy making.",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "42",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "http://portal.acm.org/browse_dl.cfm?idx=J1193",
}

@Article{Weston:2020:PWP,
author =       "Timothy J. Weston and Wendy M. Dubow and Alexis
Kaminsky",
title =        "Predicting Women's Persistence in Computer Science-
and Technology-Related Majors from High School to
College",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:16",
month =        feb,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3343195",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3343195",
abstract =     "While demand for computer science and information
technology skills grows, the proportion of women
entering computer science (CS) fields has declined. One
critical juncture is the transition from high school to
college. In our study, we examined factors \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Ardimento:2020:RBS,
author =       "Pasquale Ardimento and Mario Luca Bernardi and Marta
Cimitile and Giuseppe {De Ruvo}",
title =        "Reusing Bugged Source Code to Support Novice
Programmers in Debugging Tasks",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:24",
month =        feb,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3355616",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3355616",
abstract =     "Novice programmers often encounter difficulties
performing debugging tasks effectively. Even if modern
development environments (IDEs) provide high-level
support for navigating through code elements and for
identifying the right conditions leading to \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Garousi:2020:UKG,
author =       "Vahid Garousi and Gorkem Giray and Eray Tuzun",
title =        "Understanding the Knowledge Gaps of Software
Engineers: an Empirical Analysis Based on {SWEBOK}",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:33",
month =        feb,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3360497",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3360497",
abstract =     "Context: Knowledge level and productivity of the
software engineering (SE) workforce are the subject of
regular discussions among practitioners, educators, and
researchers. There have been many efforts to measure
and improve the knowledge gap between SE \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Kemp:2020:FPP,
author =       "Peter E. J. Kemp and Billy Wong and Miles G. Berry",
title =        "Female Performance and Participation in Computer
Science: a National Picture",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:28",
month =        feb,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3366016",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3366016",
abstract =     "The change in the English computing curriculum and the
shift towards computer science (CS) has been closely
observed by other countries. Female participation
remains a concern in most jurisdictions, but female
attainment in CS is relatively unstudied. \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Weintrop:2020:TAE,
author =       "David Weintrop and Merijke Coenraad and Jen Palmer and
Diana Franklin",
title =        "The Teacher Accessibility, Equity, and Content {(TEC)}
Rubric for Evaluating Computing Curricula",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "1",
pages =        "5:1--5:30",
month =        feb,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3371155",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3371155",
abstract =     "In response to the growing call to bring the powerful
ideas of computer science to all learners, education
decision makers, including teachers and administrators,
are tasked with making consequential decisions on what
curricula to use. Often, these \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Albluwi:2020:PPA,
author =       "Ibrahim Albluwi",
title =        "Plagiarism in Programming Assessments: a Systematic
Review",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "1",
pages =        "6:1--6:28",
month =        feb,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3371156",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3371156",
computing education literature on plagiarism. The goal
of the review is to summarize the main results found in
the literature and highlight areas that need further
work. Despite the the large body of \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

author =       "Jonathan Mahadeo and Zahra Hazari and Geoff Potvin",
title =        "Developing a Computing Identity Framework:
Understanding Computer Science and Information
Technology Career Choice",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "1",
pages =        "7:1--7:14",
month =        feb,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3365571",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3365571",
abstract =     "This paper expands on knowledge of computing identity
by building on what is known about prior identity
models in science and mathematics education. The model
theorizes three primary sub-constructs that contribute
to the development of a computing \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Statter:2020:TAC,
author =       "David Statter and Michal Armoni",
title =        "Teaching Abstraction in Computer Science to 7th Grade
Students",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "1",
pages =        "8:1--8:37",
month =        feb,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3372143",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Fri Feb 7 09:59:29 MST 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3372143",
abstract =     "Abstraction is one of the most fundamental ideas in
computer science (CS), and as such, according to Bruner
[23], it should be taught spirally, starting as early
as possible and revisited at every level of education.
However, teaching CS abstraction to \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Ross:2020:IBB,
author =       "Monique Ross and Zahra Hazari and Gerhard Sonnert and
title =        "The Intersection of Being Black and Being a Woman:
Examining the Effect of Social Computing Relationships
on Computer Science Career Choice",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "2",
pages =        "9:1--9:15",
month =        may,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3377426",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3377426",
abstract =     "Computer science (CS) has been identified as one of
the fastest-growing professions, with demand for CS
professionals far outpacing the supply of CS graduates.
The necessity for a trained CS workforce has compelled
industry and academia to evaluate \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "9",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Rangel:2020:IMI,
author =       "Jakeline G. Celis Rangel and Melissa King and Kasia
Muldner",
title =        "An Incremental Mindset Intervention Increases Effort
During Programming Activities but Not Performance",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "2",
pages =        "10:1--10:18",
month =        may,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3377427",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3377427",
abstract =     "Learning to program requires perseverance, practice,
and the mindset that programming skills are improved
through these activities (i.e., that everyone has the
potential to become good at programming). In contrast
to an entity mindset, individuals with \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "10",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Rucker:2020:SPL,
author =       "Michael T. R{\"u}cker and Wouter R. van Joolingen and
Niels Pinkwart",
title =        "Small but Powerful: a Learning Study to Address
Secondary Students' Conceptions of Everyday Computing
Technology",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "2",
pages =        "11:1--11:27",
month =        may,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3377880",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3377880",
abstract =     "Enabling students to recognize and evaluate the
ubiquitous impact of computing technology on society is
an internationally proclaimed goal of a K-12 computing
education. To that end, students need to actually
engage with their computing knowledge in \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "11",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Werner:2020:CSG,
author =       "Linda Werner and Jill Denner and Shannon Campe and
David M. Torres",
title =        "Computational Sophistication of Games Programmed by
Children: a Model for Its Measurement",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "2",
pages =        "12:1--12:23",
month =        may,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3379351",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3379351",
abstract =     "This article builds on prior work that aims to measure
computational learning (CL) during middle school. Since
game computational sophistication (GCS) has been used
as a proxy for a student's engagement in CL we build on
their model to more completely \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "12",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Burgiel:2020:AHS,
author =       "Heidi Burgiel and Philip M. Sadler and Gerhard
Sonnert",
title =        "The Association of High School Computer Science
Content and Pedagogy with Students' Success in College
Computer Science",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "2",
pages =        "13:1--13:21",
month =        may,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3381995",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3381995",
abstract =     "The number of computer science (CS) courses has been
dramatically expanding in U.S. high schools (HS). In
comparison with well-established courses in mathematics
and science, little is known about how the decisions
made by HS CS teachers regarding how \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "13",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Dominguez:2020:FCA,
author =       "C{\'e}sar Dom{\'\i}nguez and Arturo Jaime and
Francisco J. Garc{\'\i}a-Izquierdo and Juan J. Olarte",
title =        "Factors Considered in the Assessment of Computer
Science Engineering Capstone Projects and Their
Influence on Discrepancies Between Assessors",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "2",
pages =        "14:1--14:23",
month =        may,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3381836",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3381836",
abstract =     "A capstone project is an extensive learning experience
traditionally developed during a student's final
academic year. Assessing such a complex assignment
involves several challenges and is usually based upon
the evaluations of at least two different \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "14",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Conn:2020:UMF,
author =       "Paula Conn and Taylor Gotfrid and Qiwen Zhao and
Rachel Celestine and Vaishnavi Mande and Kristen
Shinohara and Stephanie Ludi and Matt Huenerfauth",
title =        "Understanding the Motivations of Final-year Computing
Undergraduates for Considering Accessibility",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "2",
pages =        "15:1--15:22",
month =        may,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3381911",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3381911",
abstract =     "We investigate the degree to which undergraduate
computing students in a United States university
consider accessibility several years after instruction.
Prior work has found that cultural and ethical norms
become ingrained early in STEM professionals'
\ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "15",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

author =       "Adnan Ahmad and Furkh Zeshan and Muhammad Salman Khan
and Rutab Marriam and Amjad Ali and Alia Samreen",
title =        "The Impact of Gamification on Learning Outcomes of
Computer Science Majors",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "2",
pages =        "16:1--16:25",
month =        may,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3383456",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue May 19 10:04:33 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/3383456",
abstract =     "Gamification is the use of game elements in domains
other than games. Gamification use is often suggested
for difficult activities because it enhances users'
engagement and motivation level. Due to such benefits,
the use of gamification is also proposed \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "16",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Vandenberg:2020:ESU,
author =       "Jessica Vandenberg and Jennifer Tsan and Danielle
Boulden and Zarifa Zakaria and Collin Lynch and Kristy
Elizabeth Boyer and Eric Wiebe",
title =        "Elementary Students' Understanding of {CS} Terms",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "3",
pages =        "17:1--17:19",
month =        sep,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3386364",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3386364",
abstract =     "The language and concepts used by curriculum designers
are not always interpreted by children as designers
intended. This can be problematic when researchers use
self-reported survey instruments in concert with
curricula, which often rely on the \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "17",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Dou:2020:ECS,
author =       "Remy Dou and Karina Bhutta and Monique Ross and Laird
Kramer and Vishodana Thamotharan",
title =        "The Effects of Computer Science Stereotypes and
Interest on Middle School Boys' Career Intentions",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "3",
pages =        "18:1--18:15",
month =        sep,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3394964",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3394964",
abstract =     "Like other STEM fields, computer science (CS) lacks
representation of minorities, such as Black and
Hispanic individuals, both in the number of bachelor's
degrees obtained and the number of individuals in the
CS workforce. Out-of-school CS programs are \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "18",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Prvan:2020:MTC,
author =       "Marina Prvan and Julije Ozegovi{\'c}",
title =        "Methods in Teaching Computer Networks: a Literature
Review",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "3",
pages =        "19:1--19:35",
month =        sep,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3394963",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3394963",
abstract =     "This article provides a survey of methods and
paradigms for teaching Computer Networks (CN). Since
the theoretical concepts are rather abstract in this
subject, and students often find them too technical and
difficult to understand, many authors attempt
\ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "19",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Taipalus:2020:SES,
author =       "Toni Taipalus and Ville Sepp{\"a}nen",
title =        "{SQL} Education: a Systematic Mapping Study and Future
Research Agenda",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "3",
pages =        "20:1--20:33",
month =        sep,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3398377",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3398377",
abstract =     "Structured Query Language (SQL) skills are crucial in
software engineering and computer science. However,
teaching SQL effectively requires both pedagogical
skill and considerable knowledge of the language.
Educators and scholars have proposed numerous
\ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "20",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Daleiden:2020:ARC,
author =       "Patrick Daleiden and Andreas Stefik and P. Merlin
Uesbeck and Jan Pedersen",
title =        "Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Student
Performance in Parallel Programming using a New
Measurement Technique",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "3",
pages =        "21:1--21:28",
month =        sep,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3401892",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3401892",
abstract =     "There are many paradigms available to address the
unique and complex problems introduced with parallel
programming. These complexities have implications for
computer science education as ubiquitous multi-core
computers drive the need for programmers to \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "21",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Indriasari:2020:RPC,
author =       "Theresia Devi Indriasari and Andrew Luxton-Reilly and
Paul Denny",
title =        "A Review of Peer Code Review in Higher Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "3",
pages =        "22:1--22:25",
month =        sep,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3403935",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3403935",
abstract =     "Peer review is the standard process within academia
for maintaining publication quality, but it is also
widely employed in other settings, such as education
and industry, for improving work quality and for
generating actionable feedback to content \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "22",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Zhou:2020:HST,
author =       "Ninger Zhou and Ha Nguyen and Christian Fischer and
Debra Richardson and Mark Warschauer",
title =        "High School Teachers' Self-efficacy in Teaching
Computer Science",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "3",
pages =        "23:1--23:18",
month =        sep,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3410631",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3410631",
abstract =     "Self-efficacy is an important construct for CS
teachers' professional development, because it can
predict both teaching behaviors as well as student
outcomes. Research has shown that teachers'
self-efficacy can be as influential as their actual
level of \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "23",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Zhou:2020:TPE,
author =       "Ninger Zhou and Yucheng Cao and Sharin Jacob and Debra
Richardson",
title =        "Teacher Perceptions of Equity in High School Computer
Science Classrooms",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "3",
pages =        "24:1--24:27",
month =        sep,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3410633",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Tue Sep 29 15:52:36 MDT 2020",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3410633",
abstract =     "Effective and equitable CS teaching is contingent on
teachers' robust understanding of equity issues in CS
classrooms. To this end, this study examined high
school teachers' perceptions of equity during their
participation in a CS teacher certificate \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "24",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Lawlor:2020:CMS,
author =       "Grace Lawlor and Philip Byrne and Brendan Tangney",
title =        "{CodePlus''} --- Measuring Short-Term Efficacy in a
Non-Formal, All-Female {CS} Outreach Programme",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "4",
pages =        "25:1--25:18",
month =        nov,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3411510",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3411510",
abstract =     "The provision of all-female computer science outreach
programmes is a common strategy used to foster greater
interest in the subject for high school aged girls.
Based on key factors that affect girls' interest in
computer science (CS), outreach \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "25",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Margulieux:2020:EIS,
author =       "Lauren E. Margulieux and Briana B. Morrison and Baker
Franke and Harivololona Ramilison",
title =        "Effect of Implementing Subgoals in {{\tt Code.org}}'s
Intro to Programming Unit in Computer Science
Principles",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "4",
pages =        "26:1--26:24",
month =        nov,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3415594",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3415594",
abstract =     "The subgoal learning framework has improved
performance for novice programmers in higher education,
but it has only started to be applied and studied in
K-12 (primary/secondary). Programming education in K-12
is growing, and many international \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "26",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Daleiden:2020:GPP,
author =       "Patrick Daleiden and Andreas Stefik and Philip Merlin
Uesbeck",
title =        "{GPU} Programming Productivity in Different
Abstraction Paradigms: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Comparing {CUDA} and Thrust",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "4",
pages =        "27:1--27:27",
month =        nov,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3418301",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3418301",
abstract =     "Coprocessor architectures in High Performance
Computing are prevalent in today's scientific computing
clusters and require specialized knowledge for proper
utilization. Various alternative paradigms for parallel
and offload computation exist, but little \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "27",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Jayathirtha:2020:ISS,
author =       "Gayithri Jayathirtha and Yasmin B. Kafai",
title =        "Interactive Stitch Sampler: a Synthesis of a Decade of
Research on Using Electronic Textiles to Answer the
Who, Where, How, and What for {K--12} Computer Science
Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "4",
pages =        "28:1--28:29",
month =        nov,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3418299",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3418299",
abstract =     "Electronic textiles, which integrate computation with
fabrics through a redesigned interface of
microcontrollers, sensors, and actuators, have expanded
possibilities not only for engineering, fashion, and
human-computer interaction but also for computer
\ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "28",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Armstrong:2020:KSA,
author =       "Miriam E. Armstrong and Keith S. Jones and Akbar Siami
Namin and David C. Newton",
title =        "Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Specialized
Curricula in Cyber Defense: Results from Interviews
with Cyber Professionals",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "4",
pages =        "29:1--29:25",
month =        nov,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3421254",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3421254",
abstract =     "More specialized cybersecurity education programs are
needed to address workforce needs, but it is unclear
which knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) fulfil
industry needs. We interviewed 48 professionals within
four cyber defense specialty areas: (1). \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "29",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Clarke-Midura:2020:MAA,
author =       "Jody Clarke-Midura and Chongning Sun and Katarina
Pantic",
title =        "Making Apps: an Approach to Recruiting Youth to
Computer Science",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "20",
number =       "4",
pages =        "30:1--30:23",
month =        nov,
year =         "2020",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3425710",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3425710",
abstract =     "In response to the need to broaden participation in
computer science, we designed a summer camp to teach
middle-school-aged youth to code apps with MIT App
Inventor. For the past four summers, we have observed
significant gains in youth's interest and \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "30",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Lukkarinen:2021:EDP,
author =       "Aleksi Lukkarinen and Lauri Malmi and Lassi Haaranen",
title =        "Event-driven Programming in Programming Education: a
Mapping Review",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "21",
number =       "1",
pages =        "1:1--1:31",
month =        mar,
year =         "2021",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3423956",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3423956",
abstract =     "During the past two decades, event-driven programming
(EDP) has emerged as a central and almost ubiquitous
concept in modern software development: Graphical user
interfaces are self-evident in most mobile and
web-based applications, as well as in many \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "1",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Oleson:2021:RDK,
author =       "Alannah Oleson and Brett Wortzman and Amy J. Ko",
title =        "On the Role of Design in {K--12} Computing Education",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "21",
number =       "1",
pages =        "2:1--2:34",
month =        mar,
year =         "2021",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3427594",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3427594",
abstract =     "Design is a distinct discipline with its own
practices, tools, professions, and areas of
scholarship. However, practitioners from other fields
often leverage aspects of design in their own work,
leading to subfields like engineering design and
\ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "2",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Morales-Trujillo:2021:GSE,
author =       "Miguel Eh{\'e}catl Morales-Trujillo and Gabriel
Alberto Garc{\'\i}a-Mireles",
title =        "Gamification and {SQL}: an Empirical Study on Student
Performance in a Database Course",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "21",
number =       "1",
pages =        "3:1--3:29",
month =        mar,
year =         "2021",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3427597",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3427597",
abstract =     "Gamification, defined as the integration of game
elements into non-gaming environments, is a promising
approach to increase student engagement, motivation,
and performance in Computer Science and Software
Engineering education. This viewpoint encouraged
\ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "3",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Minnes:2021:WDC,
author =       "Mia Minnes and Sheena Ghanbari Serslev and Omar
title =        "What Do {CS} Students Value in Industry Internships?",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "21",
number =       "1",
pages =        "4:1--4:15",
month =        mar,
year =         "2021",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3427595",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3427595",
abstract =     "Summer internships present an opportunity for Computer
Science (CS) students to expand and test their skills
in the real world.'' These multi-faceted experiences
call on students to use technical tools and critical
thinking in collaboration with others \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "4",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Kim:2021:ECT,
author =       "Han Sung Kim and Soohwan Kim and Wooyoul Na and Woon
Jee Lee",
title =        "Extending Computational Thinking into Information and
Communication Technology Literacy Measurement: Gender
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "21",
number =       "1",
pages =        "5:1--5:25",
month =        mar,
year =         "2021",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3427596",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3427596",
abstract =     "As Information and Communication Technology (ICT)
literacy education has recently shifted to fostering
computing thinking ability as well as ICT use, many
countries are conducting research on national
curriculum and evaluation. In this study, we \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "5",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Chen:2021:HSC,
author =       "Chen Chen and Jane M. Kang and Gerhard Sonnert and
title =        "High School Calculus and Computer Science Course
Taking as Predictors of Success in Introductory College
Computer Science",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "21",
number =       "1",
pages =        "6:1--6:21",
month =        mar,
year =         "2021",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3433169",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3433169",
abstract =     "Success in an introductory college computer science
(CS) course encourages students to major and pursue
careers in computer science and many other STEM fields,
whereas weak performance is often a powerful deterrent.
This article examines the role of \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "6",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Modesti:2021:SBA,
author =       "Paolo Modesti",
title =        "A Script-based Approach for Teaching and Assessing
{Android} Application Development",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "21",
number =       "1",
pages =        "7:1--7:24",
month =        mar,
year =         "2021",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3427593",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3427593",
abstract =     "Mobile applications are extremely popular with many
higher education institutions offering courses to
prepare new developers sought by the software industry.
However, teaching and assessing mobile application
development poses specific challenges due to \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "7",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}

@Article{Thayer:2021:TRA,
author =       "Kyle Thayer and Sarah E. Chasins and Amy J. Ko",
title =        "A Theory of Robust {API} Knowledge",
journal =      j-TOCE,
volume =       "21",
number =       "1",
pages =        "8:1--8:32",
month =        mar,
year =         "2021",
CODEN =        "????",
DOI =          "https://doi.org/10.1145/3444945",
ISSN =         "1946-6226",
ISSN-L =       "1946-6226",
bibdate =      "Sat Mar 20 18:20:46 MDT 2021",
bibsource =    "http://www.math.utah.edu/pub/tex/bib/toce.bib",
URL =          "https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3444945",
abstract =     "Creating modern software inevitably requires using
application programming interfaces (APIs). While
software developers can sometimes use APIs by simply
copying and pasting code examples, a lack of robust
knowledge of how an API works can lead to \ldots{}",
acknowledgement = ack-nhfb,
articleno =    "8",
fjournal =     "ACM Transactions on Computing Education",
journal-URL =  "https://dl.acm.org/loi/toce",
}
`